4

EL REINO DE LA BELLEZA
Grecia y el mundo griego, del siglo IV a. C. al I

El gran despenar del arre a la liberrad tuvo lugar en los cien afios, aproxima-
damente, que van de 520 a.C. a 420 a.C. Hacia finales del siglo V los arristas
han adquirido plena conciencia de su poder y maestría, de los que su público se
hizo eco./Aunque los artistas aún eran considerados artesanos y, tal vez, desdefia-
dos porj_os esnobs, un número creciente de personas comenzaban a interesarse
en las obras por sí mismas, y no por sus funciones religiosas o política_ivLa gente
discutía los méritos de las diferentes escuelas artísticas, esto es, de los diversos
métodos, estilos y tradiciones que distinguían a los maestros de cada ciudad. No
hay duda alguna de queÜa comparación y la competencia entre esas es~elas
estimulaban a los arrista~ a esfuerzos cada vez mayores, ayudándoles a forjar la
variación que admiramos en el arte griego. En arquitectura, diversos estilos
empezaron a ser empleados conjuntamente.,}:! Parrenón se construyó en estilo
dó,ico (ilustración 50), pero en los edificios posteriores de la Acrópolis se intro-
dujo el estilo llamado jónico. El principio que rige a esos templos es el mismo
del dórico, pero el aspecto y el carácter del conjunto son muy diferentes. El edi-
ficio que constituye su más perfecto exponente es el templo dedicado a Posei-
dón , denominado el Erecteion (ilustración 60) .j_as columnas del templo jónico
son mucho menos fuertes y robustas. Son como ligeros troncos, y el capitel o
remate no es mayor que un sencillo y liso cojín, pero ricamente adornado con
volutas a los lados, las cuales parecen desempeñar nuevameme la función de la
parte que sostiene la viga sobre la que descansa el techo-:'La impresión de conjun-
to de esos edificios, con sus pormenores bellamente labrados, es de sosiego y gra-
cia infinita.
Análogas características predominan en la escultura y la pintura de esta épo-
ca, que comienza con la generación siguiente a Fidias. ~tenas, durante este perío-
do, se halló envuelta en una guerra terrible que terminó con su prosperidad y con
la de Grecia. En 408 a.s:;)fuuante un breve lapso de paz, se añadió una balaus-
trada esculpida al pequeño templo de la Acrópolis dedicado a la diosa de la victo-
ria; sus esculturas y ornamentación revelan el cambio de gusto hacia la delicadeza
y el refinamiento que se refleja también en el estilo jónic~Las figuras han sido
lastimosamente mutiladas; sin embargo, escogeré una de ellas (ilustración 61)
para mostrar cuánta belleza posee aún incluso esta figura despedazada sin cabeza
y sin manos. Representa a una muchacha, una de las diosas de la victoria, dete-

Acrópol is. caen las delgadas ropas sob re el hermoso cuerpo! Podemos observar en estas obras 408 a. niéndose a abrocharse la sandalia que se le ha soltado al andar. Museo (págs. 61 mente ha sido captada esta momentánea detención. y cuán suave y airosamente Diosa de la ''iclorin. Las estatuas del gran templo del siglo IV a. durante el siglo IV a. acerca del cual seguirían hablando viejos y jóvenes miles de años después. arre o de lo que estaba realizando. 60 El Erectcion. Y así. fue famoso sobre todo por el encan- . ~1 friso del templo de la Victoria muestra. Tal vez le ll evara a cierro de la Victoria en envanecimiento es ta facilidad y virtuosismo.C. la consideración del arte vari ~ Las estamas de Fidias fu eron famosas en roda Grecia como representacion es de los dioses.C. que el artista podía plasmar cuanto deseaba. Difícilmente se daba cuenta de que era un gran maestro.100 11 Rl 11<0 lll lA Bllll / _. procesión . y se esfo rzó cuanto pudo en hacerlo bien y con claridad. el comienzo de un cambio de actimd . \ El gran artista de aquel siglo. Sabía que su tarea co nsistía en representar una Arenas. mármol.! La gente culta discutía acerca de las pinturas y las estatuas lo mis- mo que acerca de los poemas y los dramas. gradualmente. 420-405 a. quizá. merecieron su reputación más bien en virtud de su belleza como obras de arre. Este artista estaba orgulloso de su inmenso poder tanto como de sus facultades. De la balaustrada que rodea el templo cultad alguna al representa r el movimiento o el escorzo. elogiaban su belleza o criticaban su form a y estilo.C. ¡Cuán deliciosa. Atenas. Ya no tenía que forcejear con difi. 92 y 93. Templo jónico. ilustraciones 56 y 57) no pareció preocuparse mucho acerca de su de la Acrópolis.C. El artista del friso del Partenón Atenas. Praxíteles. h. 106 cm de alrura.

().LO IV A.10 1 C.IC. D H . RII (.< .RH lA Y 1 1 'IL ~DO C. Al 1 .

Musco Arqueológico. 62 Praxícclcs Hermts con Dionisos jovm.102 f.. Olimpia.l.C. h. Mármol. Rf. 340 a. 2 13 cm de alcura.JI<O DE lA BEllU. .

es necesario darse cuenta de que Prax íteles y otros artistas grie- gos llegaron a es ta belleza merced al conocimi emo.1L 'JDO t . 103 ( . poniéndolos de manifiesto con tanta claridad y precisión como le fue posible. las junturas del cuerpo. la joven Afrodira. om itiendo roda irregula rid ad o todo rasgo que no se conformara con su idea de un cuerpo per- fecto. representa a la diosa del amor. pero esta obra desapareció. También JRraxí teles procuró mostrarnos los goznes. que pa rtían de una cuidada rep roducción de un hombre real y que lo iban hermoseando. Se cree con frecue ncia que lo que hacían los artistas era contemplar muchos modelos y eliminar los aspectos que no les gustaban. :En la obra de Praxíteles ha desa- parecido toda huella de rigi de~ El dios se halla ante noso tros en una pos- tura relajada que en nada ofende su 63 dignidad. Pero ahora pudo realizar todo esto sin que resultara rfgida y envarada su esculcu- ra. y pudo dar la impresión de un cuerpo vivo en toda su gracia y belle- zg Sin embargo. No ex iste nin gün cuerpo vivo tan simétrico. entrando en el baño. Muchos creen que una obra encontra- da en Olimpia en el siglo X IX es una obra original de su mano (ilustracio- nes 62 y 63). A lo largo de todos esos siglos. más páli- do e insípido fantasma del modelo es lo que queda. los arriscas de que . cuyo elogio ca ntaron muchos poemas.CIA \ 11 \. Pero si reparamos en cómo consiguió Praxítelcs este efecto. ilustración 47. Al 1 ro d e su obra y por el carácter amable y sugestivo d e sus creacione~ ~u obra más celebrada. El punto de vista griego era precisamenre el contrario. DH SJ(. H ay quien dice que.(. \ O I V A. C uanto más se ha eliminado y borrado. ilustración 62. adveni- Detalle de 1~ mos que ni siquiera entonces había sido olvidada la lección del arte antiguo. vemo s la eno rm e d istanc ia que ha recorrido el arre griego en doscientos años. [R epresenta al dios Hermes sosten iendo a Dionisos niño e n su brazo y jugando co n Si retrocede.RII f~O. pudo mostrar los müsculos y los huesos dilatándose y moviéndose bajo la piel suave. Pero una fotografía retocada y una estatua idealizada generalmente carecen de vigo r y de carácter. \H·. tan bien construido y bello como los de las estatuas griegas. Pero no estamos segu- rosJya que quizá sólo sea una buena copia en mármol de u na estatua de bronce.l9s artistas griegos idealizaban la na turale~ a la manera con q ue un fotógrafo retoca un retrato eliminando d e él los pequeños defectos . i!J mos a la página 79.

:-. sin o porqueG l arre en aq uel momento había alcanzado un punto en el ~e lo modélico y lo individual se mantenían en un nuevo y delicado equilibrio.C. seres que pertenecen a un mundo d is- tinto. Son. 224 cm de alrura. Copia romana en mármol de un original griego.104 EL REINO DE LA BELLFZA Apolo d~ Belvedrre. no porque los griegos fueran más sanos y más bell os que los otros hom - bres . En la época de Prax íteles. perrcnecicnrcs a un mundo d istinto y mejor. Las ami- guas tipologías empezaron a moverse y a respirar bajo las manos del hábil escul- tor.no hay razón alguna para creer tal cosa-. 350 a. Muchas de las más famosas obras del arte clásico que fuero n admiradas en épocas posteriores como represemativas de los tipos humanos más perfectos son . hemos tratado se ocupaban en infundir más y más vida al anri guo capa razó n. Vaticano. irguiéndose ame nosotros como seres humanos reales. h.1useo Pio Clcmcnrino. en efecto. su método cosechó los frutos más sazo nados.

y nuevamenre podemos admirar la clari- dad y sencillez con que el artista modeló el hermoso cuerpo. a mediados del siglo IV a. Cierta- . un grupo de Venus y Cupido realizado en un período algo posterior.C. h. Museo del tración 65). Esta escultura también fue proyectada para ser vista de lado (Venus extendía sus brazos hacia Cupido) . Al 1 copias o variantes de estatuas creadas en ese período. la de Milo (llama- línus dt Milo. su manera de señalar cada una de sus divisiones más importan- tes sin incurrir en vaguedad ni en dureza] Naturalmente. Era posible crear de este modo tipos humanos convincen- tes. en el siglo IV a. Probablemenre perteneció a Louvre. la idea del retrato . tuvo un inconvenienre. en el sentido en que nosotros emplean1os esta palabra. D El SIGI O IV A. París. no se nos hace difícil reconocer el ligero eco del esquema antiguo en el que a cada parte del cuerpo se le daba su apariencia más característica. soste- niendo el arco con el brazo extendido y la cabeza vuelta hacia un lado como si siguiera con la mirada la flecha disparada. 202 cm de alrura.C. pero en el cual se utilizaban los recursos y procedimien- tos de Praxíteles. Entre las famosas esta- 65 tuas clásicas de \Venus. no se les ocurrió a los griegos hasta una época tardía. 105 GRECIA Y EL MUNDO GRIFGO. C.C. ffi l Apolo de Belvedere (ilustración 64 ) muestra el modelo ideal de un cuerpo de hombr<:] Tal como se presenra ame noso- tros en su impresionanre acritud. pero ¿conduciría siempre a la repre- sentación de verdaderos seres humanos individuales? Por extraño que nos pueda parecer. Melos) ral vez sea la más conocida (ilus- ~lármol. este método de crear belleza comenzando por una configura- ción esquemática y general a la que se vivificaría paulatinamente hasta que la superficie del mármol pareciera respirar. 200 da así por haber sido hallada en la isla de a.

inmensamente dorado. parecido del retraro de su prorecro r. enconrraríamos a éste completamente disrinro y sin el menor parecido a como nos lo muestra su busro. Claro está que para juzgar rodos los rerraros antiguos tenemos el inconvenienre de que no podemos dictaminar acerca de su parecido. 325-300 fisonomía. En la a.C.A mente. pero quizá echado a perder por sus triunfos. mucho menor. h. pudo muy bien parecerse a este busro . las arrugas de su frenre o su expresión personal. claro está. por lo general)(Las esraruas griegas. con sus cejas levanradas y su expresión ené~ca. y en él pode- mos apreciar cuánro ha variado el arre desde la época del Auriga de Delfos. y a practicar el rerraro en nuestro senrido actual del término. esro es mucho más sorpren- denre de lo que parece a primera vista. el carácter panicular de la Mng11o. pero sus rostros no parecen traducir nunca ningún senrimienro dererminadolEl cuerpo y sus movimienros eran uti- lizados por esros maestros para expresa. este de que los anís- ras griegos -en las obras suyas que conocemos. 41 cm de género.efan siempre en ruidosos elogios del gran Esrambul. del que no nos hemos ocupado bastante rodavía. desde lue- go. el arr~ra más famoso de la época. un espíriru inquiero. dice que ésros prorrum.l Alejandro mismo prefirió ser retratado por el esculror de su corre. no son inexpresivas en el senrido de parecer estúpidas y vacuas. Un escriror de aquel período. que el que afirmaban los aduladores del relaro. pero esas estatuas no tuvieron. aduladores. En verdad. e incluso desde la de Praxíreles. · lg_l imperio fundado por Alejandro fue un acontecimiento de enorme .. Lisipo. Museo Arqueológico.:lo que Sócrates había denominado «los movimienros del alma» (págs. En la generación posterior a Praxíreles . probablemenre. El arrisra no reprodujo nunca la forma de su nariz. puesro que difícilmenre garabatearemos nosotros una simple cara en un trozo de papel sin darle alguna expresión acusa- da (cómica. ya que percibían que el juego de las facciones conrorsionaría y destruiría la sencilla regularidad de la cabeza. gran semejanza referencial. Un rerraro de un general fue poco más que la representación de un apuesro militar con yelmo y bastón de mando. esta restricción fue desapareciendo gradualmente y los arrisras descubrie- Lisipo ron maneras de animar las facciones sin destruir la belleza Más aún. Cnbew de Alejandro ron a captar los movimientos del alma individual. ilustración 58) . Pero también podemos decir: un hombre como Alejandro. ilusrración 54).hayan esquivado conferir a los rostros una expresión determinada. Podemos hallar que la figura de Lisipo se parece mucho más a un dios que al verdadero conquistador de Asia. Cop ia en mármol del época de Alejandro Magno. satirizando las irriranres costumbres de los alrura.C. hacia la terminación del siglo IV 66 a. 89 y 90. Tal vez si pudiéramos ver una instantánea de Alejandro Magno.\ 06 1 L RIJ"() ill L\l 11 1/. aprendie. la genre comenzó a discutir acerca de este nuevo original . 94 y 95 . que ran sólo perrenecía a una generación amerior. Es un exrra- ño hecho. cuya fidelidad al natural asombraba a sus conremporáneo9Se cree que el rerraro de Alejandro ha llegado hasta nosotros por medio de una copia (ilustración 66). oímos hablar de rerraros realizados en tiempos anteriores (págs.

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tico-. En el estilo corimio se añadió el Nacional. y se debaten en el dolor y la agonía. 164.C. Berlín.156 a. y. . . en este estilo la ornamentación es. Esta lujosa modalidad acompañó a todas las sunruosas construcciones realizadas a gran escala en las ciudades de Orienre de reciente fundación. sino compuesto de figuras casi exenras y que. encargaban a los artistas obras muy diferentes de las que ellos estaban acosmmbrados a realizar en Grecia. Pocas de ellas se han conservado. y que recibió su nombre de la rica ciu.i nútilmente buscaremos en ella la armonía y el refinamiento de la primitiva escultura grie&:¡ Evidenremenre. h.C.C. como despreocupán- dose del puesto que les corresponde\_f-1 arte helenístico gustó mucho de obras tan bravías y vehemenresi_quería resultar impresionanre.' de acuerdo con la deno- -"' minación que se da de ordina- rio a los imperios fundados por los sucesores de Alejandro en territorio oriental . Pasó a preferirse una nueva forma de columna. Este cambio afectó al carácter del último 67 período anístico griego. mucho más rica en todo el edificio. Alejandría en Egipto. Enrre ellas. (ilustración 68). follaje a las volutas jónicas en espiral para adorno de los capiteles. con el nombre de arte helenís. pare- cen desbordarse por la escalera que conduce hacia el altar. generalmente nos referimos h. Epidauro. en su lucha. al que Capitel corintio. rLos estilos e invenciones del arre griego se adaptaron a la escala y a las tradicio~s de los imperios orienrales . Este cambio puede registrarse en algunas de las obras más famosas de aquella época. pues hizo que se desarro- llara en extensión. Colección sido inventada a inicios del siglo IV a. pero . efectivamenre. La batalla se desencadena con violencia . el relieve ya no es plano. 300 a. He dicho que el arre griego se vio obligado a experimemar un cambio en el período helenístico. Las opulentas capitales de esos imperios. gracilidad del jónico. por lo general. ~n altar de la ciudad de Pérgamo erigido hacia 160 a. Los burdos titanes son aniquilados por los dioses triunfantes.108 El RI I"O DL LA Bl Lll/A importancia para el arre grie- go. pasando de ser algo confinado a unas cuantas ciudades pequeñas al lenguaje plástico de casi medio mundo. lo es.C. el arrista se propuso conseguir efectos de gran fuerza dramática. pero lo que quedó de épocas posteriores nos ofrece una impre- sión esplendorosa y de gran magnificencia. con su escultura represenrando la lucha emre dioses y titaneSJEs una obra magnífica. Museo Arqueológico. Ni siquiera en A ltar de Zew en arquitectura fueron suficientes las sencillas y sólidas formas del estilo dórico y la Pé!ga m o. tT9do está lleno de salvaje movimienro y de agitados ropaje$d Para lograr efectos más llamativos. que había M<írmol . terrible. Antioquía en 68 Siria y Pérgamo en Asia Menor. Pérgam o del Museo dad mercantil de Corinto (ilustración 67).

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:\. la del período helenístico. Pero a veces no puedo por menos que sospechar que Clemcnrino. los artistas y los coleccio- nistas quedaron literalmente anonadados por el efecto que les produjo esta trá- gica obra. 242 cm de de agitacion y movimiento en un grupo permanente. Lo probable es que en esa época. Sabemos también que esos pintores se hallaban más intere- sados en los problemas especiales de sus técnicas que en los servicios de su arte a una finalidad religiosa. Los dioses. h. Representa la terrible escena que también ha sido descrita por Virgilio en Eneida: ~ sacerdote troyano Laocoonte exhortó a sus compatriotas a que rechazaran el gigantesco caballo en el que se ocultaban los soldados griegos.@ arte perdiera en gran parte su antigua conexión con la religión y la magii) Los artistas se preocuparon por los problemas intrínsecos del arre. su expresión e intensidad emotiva era precisamente la clase de empresa que había de probar el temple de un artista. Tenemos noticias de maestros que se especializaron en . los gustaría saber el efecto que causó esta historia en el arti ta griego que concibió este impresionante grupo. llll (. Arcnodoro y Polidoro manera en que los músculos del tronco y los brazos acusan el esfuerzo y el sufri- de Rodas miento de la desesperada lucha. Cuando en 1506 se descubrió el grupo de Laocoome (ilustración 69). la representación de una lucha dramática semejante con todos sus movimientos.. tan frecuen- tes en las mitologías griega y romana.RECIA Y ti \H. Ldocoonte)'sus hijos. al ver frustrados sus planes de destruir Troya. Museo Pio entonces la admiración. ¿Quiso hacernos semir el horror de la escena en la que se hace sufrir a una víctima ino- cente por haber dicho la verdad? ¿O lo que principalmente deseó fue mostrar su capacidad al representar una lucha terrible y en cierro modo escandalosa entre hombres y bestias? No le faltaron razones para sentirse orgulloso de su arte. Varicano.C. el desvalido retorcerse de los dos muchachos y el modo de paralizar este instante M.andro. r~e era un arte que se proponía llamar la atención de un público que disfrutaba también con la visión horrible de las luchas de gladiadores. enviaron dos gigantescas serpientes de mar para que se apoderaran del sacerdote y de sus dos infortuna- dos hijos y los estrujaran entre sus anillos.JlO <. a tener copias famosas si no podían poseer los originales.RI!-(. 111 (. la expresión de dolor en el rostro del sacerdote.írmol. a reunir anécdotas acerca de sus modos de ser y a componer guías para los turista~ Muchos de los maestros más famosos entre los antiguos fueron pintores más que escultores. Fue en esta época y en esta atmósfera cuando as personas acaudaladas comenzaron a coleccionar obras de arte. La Hagc.(). y a pagar precios fabulosos por aquellas que podían obte- net~os escritores empezaron a imeresarse en las cuestiones artísticas y a escribir acerca de la vida de los artistas. 1'5 150 a. Es ésta una de las más despiadadas acciones perpetradas por los olímpicos contra los pobres morrales.L :\ 1 Algunas obras escultóricas clásicas que han disfrutado de mayor renombre en épocas posteriores fueron creadas en el período helenístico. caso es una equivo- cación poner reparos al artista por tal motivo. han concitado desde altura. Lo injusto o justo del hado de Laocoonre no le preocupó lo más mínimo al escultor. Por ello. y sólo sabemos de sus obras por lo que podemos hallar en los extractos de libros de arte clásicos que han llegado hasta nuestros días.

U\ UF.LLEZA .J J2 EL REII'O m.

y represenracio- nes de animales.\!useo Arqueológico exisría en una ciudad pequefia y de más bien escasa imporrancia. Esos cuadros no son vistas reales de una . . columnas y flores. Casi rodas las Doncella cogiendo casas y villas de la ciudad conraban con pinturas en sus muros.C. Difícilmenre se :'liacional. O hallamos Ermenores como el de la cabeza de un fauno (ilus- mural en Herculano. son. por ejemplo. Pompeya fue un lugar de veraneo para los romanos de posición y quedó enrerrada bajo las cenizas del Vesubio en 79. época en la que poetas como Teócriro descubrieron el encan- ro de la vida sencilla entre los pastores. siglo l. DEI SIGLO IV A. o las propias de campañas milirares. imitaciones de cuadros y de la escena. el hombre conrinuaba siendo el objero principal del inrerés del arris(¡j] ~ el período helenístico. de otra pi mura. Esas pinruras no mural en Srabias. ápoles. que nos da una idea de la maestría y facilidad Nacional. la mayor innova- ción del período helenístico. claro está. obras maesrras. ro nía encontramos a veces figuras de gracia y belleza tan exquisitas como la ima- siglo !l a.C. 11 3 GRECIA Y EL ~1UNDO GRIEGO. alcanzadas por esos arriscas en el manejo de la expresió~ Casi rodo lo que puede enrrar a formar parre de un cuadro puede hallarse enrre esas pinturas murales de Pompeya Boniras naturalezas muerras tales. IÉ_ara el arre griego de la épo- ca de Fidias o de Praxíteles. como dos limones con un vaso de agua. Deralle de una pinrura panoramas pintados. también los artistas trataron de evocar los placeres de la campiña para los viciados habitantes de la ciudad. El único medio de que podamos formarnos alguna idea del carácter de la pinrura anrigua es conremplar las pinruras murales y los mosaicos que se han descubierro en Pom- -o peyi} en orros lugares. pero rodos esos cuadros se han perdido definirivamenre. que represenra a una de las Horas corrando una flor Deralle de una pintura mienrras danza. acaso. El arre oriental anriguo no empleó los paisajes sino para situar sus escenas de la vida humana. Nápoles . Ésta fue. que pinraron la tienda de un barbe o o escenas de teatro. gen de la ilusrración 70. Museo Arqueológico rración 71). Incluso paisajes había allí. ~s decoradores de inreriores de Pompeya y de ciudades vecinas como Herculano y Srabias (Stabiae) explotaban librememe el 71 acervo de las creaciones de los grandes arriscas del helenism~ Enrre rama mono- Cnb= de fauno. Al 1 remas de la vida corrienre. pero es sorprendenre observar cuánta destreza . hallaría nada tan excelenre si una de nuestras poblaciones costeras de verano fuera excavada en la posteridad.

más libres y cons- . hasra las obras más evolucionadas. no era una empresa vulgar. y el samuario. o rrarar de rrazar un mapa de ella. El hecho es que incluso los Pintura mural. Ignoramos cuál es la disrancia que se supone exisre enrre la casa de campo Paisaje. siglo l. Se necesiró orro milenio para descubrirla. Cada cosa esraba encamadoramenre colocada en esos cuadros. Por ello. era desconocida en la anrigüedad clásica. La famosa avenida de álamos que se pierde a lo lejos y que rodas hemos dibujado en la escuela.11 4 1 1 Rll:###BOT_TEXT###1>1· 1 \ IH 111/\ casa de campo panicular o de un bello paraje. Son más bien conglomerados de rodo aquello que consriruye una escena idílica: pasrores y ganado. la armazón fija en la disrribución de nues- rros cuadros. sanruarios sen- cillos. Los arrisras dibujaban pequeñas las cosas alejadas y de gran ramaño las cercanas o imporrames. adveniríamos de promo que ello no nos es 72 posible. inclu- so esras pimuras son mucho menos realisras de lo que a primera visra podríamos creer. Frenre a esras obras experimemamos la sens~ción de que esramos comemplando realmeme una escena apacible. pero la ley de la disminu- ción gradual de los objeros al rerirarse. y el conjunro aparecía comemplado desde su aspecro más propicio. casas de campo y momañas en la lejanía (ilusrración 72). Si [llviéramos que responder a pregumas impeninenres acerca de la locali- dad. Sin embargo. ni si ésre esrá cerca o lejos del pueme. Roma. Villa arrisras helenísricos ignoraban lo que nosorros llamamos~ leyes de la perspecri~ Albani .

Ya hemos advenido que esto no supone falta algu- na en las obras artísticas que deba lamentarse o ser menospreciada . Dejaron al descubierto siempre la señal de la inteligencia que creó esas obras. DFI SJ<. por medio de la observación.~uesto que dentro de cualquier estilo es posible alcanzar la perfección anística.l1_os griegos quebraron los rígidos tabúes del arte primitivo oriental y emprendieron un viaje de descubrimientos para añadir. Al l cientes del arre antiguo conservan siempre algo de aquel principio a que aludimos al describir la pintura egipcia.)Pero sus obras no se asemejan nunca a espe- jos en los que quede reflejado cualquier rincón especial de la naruraleza.IO IV A.C. 115 GRECIA

Related Interests

El \IUNDO CftliCO. Incluso aquí.C. el conocimiento de los lineamientos característicos de los objetos paniculares cuenta mucho más que la impresión real recibida por medio de los ojos. Museo Metropolitano de Arte. nuevos aspectos a las imágenes tradicionales del mund. siglo 1 a.2 cm. 1. Estampa a panir de la piedra de un an illo helenístico.3 x 1. Escultor griego trabajando. Nueva York. .

Related Interests

.109 <-RI <¡. l H 'll<l < RJil. . 1 .1<.Q.

.

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:\. la del período helenístico. Pero a veces no puedo por menos que sospechar que Clemcnrino. los artistas y los coleccio- nistas quedaron literalmente anonadados por el efecto que les produjo esta trá- gica obra. 242 cm de de agitacion y movimiento en un grupo permanente. Lo probable es que en esa época. Sabemos también que esos pintores se hallaban más intere- sados en los problemas especiales de sus técnicas que en los servicios de su arte a una finalidad religiosa. Los dioses. h. Representa la terrible escena que también ha sido descrita por Virgilio en Eneida: ~ sacerdote troyano Laocoonte exhortó a sus compatriotas a que rechazaran el gigantesco caballo en el que se ocultaban los soldados griegos.@ arte perdiera en gran parte su antigua conexión con la religión y la magii) Los artistas se preocuparon por los problemas intrínsecos del arre. su expresión e intensidad emotiva era precisamente la clase de empresa que había de probar el temple de un artista. Tenemos noticias de maestros que se especializaron en . los gustaría saber el efecto que causó esta historia en el arti ta griego que concibió este impresionante grupo. llll (. Arcnodoro y Polidoro manera en que los músculos del tronco y los brazos acusan el esfuerzo y el sufri- de Rodas miento de la desesperada lucha. Cuando en 1506 se descubrió el grupo de Laocoome (ilustración 69). la representación de una lucha dramática semejante con todos sus movimientos.. tan frecuen- tes en las mitologías griega y romana.RECIA Y ti \H. Ldocoonte)'sus hijos. al ver frustrados sus planes de destruir Troya. Museo Pio entonces la admiración. ¿Quiso hacernos semir el horror de la escena en la que se hace sufrir a una víctima ino- cente por haber dicho la verdad? ¿O lo que principalmente deseó fue mostrar su capacidad al representar una lucha terrible y en cierro modo escandalosa entre hombres y bestias? No le faltaron razones para sentirse orgulloso de su arte. Varicano.C. el desvalido retorcerse de los dos muchachos y el modo de paralizar este instante M.andro. r~e era un arte que se proponía llamar la atención de un público que disfrutaba también con la visión horrible de las luchas de gladiadores. enviaron dos gigantescas serpientes de mar para que se apoderaran del sacerdote y de sus dos infortuna- dos hijos y los estrujaran entre sus anillos.JlO <. a tener copias famosas si no podían poseer los originales.RI!-(. 111 (. la expresión de dolor en el rostro del sacerdote.írmol. a reunir anécdotas acerca de sus modos de ser y a componer guías para los turista~ Muchos de los maestros más famosos entre los antiguos fueron pintores más que escultores. Fue en esta época y en esta atmósfera cuando as personas acaudaladas comenzaron a coleccionar obras de arte. La Hagc.(). y a pagar precios fabulosos por aquellas que podían obte- net~os escritores empezaron a imeresarse en las cuestiones artísticas y a escribir acerca de la vida de los artistas. 1'5 150 a. Es ésta una de las más despiadadas acciones perpetradas por los olímpicos contra los pobres morrales.L :\ 1 Algunas obras escultóricas clásicas que han disfrutado de mayor renombre en épocas posteriores fueron creadas en el período helenístico. caso es una equivo- cación poner reparos al artista por tal motivo. han concitado desde altura. Lo injusto o justo del hado de Laocoonre no le preocupó lo más mínimo al escultor. Por ello. y sólo sabemos de sus obras por lo que podemos hallar en los extractos de libros de arte clásicos que han llegado hasta nuestros días.

U\ UF.LLEZA .J J2 EL REII'O m.

y represenracio- nes de animales.\!useo Arqueológico exisría en una ciudad pequefia y de más bien escasa imporrancia. Esos cuadros no son vistas reales de una . . columnas y flores. Casi rodas las Doncella cogiendo casas y villas de la ciudad conraban con pinturas en sus muros.C. Difícilmenre se :'liacional. O hallamos Ermenores como el de la cabeza de un fauno (ilus- mural en Herculano. son. por ejemplo. Pompeya fue un lugar de veraneo para los romanos de posición y quedó enrerrada bajo las cenizas del Vesubio en 79. época en la que poetas como Teócriro descubrieron el encan- ro de la vida sencilla entre los pastores. siglo l. DEI SIGLO IV A. o las propias de campañas milirares. imitaciones de cuadros y de la escena. el hombre conrinuaba siendo el objero principal del inrerés del arris(¡j] ~ el período helenístico. de otra pi mura. Esas pinruras no mural en Srabias. ápoles. que nos da una idea de la maestría y facilidad Nacional. la mayor innova- ción del período helenístico. claro está. obras maesrras. ro nía encontramos a veces figuras de gracia y belleza tan exquisitas como la ima- siglo !l a.C. 11 3 GRECIA Y EL ~1UNDO GRIEGO. alcanzadas por esos arriscas en el manejo de la expresió~ Casi rodo lo que puede enrrar a formar parre de un cuadro puede hallarse enrre esas pinturas murales de Pompeya Boniras naturalezas muerras tales. IÉ_ara el arre griego de la épo- ca de Fidias o de Praxíteles. como dos limones con un vaso de agua. Deralle de una pinrura panoramas pintados. también los artistas trataron de evocar los placeres de la campiña para los viciados habitantes de la ciudad. El único medio de que podamos formarnos alguna idea del carácter de la pinrura anrigua es conremplar las pinruras murales y los mosaicos que se han descubierro en Pom- -o peyi} en orros lugares. pero rodos esos cuadros se han perdido definirivamenre. que represenra a una de las Horas corrando una flor Deralle de una pintura mienrras danza. acaso. El arre oriental anriguo no empleó los paisajes sino para situar sus escenas de la vida humana. Nápoles . Ésta fue. que pinraron la tienda de un barbe o o escenas de teatro. gen de la ilusrración 70. Museo Arqueológico rración 71). Incluso paisajes había allí. ~s decoradores de inreriores de Pompeya y de ciudades vecinas como Herculano y Srabias (Stabiae) explotaban librememe el 71 acervo de las creaciones de los grandes arriscas del helenism~ Enrre rama mono- Cnb= de fauno. Al 1 remas de la vida corrienre. pero es sorprendenre observar cuánta destreza . hallaría nada tan excelenre si una de nuestras poblaciones costeras de verano fuera excavada en la posteridad.

más libres y cons- . hasra las obras más evolucionadas. no era una empresa vulgar. y el samuario. o rrarar de rrazar un mapa de ella. El hecho es que incluso los Pintura mural. Ignoramos cuál es la disrancia que se supone exisre enrre la casa de campo Paisaje. siglo l. Se necesiró orro milenio para descubrirla. Cada cosa esraba encamadoramenre colocada en esos cuadros. Por ello. era desconocida en la anrigüedad clásica. La famosa avenida de álamos que se pierde a lo lejos y que rodas hemos dibujado en la escuela.11 4 1 1 Rll:###BOT_TEXT###1>1· 1 \ IH 111/\ casa de campo panicular o de un bello paraje. Son más bien conglomerados de rodo aquello que consriruye una escena idílica: pasrores y ganado. la armazón fija en la disrribución de nues- rros cuadros. sanruarios sen- cillos. Los arrisras dibujaban pequeñas las cosas alejadas y de gran ramaño las cercanas o imporrames. adveniríamos de promo que ello no nos es 72 posible. inclu- so esras pimuras son mucho menos realisras de lo que a primera visra podríamos creer. Frenre a esras obras experimemamos la sens~ción de que esramos comemplando realmeme una escena apacible. pero la ley de la disminu- ción gradual de los objeros al rerirarse. y el conjunro aparecía comemplado desde su aspecro más propicio. casas de campo y momañas en la lejanía (ilusrración 72). Si [llviéramos que responder a pregumas impeninenres acerca de la locali- dad. Sin embargo. ni si ésre esrá cerca o lejos del pueme. Roma. Villa arrisras helenísricos ignoraban lo que nosorros llamamos~ leyes de la perspecri~ Albani .

Ya hemos advenido que esto no supone falta algu- na en las obras artísticas que deba lamentarse o ser menospreciada . Dejaron al descubierto siempre la señal de la inteligencia que creó esas obras. DFI SJ<. por medio de la observación.~uesto que dentro de cualquier estilo es posible alcanzar la perfección anística.l1_os griegos quebraron los rígidos tabúes del arte primitivo oriental y emprendieron un viaje de descubrimientos para añadir. Al l cientes del arre antiguo conservan siempre algo de aquel principio a que aludimos al describir la pintura egipcia.)Pero sus obras no se asemejan nunca a espe- jos en los que quede reflejado cualquier rincón especial de la naruraleza.IO IV A.C. 115 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El \IUNDO CftliCO. Incluso aquí.C. el conocimiento de los lineamientos característicos de los objetos paniculares cuenta mucho más que la impresión real recibida por medio de los ojos. Museo Metropolitano de Arte. nuevos aspectos a las imágenes tradicionales del mund. siglo 1 a.2 cm. 1. Estampa a panir de la piedra de un an illo helenístico.3 x 1. Escultor griego trabajando. Nueva York. .

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