Marxism

I- The Great Cow Analogy
Socialism – You have two cows. Give one to your neighbor
Communism- You have two cows. Give both cows to the government, and they may
give you some milk
Fascism- You have two cows. You give all the milk to the government, and the
government sells it
Nazism- You have two cows. The government shoots you and takes both cows
Anarchism- You have two cows. Keep both the cows, shoot the government agent,
and steal another cow
Capitalism- You have two cows. Sell one cow and buy a bull
Pure Communism- You have two cows. Your neighbors help you take care of them,
and you all share the milk
Russian Communism- You have two cows. You have to take care of them, but the
government takes all the milk
Singaporean Democracy- You have two cows. The government fines you for keeping
two unlicensed farm animals in an apartment
American Democracy- the government promises to give you two cows if you vote
for it. After the election, the president is impeached for speculating in cow futures.
The press dubs the affair “cowgate”.

COMMUNISM according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels is a theoretical economic
system characterized by the collective ownership of property and by the
organization of labor for the common advantage of all members
1. A system of government in which the state plans and controls the
economy and a single, often authoritarian party holds power, claiming
towards a higher social order in which goods are equally shared
2. The Marxist version of communist doctrine advocates the progression
of society through the violent overthrow of the dominant classes and
the eventual creation of classless society

II- Who is Karl Marx?
Karl Marx (1818-1883) is a German philosopher, economist, and social
theorist whose ideas have exercised an enormous influence on later
thinkers and political activists.

III- Concept of Marxism

Marx was influenced by Hegelian dialectics. and prophesies a social revolution leading to the dictatorship of the proletariat. The future is determined by the past. Thus arises the division of the society into those who control and those who are controlled. between the landed aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. Marxism constitutes a general view about the world and the human society. Economic Interpretation of History and Class Struggle: Marx gave an economic interpretation of history. has been aptly described as the ‘birth-cry of modern socialism’. Those who control the means of production dominate the society. according to Hegel. But Marxism is a fundamental and total philosophy of life. Hegel started from spirituality and ended in matter. There had been struggles between freeman and slave. and from it he draws the conclusions that all history is but a record of class struggles. The Marxian conception of history is called Historical Materialism. According to Marx: “History is the product of material existence” whereas. Marxism developed as a protest against the idealist conception of man and the world as represented by Hegel (1770-1831). Marx aimed to end spirituality. on the one hand. History is simply the record of how one class has gained wealth and political power only to be overthrown and succeeded by another class.Marxist ideas about man and matter are generally known as Marxism. It is from this division of society into two antagonistic sections that class struggle arises. on the other. between lord and serf. Attack upon Capitalism and the theory of Surplus Value: . Marx attaches importance to Matter and not Idea or Spirit. Marx interpreted human history from reality (matter) to spirituality. Hegel represented Dialectical Idealism. His Communist Manifesto. Marxism is. it is a scientific plan for complete social change and revolution. which appeared in 1848. the haves and the have-nots. History is a record of class struggles. it is the inevitable product of certain forces and tendencies which are irresistible in their operation. “History is the product of spiritual existence”. and it is in their interest to fashion the laws and institutions as to perpetuate their social and political prominence. In it he traces the evolution of history as the inevitable result of the economic changes brought about by the changed method of the material production of wealth. Marx and Modern Socialism: Marx was the founder of modern ‘Scientific Socialism’ Marx for the first time analyzed correctly the forces and impulses which govern human nature and mold its environment. It was Karl Marx who gave socialism a philosophy and a new direction and a dynamic force. Marx points out that the present society has been evolved gradually out of many class struggles in the past. a social and political theory and. French socialism and English economics.

All societies are made up of classes. The two classes must always be in conflict. Its inevitable tendency is the progressive concentration of wealth in the hands of increasingly fewer men. just the administration of things. all wealth is the product of labor. realize how they are cheated by the capitalists . The result of this tendency would be to expand the number of the proletariat The result of this tendency would be to expand the number of the proletariat The History of all societies in the ‘history of class struggle’ PRIMITIVE COMMUNISM (No government) = Classless society. the big capitalists swallowing up the little ones.or machinery of government.Economic interpretation of history and class struggle are the two main principles of Marxism. Marx is of opinion that capitalism is digging its own grave.landowners vs peasantry CAPITALISM (Parliamentary democracy defending bourgeois principles) Bourgeoisie (factory owners) vs Proletariat (factory workers) SOCIALISM( Dictatorship of the Proletariat) Wokers control the state to resist counter revolution. The workers must use revolutionary force to overthrow the capitalists 4. and in modern. Society becomes more equal with class system breaking down and good more fairly distributed COMMUNISM (classless society) No state.it is used to control workers 3. very few commodities FEUDALISM (usually an absolute monarchy) = Aristocrac . From each according to his ability. based on subsistence living. Marx next directed his attack upon capital through the economic theory of surplus value. and in capitalist societies the state. to each according to his needs In brief. the most important ideas of Karl Marx: 1.the capitalists and the proletariats 2. The revolution will be successful only when the masses of workers become class-conscious-that is. According to it. and labor is the only measure of value. industrial societies there are two main classes.

The proletariat will. in Marxism. emphasis is laid on vocational and technological education. (b) To develop a respect for authority. Hence physical education is considered as an important aim in Marxist education. In Marxist education ‘labor and work’ are considered as integral parts.. the state or machinery of the government will wither away. Education is considered as the greatest instrument of social change. He is guided by certain values which may be briefly stated: (a) To develop a respect for public property. Hence. Marxist education aims at maximum good to the maximum number. (g) Discipline in public life is another important value in Marxist philosophy. As it will no longer be needed.e. productive and faithful citizenship. Only intellectual education cannot achieve this goal. Values in Marxism: A Marxist is dedicated to the welfare of the state and the people. . But education will not be limited to a handful of people. dominate in the Marxist state. and further aims at indoctrination in communist and socialist values. After the revolution the worker will create a classless society in which all men will be equal. i. History and economics should be taught in proper perspective. education aims at creating Marxist attitude and values. universal education. The state is to be strengthened through the creation of a classless society. A workman cannot work properly unless he possesses a sound health. (e) Common good occupies an important position in Marxism. All educands must know clearly the true character of social development. Marxism lays stress on providing education to all sections of the society. Equalization of educational opportunity is the Marxist educational goal. The students must learn the fundamental principles of science. (d) To develop respect for parents. (h) Marxism attaches highest importance to the value of labor. elderly people and all classes of laborers. 5. (c) Patriotism is not an important Marxist value. (f) In Marxist state there is no existence of private property. Marxist education aims at creating creative. In Marxist state. Aims of Education in Marxism: Marxist education will lay stress on indoctrination of ideas and practices. It also aims at cultural and aesthetic development. no doubt. Social advancement is to be ensured through education.

Development of the child mind is the ultimate aim. The following are the special features of Marxist Curriculum: 1. In Marxist system of education there will be only one agency — the state. . Coeducation is an accepted principle in Marxism. exploitation of the working class by the capitalist class. (c) Polytechnised Education which will give knowledge relative to the General Sciences and principles of all productive processes’. Private agency is banned in Marxist educational administration. universal. Common education is to be provided to both men and women. That is why. Marxism advocates secular education in schools. work-experience is regarded as an integral part of education. Marxist philosophy and doctrines will be taught at all levels of education on compulsory basis. objectives and values set forth earlier. labor occupies an important place. 2. etc. Education is to be given to all sections of the society irrespective of caste. 4. elementary education for all. Marx says: ‘Education means to us three things: (a) Intellectual Development. Those subjects are included in the curriculums which tend to develop skill instead of abstract knowledge. Education will be universal and compulsory.According to Lenin. education is an integral part of culture and culture and education both are shaped by socioeconomic conditions. as such. Educational Objectives in Marxism: 1. 6. Marxism lays stress on respect for labor and. unequal distribution of wealth. creed. in Marxist education. Establishment of common school system is the cherished goal of Marxism. 3. Communist Manifesto declares free. No discrimination will be made in respect of educational opportunities. 5. No discrimination is to be made among schools. In Marxist education the philosophic child is given the central position. Education of the child depends to a great extent on the education of the mother. (b) Physical Development. So Marxist education aims at women’s education too. Curriculum in Marxism: Marxist curriculum is based on Marxist educational aims. sex social and economic status. But labor is the basis and source of all cultural advancement. The students should be made conscious about class division. 3. 2.

Students should work both in the agricultural farms and factories. life science. geography. He should not have only mastery on the content of education but also have consciousness about life. Role of Teacher in Marxist Education: The role of the teacher is significant and crucial in Marxist education. A Marxist teacher must entirely be different in attitude and temperament from a bourgeois teacher. social environment and communist ideology. The natural environment and the community at large will also serve as great books and teachers. 5. Both in thought and action he must be a true Marxist. Marxist education is based on the principle of learning by doing. painting. The curriculum includes the socially useful subjects such as science. He should possess sound health. Creative work and co-curricular activities have been given an important place in Marxist curriculum. 6. 3.4. respect for cultural heritage. Marxist education emphasizes learning through personal experience of the child. 2. astronomy etc. His philosophy of teaching will be the Marxist philosophy. Marxist education intends to promote cooperative spirit instead of competitive spirit among students. He must be an active member of the Marxist social order. Emphasis is laid on practical aspect of education instead of theoretical aspect. These include physical exercise. 5. At the primary level. music. Education should not be confined within the four walls of the school. Methodology of Teaching in Marxism: 1. 4. But at the secondary level the curriculum should include foreign language. only the mother-tongue should be taught. . He must be fully equipped not only with the content of education but also the Marxist methodology of teaching as well as Marxist aims of education. deep practical sense. It emphasizes group activity instead of individual activity. geology. The history of communist movement and political economy should also be included in the curriculum. mathematics. According to Lenin. games and sports etc. socialistic bent of mind and true patriotism. a best Marxist worker can only be a best Marxist teacher.