D
CONTENTS .

rnJ Tense Forms 3 Questions/Short Answers 197
Word Formation 17 Practice test 11 206
Practice test 1 25
Inversion/Emphatic Structures 210
[D The lnfinitive/-ing form/Participles 29 Practice test 12 216
Practice test 2 42
Revision 3 220

[J Modal Verbs 46
Practice test 3 56 Further Practice Sections 223

[J Adjectives/Adverbs/Comparisons 60 Appendix 1 - Present, Past &
Practice test 4 74 Future Forms 240

Revision 1 78
Appendix 2 - Phrasal Verbs 244

[ ] Clauses/Linking Words 81 Appendix 3 - Verbs, Adjectives,
Practice test 5 106 Nouns with Prepositions I
Prepositional Phrases I
EJ Reported Speech 110 Prepositions of time 250
Practice test 6 125
Appendix 4 - Word Formation 255
[J Passive Voice/Causative Form 129
Practice test 7 140 Irregular Verbs 259

Conditionals/Wishes/Unreal Past 144 Suggested Answer section 260
Practice test 8 156
Test 1A / 18 T1
Revision 2 160

Test 2A / 28 TB
• Nouns/ Articles 163
Practice test 9 173 Test 3A / 38 T15.

I Determiners/Pronouns 177
Practice test 1O 193

Tense Forms
Identify the tenses , then match them with the correct description.

1 They are getting married this summer. Present Cont. a fixed arrangements in the near future
2 The robber waves his gun and everyone gets down b personal experiences/changes that have
on the floor. Present Simple happened
3 The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. c actions taking place at or around the moment
Present Simple of speaking; temporary situations
4 The course starts on 10th October. Present Simple d actions started at a stated time in the past
5 Clare is looking for a new flat. Present Continuous and continuing up to the present
6 We've been sharing a flat for years. Pres. Pert. Cont. e reviews/sports commentaries/dramatic
7 They employ staff from all over the world. narratives
Present Simple f permanent situations or states
8 Paula has become more independent since starting g permanent truths or laws of nature
university. Present Perfect Simple h emphasis on duration of an action that began
9 The child has been missing since last night. in the past and continues up to the present
Present Perfect Continuous timetables/programmes (future meaning)

1 ...a ... 2 e 3 g 4 i 5 c 6 h 7 f 8 b 9 d

Identify the tenses, then match them with the correct description.

1 Bill always stops to buy milk on his way to work. a past actions of certain du ration having visible
Present Simple results/effects in the p resent
2 The new serial is growing in popularity. Present Cont. b changing or developing situations
3 There goes the last bus! Present Simple c recently completed actions
4 Scientists have just discovered a way to prevent d exclamatory sentences
memory loss. Present Perfect e frequently repeated actions with 'always'
5 Andrea has phoned me every day this week. expressing the speaker's annoyance or
Present Perfect criticism
6 Laura is always criticising my appearance. Pres. Cont. f actions which happened at an unstated past
7 I feel exhausted as I have been working on my time and are connected to the present
assignment all night. Present Perfect Continuous g emphasis on number, frequency
8 He's been asking to borrow money again. h repeated/habitual actions
Present Perfect Continuous expressing anger, irritation, annoyance or
9 The Kellys have moved to Manchester. Present Perfect criticism

1 ... h ... 2 b 3 d 4 c 5 g 6 e 7 a 8 9 f

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present forms.

Dear Greg a nd Christine,
I 1) .. .am writing... (write) to thank you for coming to our wedding reception last month. I hope you
ertjoyed yourselves.
Mark and I 2) have just returned (Lust/return) from our trip to Kenya. We 3) have just moved Gust/move) into
our new house and since we returned we 4) have been spending (spend) all our free time decorating. The house
5) is actualJy beginning (actually/begin) to feel like home now and we 6) are gradually settling (gradually/settle)
into a routine. We n have (have) breakfast together in the morning, but then we 8) don' t see (not/see) each
other until late in the evening when we 9) get (get) home from work.
I hope both of you 10) have been (be) well since we last saw you.
Best regards,
Mark a nd Sheila Roberts

Stative verbs express a permanent state rather than an action and do not have continuous forms. These are:
verbs of the senses (used to express involuntary actions) : feel , hear, see, smell, taste etc. I see someone
standing at the front door. Verbs of feelings and emotions: adore, detest, disl ike, enjoy, forgive, hate, like
etc. She really enjoys cooking for her friends. Verbs of opinion: agree, believe, suppose, understand etc. I
don't believe he 's coming. Other verbs: appear (= seem) , belong, concern, contain, depend, fit (= be the
right shape and size for sth) , have (= possess) , know, mean, owe, own, possess, need, prefer, require,
want, weigh, wish, keep (= continue) , seem etc. This skirt fits you perfectly
Note: Feel and hurt can be used in continuous or simple forms. Ann is feeling 'feels tired. Listen, look and
watch express deliberate actions and can be used in continuous forms. They are looking at some pictures.

Some stative verbs (be, love, see, smell, taste, think etc) have continuous forms but there is a difference in
meaning.

STATE ACTION

•• I see exactly what you mean. (= I understand)
Peter thinks he knows everything. (= He believes)
•• She is seeing a lawyer tonight. ( = She's meeting)
He is thinking of studying Law. (= He is considering)

•• They have a villa in Portugal. (= They own)
A baby's skin feels very smooth. (= It has a smooth
•• He is having problems. ( = He is experiencing)
He is feeling the engine to see how hot it is. ( = He's
texture) touching)

••
This soup tastes of garlic. (= It has the taste of garlic} Why are you tasting the curry? ( = Why are you
The room smells of fresh flowers. ( = It has the smell testing the flavour?)
oD • Why are you smelling that meat? ( = Why are you

• Most people love/enjoy eating out. (= They like in
general)

checking its smell?)
She is loving/is enjoying every minute of her

• Peter is a difficult person to get on with. (= His
character is difficult)

holiday. (= She likes specifically)
Jane is being particularly generous this week.

•• He looks as if he's going to faint. (= He appears) (= She is behaving generously)

••
The patient appears to be recovering. (= He seems They are looking at the photos. (= They are viewing)
to be) Simply Red are appearing on stage next week.

• Sam now weighs more than his father. (= His
weight is greater)

(= They are giving a performance)
The doctor is weighing the baby. (= She is finding

• My uniform doesn't fit me. (= It isn't the right size).

out its weight)
We are fitting a new kitchen next week. ( = installing)

Fill in with Present Simple or Continuous.

1 A: I ... am Beeing... (see) an old friend tonight.
B: 1 see (see) - so you won't be able to meet me after work, will you?
2 A: Why are you smelling (you/smell) the milk?
B: It smells (smell) a bit strange. I think it might have gone off.
3 A: Do you enjoy (you/enjoy) reading Jane Austen's novels?
B: Not usually, but I am enjoying (enjoy) this particular one.
4 A: Why is John being (John/be) so bad-tempered today?
B: I don't know. He is (be) usually so easy to get on with .
5 A: Carol and I are thinking (think) of getting married.
B: Do you think (you/think) that's a good idea? You haven't known each other for very long.
6 A: Do you have (you/have) the phone number of a good business consu ltant?
B: Why? Are you having (you/ have) problems at work?
7 A: Is the singer appearing (the singer/appear) tonight?
B: Unfortunately not. She appears (appear) to have lost her voice.

14
_ _ _ j

8 A: Why are you tasting (you/taste) the lemonade?
B: It tastes (taste) a little bitter. I think I'll add some more sugar.
9 A: I hear the Fords are looking (look) for a bigger house.
B: Yes, it looks (look) as if they are going to move.
10 A: How much does the parcel weigh (the parcel/weigh)?
B: I'm not sure. The assistant is weighing (weigh) it at the moment.

Have gone to I Have been to I Have been in

• She has gone to the bank. (She 's on her way to the bank or she's there now. She hasn 't come back yet.)
• She has been to New Orleans. (She has visited New Orleans but she isn't there now. She has come back.)
• She has been in the Hague for four years. (She lives in the Hague now.)

@ Fill in has/have been to/ in, has/have gone to.

1 How long ... has... she ... been in. .. York?
2 Sheila has been to Brussels twice this year.
3 Mum has gone to the supermarket. She'll be back in about an hour.
4 Sam isn't in the office. He has gone to a meeting.
5 Mr Smith has been in Paris for nearly three years.

Since expresses a starting point. She's been working here since November.
For expresses the duration of an action. They've been in Hawaii for two weeks.

[©) Fill in since or for.

Animals have been a source of help and comfort to humans
1) ... since... history began, and we have known 2) for years that
animals make people gentler and more relaxed. 3) For a long
time the question has been how exactly animals can change
people. Some researchers believe that stroking a pet helps to
relieve anxiety and tension and, 4) since the 1960s, therapists
have believed that animals' remarkable powers can be used to
heal our bodies and minds. This belief has actually been
confirmed 5) since the discovery that seriously ill people live
longer if they have a pet to care for.

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct present forms.

1 George Smith ... has been training ... (train) for this match for months. He has been practising (practise) at
least four hours a day for the last two weeks and he says (say) that now he is feeling/feels (feel) confident.
However, he is facing (face) a difficult opponent tonight. Palmer has won (win) several games recently, and
he looks (look) determined to win this one too. The match is (be) about to start, so let's watch and see what
happens (happen).
2 Louisa usually goes (go) to work by tube, but today she is going (go) there in a chauffeur-driven limousine.
The reason for this is (be) that she has just won (just/win) the young business person award , and as part of
the prize people are treating (treat) her like royalty.
3 Mary has.been dyeing (dye) her hair for years. She goes (go) to the hairdresser once a week and tries/has
tried (try) every colour you can imagine. She says (say) she wants (want) to match her hair with her clothes.
I have been asking (ask) her for ages why she doesn't keep (not/keep) her natural colour but she says (say)
she has forgotten (forget) what it is!

Past Continuous Past Perfect Continuous as the past 9 He made his last film in Poland. got dressed quickly and left for f complete past action which had visible the airport. Something ought to be done! B: I agree sir.4 A: Excuse me. I be unemployed/at the moment. I have been trying (try) to pay for this shirt for ten minutes. Past Perfect Continuous which happened at a definite past time not 11 She was upset because she had just heard the mentioned news. Past Simple specific time in the past 6 She had a shower. g past action which occurred before another Past Perfect Continuous action or before a stated time 8 A cr'owd of tourists were waiting outside the hotel h past habit or state when the lights went out. Past Simple results in the past 7 Reporters had been telephoning all morning. I look forward/hear you/earliest convenience. Yours faithfully. g. 2 I 3b 4a Sh 6c 7i 8d 9j 10 e 11 f 12 m 13 k 16 . 1 I had read most of his novels by the end of the a action in progress at a stated past time holiday. Past Simple immediately after another 4 They were still considering his proposal that d past action in progress interrupted by evening . I write/apply/position of French teacher/advertised/The European. I enclose references/former employer and CV... I spend several years/Paris/have excellent practical knowledge of French. Derek Spencer Dear Sir. Past Continuous another past action 5 She jogged five miles every day when she was e action continuing over a period up to a young. Identify the tenses. Past Perfect 1 . Past Simple equivalent of the Present Perfect Continuous 1O They had been going out for five years before they action not connected to the present and decided to get married . I have tried (try) complaining but nobody listens (listen). Nobody seems (seem) to want to serve me. (See Suggested Answer section) Dear Sir. but I don't work (not/work) here.• Make all the necessary changes and additions to make a complete letter. Academic qualifications include/degree in French/Oxford University. I'm writing to apply .. I work/assistant French teacher/two years/school outside London. I trust you give/application/ serious consideration. It's the worst service I have ever experienced (ever/experience). Past Perfect b complete action or event which happened 2 I was talking on the phone while Tim was watching at a stated past time football on TV. . Past Continuous c past actions which happened one 3 We got up at half past six this morning. Past Perfect Continuous m past action of certain duration which had 13 The dancer had always dreamed of becoming visible results in the past successful.. Past Perfect k Past Perfect as the past equivalent of the 12 The police officer changed her phone number Present Perfect because she had been receiving anonymous calls two or more simultaneous past actions for several weeks . then match them with the correct description.

20 tim e reference e past action which occurred before b action in the middle of happening another action or before a stated 2. In 1481 he 7) married (marry) Felipa . They 9) had been married (be/married) for two years w hen his w ife 10) died (die)... a complete past action s not connected 8. 1492. Parestrello. Christopher Columbus 1) . 13. (16) 11 at a stated past time past time c action continuing over a period up f the Past Perfect as the past 12 to a specific time in the past 9 equivalent of the Present Perfect Put the verbs in brackets into the correct past forms. He 14) set off (set off) for the first time in April 1492. wa!? born. When she 1) . 19. Columbus 18) made (make) another three voyages after this. w ith an implied 15. 6. 10. 7 . (be/born) in Italy in 1451. He 2) had worked (work) as a woollen cloth weaver w ith his father before he 3) began (begin) his nautical career at the age of 22.. Luckily she 5) found (find) a job immediately as an assistant in a small fashion company. 18 happened at a stated past time 17. They 8) had (have) one son. 3. 5. then match the sentences with the correct description.. (be) only fifteen Helen 2) left (leave) school without any qualifications.. Portugal in 1478. Finally King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain 13) decided (decide) to finance the voyage. Helen 15) got (get) the job as the manager of a small but prestigious fashion company in central London. Diego. She 16) had achieved (achieve) her ambition of becoming a successful businesswoman at last. so she 13) applied (apply) for a job which she 14) had seen/saw (see) advertised in a fashion magazine. While she 6) was working (work) there she 7) decided (decide) to go to evening classes to get a qualification in business studies. the Pinta and the Santa Maria and a crew of 90 men. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct past forms. She 12) had been thinking (think) of moving to London for some time. 4. wa!? . Columbus 12) had always wished (always/wish) to sail around the world westward but John II wouldn't agree. Nevertheless. she 3) was (be) very ambitious and 4) wanted (want) to work in the fashion industry.. 14 to the present. (16) .00 on Friday the 12th of Octob~r. At this time he 11) was working (work) for John II of Portugal... He 19) retired (retire) to Valladolid 12 years after his first voyage and in 1517 he 20) died (die) there. . the Nina. They 16) had/had had (have) many false alarms before they finally 17) spotted (spot) the ' New World' at 02. After she 10) had been doing (do) that job for some years she 11) wanted (want) a change. There 15) were (be) three ships. After several merchant voyages he 4) settled (settle) in Lisbon. d complete action or event which 1. By this time he 5) had taught (teach) himself Portuguese and Latin and 6) had ~ead (read) many geographical and navigational books. Once she 8) had successfully completed (successfully/complete) the course she 9) was promoted (be/promoted) to the position of assistant manager.

Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Simple or Continuous.

to
A few years ago a friend of mine, Tom, 1) ... was travelling ... (travel) in Java. One day he 2) decided (decide)
visit an ancient temple. The walls were covered in beautiful old paintings of mysterious-l ooking faces. While he
3) was walking ( walk) around the temple, he 4) felt ( feel) an inexplicable desire to remove one
particular face which seemed to be staring at him . Nervously, checking to see that no one 5) was
looking (look), he 6) peeled ( peel) the face from the wall and 7) put (put) it carefully in his bag.
Tom 8) thought (think) no more about the incident until two years later. At that time he 9) was
living (live) in London and 10) (was) working (work) in a shop selling old books and
manuscripts. One day an extremely old man 11) walked (walk) slowly through the door. Tom
could hardly see him but he 12) noticed (notice) the man's piercing black eyes. He 13) stared
(stare) at Tom, fixing him with his gaze, saying nothing. As the man 14) was staring (stare)
at him, Tom 15) had (have) an awful, terrifying feeling of shame and fear. Suddenly, the man
was gone. When Tom got home that evening he 16) searched (search) frantically through all
his things until he 17) found ( find) the face from the temple. It was the face of the old man
from the shop! He 18) knew (know) then that he had to return the picture to the temple, or
something terrible would happen.

Pre~~nt P~rfoct

• She has come. (unstated time; we don't know when • She came last Friday (stated time - When? Last
she came) Friday.)
• u ee ho. 1, ro1 10 (he's still in • He was ho 1i1 1e (he isn't in hospital
hospital - action connected to the present) any more - action not connected to the present)
• f-J een 1 • 'Ce 1h1s " ek (it's still the same • He went out w 1ce /, 1sr week (action not connected
week - action connected to the present) to the present - it's the next week now)
• I v seen Nii ole l\idman. (action connected to the • I saw Prince. Diam (action not connected to the


present - she's still alive )

Parliame,
s has decided to dissolve
(announcing news)
i• present - she's dead)
He announced t s d .., 1s1 n Mor ng (giving
details of the news - stated time in the past)

[ljg) Fill in with Present Perfect or Past Simple.

1 The presid ent 1) ... h.~s ann •U'1ced... (announce) the introduction of a new set of measures to deal with
unemploym ent. The problem 2) has become (become) worse in recent months, and yesterday the president
3) stated (state) that action must be taken now. She actual ly 4) signed (sign) the new bill during this
morning's session of Parliament.
2 George 1) arrived (arrive) late to work again this morning. He 2) has been (be) late at least five times this
month. The supervisor 3) spoke (speak) to him about it yesterday but he obviously 4) didn't pay (not/pay)
any attention .
3 John Keats, who 1) died (die) when he 2) was (be) on ly 26 years old , 3) wrote (write) a lot of beautiful poems.
I 4) have read (read) most of his poetry, but I 5) have never managed (never/manage) to get to the end of
Endymion. It's too long for me!
4 Clare 1) has been (be) in New York for almost a year now. I 2) went (go) to visit her last month and I have
to say I 3) was (be) very impressed . I 4) have visited (visit) most of th e major cities in Europe but I 5) have
never seen (never/see) any place as exciting as the Big Apple.
5 I 1) have seen (see) five films this mo nth, but I 2) didn't like (not/like) any of them very much. Actually, I think
the films they 3) made (make) ten years ago 4) were (be) much b etter than anyth ing I 5) have seen (see) for
ages.

Used to - Be/Get used to + ing form/ noun/pronoun - Would - Was going to
• Used to expresses past habitual actions and permanent states. (Note that stative verbs are not used with 'would':)
She used to wake up at 6 am every day. (ALSO would wake up) They used to live in a flat. (NOT: ~
• Would expresses past repeated actions and routines - not states.
When I was young, I would go for a walk before breakfast. (ALSO I used to go ... )
• Be/Get used to expresses habitual actions and means 'be/get accustomed to', 'be in the habit of'.
She isn't used to staying up late at night. She is getting used to working under pressure.
• Was going to expresses actions one intended to do but didn't or shows that one doesn't mind changing his
plans.
She was going to buy a new watch but unfortunately she couldn 't afford one.
"Do you have a moment?" "Well, I was going to make something to eat." (= but it can wait if you want to tell me
sth really important/ interesting) •

Q Complete the sentences using the words in bold . Use two to five words.

1 Paul lived in Brazil when he was young.
live Paul ... used to live... in Brazil when he was young.
2 When he was in the army, he used to wake up at 5 o 'clock in the morning.
would When he was in the army, he would wake up at 5 o'clock in the morning.
3 Rosa didn't like English food at first, but now she quite likes it.
used Rosa didn't like English food at first but now she is/has got used to it.
4 He meant to make a cup of tea but they had run out of teabags.
going He was going to make a cup of tea but they had run out of teabags.
5 I don 't think I'll ever find it easy to eat with chopsticks.
used I don't think I'll ever get used to eating with chopsticks.
6 My grandmother rarely travels by plane.
used My grandmother isn't used to travelling by plane.
7 She wanted to call him but she couldn 't find his phone number.
going She was going to call but she couldn 't find his phone number.
8 My mother always gave me a bath every Friday night when I was little.
would My mother would always give me a bath every Friday night when I was little.

Make all the necessary changes and additions to make a complete email.
(See Suggested Answer section)

Dear Sir,
Yesterday/I receive/new TV set/I order. However/I be/ very angry/as it arrive/terrible condition.
Firstly/delivery men/be rude/refuse/wait/while l/unpack(TV. When I unpack/I see/it be damaged. The control
knob/be broken/and there be/ large crack/on the top(TV. I/never before/receive/anything/ in such bad
condition. Could you arrange/collect this set/and deliver/a new one/soon/possible? I trust/this matter
receive/prompt attention.

Yours faithfully,
L. Rogers (Mr)

Dear Sir,
Yesterday I received ...

• Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate past forms .

1 Alexander the Great ...was born. .. {be/born) in 356 BC in Macedonia. He became
(become) King when he was 20 and continued {continue) the work that his
father had begun {begin) . In 334 BC he invaded (invade) Persia and by his
thirtieth birthday he had conquered {conquer) most of south-west Asia.
However, while he was planning {plan) the invasion of Arabia he developed
{develop) a fever and died {die) .
2 Last month Albert and I went {go) on a skiing trip to Scotland . We had been
saving up {save up) for months and so we were {be) very excited when the time
came (come) to leave. We packed (pack) our bags, got (get) in the car and set off
(set off). We had been driving (drive) for six hours when Albert suddenly remembered
(remember) something - we had forgotten {forget) to pack the skis!
3 George Grimes woke up (wake up) feeling very odd. All through the night he had been dreaming (dream)
about strange creatu res which were trying {try) to break in through his window. They had {have) horns and
big green eyes and they seemed {seem) to be threatening him. "Oh well ," he thought (think) , "at least they
aren't real. " Just at that moment, however, a big scaly hand came (come) crashing through the window!
4 When Bob invited {invite) me to go fishing with him I was (be) excited because I had never been (never/be)
fishing before. But as we were driving (drive) to the river we saw (see) the first black clouds and ten minutes
later it was raining (rain ) heavily. Three hours later, soaking wet, we were still looking for {still/ look for)
somewhere to get warm and dry.
5 "Did you enjoy (you/enjoy) your holiday?" "No , it was (be) a disaster! As I was getting on (get on) the plane,
I found I had left (leave) my holiday money at home! I had been saving {save) for months to get that money.
My father sent {send) me a cheque, but it took (take) five days to reach me."
6 Alan had been working {work) in the same office for ten years before he applied (apply) for another post with
Mask Ltd. He had been waiting {wait) for an answer for weeks when he was asked {be/asked) to attend an
interview with the Personnel Manager. He went (go) there dressed in an expensive suit which he had bought
{buy) the day before, on ly to find that they wanted (want) someone to work as a cleaner.

Identify the tenses, then match them with the correct description.

1 The builders are going to start work tomorrow. Going to a prediction about the future
2 She' ll be waiting outside the station as usual. b asking politely about people's
Future Continuous arrangements
3 I forgot to tell Jim the news. I'll ring him now. c action which may (not) happen in the
Future Simple future
4 By the end of the year we will have been working d action which is the result of a routine
together for ten years. Future Perfect Continuous e action intended to be performed in the
5 Be careful. You're going to fall off your bicycle. Going to near future
6 The meeting starts at 9 o 'clock. Present Simple f action which will be finished before a
7 I'm sure things will work out in the end . Future Simple stated future time
8 Perhaps your mother will change her mind . Future Simple g action in progress at a stated future
9 Will many people be coming to the wedding? time
Future Continuous h evidence that sth will definitely happen
10 They will have finished the plans by the end of the duration of an action up to a certain
week . Future Perfect time in the future
11 Hospital staff are beginn ing a two-day strike tomorrow. j timetable/programme
Present Continuous k fixed arrangement in the near future
12 By the year 2020 more people than ever will be moving I decision taken at the moment of
to the cities. Future Continuous speaking

1 .. e.. 2d 31 4 i Sh Gj 7a Sc 9b 10 f 11 k 12 g

110

Tense Forms __
Future Forms with Time Words
• We never use future forms after: as long as, after, before, by the time, if (conditional), unless, in case, till/until,
when (time conjunction), whenever, while, once, suppose/supposing, on condition that etc. Let's buy more food
in case James comes. (NOT: in case J.aFRes vdJI seFRe.)
• If meaning 'whether' especially after I don't know, I doubt, I wonder etc and when used as a question word can
be used with future forms. When will the race take place? I doubt if they will hold their annual anniversary party
this year.

Fill in the correct present or future forms.

Welcome to Nutfield Valley Health Farm!
After you l) ...have settled in. .. (settle in), a member of staff 2) will come (come) and interview you about
your specific dietary requirements. Once you 3) reach/have reached (reach) your target weight, you 4)
will start (start) a maintenance diet to make sure you stay slim! To ensure your safety a nd well-being,
our fitness programmes are planned by qualified instructors. Before you 5) begin (begin), the resident
doctor 6) will check (check) your heart rate and blood pressure. There is also a fully-equipped medical
room in case you 7) have (have) any problems- though of course we don't expect you will. At Nutfield Valley
you pay only on condition that you 8) lose (lose) at least 5% of your body weight in two weeks. If not. we 9) will give
(give) you a refund. By the time you 10) leave (leave) . you 11) will feel (feel) like a new person. Of course. we doubt
that you 12) will have (have) any complaints. but our helpful staff are always on hand if there 13) is (be) anything you
need. Remember, our motto is: 'As long as you 14) are (be) happy, WE 15) are (be) happy!"

• Fill in the correct present or future forms.

Dear Mr Green,
Regarding our telephone conversation last week, here are the details of your forthcoming trip to Thailand.
You 1) ... will be leaving ... (leave) on Saturday 4th December from London Gatwick at 10.00 pm. You 2) will be
flying/are flying (fly) with Thai Air, flight number TA 907. The flight 3) arrives/will arrive (arrive) in Bangkok at 4.00
pm on 5th December - that 4) will be/is (be) 11.00 pm local time. Our tour guide, Jim Smith , 5) will be waiting
(wait) for you at the airport to accompany you to the Imperial Hotel.
As soon as you 6) settle in/have settled in (settle in), you 7) will attend (attend) a welcome dinner party. In the
next few days you 8) will visit/will be visiting (visit) all the sight s. There 9) will be (be) time for you to do your
shopping as well. By the time you 10) get on (get on) the return flight on 10th December, you 11) will have
experienced (experience) the most traditional aspects of Thai life. Our tour guide 12) will be (be) with you
throughout, so there shouldn ' t be any problems.
If you 13) need (need) more information, please contact us.
Yours sincerely,
A. Jones

~ Fill in will or be going to.

1 A: There's no sugar left. 2 A: Have you got any plans 3 A: Have you bought a dress
B: That's OK. I .. .'//... go and for the evening? for the reception?
buy some. B: Yes, I'm going to see The B: No, but I'm going to buy
Doll 's House' in town . one this afternoon .

4 A: Here's £20.
B: Thank you. 1·11 pay you back as soon as I can.
5 A: Have you heard that Mrs Potts is ill?
B: Yes. Actually we're going to visit her this afternoon.
6 A: Peter is taking his driving test tomorrow.
B: Oh , I'm sure he'll pass.
7 A: Is Tom coming tonight?
B: I don't know. I'll phone him and see.
8 A: Has Helen decided what to study?
B: Yes. She's going to train to be a teacher.
9 A: It's quite cold today.
B: I think winter will be here soon.
10 A: We are having a picnic on Sunday.
B: I hope the weather will be nice.

Make all necessary changes and additions to make a complete letter.
(See Suggested Answer section)

Dear Mrs Scott,
I/write/con.firm/arrangements/concerning/new n.anny Margarita. Margarita's plane/leave Hamburg/
5:30/arrive/Lon.don Gatwick 6:45, so/it/be/early start/you. As agreed/ Margarita/ work/8-10 morning/
3-8 afternoon an.cl evening. She/have/English lessons/every Saturday. As know/by December/
Margarita/complete/six months' employment/therefore/expect/pay rise 10%. I/go/ho liday/three
weeks/Saturday/if/have problems/con.tact/secretary Elizabeth Hazlett. I hope/ things run smoothly/
you/Margarita.
Yours sincerely,
Janet Hemsworth

Dear Mr:; Scott,
I am writing to confirm the arrangement:; concerning your new nanny Margarita ...

Put the verbs in brackets into the appropriate present or future forms.
1 Bill Haynes, author of the immensely popular novel 'Black Roses', 1) is going to write (write) a new novel. "I
2) am starting/will start/am going to start (start) next Monday- or at least that's the p lan ," says Bill. "It's amazing
to think that by next year it 3) will have been (be) ten years since I last picked up a pen ." Despite his long
break, Bill is confident. "I think this book 4) will be (be) even better than 'Roses', I 5) am going to include/will
include (include) the usual elements of action and adventure but this time there 6) is going to be/will be (be)
some romance too. I hope it 7) will be (be) successful. Of course, we 8) will not know (not/know) until it 9) is
published (be/published) next year. "
2 Jeanne and Paul 1) are moving (move) to London next month . Paul is being transferred there and Jeanne
hopes she 2) will have found (find) a job by the time they 3) move (move) there. They 4) are driving/are going
to drive (drive) down next weekend to look for a flat. They hope they 5) will find (find) something in a nice
area, but with prices the way they are, they will have to be satisfied with whatever they 6) find (find). Jeanne
is afraid she 7) will miss (miss) living in Nottingham, but Paul is convinced that they 8) will be (be) happier in
London because there is so much more to do there.

3 The staff of Cottenham Primary School l) is/are/will be holding (hold) an open day on August
Cottenham 21st. In the morning you 2) will be able to (be able to) meet your child 's teachers. At 12.30
the Headmaster, Mr Patterson, 3) will show (show) the plans for the new adventure
Primary playground. We hope that this 4) will have been finished (finish) by December. If your c hild

School 5) is starting/starts (start) school this September. bring him or her along! The programme 6)
begins (begin) at 9 am. See you there!

112

But as I 3) am getting (get) a pay rise very soon." . For the first six months I 4) will be working (work) in a village school. 5) Will you be able (you/be able) to visit me? If not. They still can't find a solution to the problem. Put the verbs in brackets into a correct tense. She hasn't yet accepted the post. " "Good idea. 4 She's only been playing the violin for two years and she can already/still play several of Mozart's most difficult pieces. It can also be used at the end of questions.has recently emerged. I 5) will pick (pick up) a couple for you as well.I haven't finished doing all my revisions still/~. Still comes before the auxiliary verb in negations.. 10 I can't do the exam . Jill called an hour ago. I got the job! I 1) am leaving (leave) for Africa in two weeks. I'd like to go somewhere more glamorous. that is - and the world's first clinic to treat people obsessed with the soaps 2) is opening/is going to open (open) next week. (recently/emerge) . so much 7) will have happened (happen) to us both that it'll take us hours to catch up on our news. 2 He doesn 't want to watch the film as he's seen it already/still. 9 She had come back ago/ before he returned. Has she phoned yet? ~ Underline the correct word .an addiction to soap operas. 5 Even after twenty-five years she is still/ yet actively involved in the club. teaching English and Maths. He had been working in the company for two years before he was promoted. I think I 4) will get (get) some brochures from the travel agent tomorrow. Sheila had already cooked dinner before Liz came home." 8 Peter left the party two hours before/ago because he wasn't feeling well.. 7 "Has Sandra typed up those reports ~/still ? I need them now.4 "Where 1) are you going (you/go) on holiday this year Laura? " "I don't know Sue. Lots of love. by the time I 6) see (see) you again. What about you?" "We 2) will probably go (probably/go) to Spain again. Symptoms of addiction 4) include (include) refusing to miss an episode and watching recorded episodes again and again. They can still walk long distances. • Still is used in statements and questions after the auxiliary verb or before the main verb. we 6) will have decided (decide) where to go by the time summer 7) comes (come) !" 5 Dear Anna. Has he fimshed already? • Yet is used with Perfect tenses in negative sentences after a contracted auxiliary verb or at the end of the sentence. She lost three kilos.. His obsession 7) was (be) so bad that he 8) was (be) unable to keep a steady relationship. I was more interested in the soaps. She still works in the same office. Danielle Time Words • Ago (= back in time from now) used with Past Si mple. • Before (= back in time from then) Phi/ told me Jill had called an hour before. • Already is used with Perfect tenses in mid or end position in statements or questions. so if you want. It was almost as if the people on TV 10) had become (become) my friends instead. It's a shame I 2) won't see (not/see) you before I 3) go (go). One sufferer 5) explains (explain) how he 6) became (become) addicted five years ago. She hasn't accepted the post yet. 3 Ann was on a diet five months before/ago. Sufferers 3) come (come) from every walk of life. "When my friends 9) came around (come round) . With any luck. 6 Jo's yet/still got a good figure even though she's five months pregnant. 1 She has gone to Singapore and she's still/ yet there. It can also be used with present or past forms to point out that an action preceded another. 1 A new addiction 1) ..

The man 6) came (come) closer to him. She 7) is going to start (start) looking for an office next week. At least her career 5) has started (start) . I 3) haven't been (not/be) there yet. The flight from London 3) takes (take) about fifteen hours and I 4) have never been (never/ be) on a plane before. A: Where 3) are you planning (you/plan) to go instead? B: Well. He 5) looked (look) at his watch and 6) saw (see) that it was nearly time for the conference to begin. so we want a change this year. so he 9) went (go) up to him and 10) asked (ask) : "Don 't I know (not/I/know) you? Why 12) are you following me (you/follow) me?" The man 13) smiled (smile) and 14) said (say). a rucksack and a tent. Sam 1) decided (decide) that he 2) had had (have) enough of working in a bank and that he 3) would ride/was going to ride (ride) around the world on a bicycle. Her tutors 10) tell/have told (tell) her that she 11) is (be) very talented and they 12) assure/have assured (assure) her that she 13) will make (make) a success of the business. I 5) will write (write) it in my diary now. though. I 5) feel/am feeling (feel) quite nervous about the journey but my friend 6) keeps (keep) telling me that there 7) is (be) nothing to worry about. so she 6) is planning (plan) to open her own design business. 2) Have you been (you/ be) there yet? B: No. we 2) go/have been going (go) there every year. 8 Jim 1) was walking (walk) along the High Street when he 2) noticed (notice) someone behind him. As he 2) was driving (drive) to work he suddenly 3) remembered (remember) that he 4) had been asked (be/asked) to speak at a conference. It all 4) started (start) when Jan and Paul 5) received (receive) a call a few days ago regarding a competition they 6) had entered (enter) some months before. 2 A: I 1) am thinking (think) of going to that new Chinese restaurant in the city centre to celebrate my birthday. they 7) (had) won (win) a 10-day trip to Australia which 8) would be (be) completely free. and no one 6) knows (know) whether he 7) will return (return) or not. because it's going to be on the radi o. 11 Next month 11) am visiting/am going to visit (visit) my friend who 2) lives (live) in Brazil. Unfortunately. To their surprise. he 3) had been following (follow) him since he 4) got off (get off) the bus. 10 Tom 1) has been saving (save up) to go to France for months. and she 8) hopes/is hoping (hope) she 9) will have found (find) something in a good location and at a reasonable price by the end of the month. He 5) has been (be) away for six months now. 3 John 1) left (leave) the house in a rush this morning. "Smile! You 15) are (be) on Candid Camera! " 9 Julie 1) has always wanted (always/ want) to be famous. 114 . What a lovely surprise! 6 A: 1) Are you going (you/go) on holiday to Germany this year? B: No. Since she 3) has been working (work) in the same company for over ten years she 4) feels (feel) that she 5) needs (need) a change. we 4) have been told (be/told) that Greece is a beautiful country so we 5) have already booked (already/ book) a two-week holiday on Corfu. They only 4) need (need) her voice. 5 Jan and Paul 1) are packing (pack) their suitcases at the moment. ever since she was young. 7 Susan 1) has been studying (study) interior design part-time for three years and she 2) is getting/is going to get (get) her diploma next month. but people 4) say (say) that the food is fantastic. He 4) left (leave) England two weeks later with his bike. Jim 5) stopped (stop) at a shop window. and yesterday when he 2) counted (count) his savings he 3) realised (realise) he had enough. Actually. A: Would you like to go there next weekend? B: Yes. as he 4) was driving (drive) to the travel agent's he remembered that he 5) hadn't paid (not/pay) his rent for two months so he 6) turned (turn) round and 7) drove (drive) back home again. 4 Last March. Jim 7) had (have) the feeling he 8) had seen (see) him before. that's a great idea. They 2) are (be) extremely happy as they 3) have won (win) a trip to Australia. She 2) has been taking (take) acting classes for years and last week someone 3) offered (offer) her a part in an advertisement.

6 How long is it si nce you visited Spain? visit When did you (last) visit Spain? 7 She has never eaten lobster before. 5 We haven't been abroad for two years. first It's the first time they have been outside Britain. 12 They have never been outside Britai n before. 13 He can't speak Italian yet. had called be:fore t. We joined the club a month ago.he went . time The last time we went abroad was two years ago.. left. It's the best book I've ever read . time It's the first time she has ever eaten lobster. been She has been knitting for five years. 14 How long is it si nce they met? ago How long ago did they meet? 15 They waited until sunrise before they got up. He moved to London two months ago. How long ago did he start work? He didn't start cleaning until after the guests had They haven't reached Madrid yet. before She waited until Philip . 17 I've never seen such a pretty girl. . He waited until the guests had left before he He has been in London for two months. It's the first time I've ever eaten Chinese food . He started cleaning when the guests (had) left. 3 How long ago did he move to Canada? moved How long is it since he moved to Canada? 4 I've never driven such a fast car! ever It's the fastest car I have ever driven. • He started studying Spanish two years ago. started cleaning. We haven't been out for a long time. still He still can't speak Italian. 1 She didn't go out until after Philip had called. get They didn't get up until after sunrise. 10 When did Patricia finish writing her essay? since How long is it since Patricia finished writing her essay? 11 She took up knitting five years ago. They still haven 't reached Madrid. 2 She started taking lessons ten years ago. 9 The last time I saw Emily was six months ago . still He still hasn't turned up. • When did he start work? • He started cleaning as soon as the guests (had) How long is it since he started work? left. • I've never eaten Chinese food before. 8 He hasn't turned up yet. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. out. been She has been taking lessons for ten years. We've been members of the club for a month.. Use two to five words."(SJ In Other Words • I've never read such a good book.. for I have not seen Emily for six months. • It's a long time since we went out. The last time he went out was two months ago. ever She's the prettiest girl I have ever seen. 16 I haven't eaten meat for six months. since It's six months since I ate meat. He hasn't been out for two months.. He has been studying Spanish for two years.

Of course. Write only one word in each one. Sudoku is a logic puzzle. To play Sudoku (11) all you need is logic.. and what they will do afterwards. To solve the puzzles. I I I16 . Some of the squares in the grid contain a number. ·-f •Jt iI •1J'l§ t. if you've never heard of it. and solving the puzzles doesn't (12) take forever. then talk about these people. block and column. Part of Sudoku 's incredible success must surely (8) be attributed to the fact that no special skills are requ ired to play it. is one of the (4) most addictive puzzles ever invented. Tense Forms 18 She didn 't start serving until all the guests had arrived . what exactly is Sudoku? Well. Sudoku. each containing nine squares.. and the rush you get at the end when you (3) have completed one. the puzzles vary in their level of difficulty. . what they usually do. It looks (9) like a maths puzzle but you don't need mathematical skills to solve it.of (2) whom there are many . So . still Geoff still hasn't come back from his holiday. It's simpler (1 0) than a crossword because to solve one of these you need a certain level of linguistic ability and general knowledge.will tell you that it's the challenge of the puzzles. The concept is easy to grasp. But the appeal of Sudoku is that everyone can enjoy it.. Use a variety of tenses.1·fl (f§.. A Global craze What's the big deal w ith Sudoku? Why are (0) . Each Sudoku puzzle has only one solution. what they did/were doing before. many people addicted to a puzzle made (1) up of little rows of boxes and numbers? Sudoku addicts .------ (See Suggested Answer section) •• • •- Look at the pictures below.. 19 Geoff hasn 't come back from his holiday yet. i1 -------------------------------------------------. you have to fill in all the empty squares so (6) that the numbers 1 to 9 appear only once (7) in each row.----. so. Each puzzle consists (5) of an 81-square grid divided into nine blocks. Talk about what they are doing now. Think of the word which best fits each gap. the mystery of solving them. they say. before She waited until all the guests had arrived before she started serving . the rules can be learnt in 10 seconds.

en. type Verbs formed from adjectives typist educational educationalist) -en tight .harmful (before r) irrelevant BUT unreliable. uncomfortable unlucky -y salt. m.(before I) il/ega1 -Ive expense .reasonable un.= in favour of (pro-war) -cy private .foolish in.competition non.popularity (transatlantic) -ty safe .modesty under. inspect .proposal anti. p) power empower -able accept acceptable -Ible respond . study . -ful (with) harm .dependence counter.expansion (verbs ending in - mis.= not enough (underpaid) = uni. former (ex husband) -ment improve . less (subway) -iness lazy .(before b.responsible (verbs ending in • Suffixes are syllables which we add to the end of -d/-t) certain words to form new words. -ic drama . Verbs formed from nouns magician) -en strength strengthen • verb + -ee (passive meaning) (examine - examinee) . -ent differ .= before (p re-school) -ance important importance pro.= two (bilingual) -ation investigate . p) immature impossible ir.= with (co-pilot) -ence depend . -lse legal . = half (semi-detached) -ion perfect .= against (anti-war) -ance insure .= in the opposite direction (counterattack) -ion select .pianist.descendant.darkness trans. decompose -ical alphabet .expensive im. The meaning of the new -age pass passage word depends on the prefix that has been used. -al propose .failure out.= three (triangle) -y modest .= again (rewrite) -ence innocent .brilliant non.under. better (outdo) -y discover discovery over.republican.insurance bi.= more.innocence semi.selection ex.= previous.= between (intercontinental) -sion expand .improvement inter.one (uniform) Adjectives formed from nouns -ous poison poisonous The prefixes below are used to express opposite -al function functional meanings. non-stop -able reason .= (travel) from one side.weekly Some prefixes are added to words to form verbs.considerate • verb + -er/-or/-ar (train trainer.(before b .different inspector beg beggar) • noun/verb/adjective + -ist (piano . more (superhero) -ness dark .salty -ly week . defrost.dramatic de.= done wrongly or badly (misunderstand) d/-t) mono.laziness super.= (done) to a g reat extent (oversleep) post. -Ive attract attractive Nouns referring to people -ate consider .= after (postgraduate) Nouns formed from adjectives pre. m.privacy re.alphabetical dis.safety tri.tighten • verb + -ant/-ent (descend .= one (monolingual) -sis emphasise .harmless unreasonable -ant brilliance . inaccurate insecure BUT ii.emphasis multi.perfection = sub.investigation co. -less (without) harm .courage encourage Adjectives formed from verbs BUT em.= many (multimil/1onalfe) -tion compete . disobey -ish fool . non existent. magic .• Prefixes are syllables which we add before certain Nouns formed from verbs words to form new words.legalise student) • noun + -an/-lan (republic .= big. dissatisfied.= not (non members) -ure fail . group etc to another -ity popular .

shortage. opportunism (in)opportune. . respond respondent (ir) responsively (ir)responsibility (ir)responsible -. moving. comprehensive. conclusion (in)conclusive. emphasis emphatic emphatically (re)creation. (dis)pleased pleasingly (dis)qualify qualifier (dis)qualification (dis/un)qualified. please -. move (re)mover movingly removal (un)moved train trainer. . pleasantness pleasing. enjoyment enjoyable enjoyably naturalise natural nature.- comprehensiveness comprehensible comprehensibly conclude -. confidential. employee (un)employment (un)employed. concluding (in)conclusively -. comfort comforter (dis)comfort comfortingly comforting (re)construct constructor (re)construction (re)constructive constructively emphasise -. calculate . (composite) compositional. creature creative. pleasure. (un)comfortably. -- calculating. (un)pleasant pleasurably. privacy. opportunistic -- -. (un)responsive. (un)acceptable (un)acceptably decorate decorator decoration. training -- (un)pleasurable. confidently. confide confidant(e) confidence. shortness short short inspect inspector inspection -. (re)move. responsiveness. Fill in the chart with the derivatives of the words given. calculation. (un)employable -- enthuse enthusiast enthusiasm enthusiastic enthusiastically educationalist. pleasantly. loyalty (dis)loyal loyally confident. -. naturalisation natural naturally comprehension.. - compose composer composition. creativeness. acceptance. create creator. recreational creatively creativity 118 . confidentiality confiding confidentially begin beginner beginning beginning -- employ employer. educate education educationally educator educative promote promoter promotion promotional -- privatise . Concrete/ Abstract Adverbs Verbs Nouns (people) Adjectives Nouns accept . . educational. environmentalist environment environmental environmentally beautify beautician beauty beautiful beautifully shorten . (in)calculable. comprehensively. (re)moveable. (un)educated. decor decorative decoratively response. privatisation private privately movement. calculator calculatedly calculated (un)comfortable. opportunist opportunity.- enjoy -. acceptability accepted. comprehend . trainee training (un)trained . (composite) .. comfortless.

CORRESPONO 10 The photographer took beautiful photos of the bride and groom during their first PHOTOGRAPH dance as a married couple. 13 She counterattacked me by saying that my argument didn 't hold water and was ATTACKED totally invalid. ANNUAL 5 The co-driver sat next to the driver. CONS IDER 1O He misjudged the speed of the car coming towards him and crashed into it with JUDGED great force. COOKED 9 He decided to reconsider their offer. 6 The first transcontinental railroad in the United States was built in the1860s and CONTINENTAL connected North America's east and west coasts. ancient and medieval times. NATIONAL 12 Jack and his ex-wife are on good terms with each other and still spend time WIFE together for the sake of their children. 4 You will never hear anything honest from John. BURGLE 3 The first prize will be given to the contestant who gets all the answers to the quiz CONTEST questions right. many women had to raise their children on their own as a WAR high number of men had been killed in the war. TRAIN 8 Jennifer was seriously overweight so she visited a dietician who put her on a DIET healthy diet. 9 Being a war correspondent. ART 7 Tom worked as a trainee journalist before getting a senior position in the media. put on his helmet and gloves. 8 She was rushed to hospital with symptoms of food poisoning after having eaten undercooked chicken. 18 There seems to be a new pro-democracy movement in many non-democratic DEMOCRACY countries. H ISTORIC 17 The football team are preparing for the semi-final which will be held next week at FINAL Stamford Bridge. the patient was prescribed some anti-inflammatory drugs that INFLAMMATORY would reduce the risk of inflammation. Paolo has found himself in hazardous situations. 15 Snow and sub-zero temperatures have brought the country's transportation ZERO system to a standstill. 7 The teacher drew a triangle on the blackboard and asked the students to copy it ANGLE into their notebooks. 19 He became a superstar throughout the whole country after scoring for the third STAR time. MANAGE 2 Burglars broke into their flat and stole all their jewellery. 16 The documentary explores the development of painting and sculpture during prehistoric. 1 All new loans and mortgages need to be approved by the bank manager first. Fill in the correct form of the words in bold using the appropriate prefix. 2 Children outgrow their clothes quickly. handles up to a thousand domestic and international flights a day. 11 Heathrow Airport. 1 After the operation. He is a compulsive liar. Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming nouns referring to people. 14 In the post-war years. . 6 Pablo Picasso is considered one of the most influential artists of the 20th century. GROW 3 In a multicultural society various languages are spoken and different ethnic groups CULTURAL live together and learn to respect each other's traditions and customs. the busiest airport in the world. and got ready DRIVER for the car race. LIE 5 Scientists are warning people about the dramatic effect global warming has on SCIENCE the environment. 4 This is a biannual conference which takes place in spring and autumn every year.

1 You should take a whole course of antibiotics so that the treatment is effective. 5 For their own safety. we walked past the Prime Minister's official residence in Downing RESIDE Street. 11 Both teams gave a wonderful performance in the match. PERFORM 12 While in London . but his musical MODEST compositions speak for themselves. 9 A new archaeological discovery has proved that there were people living in DISCOVER America even 30. in case you are interested. 120 . 7 We cannot proceed with the project until everyone is in agreement. POST 2 Matt very quickly came to the conclusion that Janet was lying. BASE 5 Ted found an interesting painting in the attic of his grandfather's house which had been in storage for decades. EFFECT 2 This is a weekly magazine. FLUENT 2 No one can question the convenience of being able to buy goods over the Internet. 1 The dress was sent over from Australia so the cost of the postage was quite high. it usually comes out every Sunday. 8 There is a short-term vacancy at the local post-office. VACANT 9 We shouldn 't underestimate the importance of regu lar exercise and healthy diet. STORE 6 In second-hand bookshops you can buy valuable first editions of well-known EDIT novels for a few pounds. Word Formation Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming nouns from verbs. PERFECT • Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming adjectives from nouns. MAJOR quality products. ENVIRONMENT 6 My new sofa is much more comfortable than my last one. 1 You can tell that Ben has lived in Spain as he speaks the language with great fluency. Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming nouns from adjectives. ARRIVE 4 Carbohydrates should form the basis of our daily diet. AGREE 8 Elaine is a great cook and gets a lot of pleasure out of creating the most amazing PLEASE dishes. CONCLUDE 3 The arrival of our flight was delayed due to the fog . COMFORT 7 Fiona did well at the audition and is very enthusiastic about the possibility of being ENTHUSIAST the leading lady in the play. HONEST 7 His modesty does not allow him to talk about his work. visitors of the zoo are required to keep away from the cages. SAFE 6 He is a man of honesty and incredible courage. 4 The house is situated on a rocky hill and has a great view of the sea. CONVENIENT 3 The woman couldn't bear the sight of blood and lost consciousness. 8 It is said that in wars people perform the most courageous acts in order to help COURAGE others. 10 The bride lost a lot of weight before her wedding day and so an alteration of her ALTER dress was required. ROCK 5 The committee will consider the effects of global warming and propose ways of preventing further environmental destruction. CONSCIOUS 4 The majority of our customers are satisfied with our outstanding service and high.000 years ago. IMPORTANT 10 James didn't do well in his last performance but he is determined to achieve perfection next time. WEEK 3 Joanna's mother's dominant personality has created many problems in the two DOMINANCE women's relationship over the years.

AB ILITY 8 Being a doctor often involves working long and irregular hours. 3 Apart from being a great experience. FOOL 10 The book I read last month was an autobiographical story of the character's own AUTOBIOGRAPHY personal experiences. being a sign of an DARK imminent storm . CONSIDER 3 Jennifer simply never tells a believable story as she is always trying to make the BELIEVE . travelling also broadens the mind. MODEST 11 Mary was unlucky with the weather last summer as it rained everyday during her LEGIBLE holidays. 4 This remote part of the island is accessible only by boat. EXHAUST : Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming verbs from adjectives/nouns. 11 Sarah is definitely the safest driver I know as she is very careful not to break any CARE of the rules of the road . 12 The long and hard climb left David breathless and exhausted. 2 They decided to modernise the kitchen and bathrooms of their house and hired a MODERN professional decorator to make suggestions. they are completely different from each other. truth sound more exciting than it actually is. 1 Betty took the meat out of the freezer and let it defrost before cooking it. 5 The clouded sky darkened and the wind became stronger. CREATE 6 Brian works all day long and in the evenings he studies. DIFFER 2 Andrew is one of the most sensitive and considerate men I've ever met. but lately he finds this schedule to be a most exhausting one. FORMAL 4 Every year in December teenagers gather in the city centre to collect money for a charity. 1 Although they are twins. 3 Next week I will go to dinner with the ambassador and so I will have to wear a suit as informal clothing is not appropriate for the occasion . 10 John's handwriting was totally illegible and so I found it impossible to read his letter. • Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming the opposite from the words given . PROFIT 5 My grandmother always says that manners are almost non-existent in todays world . BREATH Fill in the correct form of the words in bold forming adjectives from verbs. She is probably the REGULAR most immodest person I know. FROST 2 Last winter John had a ski accident which was inconvenient as he missed the rest CONVENIENT of the season. BROAD 4 Diane decided to join a yoga class to lengthen her muscles and become more LENGTH flexible. ACCESS 5 Drama and art classes encourage young children to develop their creative skills. LUCKY 211 . EMPLOYED 9 Tina is always boasting about herself and her achievements. 1 Mary bought a new pair of trousers and gave them to a seamstress to shorten them SHORT as they were too long. Word Formation 9 His family are regularly telling James that his behaviour at times is very foolish . EXISTENT 6 One wonderful feature of new tube stations is the number of lifts that help to facilitate anyone with a disability. 7 When Sarah quit her last job she didn't think she would be unemployed for so long. which is a non-profit organisation.

MATURE 122 . 18 The teacher took the class on a trip to London to reward them for their studious STUDY efforts all year long. LIBRARY 28 Joanne added a few spoonfuls of flour to the sauce in order to thicken it. 22 The earthquake caused so much damage that most buildings in the area had to be rebuilt. MAINTAIN 12 There is speculation that the Prime Minister will resign. ADMIT 21 Time went by quickly during the flight as the airline had an endless supply of END movies to entertain us with. 17 The government should have taken more preventative measures to stop the PREVENT workers' strike. QUOTED 11 My neighbours always complain about the high maintenance costs . LATE 3 The company was operating an illegitimate business and so had to be closed LEGITIMATE down. WORKER 32 James is a very immature person and often behaves in a very childish way. Kelly is fit and muscular. 25 The doctor gave a prescription to Bob so he could collect the medication from PRESCRIBE the local pharmacy. 31 John's co-workers sent him some flowers to wish him a fast recovery. PROBABLE 5 I liked the documentary as it contained some very interesting information. 4 Most people believe that it is improbable that UFOs exist. REAL 30 The newspapers said the game was very boring due to the defensive DEFENSE performance of the home team . IMITATE 8 He became famous for his heroic efforts to save the young boy from the river. FAVOUR 14 Chris accepted the doctor's news although it was very painful to hear. TH ICK 29 No one seems to realise the urgency of the situation. 26 My room was so messy that I spent the whole weekend cleaning it. 16 Kevin is always strugg ling with his Maths homework as he finds multiplication MULTIPLY very difficult. MUSCLE 10 The famous man was very angry about being misquoted by the newspapers. FAULT 2 Jane has been suffering a lot from headaches lately. ADVANTAGE 7 Maria has an imitation CK watch. 1 The radio was faulty so I returned it to the shop. 24 It is not uncommon for adverts to give misleading information about products so LEADING that they are more appealing to consumers. HERO 9 Like most Olympic athletes. PAIN 15 She used to smoke a lot but she became a non-smoker once she got pregnant SMOKE with her son five years ago. t Fill in the correct form of the words in bold. MESS 27 Tracy has found a job as a librarian at the local library. SPECULATE 13 The result of the match was favourable to both teams. BUILD 23 He was so overworked that as a result he fell ill and suffered a nervous break WORK down. INFORM 6 As a result of the special offer James was able to purchase some new clothes at very advantageous prices. REVERSE 20 The man's admission of guilt in court landed him in jail. 19 The one thing I love about the new duvet cover I bought for my bed is that it is reversible and so it can match sheets of all colours.

13 Helen's so argumentative! She never agrees with 28 This film begins with the hero running to catch the anything I say.do you think he will be up 8 They became annoyed with Sam . flared trousers were out. the thieves broke 11 On seeing the pictures he broke down and in through the backdoor. then fill in the correct particle(s) . 3 According to the police report. who kept to it? breaking into their conversation . £100. 1 Helen was absent .. test. the concert is over . 2 John is bad at algebra. Folder iii 1 Pass me the newspaper I want to see what's 9 I'm not surprised Sally and Jim broke up. 2 Mercian diplomats have broken off all relations 10 Thousands of villagers fled when fi re broke out in with Northumbria.000. then fill in the correct particle(s) . on .g the bad 7 You aren't allowed to leave the auditorium until news to Mrs Jones. they . 27 Albert Einstein was b rilliant at Physics. 12 Let's agree on the best way to solve this problem . 13 By 1980. Nobody 6 There was mass panic when cholera broke out in seemed to like them any more. visited Mozart's house. 19 John was angry at Anne' s attitude towards the 5 I've been acquainted with Norman for many years children.. 20 She was angry with Pete for not ri nging her. 15 George is busy with his homework rig ht now. the city.. 4 Please have a seat . 4 The money we owe the bank amounts to over 18 Both families approved of the marriage. kept quarrelling all the time . 10 When the broken window was discovered Sam 25 We took advantage of the trip to Austria and put the blame on his brother. Q Look at Appendix 3. test. 12 Can you break the report down into five separate 5 Scientists have broken through in their fight sections? against TB.the meeting is about to start. 8 Pau l was ashamed of himself after his unfair attack 23 Shei la was anxious about her impending French on his friend. Look at Appendix 2 . the school trip. school tor more than a 14 Very few people believe in ghosts. 16 We may be in for a cold winter this year. confessed to his crimes. 11 The police blamed the fire on faulty wiring in the 26 There's no advantage in rush ing th rough you r building . work if you are going to make a lot of mistakes. the north of the country. 14 He took a deep breath before breakin. 9 Peter blamed Alan for losing so much money in 24 You must take all the tablets if you are to benefit bad deals. 15 This is a difficult task .. at the cinema tonight.. 17 When he arrived at school the gates were locked..from . 8 o'clock train. 6 I wish Vince wouldn't boast of/about winning the 21 I was angry with George about his behaviour on lottery.. from them.. 16 What time is the train due to arrive in St Petersburg? 3 Real friends are never bad to each other. week. now. . 7 Beware of holes in the pavement when you walk 22 Ben was anxious for Amanda to pass her driving round this city.

leave. recover) 7 It will take a long time for his injuries to heal completely. (allow. you use a dictionary during the test. (allow.." he said. (heal. rather I would rather be a bit taller. (See Suggested Answer section) 1 a night owl a someone who says very little about themselves 2 a fly-by-night b someone who likes to get up early 3 a lame duck c someone who spends all their free time in front of the TV 4 a dark horse d someone who is lively and energetic 5 a cold fish e someone who you are extremely fond of 6 an early bird f someone who prefers to do things at night 7 a couch potato g someone who is weak and depends on others for help 8 a live wire h someone who is unreliable 9 the apple of one's eye someone who is lively and entertaining at parties 10 the life and soul of the party someone who is unfriendly and unemotional 1 . let) 2 Since it's getting late I suggest we leave it as it is and start working on it tomorrow. 7 She will probably pass the exam with flying colours. improve.. asked She asked if I had enjoyed the film the night before. recover) 8 He went for a holiday by the sea to help him recover from his illness.. (heal. let) 5 I don't think she'll ever recover from the shock. (allow. called The match was called off because of the hail. use the stairs instead. used Kevin is used to working long hours. recover) 124 . in They have been in Rome for two years. 11 They moved to Rome two years ago .. 9 She has a good relationship with her colleagues. . then make sentences using them. improve. 2 Shall I call the office for you? me Would you like me to call the office for you? 3 "I'm sorry I broke your window. 1 She didn't go to work for a week. out The lift is out of order. 5 Kevin doesn't mind working long hours. 10 I wish I were a bit taller. .f. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. leave. Match the following idioms with the correct definition. (heal. use the stairs instead. let) 4 I think I'll let my hair grow long. leave. recover) 6 He's still ill but I think his condition will improve soon. gets She gets on well with her colleagues. Use two to five words. let . (allow. 8 He is both clever and good-looking. only He is not only clever but also good-looking. improve. (heal .. breaking He apologised for breaking my window. leave. absent She was absent from work for a week . 1 The teacher won't . 6 They cancelled the match because of the hail. improve. let) 3 They won 't allow you to enter unless you 're a club member. 3 g 5 j 7 c 9 e 2 h 4 a 6 b 8 d 10 Choose the correct word from the verbs in brackets. 12 The lift isn't working. likely She is likely to pass the exam with flying colours. 4 "Did you enjoy the film last night?" she asked me.

and modern commercial areas are just as much a (8) . such as the magnificent Forbidden City. up the sky as the city rejoiced . Example: A B C D o A capital B main C chief D principal 0 . C or D) best fits each gap.. the 2008 Summer Olympics.. Walking around the city. Other similarly named cities (2) ......... A . . There is an example at the beginning (0). you can (6) . city of the People's Federal Republic of China. East Asian tradition of naming capital cities literally.. Part 1 Practice Test D- For questions 1-12. of 21st century vitality............... Fireworks (10) . and Tokyo in Japan.. ..... singing and cheering. It is the political and cultural (4) ... read the text below and decide which answer (A... Beijing is a fascinating city with a history that (3) . imperial gardens and other intriguing cultural sites.. that is reserved for good and important news. Beijing celebrated the news that it had been selected to (9) .... Four million people visit Beijing each year to see (5) ... B. Nanjing in Southern China which means 'southern capital'..... Hundreds of thousands of flag-waving Chinese poured into Beijing's streets. It is also one of the world's great modern metropolises and is (7) ... 1 A past @ ancient c antique D older 2 @ include B contain c involve D consist 3 A sets B moves c puts @goes 4 A square @centre c midd le D heart 5 @ sights B views c visions D d isplays 6 @ see B watch c notice D look 7 A total B rich @ full D complete 8 A p iece @part c section D b it 9 ® host B show c display D view 10 A glowed @lit c shone D flamed 11 A statement B d eclaration @ announcement D transmission 12 @ trad ition B custom C habit D folklore 251 .... huge shopping malls.. . of modern-day Beijing. back thousands of years.... In 2001 .... of China and is world-famous for its many historical attractions....... But Beijing is more than just a historic marvel.. The morning after the (11) .. the titles of all Beijing's newspapers were printed in red . Towering skyscrapers.. countless ancient temples... palaces.... 'Beijing' comes from the Chinese words 'northern' and 'capital' and follows a(n) (1) . which means 'eastern capital'..a special colour in Chinese (12) .. Tiananmen Square and The Great Wall of China.. c:=i c:=i c:=i Beijing is the (0) ..

1tdr. . with facilities such (19) as laundries and kids' play areas. or join in the games organised by the entertainment staff.. For many people Wales is a caravan country. And you won 't even need to leave the site to (23) have fun. romantic scenery..mw••Wales The sea cliffs and sandy beaches of Wales are hard (0) ...· Practice Test D · Part 2 For questions 13-24. shower. go to the gym. you (15) can expect a couple of wet and windy days. (2 1) which works out to be less expensive when compared (22) with/to a guesthouse or self-catering cottage. But don 't let that put you off. Even in mid-summer. separate bedrooms and fridge.. modern theme parks and cheap accommodation and you've got a great family holiday. ancient castles. The kids can swim in the 25-metre indoor pool. so you can enjoy ( 17) yourself whatever the weather. read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Of course ( 14) what makes Wales so green is the rain. You can stay in a spacious caravan equipped (20) with TV. A good example is the Fontygary Holiday Park.. If you haven't stayed in a caravan (18) since you were little. Use only one word in each gap. There are (16) plenty/lots of indoor activities. or just sit on the cliff top and enjoy the view.. Standards of comfort are much higher than a decade ago.. Example: 0 Irl0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1w.. There is an example at the beginning (0). Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETIERS in the answer boxes provided . beat. Add to (1 3) this wild ... it's time you tried it again . (24) have/get your hair styled. Meanwhile you can take a sauna.

. some divers would become (33) wealthy enough to buy their own boat. Divers often had to make FORTUNATE thirty dives in one day to find enough.. an adverb (s/ow/y) or a verb (attract). When they found an oyster they would open it up with a knife to see if it had a pearl EQUIP inside. In the mid-1900s. Many Persian families settled permanently in the (28) coastal villages of the Gulf in order to take advantage of the booming pearl COAST market.all without the use of special diving (30) equipment. Divers often risked their lives. They would dive to (29) depths of 40 meters and remain DEEP underwater for up to two minutes . India's economy PROVIDE began to (27) strengthen. (3 1) Unfortunately. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. the demand for STRONG pearls began to grow.. an adjective (confident)... Part 3 For questions 25-34.. whether the plural form is required. Correct spelling is required. Example: 0 I·I~ IPI[ I~ I I Ivi I I I I I I I I I I I I When working out the correct derivative in word formation texts remember the following: • Read through the text carefully and decide what kind of a word is needed ... water and other (26) provisions. and precious pearls in the world EXPENSE were found in the Persian Gulf.. • Fill in the blanks making the necessary changes to the words in bold.. a noun (ab//1ty). thus WEALTH becoming pearl (34) traders... For hundreds of years. At the end of a pearl-diving season.. NB: Check whether the meaning of the missing word is positive or negative from its context or in the case of nouns. There is an example at the beginning (0) ... As most pearl buyers came from India. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. the land in this area was very dry and (25) farming was extremely difficult. they were BREATHE pulled to the surface by a rope. not all oysters produce pearls. People of the region used to trade pearls in FARM exchange for food...... TRADE ... When they ran out of (32) breath . read the text below.. In the early 1900s. the most (0) .

DIFFICULTY She had difficulty (in) absorbing all the new information. . 128 .... SUGGEST I suggest (that) you (should) leave early to avoid the traffic... You must use between two and five words....." she said to him............... Do not change the word given......... 40 I think it would be a good idea if you left early to avoid the traffic.... 42 "You've spoilt my party.. DIFFICULT The exam was more difficult than I'd expected..Practice Test 0 Part 4 For questions 35-42............. BROKEN Their house was broken into a week ago. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided........... including the word given... 36 When did she decide to apply for the post? SINCE How long is it since she decided to apply for the post? 37 She could hardly absorb all the new information........ ....... Example: O I think you should go to the doctor... There is an example at the beg inning (0).... 41 The exam wasn't as easy as I'd expected . SUCCEEDED He succeeded in passing the exam with distinction..... to the doctor.... 35 Somebody burgled their house a week ago.. ACCUSED She accused him of spoiling her party... ..................... 38 When did you last see John? TIME When was the last time you saw John? 39 He managed to pass the exam with distinction. TIME It . using the word given ...................... complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.....

he has dnven he had dnven·he will have dnven • (to) have driven • Past Cont/Present Perfect Cont..he will be dnvmg • (to) be dnvmg • Past Simple/Present Perfect/ Past Perfect/Future Perfect • Perfect Infinitive he drove. (appear) It appears to have been raining hard...... 8 It has been raining hard...... The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles Forms of the Infinitive Forms of the -ing form . 2 Ann was treated unfairly...... it really needs to be cleaned (clean) soon. (appear) He appears to be working hard... (seem) ............ ~ ..... 9 He appears to have been injured (injure) as a result of the fight..... 3 He is working hard . . (admit) He admitted to having stolen the jewellery. Let's go out.... Active Voice ~ Passive Voice Present (to) type (to) be typed ... 12 It was very cold earlier on today but it seems to be warming up (warm up) now. (seem) They seem to be moving house. • Perfect Cont.. ······~· b~·i ng ... 10 You're not expected to pay (pay) the whole amount today.........~~~~--~-~~-~--~-~:~--~-~P... ~ . typed Present Continuous ... 6 They are moving house. 11 The report was supposed to have been finished (finish} two hours ago...:....: Forms of the infinitive corresponding to verb tenses • Present Simple/Future Simple • Present Infinitive he dnves 'he will dnve • (to) dnve • Present Continuous/ Future Continuous • Present Continuous Infinitive he 1s dnvmg....... 5 This carpet is filthy.. Mind the tense of the infinitives...._in_~. (to) be typing Perfect l (to) have typed : (to) have been typed l having typed l having been typed ! Perfect Continuous ........ 8 You must have been thirsty to have drunk (drink) all that water. (tend) Sharon tends to tell lies.... (seem) They seem to have been watching TV all afternoon./Past Perfect Cont/ Future Perfect Cont. 4 I'm hoping to have left (leave) by then so I won't be able to come with you ................ (improve) . (seem) Ann seems to have been treated unfairly... (claim) She claims to have found the solution........ 14 Can I trust you to keep (keep) this a secret? 15 She seems to be working (work) too hard these days..~·9 ....i.... 3 She has decided to accept (accept) my offer......She eeeme to have been ill for a long time.... ........ Fill in the correct form of the infinitive.. rt.. 7 It will be much too hot to wear (wear) a coat.. 13 He claims to have discovered (discover) a cure for the common cold . 1 The weather seems .......... (appear) Tom appears to have missed the train... 6 The waste from the power station is said to have been polluting (pollute) the atmosphere for months.. 10 Sharon tells lies.. 2 She appears to have been working (work) on her composition for hours. ········ . 1 She has been ill for a long time. Active Voice Passive Voice ..... 5 Tom missed the train . 7 She found the solution.. 4 They have been watching TV all afternoon.. . to have improved. 9 He stole the jewellery...... .... Infinitive he was driving/he has been driving/he had been driving/he will have been driving • (to) have been driving Rewrite the sentences using the verb in brackets.

all take a to-inf. detest.. He was happy to hear he had been promoted • after 'I would like/would love/would prefer' to express specific preference. it involves. (in general) (like + to-inf = it's a good idea John likes to walk 101 rg distances. I'd like to go to an island and swim and sunbathe all day long during my holidays. to begin with. I'd prefer to stay in tonight.. pardon. what's the use of.. listen. • after certain nouns. save. • after certain adjectives (difficult. go (physical activities) . risk. watch to express an incomplete action. etc). deny. expect. see. The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles The to-infinitive is used • to express purpose. consider. unable. forgive. it means. • with: so + adjective + as. see. will. appear. • after prepositions. delay. happy. It was rude of him to speak like that. mind (= object to) . something that one saw or heard from beginning to end . be/get used to. as well as. notice. • after feel/hear/let/make/ see in the active . resent. • in the expression: for + noun/pronoun + to-inf. The infinitive without 'to' is used • after modal verbs (can. promise. hope. • with: it + be+ adjective (+of + noun/pronoun) . etc). have difficulty (In). report. He wasn 't allowed to play in the garden. love. • after certain verbs (agree. to sum up etc. postpone. have trouble. etc). quit. Mr Jones • Note that if two infinitives are joined by and or or. be/get accustomed to. plan . I dare you to j ump over the fence • Help can be used with or without to. the to of the second infinitive can be omitted . prevent. The -ing form is used • as a noun. to be honest. continue. refuse. obliged . I'd like to introduce our new manager. He left without being seen • after certain verbs (anticipate. excuse. object to. imagine. She spent a fortune redecorating iouse • after: hear. Dare expressing anger. (I saw part of the action. decide.. She doesn 't mind working long hours.. She /Jed to avoid bemg punished. She went there only to find the meeting had been called off. would. it's no good. Tom had difficulty (in) driving on the left when he first cam 'le e. etc. miss. I enjoy snorkelling. keep (= continue). can't stand. how about .. listen. • after had better/would rather/would sooner. understand. appreciate. suggest. practise. avoid. explain. • in the expressions: to tell you the truth. I don 't dare (to) tell him the truth. I'd rather have an early night. fancy. Don't you dare come back late. It's too late to go now. discuss. It's my privilege to present the winner of the competition. hate. Shes experienced enough to be appointed Sales Manager. • Dare expressing lack of courage is used with an infinitive with or without to. threat or warning is used with an infinitive without to. it's no use. He 's got enough patience to cope with children. • after: be + the first/second etc/next/last/best. there's no point (in). • after: look forward to. To begin with. what about . I helped my mum (to) bake a cake. an action in progress or a long action . like. You'll be the first to break the news. I saw her window shopping as I drove by. Would you be so kind as to help me with the washing? • with 'only' expressing an unsatisfactory result.) BUT hear. may. finish. • "Let" turns into " was/were allowed to" in the passive. I saw the car crash mto the shop window (I saw all the action.?. feel like. escape. • after: detest. stand. etc). can't help. sorry. mention. etc). enjoy. • after 'too/enough' constructions. admit (to). watch + infinitive without 'to' express a complete action. resist.? He admitted (to) stealing the old woman 's jewels • after: spend/waste (money.) 130 . Will you let me play in the garden? BUT be heard/be made/be seen. ] • after: I'm busy. Collecting stamps is his favourite hobby. glad.00. time.-. to start with. tolerate. He promised to be back at 11. in addition to. dislike.i. it's (not) worth. For Mary to behave like that was very unusual. have a hard/difficult time. recollect. You may use the phone. Dare expressing challenge is used with a to-infinitive. She was made to work overtime. prefer to express general preference. recall.

5 Fred enjoys listening (listen) to classical music as it helps him relax. spicy olive oil and lime..turn . 18 He seems to be working (work) hard on a solution to the problem. Tony makes his choices by 6) chatting (chat) to his customers . The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles __. which Tony had served with black olives. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form . After 3) working/having worked (work) for many years in Italian restaurants . There's no point in going (go) out now. 14 For Bob to retire (retire) at such a young age was unexpected. but Tony seems 14) to know (know) exactly what people will like. He served them a sweet dessert instead. Once. 2 Can you hear the dog barking (bark) outside? 3 I watched the plane take off (take off) and then I left.. 1 I saw her . 5 Paul noticed a woman staring (stare) at him while he was waiting at the station. 16 Would you be so helpful as to carry (carry) this heavy bag for me? 17 You should have spoken (speak) to her when you saw her. calling .. 11 I would have preferred to have changed (change) my clothes before we went out to dinner. At an Italian restaurant in Brussels the waiter. 6 When she opened the door she saw someone trying (try) to steal her car. 13 Sandra was the last to perform (perform) at the dance recital. 6 To tell you the truth." he reports. Tony spends a lot of time 11) observing (observe) his customers.. One Italian particularly enjoyed 10) munching (munch) on wild mushrooms stuffed with Mediterranean anchovies. Don't interrupt him. 12 It was so nice of him to send (send) me flowers.. 3 I look forward to seeing (see) the artwork in the museum 's latest exhibition... (call) the cinema to find out what time the film begins. 1 I suggest . 4 He was listening to the rain pattering (patter) on the roof. 7 We were happy to hear (hear) that Mary is coming to visit us. This restaurant is certainly worth 15) visiting (visit) .. I don't know how to dance (dance) .. 15 It's raining. 19 He was the first runner to finish/to have finished (finish) the marathon. What he does first is 7) to find out (find out) what kind of personality the customer has. 4 She spent a long time talking (talk) on the telephone so she didn't finish her chores. 8 The couple plan to announce (announce) their engagement later today.. Tony.. People aren't accustomed 13) to being served (be/served) meals that are not of their own choice.. Tony noticed that different people prefer certain types of food . Tony avoided 12) giving (give) them a sour dessert. a young French couple argued throughout the meal... (order) your own meal in a restaurant may soon be a thing of the past. She won't believe you. .. 2 It's no use trying (try) to make excuses. creamy sauces while men seem 5) to enjoy (enjoy) spicier foods cooked in olive oil and served with juices from the meat. "Women appear 4) to like (like) milder foods and rich. Ordering . 1) . 20 We rushed to the station only to arrive (arrive) as the train was leaving. Tony was happy 9) to see (see) that his customer was very satisfied. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form. After 8) serving (serve) an Englishman a salad of red tuna with garlic and parsley.. 9 Will you let me read (read) you some parts to tell me if you like them? 10 We saw him painting (paint) the fence as we walked past his house. Put the verbs in brackets into the -ing form or the infinitive without to. and after that they couldn 't stay angry with each other.but not about their tastes in food. claims to be able 2) to choose (choose) the right dish for each customer. (turn) the corner and disappear (disappear) .

Thomas encouraged us 8) to travel (travel) by train. (send) me on its first trip. permit. be permitted. It was a sad story. to agree. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form . brand-new motorbike . 5 They advised us against drinking the water. encourage.. His family had been too poor 11) to buy (buy) more than the basic necessities. Tho trees need pruning. We don't normally have two -ing forms together. He advised staying indoors. require + object + to-inf. He usually hated 2) doing (do) outdoor activities of any kind. He claimed 9) to have been working/to have worked (work) for a penny a day. For Thomas 1) . Tho trees need to be pruned. (NOT: She is eogiRRiRg daReiRg. · • be advised. 1 We are allowed to take a one-hour lunch break.. allow. permit.) • advise. be encouraged... be allowed . We thought we'd have difficulty in 3) persuading (persuade) him but it was his idea 4) to set off (set off) the very next day.. If all trains were as appealing as the Black Admiral.. Steam trains were replaced by electric ones years ago... . "Do you think I'll be allowed 11) to take (take) it on the train?" he said "It needs 12) running in/to be run in (run in) and this holiday's the ideal time 13) to do (do) it! " 132 . At 2 o'clock everyone was ready 7) to board (board) the train. 4 She has been learning German since last year. want + to-inf/-ing form/passive inf... allow They .. allow us to take. to send. You need to prune tho trees. Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form without a change in meaning • begin. allow. Use two to five words. Complete the sentences using the words in bold . they decided 1) . 2 They require employees to work on Saturdays. We decided 9) to meet (meet) at the station early the next morning as we wanted 10) to be (be) in Carlisle by midday. require. continue. • advise. Though we'd have preferred 7) to take (take) the coach. When I arrived at the station I saw lots of people 5) celebrating (celebrate) the rebirth of the Admiral. needs Your handwriting needs to be improved considerably. intend. encourage. We suggested 5) going (go) to the Lake District as it would be the best place 6) to find (find) hotel rooms each night. and I was glad 6) to be (be) part of the party. be required + to-inf... I settled myself into a compartment where I was soon joined by an old man who claimed 8) to have been (be) one of the original workers on the Admiral. Imagine the look on our faces when Thomas arrived on a huge. required Employees are required to work on Saturdays._ The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the infinitive or -ing form . She began dancmg 'to dance.. and it was exciting 14) to see (see) the spectators' faces as the past seemed 15) to come/to have come (come) alive again. began She began learning German last year. 3 You need to improve your handwriting considerably. so when the newspaper I work for heard that the 'Black ~ Admiral' steam engine had been restored. We were advised to stay indoors • need ... Ho advised mo to stay indoors. a one-hour lunch break... At every station people were waiting 13) to greet (greet) the train. I didn't object to 2) going (go) even though I generally dislike 3) travelling (travel) by train.. (agree) to go on a walking holiday was very surprising. start + to-inf or -ing form . but it was a pleasure 12) to listen (listen) to him. In fact I was looking forward 4) to seeing (see) something I had never seen before.. require + -Ing form . and told me how much he had hated 10) being covered (be/covered) in coal dust all the time. were We were advised not to drink the water. I would choose 16) to travel (travel) by train all the time..

hear he failed his exam. We went on dancing until we got tired. is referred to by the -ing form may happen) I prefer to drive to work rather than take the bus. 1 be afraid of + -Ing form (= be afraid that what prefer + to-inf + rather than + Inf without to . B: I can 't. hesitate) She was afraid to jump into the pool. attempt) He forgot to turn off the radio. He stopped studying and switched on the TV. She means to study art in Paris this summer. I'm sorry for shouting (shout) at you . go on + -Ing form (= continue) be sorry for + -ing form ( = apologise for) She was sorry for yelling at him. When driving m the ram. Try cooking with olive oil. but remember I hate doing (do) the vacuuming.. 8 A: Oh. 4 go on + to-Inf ( = finish doing sth and start doing sth else. you might find it 2 remember + to-inf (= not forget to do sth) improves the taste. B: I know. I'd prefer to eat at this restaurant. 4 A: I'm sorry to put (put) you in such a difficult position . then. B: Yes. prefer + -Ing form (in general) I prefer reading spy stories. I meant to tell (tell) you there's a job vacancy at the chemist's. Put the verbs in brackets into the infinitive or -ing form. B: Really? I prefer going out (go out) whenever I've got free time. B: Well . 9 A: Why don 't you try taking (take) a different medicine if you're still ill? B: I think I'll just try to get (get) some more sleep. but you forgot to send (send) me a postcard . I wanted to ask (ask) the carpenter to come and have a look but I forgot. (travel) across America. afterwards) 1O be sorry + to-inf (= regret) I was sorry to He pruned the hedges. . The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles Verbs taking to-infinitive or -ing form with a change in meaning 1 forget + to-inf ( = fail to remember to do sth) 7 try + to-inf ( = do one's best. but can you help me with the housework? B: Sure. he went on to show (show) us his holiday photos. trav~fllng . 8 want + to-inf ( = wish) I want to go home. I hate bothering you at such a late hour. 5 A: I'd prefer to spend (spend) this weekend at home. . I'm afraid of making (make) mistakes. I hate to argue.. 6 would prefer + to-Inf (specific preference) 12 be afraid +to-inf (= be too frightened to do sth. 3 mean + to-inf (= intend to) 9 stop + to-inf (= pause temporarily). then went on to mow the lawn. 1 A: I'll never forget . 5 regret+ to-Inf (= be sorry to) I regret to inform you that 111 hate + to-inf (= not like what one is about to do) there are no seats on the 12. forget + -ing form ( = not recall a past event) try + -ing form ( = do sth as an experiment) /'II never forget seeing the Eiffel Tower for the first time. Can we stop here to admire the view? mean + -ing form (= involve) stop + -ing form (=finish. 6 A: Did he go on talking (talk) about the same boring topics all night? B: No. cease) · I won 't go if it means taking the train during rush hour. remember + -ing form (= recall a past event) want + -ing form ( = sth needs to be done) I don't remember seeing him at the party last night. I'm afraid of skidding on the wet road. but you are definitely wrong. 7 A: Don't be afraid to talk (talk) to her in French ..30 flight. regret + -Ing form (= have second thoughts about sth hate + -ing form ( = feel sorry for what one is already done) doing) He regrets buying such an expensive sports car. Please remember to feed the dog before leaving.. 3 A: The door wants fixing (fix). I won't apply if it means working (work) at the weekend . B: It's OK. Try to throw the ball into the basket. These windows want cleaning. didn't you? 2 A: I hate to ask (ask) you .

. Eli never regretted 12) having (have) to leave the scrapyard. 12 A: Did you remember to post (post) the letters? B: I remember taking (take) them but I think I've left them on my desk. His only duty was 16) to feed (feed) the jaguars at dawn . You won't be surprised 8) to hear (hear) that eventually Eli's father noticed him 9) wasting (waste) time 10) doing (do) nothing.. 18 You must complete this exercise without using/consulting a dictionary. it means getting/waking up early tomorrow morning. B: Again? I wish you'd stop eating (eat) so much! 11 A: The notice says the gallery regrets to inform (inform) us that the Picasso exhibition has fin ished . I spent so much time swimming that people used to call me The Fish'. 20 What do you mean Bob 's a vegetarian? I saw him eating a chicken sandwich only yesterday! 134 . 1 I used to love . but he always preferred 6) sitting (sit) around and 7) making (make) cups of tea for the other workers instead. B: Oh . v•siting . 17 The thief got into the manager's office by pretending to be a cleaner. 13 If you can't get the stain out of your shirt. Santorini so much that I finally bought a house there. and asked him 11) to find (find) another job..something which he claims he only forgot 17) to do (do) once in his time there.. He said that he would never forget 18) seeing (see) the zookeeper's face after the poor man had tried 19) to give (give) them their lunch - they had nearly eaten him alive! After 20) working (work) in the zoo for six years. 10 There's no point (in) complaining! It was your decision after all . (tell) us about his life.I'm afraid of flying . 8 If we want to cat c h the early train. He had left school at thirteen.we always go to the theatre. 16 Please stop talking! There's a meeting in progress next door. no! Now I regret not going/not having gone (not/go) last week.. 12 As a child . 3 I' m sorry.. telling . 15 He tried to open the jar but he couldn't because the lid was stuck. Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form.. and he had managed to avoid 3) looking for (look for) a real job by 4) working (work) for his father in the family scrapyard. because his next job was even easier! He was employed at Dudley Zoo as a nightwatchman. 9 I would prefer to go to the cinema for a change . 11 The explorer escaped from the lion only to find himself alone in the jungle.. and we were always afraid 2) to interrupt (interrupt) him because he had a very hot temper. where he found it a pleasure just 13) to sit (sit) and 14) watch (watch) the monkeys 15) playing (play) in their cages. ' Eli Bilston always enjoyed 1) . 4 I' ll have to go to Belgium by train . 2 He meant to tell his mother the truth but he didn't because he didn 't want to upset her.__. don't forget to water the plants.The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles 10 A: Let's stop to have (have) something to eat.. 5 You are required to complete/to fill in this form before you can start the job . you could try putting/rubbing salt on it. war broke out in Europe and Eli went on 21) to join Ooin) the army in the hope of finding some adventure. 14 He regretted telling lies to his parents. 7 I regret to inform you that your house must be demolished.. 19 Acid rain is said to be damaging/to have damaged many trees all over Europe. Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form . 6 Before you leave.. I don't remember seeing/meeting you before. He was supposed 5) to check (check) the weight of scrap metal leaving the yard.

17 Don 't you dare be (be) late again. It shows that there is as much of something as is wanted or needed . 7 Why don't we try eating (eat) some Thai food for a change? 8 They stopped running to have (have) a rest. (old) 3 A: What is your new house like? B: It's big enough to fit all five of us. It is used in the following patterns: a) too + adjective/adverb + to -infinitive It is too wet to go running. (take) some money in case the banks are shut. The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles --.... 9 He put off telling (tell) her the bad news . 1 I advise you .. she was too tired to go out after working all day. necessary or wanted. Complete the sentences with too or enough and the adjective in brackets. (tired) 2 A: Dad is planning on taking the kids canoeing this weekend. I'm tired of having (have) to rely on my parents for money. (strong) . for somebody/ something + to -infinitive This box 1s too heavy for me to lift. 15 In general I prefer watching (watch) films on the big screen rather than on TV. 2 My mother used to encourage (encourage) us to eat lots of vegetables. 1 A: Did you meet up with Fiona yesterday? B: No. (big) 4 A: Is Ted talking to Rachel yet? B: No. (cold) 6 A: How did the operation go? B: It was very successful and I am even feeling strong enough to go back to work.. 12 David was too afraid to swim (swim) in the rough sea.. She is too selfish to apologise to him for her rude behaviour.. 4 Do you remember swimming (swim) in Lake Langaron last summer? 5 When you finish this exercise go on to do (do) the composition on page 11 . Fill in the correct form of the infinitive or the -ing form. (selfish) 5 A: Why don 't you open the window to let some fresh air in the room? B: It's too cold outside and the baby might get ill . • Enough has a positive meaning.. Too I Enough • Too has a negative meaning . b) too . 3 Don't forget to lock (lock) the door when you leave the office. for somebody/ something This soup 1s too spicy for me. 11 I suggest looking up (look up) this word in a dictionary. 10 I really regret spending/having spent (spend) so much money at the weekend . 16 I'm sorry. It is used in the following patterns: a) adjective/adverb + enough + to -infinitive She is beautiful enough to be a model BUT not + adjective/ adverb + enough + to -infinitive (negative meaning) He did not study hard enough to pass the exam b) enough + noun +to -infinitive We 've got enough time to go shopping..... I didn't mean to hurt (hurt) you. 14 I couldn't stop wondering (wonder) whether I had done the right thing . c) too .. 13 He doesn 't look old enough to be married (be/married) . B: I don't think they are old enough to go canoeing yet. to take . 6 Would you mind turning (turn) the radio down? I've got a headache... 19 Have you considered learning (learn) another language? 20 I can't stand listening (listen) to you complain all the time. It shows that something is more than enough . 18 I need to get a job.

. (heavy) 9 A: Can you get me that book from the top shelf.. (= The woman who is waiting for me is my mum. I am not tall enough to reach it. He was taking notes while reading the book. Winning the lottery. 1 After Dianne read the letter. he bought a car. please. (=The watch which is displayed in the window is very expensive. After passing/having passed his dnving test. (tall) 10 A: Why are you not drinking your coffee? B: It is too sweet for me to drink. 3 He picked up the guitar and started playing a traditional tune. Mel used to live in Canada. Laura didn't go to the party. We were surprised by his story. 9 He was reading the book and he was taking notes.) • to express reason .) We met John while travel/Ing (=We met John while we were travelling. he couldn't stop smiling. he couldn't stop smiling. 8 The film which was directed by Adam Johnson won an Academy Award for Best Actress. he started playing a traditional tune. Picking up the guitar.) The watch displayed in the window 1s very expensive. Feeling tired.) • to avoid repeating the past continuous in the same sentence.) Rewrite the sentences using participles . Having passed his dnving test. (sweet) Participles • Present participles (verb + ing) describe what somebody or something is. This suitcase is too heavy for me to carry. 7 Before Mel moved to Thailand. she used to live in Canada. The man living next door is a famous playwright. (= Because I had put on weight. She was not confident enough to pass it. He was dnving in his car listening to the radio.~~ The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles 7 A: Katie failed the driving test. 4 Because he was so excited .) • Past participles (verb+ ed) describe how somebody feels . she tore it and threw it away furiously. I decided to go on a diet. After reading/After having read/Having read the letter. (confident) 8 A: Would you like some help with your luggage? B: Yes. It was a surprising decision.) • instead of the past simple in narratives when we describe actions happening immediately one after the other. 136 . Being/Having been so excited. Before moving to Thailand. ) Having put on weight. Dianne tore it and threw it away furiously. 2 The lady who is standing next to my mother is my aunt Mary. The woman waiting for me 1s my mum. he was admitted to hospital immediately. The lady standing next to my mother is my aunt Mary. he bought a car. she 1umped for joy (""' She won the lottery and jumped for joy. The news announced yesterday left everybody speechless. (= Because she was tired.. (= After he had passed his driving test.) • to express time. Being/Having been seriously hurt. please? B: I can't. (What kind of decision? Surprising. (= He was driving in his car and he was listening to the radio. I decided to go on a diet. he bought a car. 10 The man who is living next door is a famous playwright. (How did we feel about his story? Surprised. The film directed by Adam Johnson won an Academy Award for Best Actress. 6 Because the man was seriously hurt. the man was admitted to hospital immediately.) · Participles can also be used: • instead of a relative pronoun and full verb. 5 The news which was announced yesterday left everybody speechless . ·B: So I heard .

By the time we got home we all felt 14) exhausting/exhausted. It was quite a 13) captivating/captivated show. I was taken to the police station where I spent the whole evening .. I got there 20 minutes earlier than we had arranged . Tom. Some children from the audience were invited to ride on the elephants' backs. I watched him for a while and finally I saw him 8) hide (hide) a small camera in his jacket and discreetly 9) leave (leave) the shop. remember? B: Oh . A magician performed many incredible tricks. just as the police arrived. it was 9) fascinating/fascinated to watch him make various objects disappear and reappear. You see. Jack. The elephants were well-trained and their tricks were 11) entertain ing/entertained. the CCTV camera 15) installed (install) in the computer shop revealed the real thief and I was set free. a man 6) standing (stand) next to me started 7) acting (act) in a suspicious way. He chased me and before long he caught me. I took my children to the circus. A: Hey. Since I was getting 4) bored (bore) of waiting . The children were more 10) interesting/interested in the elephant act. -ing form or participle. On Saturday. I tried 13) to explain (explain) the situation to the police but they didn't believe me. As I was having a look at some devices. A: What a story! . but the most unbelievable thing happened to me yesterday. the shop manager apologised to me for 17) causing/having caused (cause) such inconvenience and he even gave me a camera as a present. After 3) arranging (arrange) to meet up with you in the centre. The children found the lion- tamer's act 6) exciting/excited. the shop security guard saw me 10) running (run) and mistook me for a shoplifter. Luckily for me. We were 4) stunning/stunned by the acrobats . My children were 12) disappointing/disappointed when they were not chosen. • Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the (bare) infinitive. After 16) clearing (clear) up the misunderstanding. the audience cheered . Where were you yesterday? We were supposed to go 1) bowling (bowl). but their disappointment faded when the clowns took the centre ring . I decided 5) to go (go) into the computer shop round the corner to kill some time . I forgot 12) to place (place) the camera I was holding back on the shelf. 11) being (be) in a hurry to catch the man. It was just before midnight that the police let me 14) go (go). but the children were 8) amusing/amused and they clapped loudly. I am sorry for 2) standing (stand) you up. We were really 5) impressing/ impressed by their performance. They balanced on top of each other with incredible ease. So. The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles __ ~ Underline the correct participle. I ran after him. I thought I would have a 1) boring/bored time. but actually I was quite 2) astonishing/ astonished by the 3) amazing/amazed acts. I didn 't waste any time. Unfortunately. When the huge animals came into the arena. I felt 7) terrifying/ terrified when he put his hands into the lion's mouth.

. were The boys were allowed to leave the school. allowed They . long We didn 't expect to take so long to finish the project. than She prefers to work rather than stay at home. 8 The dress is so long that she can 't wear it.. 9 They made hi m wait for an hour.__ The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles It's too hot for him to go jogging. 138 . hardly He could hardly understand the instructions. We found the lecture interesting. • He had difficulty (in) concentrating on his work . was He was made to wait for an hou r. were We were shocked by what she said. difficulty She had difficulty (in) understanding what he was talking about. 1 We were allowed to take our dog inside. 4 Could you turn the volume up? mind Would you mind turning the volume up? 5 He prefers walking to riding a bicycle. It was difficult for him to concentrate on his work. go It is dangerous to go swimming after eating. Reaching London took him two hours.. It's dangerous to exceed the speed li mit. They were allowed to use the spare room . We were interested in the lecture. 17 She prefers working to staying at home. allowed us to take.. 11 He made her promise that she would come back. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. our dog inside. was She was made to promise that she would come back. 12 The audience found the performance amusing. 13 The film was so interesting that I saw it twice. • I prefer listening to music to dancing. 18 It took us longer than we expected to finish the project. difficult She found it difficult to do the exercises. It took him two hours to reach London . She let them use the spare room. was I was so interested in the fi lm that I saw it twice. • Could you do the washing? They allowed us to enter the room. walk He prefers to walk rather than ride a bicycle. It's so hot that he can't go jogging. He was made to carry the bags. She made him carry the bags. 14 It was difficult for him to understand the instructions. He found it difficult to concentrate on his work. 10 She could hardly do the exercises. 3 Goi ng swi mming after eating is dangerous. were The audience were amused by the performance. 2 We found what she said shocking. Exceed ing the speed limit is dangerous. Would you mind doing the washing? We were allowed to enter the room. Use two to five words. It isn't cool enough for him to go jogging. 15 Could you move a bit please? mind Wou ld you mind moving a bit please? 16 The headmaster let the boys leave the school. He took two hours to reach London . 6 It was difficult for her to understand what he was talking about. I prefer to listen to music rather than dance. her The dress is too long for her to wear. He could hardly concentrate on his work. 7 The box was too heavy for him to lift. enough The box was not light enough for him to lift.

try. The book is published (10) annually and still sells millions of ANNUAL copies all over the world. notice. manage. regret Bob and his friends decided to go fishing last Sunday. Norris and Ross McWhirter who had been collecting (7) interesting articles from newspapers INTEREST and magazines helped to write the first (8) edition in 1955. . decide. The Infinitive I -ing form I Participles _ : Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.. look forward to . begin. have a difficult time. appear.reference . happen.. ----------------------------------------------------~ ------· (See Suggested Answer section) A group of people went fishing last Sunday. In order to provide answers to this and (6) numerous NUMBER other questions. (3) repeatedly missed a flock of golden REPEAT plover. Sir Beaver and his friends realised that it was (5) impossible to POSSIBLE say who was right. . 1f . ACH IEVE It all started when a gentleman called Sir Hugh Beaver went out shooting with friends. ·--t·1f 1I •1JU4t. He claimed that the golden plover was the fastest game bird but his friends completely disagreed and an (4) argument ARGUE followed . help. be afraid. Sir Beaver decided to produce a book..1. 1. stop. The book was an EDIT immediate success and people started taking part in dangerous (9) competitions COMPETE just to get into it. Sir Beaver.. Use the list below and your own ideas to say what happened using infinitives or -ing form . who was excellent at shooting. All of them . book that REFER contains a ( 1) collection of amazing facts COLLECT about the natural world and incredible human (2) achievements... t§. continue. be relieved. The Guinness Book of World Records is a (0) .

8 They managed to carry the task through despite order to come to sb's help opposition. 1 When did George give up his job? since How long .. then fill in the correct preposition. she carried it off without any problems. 5 I didn't realise there would be a charge for using 17 Michael 's been asked to contribute to this new this telephone. produce thousand pounds. conduct (experiment/test) changes in the company. the case as they had no new evidence. Elvis is the king. Jackie Onassis. complete successfully 16 They tried to bring down the government by 9 This tune brings back memories of my childhood. meal. science fiction magazine. . I think money that was missing. cause 13 Please don 't bring up the subject of politics in 6 John was completely carried away by the music class. 10 It was very clever of you to remember to bring an 23 I'm going to complain to the manager about this umbrella. create profit 2 The situation calls for immediate action. forward She is looking forward to (starting) her new job. 15 The Police Inspector wasn't able to comment on 3 I wouldn't bet on it being warm tomorrow. up his job? 2 She can't wait to start her new job.. then explain the phrasal verbs in bold... cause to fall cause to recall 1 Look at Appendix 3. cancel cold water on his face. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. 11 There has been some confusion over the results of 24 It upsets me when people are cruel to their pets. cold at all. during the journey. 9 Mark is very clever at figuring out how machines 22 Maria should go and see a doctor. need 11 We need to carry out some tests to find out 3 The director's retirement brought about the what's wrong with you. 1 She applied . but 4 Do carry on with your work while I'm away. is it since George gave . this isn 't really editor of the magazine. mention and lost track of time. which turn to take and ended up on a dead-end 26 This new book I'm reading is based on the life of street.. cause to regain consciousness 15 When fire broke out we called out the fire brigade. 13 You can't compare Elvis Presley with Michael Jackson. Use two to five words. 6 The police announced that they were going to 18 I couldn't get into the museum because it was work with the public to solve the case. I'm addicted to it.. 2 He is crazy about all kinds of fast cars. to . crowded with tourists. 1 The company is planning to bring out a new 10 The sale of the paintings will bring in several perfume in the summer. be very excited 14 The meeting was called off due to the President's 7 The nurse brought the patient round by putting sudden illness.. cause to happen 12 She was nervous about chairing the meeting. 4 The manager of the bank had to account for all the 16 I'm going to have to stop eating chocolate. 25 He doesn't seem to be aware of what's going on 12 The inexperienced driver was confused about around him. the world today. 21 Brian's been accused of cheating in his exams.. launch. the manager for the post of 14 Compared to winters in Moscow. starting a revolution. handle sth continue with successfully 5 Heavy rain brought on the flood . 7 Nobody seems to care about what is happening in 19 Scientists are sti ll trying to find a cure for AIDS. 20 You have to comply with these rules or you will 8 James' mother told him to take care of himself lose your job.Folder ID Look at Appendix 2. complaining of back pains for weeks now. It was terrible. the election. She has been work.

11 They have been building a new community centre for six months now. Then make sentences using any three of them. 3 The soup is so hot that she can 't eat it./ . rather She'd rather watch TV than listen to music. disapprove Her parents disapprove of her going out late. objects He objects to her working as a waitress. There isn't a hill in sight. hot The soup is too hot for her to eat. a peacock.a plctur~. Tick the correct boxes.. a bee. a fox. said He is said to have been the best tennis player of the decade. 7 They say he was the best tennis player of the decade. 12 He doesn't want her to work as a waitress./ . 3 Her voice rang out as clear as a bell. he is as cunning as a fox. 5 The land around town is as flat as a pancake. consider We consider her to be the most valuable member of our team.. a pancake. bored We were quite bored by the film. of scissors of men of false teeth of cutlery of questions of shoes couple . 9 He finds driving on the left difficult. 9 Mary stayed as cool as a cucumber and gave not even the slightest sign that she had met him before. a picture. 4 When Jenny came top of the class she was as proud as a peacock. a lamb. 6 When Mr Jenkins heard the news he went as white as a sheet. 10 You can be sure he has an ulterior motive for inviting us to dinner. a sheet 1 Jane looked as pretty as . used He is not used to driving on the left./ set .. construction A new community centre has been under construction for six months now. a cucumber. 7 Her mother has been as busy as a bee all day making all the last minute preparations for the wedding. 8 They made the children study for five hours a day./ pair . 10 The teacher explained the task to us fully. the grave.. gave The teacher gave us a full explanation of the task. 8 John remained as silent as the grave as he listened to my plans for the future. in her white silk dress./ . Complete the sentences below with a suitable word from the list./ - . a bell. 6 She prefers watching TV to listening to music. were The children were made to study for five hours a day./ . 4 Her parents do not want her to go out late. 2 Mr Bayer looks a rather rough type but he is really as gentle as a lamb. 5 The film was quite boring. 13 She is regarded as the most valuable member of our team.

......... are made than ever before.... c:::::J c:::::J Up until recently the British were not exactly (0) .. Southwark and Canary Wharf......... .. ...f·~ .. when the Olympics will take (11) ..... the provision of bicycle parking in the streets.. whereas by the end of 2006 the Network had (7) . 1 A right B normal © regular D proper 2 @ grown B raised c developed D enlarged 3 A contrasted B related © compared D associated 4 A final B latest © last D recent 5 A job B profession c office @ work 6 A prevai ling @ existing c living D left 7 A magnified B lengthened © expanded D broadened 8 A figured B counted © estimated D measured 9 A tours @ trips c journeys D travels 10 A directions @ routes c ways D passages 11 @ place B space c position D part 12 A attach B bond c relate @ connect ...... How was this possible? It is all thanks to the National Cycle Network project which.... In fact........ Moreover.. on cycling . The project has been funded principally by the National Lottery and it is expected that even more cycling (1 0) . only a quarter of the twenty million .... that nearly 75 per cent of the population live within two miles of a route and more cycling (9) ... Part of the project involved the improvement of (6) ...... Pair! For q ueslions 1-12.. to many others in Europe...... by 83 per cent.. 8 .. pathways.._ Practice Test 1 1 ........ in the (4) ... There is an example at the begmnmg (0)........... to 11 ...... will be developed by 2012. in schools and in the workplace has contributed significantly to the rise in the number of cyclists. though...... ... B. It is (8) ... ......icycles in the country were thought to be in (1) ...... ...... Over the last year. the number of cyclists in urban areas .. .. read the text below and d_ecide which answer (A. use... The aim is to create routes that will surround the main sites for the 2012 Games in London .. .......... few years has managed to encourage many people to use their bicycles either to travel to (5) . whereas a new bridge for pedestrians and cyclists will ( 12) . particularly in London ........ C or D) best fits each gap...----·~·b. Example: A B C D 0 A fond B keen C enthusiastic D eager 0 c:::::J . at railway and underground stations......... less noisy city (3) .. ................ or for fun. has (2) ...... This has turned the capital into a cleaner.........300 miles.....

. Thanks to a new computer system .. Such claims cost insurance companies a total (21) of £50 million per year. But for (16) some.. travel insurance is a way of earning money (17) by making false claims against insurance companies. or even become ill and need expensive medical treatment. You could lose your luggage. So think twice before you make a false claim this summer. For (18) example. For millions of holiday makers... Use only one word in each gap. Until recently there was no way of checking whether a claim was false or not... travel insurance...... and then claim large sums (20) as compensation... Part 2 For questions 13-24.. read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. The chances are that you'll get caught. Honest travellers no (24) longer have to pay through the nose for other people's dishonesty. Example: 0 I0 I U I TI I I I I I I I I I I I I When going on holiday.... companies are able to tell at a glance (23) if/whether someone has made a claim within the last three years. travel insurance is just a precaution (15) that will help them have an enjoyable and worry-free holiday.. . There is an example at the beginning (0) . but you will also have to sort everything out yourself. This is just in case something goes (13) wrong along the way. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.. some people pretend that they have had expensive equipment stolen which in (19) fact never even existed.. Without travel insurance you will not only have to pay for anything that goes wrong. it is always a good idea to take (0) . But the cheats' luck has (22) run out. you could (14) be robbed..

And all without the help of weird science or genetic (25) engineering ! As baby watermelons are growing on the vine. read the text below. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. square watermelons don't take up a NORM lot of room and there is no (30) difficulty storing them in the fridge as they sit DIFFICULT neatly on the shelf.... As each watermelon CONTAIN matures... Unlike (29) normal watermelons. In Japan. (0) . Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.. these melons appeal to (32) wealthy Japanese who are looking to give a business WEALTH colleague or friend an (33) impressive gift. . Each one costs 10. ENGINEER glass (26) containers are placed around them . The result is NATURAL (28) incredibly eye-catching watermelons that can be sliced like a loaf of CREDIBLE bread.. . gift-giving is a very IMPRESS important part of socialising.. farmers in Japan have figured out a way to produce INNOVATE square-shaped watermelons..... But these watermelons don 't come cheap.. .000 yen (about $82)! Square melons are thus an (31 ) expensive EXPENSE luxury food and so are not eaten by regular people..: COST fruit as a gift is very popular.. Giving a friend a beautifully-wrapped and (34) costly piece of ~~-:<~}"-::..Practice Test H Part 3 For questions 25-34.. There is an example at the beginning (0) ...... Instead. it (27) naturally swells to fit the shape of the box..

. .. my friends for my birthday.. .. 40 They left early so that they could escape the traffic.. 35 You packed more clothes than you'll need for the trip.... You must use between two and five words....... ....... . 39 Dad let us stay up late last night.. using the word given............ 36 He made us wait two hours before he called us in. TOOK It took her ages to get ready for the party.. LAST It's a month since Sophie last went to a party. . 42 She spent ages getting ready for the party.. GIVEN I ... ... WERE We were made to wait two hours before he called us in............. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.... ALLOWED We were allowed to stay up late last night... USED Kevin used to work harder than he does now..... complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence... 37 Kevin doesn 't work as hard as he did in the past......... including the word given...... 41 Sophie hasn't been to a party for a month. Part 4 For questions 35-42... POINT He was on the point of leaving when the phone rang. Example: 0 My friends gave me a DVD for my birthday........ ... Do not change the word given.... There is an example at the beginning (0)........ so You needn't have packed so many clothes for the trip... .. ...... HOPE They left early in the hope of escaping the traffic. 38 He was about to leave when the phone rang .. ...

used to (= would) etc. (past) (prohibition . ? ' come.) come.absence of ~ He ought to have notified the police Note: to express possibility in ' necessity) .) Is it likely that he . I've got to go to the library. I must cut down on fats.you aren't allowed to) He could/may be tired.. (90% I must see a doctor soon . (informal) You may not talk in the library. (It is the right thing to bus. shall ..they weren't allowed He might come later. It is likely that Ann will offer to help.. past) ~ They cou ldn't enter that area. (It is the right thing to do. These are: need (= must).it is forbidden) didn't . formal) He couldn't/wasn't able to save the l We ought to have stayed within the patient. (repeated : I have to cut down on fats.. (I need to. They take no -s in the third person singular and are followed by an infinitive without to except for ought to. ? Can he . You ought to behave yourself. Summary of Functions of Modal Verbs and Synonymous Expressions Ability Obligation Requests She can dance well. (50% certain. (I'm : May I see the Manager. (it isn't necessary . have (got) to (= must) .past) the bus.ability in the past) : obliged to.. it's possible he is tired) He has to wear overalls at work. (past) (prohibition . He could have hit her. had better (= should) . of the burglary. It was likely that she had missed needed to be fed. They come before the subject in questions and are followed by not in negations.. I can't. (past) She doesn't have to/doesn't need to ~ do but people don't always do it.) Possibility Necessity Prohibition I Duty He can 't still be at home. I 1 Can I see the Manager? (informal) She could/was able to dance well ~ say so) ~ Could I see the Manager? (polite) when she was young.formal) (perhaps he sold it . "Could you help me with the dishes?" "I'm sorry. should . ? come and we don't know if she did) ' Could he still be at work? (NOT: fflaY) l She needn't have come so early. (I say so) : You can't enter this area. be able to (= can) . (it was necessary) (duty . He must be at work. (It was the right thing questions we use: Is he likely to . ? · She didn't have to/didn't need to l to do but he didn't do it. (past) l formal) They were able to buy a car after ' We ought to stay within the speed ~ Will you do my shopping? (informal) saving for years. (necessity from outside the speaker) ~ to) perhaps he will come later) He had to wear overalls when he You mustn't touch the statues. to. ? Might he . we don't always do it. could.. certain) I had to see a doctor.past) We've got to move house. (it : wasn't necessary for her to come : but she did) 146 . (it is People ought to respect the She was likely to have missed the l necessary) environment. (It was the right thing to I do but we didn't do it. {luckily he was at school. He ought to do what you asked him to. . the doctor says so) ~ (formal) She's able to type 120 words per · I had to cut down or else I would ~ Might I see the Manager? (very minute. (40% certain. ought to. He may/might have sold his house. may.. will . (past) . (it is necessary) (duty) Ann is likely to offer to help. but ' Do/Would you mind working past) . needs to be fed . ~ speed limit.past) The cat needs feeding.·· Certain verbs or expressions can be used with the same meaning as modals.) overtime? (polite. please? action . must. (prohibition . OR The cat All applicants must fill in this form. (it wasn't necessary for her to ~ Could he . (single action in the ~ limit. have become overweight. Modal Verbs The modal verbs are: can. (prohibition . The cat needed feeding. They had to move house. might. would. (I was obliged .. OR The cat All applicants had to fill in that form.

He should let us know. 1 They can't have lied.past . He will come tomorrow. He should/ought to come by later.present 11 He had to wear glasses.. it's probable) He should have let us know before. (offer . (negative. I'm sure he has arrived . informal) informal) (general advice. Why don't we play football? (informal. prediction) yesterday. (suggestion) (permission) Read the following sentences.. (It was the right thing to do.) (90% certain. ability . (an couple of days? (offer) You ought to have contacted a action that really happened in the past) Would you like me to give you a lift? lawyer earlier.. refusing permission.past) (asking for advice) I'm sorry. You should have stopped talking .informal 5 He should have seen a doctor. but you can't/mustn't Let's play football! (suggestion) make long distance phone calls.present 7 They don't have to employ more staff. (He has probably You ought to be more helpful.past 12 She could at least have told me in advance.present 10 She isn't at home.) He was allowed to take my car. (BUT you didn't) Could I go out for a minute? (more (offer) You had better not lie to her. (I advise you. . (suggestion . I'm sure he is tired.) You ought to have been more (negative. (giving or I'll/We'll carry your bags. my car. (present) He must be tired. absence of necessity 8 Shall I speak to the manager about my problem? asking for advice 9 People ought to treat animals with respect. It can't/couldn't be a fake. advice on a specific You may go out for a minute. (offer .) but you didn't do it. refusing permission) (suggestion) Visitors may not take pictures of the How about playing football? statues. then identify the use of each verb in bold . You should stop talking . refusing permission (suggestion) . (90% certain . (past) I could always/was informal) (BUT you didn't) always allowed to stay up late on Shall I/we collect your laundry? You ought to comply with the Saturdays when I was a child. (formal. advice . logical assumption . I advise you) He wasn't allowed to/couldn't take Can I/we carry your bags? (offer . obligation/ necessity coming from outside the speaker . advice . obligation/ necessity 3 He was able to run the marathon . possibility . future only. (past) He must have arrived by now.past 4 Can you help me with my homework? request . It would have been better if you Might I have the pleasure of your (suggestion) hadn't lied to her. most (general permission in the past) Would you like to stay with me for a people believe this. (formal . asking for permission) Shall we have a break? (suggestion) a good idea.) certain. He should/ought to have reached (but he didn't) I'm sure it isn't a fake. I/We can watch TV. (positive. (It isn't polite.negative. duty . 2 You must tell them the truth. (BUT you did) company? (very formal. didn't hurt him.written notice) What about playing football ? You are allowed to see the patient. She may be at the supermarket. I'm sure she helpful. criticism . She can't/couldn't have reached Rome.) Permission Offers I Suggestions Advice You can/can't take my car.past 6 You'd better admit to your guilt. Summary of Functions of Modal Verbs and Synonymous Expressions Criticism Logical Assumptions Probability You could at least call her.informal) regulations. (100% You could at least have called her positive. (suggestion) situation) giving permission) We could go to the theatre tonight. asking for We could have stayed longer if Shall I enter the competition? permission) you'd wanted.) Rome by now..

.ablllty.I'm obliged to help Mum clean the house. be James can't/won't be seeing the boss tomorrow.People should drive more carefully. 3 I don't think the Rogers have lived here long ..Shall I carry that for you? 11 We can go to the beach tomorrow. . I'm sure he hadn't worked.. duty . then say the same sentence in as many ways as possible. He may/might work overtime. 4 They must have gone out.. He can't have worked .. 7 You could at least have driven her to work. Perfect Cont. the lights are off. He may/might have been working. possibility .Shall we go to the beach tomorrow? 12 You may not feed the animals in the zoo. . Perfect Infinitive I'm sure he didn't work.Could/May/Might I have a look at your newspaper? 10 Would you like me to carry that for you? offer . 5 I need to call my mother... Infinitive Perhaps he was working. advice .You ought to go to Pam's party.You should at least have driven her to work. 18 She can't be feeli ng well. . have He must have spent all his money.It is necessary to feed the dogs at 12:00. necessity . probability . 2 Tim may come over today. advice . logical assumption . Use two to five words.~ food . muet hav~ loet . prohibition . He must be working. 9 Can I have a look at your newspaper? request .I'm sure they've gone out. Present Cont.. 14 The dogs need to be fed at 12:00. 3 He should be at the party tonight... suggestion . have The Rogers can't have lived here long.I'm sure she isn't feeling well. 8 I have to help Mum clean the house. criticism . 1 I'm sure she lost the race. 16 Shall we go out tonight? suggestion . 15 You should go to Pam's party. logical assumption .I advise you to take an umbrella. 17 People ought to drive more carefully.It is necessary that I call my mother. Complete the sentences using the words in bold...You can't/mustn't feed the animals in the zoo. 6 Perhaps he is feeling ill. Sh~'e ab/~ to cook Chln~e. been Alan can't have been driving carelessly. He can't have worked before. He must work overtime. Perhaps he has been working... may She may phone us sometime today. Must (affirmative logical assumption) . He can't have worked . it's raining .May/Might (possibility) - Can't/Couldn't (negative logical assumption) Present Infinitive I'm sure he works overtime. (See Suggested Answer section) 1 She can cook Chinese food . 4 I'm sure he has spent all his money. the race. necessity .. 2 Perhaps she will phone us sometime today.. Perhaps he wlll be working .We can/could go out tonight.It is probable that he'll be at the party tonight.. Perhaps he wlll work overtime.... 148 . He may/might have been working. ... duty .. Infinitive I'm sure he Is working . 6 You ought to take an umbrella..It is all employees' duty to attend the meeting. obligation .It is possible that Tim will come over today.. He may/might be working. I'm sure he hasn't worked before. 13 All employees must attend the meeting . 7 I'm sure Alan wasn't driving carelessly. 5 I'm sure J ames won 't be seeing the boss tomorrow. have She .[?J1 Identify the use of the verbs in bold. be He may/might be feeling ill.

although it was not necessary. (It wasn't necessary for her to go out.Didn 't need to . I'll do it tonight. have Tim . 8 Perhaps he had left before you called. I'll do it later. 2 It isn 't necessary to cut the grass. Needn't . 1 Tim went on a two-day trip. ..) C1t1zens of EU countries don't have to/don't need to/needn't have a visa to go to England.. 4 It isn 't necessary to dust the furniture. 6 It wasn't necessary for Jim to accept the offer. 9 I'm sure she is considering your offer..) He needn't have given the waiter such a big tip. Mustn't .) She didn 't need to/didn 't have to go out last night. not You . so many clothes on a two-day trip. 2 He decided not to take his passport because it wasn 't necessary. 4 It wasn't necessary for Gloria to iron the clothes because Sue had already done it.. 5 Children aren't allowed to run in the corridor. need He did not need to take his passport. need You need not dust the furniture. it's still quite short. have Gloria didn't have to iron the clothes because Sue had already done it. have Jim didn't have to accept the offer. • didn't need to I didn't have to (It was not necessary in the past and we may not know if the action happened or not. need You don't need to have/need not have a visa to visit New Zealand if you are Australian. • needn't/don't have to ( = it isn't necessary) You needn't do the ironing. 5 It isn't necessary to have a visa to visit New Zealand if you are Australian.) • needn't + perfect Infinitive 01'Je know that something happened in the past although it was not necessary. may They may have rented the flat... must not feed . have Sixth formers don't have to wear school uniforms. the animals.Needn't have • don't have to I don't need to I needn't + present infinitive (It is not necessary in the present or future. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. and we don't know if she went or not. be She must be considering your offer. not You must not take dogs into the restaurant. 10 Perhaps they rented the flat. it's still quite short. 6 Sixth formers needn't wear school uniforms. not Children must not run in the corridor. 1 It's forbidden to feed the animals. 3 It's prohibited to take dogs into the restaurant. have You don't have to cut the grass. D Use two to five words. have He may/might have left before you called.. have We needn't have bought so much food for the party. He took more clothes than necessary. 3 We bought more food than was necessary for the party.Needn't • mustn't ( = it's forbidden) You mustn't park on the double yellow lines. needn't have taken .) Complete the sentences using the words in bold.. Use two to five words. (He did. I' ll do it later.

(ought to) You ought to show more respect. It's a good idea if you do so. 150 .00. 17 It wasn 't necessary for us to wait because there was no queue..) You should be helpful to customers. 2 You should clean your room. It's a good idea for you to clean your room. 6 Do you mind if I use your pen? (can) Can I use your pen? 7 I wish I had checked the tyres. 3 You are to finish your homework. 8 These curtains don't have to be ironed. Their teacher expects them to. 9 It's not polite to speak with your mouth full. 27 We could try to mend it ourselves. (Your boss expects you to.. I was expected to. (must) You must inform the bank of any change of address. 2 Please turn the TV off. 8 I was supposed to walk the dog twice a day. (Let's) Let's try to mend it ourselves. (may) He may change his mind. .) • be supposed to and be to are used to express what someone expects about a previously arranged event. Shall we go jogging?. (You must be in my office at 12 sharp.. (shall) . 22 Please. You must finish your homework. 28 It wasn't necessary for you to go to so much trouble. (need) You needn't have gone to so much trouble.. It is expected of you to. It had to be done. 7 I was to walk the dog twice a day. 10 Why don't we visit Mark and Jane? (shall) Shall we visit Mark and Jane? 11 Is there any chance that he'll phone? (likely) Is he likely to phone?/ls it likely that he will phone? 12 It's advisable to brush your teeth after meals. Your mother wanted you to eat your ea/ad. 5 You are supposed to wear running shoes. 29 It's a good idea to show more respect. The shop assistant was supposed to give me a receipt.) • be to + infinitive expresses the idea that someone else demands something.. (ought) I ought to have checked the tyres. (shall) Shall we go to the cinema tonight? 19 It's important that you be here at 9.. 24 It's a good idea to lock the door at night.be to • be supposed to (= should) expresses the idea that someone else expects something to be done. Rewrite the sentences using the words in brackets. 13 There's a possibility that he'll arrive a little late. 4 All students are supposed to do their homework. 20 I'm sure he is a millionaire. (shou ld) You should lock the door at night. help me carry these! (could) Could you help me carry these? 23 I don't believe she paid so much for that dress. . be supposed to . (It's a good idea because it makes a good impression. You are to be in my office at 12 sharp. (can) She can't have paid so much for that dress. • Read the following sentences and explain their meaning . 21 Perhaps he'll change his mind. (could) Could you turn the TV off? 3 Am I allowed to sit here? (may) May I sit here? 4 Please answer the phone. 18 Let's go to the cinema tonight. (should) You shouldn't speak with your mouth full. 1 You were supposed to eat your salad. (should) You should brush your teeth after meals. 1 Let's go jogging . (must) You mustn't bite your nails. (need) He needn't have shown any identification .00. You are supposed to be helpful to customers.. (might) He might arrive a little late. (need) These curtains don't need ironing. (must) You must be here at 9. 6 You should wear running shoes. (need) We didn't need to wait because there was no queue. 14 Do you know how to ice-skate? (can) Can you ice-skate? 15 It wasn 't necessary to show any identification but he did. 16 Why didn't you tell me there was no one in? (could) You could have told me there was no one in.. 30 You have to inform the bank of any change of address. (wi ll) Will you answer the phone? 5 Don't bite your nails. (must) He must be a millionaire. 25 Is there any chance we'll get a pay rise? (likely) Are we likely to get a pay rise?/ls it likely that we will get a pay rise? 26 Why didn 't they inform us of the delay? (could) They could have informed us of the delay./You don't need to iron these curtains.

... Identify the use of the : modal verb and/or the expressions used........................ 1 She .. ability 20 They have got to sell (sell) their flat and buy a bigger one.... possibility 15 You ought to/should write (write) to your grandfather more often........... How do you reply? . criticism 19 Ann was able to/could play (play) the piano at the age of six................ 11 Your friends are late for your dinner party....... What do you suggest he does? ...................... ...... ability 17 You must/have to/should confirm (confirm) your resignation in writing ...... What do you tell her to do? ... . 12 Your fri ends arrive three hours late for the dinner party..................... 2 When we emigrated to Australia...... advice 5 You ought to be (be) kinder to her. .... . suggestion 4 You should start (start) learning Spanish if you're going to live in Madrid. necessity/obligation 3 Shall we go (we/go)? It's getting late.... criticism/advice 12 He must/could have taken (take) your car since he had the keys.... .......... ......mw5t have worked....... then write how you would respond to each using modals ...... she now feels betrayed ......... The window is open and you are cold..... . ...... What do you think? ... prohibition 9 The doctor says I have to lose (lose) weight before my operation..... What do you say to him? .... Tom said he would be home early and he still hasn't arrived.... ....... 5 It is your birthday..... ..... 6 You are at a train station ...... What do you say to him? 9 You are looking after your young cousin..... How do you offer to help her? . 10 Your friend hurt her leg a week ago.. we had to leave (leave) our pets behind .. ........ ......... .. . .... It is after midnight and he is still running around the house... she's only a child .... .........logical assumption .......000 in the lottery. Your friend gives you a very expensive present...... she looks exhausted . 4 Some children are playing football in the flower beds.. She still hasn't seen her doctor............. . (work) late last night...... They say they were delayed by an unexpected visitor..... .. Fill in the blanks with a suitable word or phrase practising modals. necessity 10 May I paint (I/paint) my room a different colour..... ... obligation/duty 18 Ian should have told (tell) her the truth.. (See Suggested Answer section) 1 Your friend has won £10........... .......... Actually she can type (type) 100 words per minute.......... please? asking for permission 11 You really shouldn't eat (not/eat) so much red meat... prohibition 8 You can't pay (not/pay) by cheque without a cheque guarantee card........." "Why don't you go to Chile?"...... What do you say to the other passengers? .... they may be sleeping (sleep) now....... ........... 8 You see your window cleaner with a broken arm ... necessity • Read the following situations. What do you say? ...... ........ What do you say as you impatiently look at your watch? .... An old lady is carrying a heavy suitcase.......... . 3 It is snowing .... .. What do you advise her to do? .... 7 You are in a train .. . ."You should go to Venice. .. 2 Your friend cannot sleep at night............ What do you say to them? ... advice 16 She types very fast.... advice/criticism 6 Could you collect (you/collect) my parcel for me? request 7 You aren't allowed to/can 't/may not take (not/take) photographs in the museum .... logical assumption 13 I'm sorry to bother you but could you help (you/help) me? request 14 Call them later..

13 I'm sure he didn 't send you this letter. sent He can't have sent you this letter. have You don't have to come early tonight.. She needn't have taken so much money with her. 5 It wasn't necessary for them to buy such a big car as they did. • Shall I help you with the dishes? • Let's go for a ride. 14 May I read your newspaper? mind Would you mind me/my reading/you mind if I read your newspaper? 15 I'm sure she wasn't lying to you . It would be a good idea to stop talking. money with her. 8 Why didn't anybody warn me about the bus strike? have Somebody should have warned me about the bus strike. need You don't need to attend/needn't attend the meeting. You don't have to/don't need to/needn 't take the Would you mind if I used your phone? bus. He must have left. be He must be seeing Ruth . What/How about going for a ride? You mustn't take pictures in this museum . • I'm sure he has left. • I'm sure he hasn 't finished yet. 10 Let's go to the cinema. He'll probably perform in the concert. He can 't have finished yet. 3 Shall I get you a cup of tea? me Would you like me to get you a cup of tea? 4 Sue will probably go and see her aunt. a new engine. may/might need. have They needn't have bought such a big car.. going What about going to the cinema? 11 I'm sure he is seeing Ruth. better You had better change your hairstyle. 12 It isn 't necessary for you to come early tonight. is Sue is likely to go and see her aunt. 1 Perhaps the car needs a new engine. It isn't necessary for you to take the bus. 152 . 6 It's forbidden to eat in this building. You shou ld stop talking. You aren't allowed to take pictures in this museum. 16 She is likely to fail her exams. 9 It isn't necessary for you to attend the meeting.. It is likely that he will perform in the concert. . 7 It would be a good idea to change your hairstyle. Use two to five words. that It is likely that she will fail her exams. not You must not eat in this building. been She can't have been lying to you. You'd better stop talking. • It wasn't necessary for her to take so much He may be sleeping now. May/Might I use your phone? Complete the sentences using the words in bold. 2 Why don't you go to Canada for a holiday? could You could go to Canada for a holiday. Would you like me to help you with the dishes? Shall we/Why don't we go for a ride? • It's forbidden to take pictures in this museum. • He is likely to perform in the concert. • Perhaps he is sleeping now. need The car .

spiders are considered good omens or symbols 8) of prosperity. spiders.. 20 Shall I help you lengthen your dress? me Would you like me to help you lengthen your dress? Think of the word which best fits each gap.)·ii It§. as in the example.17 It's forbidden to talk to the driver while he is driving ... Spiders help keep our homes clean by eating flies . In India.of. Write only one word in each one. I I S2: The driver may have lost control of the car. For example. have She may/might have gone to her uncle's. if·----------------------------------------------------. if you are afraid of spiders. for example. American Indians and Australian aborigines worship a spider god in their creation myths.-------------------. in many parts of the world where there are dangerous spiders. and 'phobos'.----------------. Arachnophobia. I ~-----------------------------------------------. and they kill insects which carry serious human diseases.4 .5% of the population ! But why are so many people scared of spiders? More than 99. it seems. Why? Because 6) the strongest arachnophobia began (and continues) in Northern Europe and England . it is estimated that there are up 2) to one million arachnophobes.human beings have evolved to fear spiders. ~ S1: There must have been an accident. And. So. meaning 'fear'.9% of all spider species cannot hurt humans and the few species that are dangerous are far 3) more frightened of us than we are of them. if you learnt to fear spiders.-----. . 18 It wasn 't necessary for him to give me the money back so soon .-------: . without spiders.---... has a definite cultural element. But this seems unlikely. Mexican Indians used to catch spiders to keep 10) their homes free from flies. It comes from the Greek words 'arachne'. In Britain.-. you 12) can probably learn to like them! ·--C•1(iI•1§14 (. an ancient Hindu ritual involves throwing spiders at a wedding in 9) order to bring happiness to the bride and groom. (See Suggested Answer section) : Make speculations for the following pictures. That's about 1. beetles and other pests. In fact. the world would be overrun with insects! So why 5) do so many people find them distasteful? Some psychologists have argued that we just can't help it .where there are no dangerous spiders 7) at all! In contrast. 19 Perhaps she went to her uncle's. 'Arachnophobia' is the term given to the fear 0) . especially amongst people of European descent. 4) such as malaria-carrying mosquitoes. next time you see 11 ) one remind yourself that your fear is probably learnt. given He needn't have given me the money back so soon. 1) which means 'spider'. must You must not talk to the driver while he is driving . It is one of the most common phobias.

characters. when a police car cut in and stopped us. 8 The stain came out of the shirt when it was washed. raised She was raised very strictly by her parents.. to leave earlier to avoid the traffic. 3 She had to beg for money on the street.. 25 We were doubtful about whether we shou ld sign 13 There is a great demand for economical cars. then fill in the correct preposition. be a good idea . Use two to five words. sweets you eat a day.. dairy products. 1 While I was walking down Oxford Street I came 9 Tim isn't cut out for such a high-pressure job. engagement. 24 The boy was bored with his computer game after 12 The only difference between the twins is in their having played it all day. Look at Appendix 3. 11 The holiday was different from the one they had 23 A lot of people were injured in the accident. in such a film. 7 The couple took great delight in their new-born 19 The young actress could never dream of starring baby. then fill in the correct particle(s) .. she still dreams about him.Folder ii' Look at Appendix 2.. 15 A policeman arrested the woman for stealing from 2 The TV programme was aimed at teenagers . . 1 Perhaps it is worth leaving earlier to avoid the traffic. 14 Our electricity was cut off because we forgot to 5 We were driving slowly enjoying the countryside. coffee together. 8 I was delighted with/by th e news of their 20 Although her husband has been dead for years. Complete the sentences using the words in bold.. a shop. 154 . easy You 'll find it easy to get to the train station. 14 The Manager demanded an explanation from his assistant. 21 Are you conscious of the fact that you have 10 She couldn 't concentrate on what she was doing caused us a lot of trouble? because the television was on ... everything. 7 This necklace came down to me from my 16 Do come round anytime. 9 Sue is very attached to her pet dog. 2 Her parents brought her up very strictly. 22 In the desert you can die of thirst. pay the bill. the contract or not. 4 I wonder how she came by that expensive car. iron. 12 You are always cutting into our conversations! 3 After selling the family estate the young man 13 You'd better come up with a good excuse or you'll came into a lot of money. 6 As it was icy he lost control of his car and crashed 18 The doctor told the woman that she was allergic to into a wall. 16 Contrary to what the newspaper said . had agreed to sign the treaty. We can have a cup of grandmother. 2 You should try to cut down on the number of 11 Nothing about the accident came up in the news. last year. 1 Your diet is deficient . in .. the Minister 4 He is very careless with his clothes. 15 After playing football in the rain he came down with 6 When is the writer's new book coming out? a bad cold. 5 There was a long delay in the completion of the 17 Babies are dependent on their mothers for road... 10 The performance came off well. a good record shop. idea It may . 3 You 'll have no difficulty getting to the train station.across .. one is shy while the other is outgoing. be in trouble.

5 I'm sure your sister didn't mean to upset you. was late home. one annoyance too many 4 That man thinks too much of himself . keeps talking about them because he thinks they are important 10 I've never seen two people make friends so quickly .nuisance .his missing the meeting was the last straw.trouble 1 The baby is too young to walk so he has to be 1 The woman was full of anxiety when her daughter carried everywhere. were If I were you . home. 6 It would be a good idea to take an umbrella with you. used She used to go out more than she does now.problem .he really knows how to make his presence felt. you'll have a lot of trouble 5 My dog has been trained to fetch my slippers from answering the questions.that's his character in a nutshell . the bedroom.carry . " the man said.what a(n) nuisance ! . bring . make people notice him 13 I wouldn't book a holiday with that company . 2 You may borrow this book as long as you bring it 2 That dog is a(n) nuisance . I'm afraid your theory just doesn't hold water. blame You can't blame me for ruining your dress. isn't valid or true 8 He's so sensitive to criticism that if you even make a suggestion he flies off the handle. me I booked an early appointment hoping they would not make me wait long to see the doctor. wasted 3 I'm afraid we'll have to give him the sack . he's a great person . That's a thousand pounds down the drain. discussion The new law has been under discussion for a week.from the first day they got on like a house on fire.fetch . admit The man did not admit {to) stealing the wallet. 4 "It wasn't me who stole the wallet. believed Sarah is believed to have been responsible for the accident. 1 I'm surprised he wasn 't hurt . 8 They have been discussing the new law for a week. 7 I booked an early appointment hoping I would not be made to wait long to see the doctor. 3 Can you speak up. I would take an umbrella.he is always blowing his own trumpet.it was a really close shave. where they are concerned he has got a real bee in his bonnet. 9 People believe Sarah was responsible for the accident.they'll make you pay through the nose . prefer He would prefer to cycle rather than walk. in a few words 7 Since you have no proof to show us. loses his temper 9 He's obsessed with environmental problems. intention I'm sure your sister had no intention of upsetting you. a near miss 2 We have to pay for a new roof. pay a huge amount • Fill in the blanks with the words from the lists below in their correct form . is looking very angrily 6 As she said. am suspicious 12 It's impossible to ignore him in a meeting . 11 It wasn 't my fau lt that your dress was ruined. 4 If you don't revise. 10 He prefers cycling to walking. night. got on really well 11 I'm very suspicious about him making that offer . I smell a rat. 12 She doesn't go out as much as she did last year. is always boasting 5 I must have offended her somehow .in fact. 3 Bob took his dog for a walk by the canal last night.she is looking daggers at me.take anxiety . ~ Explain the idioms in bold . 5 I left my glasses at home . please? I have a(n) problem 4 I bought so much shopping I couldn't carry it all with my hearing.he's always barking at back tomorrow.

... it's important to fit exercise into your daily (6) ..... ..:. There is an example at the beginning (0) . Too much stress con ( 10) .... difficult. I Example: A B C D 0 A have B seem C find D happen 0 c:::::::J ... the amount of fat in our diet. of fresh fruit. ...l. they ore delicious too.. Practice Test .. as well as increasing energy levels and (9) ... possible. selecting food that is (2) ... As well as being pocked (5) . This ( l) . c:::::::J c:::::::J Living a healthier ·life Keeping fit and healthy may (0) . and climbing stairs Instead of taking the lift.. B.~-l~l ··~~··-- -- . .... Secondly.. Firstly. vitamins and minerals.. 1 A contains B points @ means D suggests 2 A poor B short c small @ low 3 A declining B dropping c cutting @ reducing 4 ® form B way c look D means 5 A from B by @ with D of 6@ routine B custom c time D manner 7@ possible B probable c able D capable 8 A keep @ maintain c support D manage 9 A providing B doing c assisting @ making 10 A bring B direct c guide @ lead 11 A Whichever @ Whenever c However D Whatever 12 A feeling B wonder @ question D need 156 ... ... -- -·- - Part 1 For questions 1-12. as too much con lead to heart problems. a balanced diet is absolutely essential... to a variety of illnesses... staying relaxed is important for good health. from headaches to high blood pressure. . ..~~· ·. . of getting the balance right.. in salt and sugar... (11) ... This comes in the (4) .. Exercise Is necessary to (8) .. but there ore a few easy-to-follow guidelines. It's all a (12) .. C or D) best fits each gap.... wholemeal bread and pasta. vegetables.. So the message is simple ... Finally. This co n be done by simply walking as much as (7) . B.. Experts recommend (3) .enjoy yourself but learn to respect your body too.. you feel generally fitter and happier.. .. They also suggest increasing the amount of high fibre food we eat... read the text below and decide which answer (A... do things you enjoy and treat yourself occasionally. a healthy body. .

Africa and Oceania.. Part 2 For questions 13-24.. Without it... read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. the significance of the Suez Canal to world trade is huge. it is the most important man-made waterway in the world. The idea of connecting (16) the Mediterranean and Red Seas is an old one. (21) an estimated 120. adding 9. and about 8% of the world's shipping traffic passes through (22) it. Together with the Panama Canal in Central America. the canal transports about 14% of the total world trade..656 km (15) to the journey.. Tragically. the pharaohs in Egypt made the first attempt to link the two seas. Use only one word in each gap. Four thousand years (17) ago. as well as ports located (13) in Asia.. . Constructing the canal (19) was a massive task. Asia and Africa' (24) because of its significance as a trade route between these mighty continents. There is an example at the beginning (0) . but the (20) rest of the 192 km had to be dug from the desert. Thus. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. The Suez Canal is often referred to (23) as 'The crossroads of Europe. Several lakes made up 45 km of the distance. Example: ~ I TIH IA I TI I I I I I I I I I I I The Suez Canal is a 192 km artificial waterway (0) . connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. One and a half million Egyptians worked on the canal. traders from Europe (14) would have to sail around the entire continent of Africa to reach Asia.. Today's canal was built (18) between 1859 and 1869 under the direction of a French engineer called Ferdinand de Lesseps. .. It provides a shortcut for ships travelling between European and American ports..000 died... Today.

the civilisation who had built the Moai had (34) mysteriously vanished. VOLCANO (30) Construction of the statues continued for over a CONSTRUCT thousand years... RELIGION During this time. the statues became larger and more decorated until about 1500 AD. as tall as 20 m. When European (33) sailors arrived SAIL in 1722. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.. MYSTERY 158 . Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided..or 'Rapa Nui' as it is known to its indigenous (O) . when (32) production PRODUCT suddenly stopped.Part 3 For questions 25-34.is a small island located POPULATE 3.. . Over 850 ASTONISH Moai have been found on Easter Island. and APPEAR weigh as much as 270 tonnes. There is an example at the beginning (0). Easter Island .Practice Test ~ . They are human-like in (26) appearance. Very little is known about the civilisation which produced the Moai... (27) Archaeologists believe that the statues may have ARCHAEOLOGY been made by colonists who arrived between the 1st and 7th centuries AD from (28) distant islands to the DISTANCE north-west.. These settlers made the statues from the soft (29) volcanic rock they found on the island. Easter Island is world-famous for its (25) aston1sh1ng stone statues.600km off the coast of Chile in the south-east Pacific Ocean. possibly for (31) religious reasons.. called 'Moai'..... read the text below.

Example: O Although it was raining.... 35 Eating on buses isn't allowed ...... ...... Part 4 For questions 35-42. I still went jogging. .. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided .. ........... including the word given.. using the word given.. You must use between two and five words.. it must............. MOOD I'm not in the mood for going out tonight.... Do not change the word given.... 40 I don't feel like going out tonight.. 42 I'm sure Tom hasn't fixed the fax machine yet.. 38 When did you start playing the guitar? BEEN How long have you been playing the guitar? 39 They have cancelled their journey because of the snowstorm.... ............ 36 Shall I do the washing up? ME Would you like me to do the washing up? 37 This medicine works best if taken in the morning... SUPPOSED You are not supposed to eat on buses..... .... .. 41 You shouldn't have been rude to your boss...... ..... HAVE Tom can't have fixed the fax machine yet...be taken in the morning.... ........ FOOLISH It was foolish of you to be rude to your boss.... OF In .. ..... complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence. ...... I still went jogging... MUST For this medicine to be effective... There is an example at the beginning (0). ....... CALLED Their journey has been called off because of the snowstorm ..

. (opinion. age. selfish and ruthless. former. black and white. {beautiful. (black. They are the same in singular and plural. (opinion. ninety-year-old . graphite. used for) 5 He's just sold that suit to a woman. ashamed. round. Rewrite the sentences putting the adjectives into the correct place. Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons Adjectives Adjectives tell us what something is like. graphite. the more general adjective goes before the more specific. only. colour. black and white) We watched a boring . teddy bear. (strict. tall . (size. brown) June has a tiny. shape. Ill. used for) 10 He bought a racquet. young) He's just sold that suit to a beautiful. age. opinion. colour. we use and to separate the last one. delicious. red mountain bike. colour. (opinion. birthday. American) We used to have a strict. new. glad etc are never followed by a noun . Inner. Order of Adjectives • When two or more adjectives are used before a noun. (opinion . singing voice. alone. glossy) She wears horrible. evening dress. (opinion. • When there are two or more adjectives of the same type. . asleep. horrible.~a. (NOT: This swimming pool is indoor. pure. Italian. pure) She has a lovely. American. shape. upper can only be used before nouns. material) 9 She was given a dress. eldest. pink lipstick. beautiful etc). (colour. expensive. square. ) • Present and past participles can be used as adjectives. content. The film was amusing. . (opinion . (brown and orange. a kind. (chocolate.. be about) 7 She bakes cakes . used for) 11 He has a grandfather. red. dining-room) She bought brown and orange dining-room curtains. principle. fluffy. new) He bought a new. outdoor.. sound. Shes got long hair These roses smell nice Adjectives can be factual {big. main. origin) 13 She wears lipstick. (opinion . tall. singing. (new. (tiny. biology. material) 3 He loves his bike.~··~· lovely small old square brown Chinese wooden wfltmg .. old . (opinion. old . He was considered cruel. 1 I love ice-cream. colour. ninety-year-old. used for) 4 She has a voice. stay. (opinion . age. (opinion. chocolate. age.~:.. French.. glossy. become. size . fluffy. colour. leather sofa. outer. blue etc) or express an opinion (nice. tennis racquet. {leather.. We were amused. origin) 6 She bought curtains. spectacular. (opinion. they normally go in the following order: Opinion Fact adjectives noun adjectives size age shape colour origin material used for/be about i"'j(. The music was loud and deafening. mountain) He loves his expensive. This is an indoor swimming pool. round) She bakes delicious. slim French woman. (age.. then identify what kind of adjectives they are. navy-blue. taste) . origin.. feel. modern) They have a modern.. seem. get. smell. French grandfather. (strawberry. birthday cakes. be. (boring. Italian. young . alive. be about) 160 . evening) She was given a spectacular. material. material . i. German film. navy-blue. slim. (tennis. brown. be about) 8 June has a teddy bear. black. (lovely. They can be used before a noun or after a linking verb (appear. origin.~!.. (French. look. material) 14 We used to have a teacher. Indoor. Italian. / lov~ taety Italian etrawb~rry lc~·cr~am . German. biology teacher.J • When two or more adjectives are used after a verb. origin. origin) 12 We watched a film. tasty) . gentle lady • Afraid. The students were ashamed of what they had done (NOT: tf:le asf:laffled sR:JdeRts) • Chief. ma~rlal) 2 They have a sofa. wonderful) He has a wonderful. colour. alike. (pink .

marble) swimming pool we have in our 3) colourful terraced mountainside (mountainside.. a part time worker • badly. strong.. 6 Leathery/Leather coats never seem to go out of fashion. rectangular) patio at the front with many 5) circular terracotta flower-filled (terracotta. stone. antique) rugs and comfortable sofas. feathery snowflakes (soft and delicate like feathers) BUT a feather pillow (a pillow containing feathers). It's a 1) . anti-social behaviour. circular) pots. a long-awaited letter 3 A person who loves having fun. little. Persian. metallic paint (paint which looks like metal) BUT metal-rimmed glasses (glasses with a rim made of metal) .. terraced. flower-filled. • Nouns of material. a seventy-km speed limit. 2 A letter that you have been waiting for for a long time.. well + past partlclple. 5 This soap will leave your skin feeling silk/silky and soft. unkind character) BUT a steel-plated tank (a vehicle with a steel covering). a we:ll·taught etude:nt. a badly-treated animal. medium-sized) bedrooms and three marble bathrooms . Ill. .be:autlful larg~ (stone. 1 A student who has been taught well. The house has five 6) elegant medium-sized white (elegant. (a summer suit. a leaden sky (dark sky. Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons ___. Put the adjectives in the correct order. leathery meat (too firm and difficult to cut) BUT a leather coat (a coat made of leather). a one-month holiday. golden eagle (a bird with gold-brown feathers) BUT a gold ring (a ring made of gold).each with its own 7) wonderful little antique (antique. You will love the 2) huge old marble {old. excellent. a smart-looking man. You can eat in the many 10) excellent traditional Italian (Italian. 1 A gold/golden eagle glided gracefully across the sky. 4 He approached the task with steel/steely determination. lovely. 9 The manager's stone/stony expression showed that something was wrong . a television series) • Certain adjectives can be used metaphorically: silky skin (soft and smooth . beautiful. wonderful) wall-painting. white. There is a 4) sunny rectangular stone (sunny. colourful) garden. a three-year degree • prefixes and suffixes. a steely character (a hard. ~ Underline the correct adjective. with spectacular views of the sea. large) villa on the coast.. traditional) restaurants nearby and enjoy using the facilities in the new sports centre. huge. BUT a sllk dress (a dress made of silk) . the colour of lead) BUT lead pipes (pipes made of lead). 3 We had to climb over a low stone/stony wall. Compound adjectives are formed with: • present partlclples. 2 She ruined her silk/silky suit by washing it. a well-known singer • cardinal numbers + nouns. purpose or substance can be used as adjectives. a fun-loving person 4 A garden which is tended perfectly. a perfectly-tended garden .. like silk). 8 We spotted the metal/metallic blue car speeding into the tunnel ahead. a much ·liked colleague. stony look (disapproving look) BUT a stone wall (a wall made of stone) . 10 She was given an expensive gold/golden watch for her twenty-first birthday. marble) floor with 9) expensive antique Persian (expensive. a sharp-cutting knife • past partlclples. a well-established firm Make compound adjectives to describe the following. 7 This plant has soft feather/feathery leaves. The living room has a 8) lovely cool marble (cool. poorly.

1 He takes .exciting . dis- (d1scontent) . pro. a trouble-free life 6 Avisit that was not timed well.(anticlockwise) . etc. (7) relaxing time. However there are certain common endings for adjectives which are formed from nouns and verbs. super. Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. the. -ate (passionate) . 5 The survivors carried the injured people to the ambulances. -ful (remorseful) . an ill-advised action 8 A journey of seven days. 162 .. in. -ious (vicious) .. over. -ial (racial) . -ar (polar) . -ical (economical) . 2 When the government decided to raise taxes . ii. the hungry. the deaf.homeless people can very often suffer from loneliness.. the sick. FORGET Some adjectives can be used with the as nouns to talk about groups of people in general.(abnormal) . -y (sunny) . ir. -some (lonesome) .(superconfiden . Long . -ous (glamorous} . -like (man like) . Choosing a holiday can be an (0) . disabled children in his area riding on Friday afternoons. the disabled . the living.(asocial) .(underfed) . • The most common prefixes used with adjectives are: a. (4) sunny beaches and a hotel room SUN with a (5) spectacular view is what many of us SPECTACLE expect of an (6) enjoyable holiday. Imagining all the DELIGHT places you might visit can add a (2) magical MAGIC touch to the (3) repetitive routine of everyday REPEAT life. the poor. -ant (observant) . non. a badly-timed/an ill-timed visit 7 An action that is not advisable. -ian (Albanian) . Disabled people need help and undersranding The disabled need help and understanding (refers to disabled people in general) The disabled people over there are training for the Paralymp1c Games (refers to a specific group of disabled people) ~ Fill in the where necessary.over1ct1ve) . anti. -esque (picturesque} .(non-violent) . under..(irrational) . -ive (reactive) .(prepacked .(illegal) . Some ENJOY people prefer a calm.. .. -al (practical} . if you APPEAL plan carefully. These are : the blind. -ist (racist) .(incredible) . -ible (sensible) . -ly (friendly) .rich people were unhappy and the poor were devastated.mapprec1ated) . the weak. ab.. -ary (reactionary) . 3 The elderly as well as . (8) adventurous holiday is ADVENTURE more (9) appealing. the rich. the homeless. while to RELAX others a more active. the middle-aged. pre. un. These are: -able (predictable) . the unemployed. the strong. -ent (dependent) . the old.(immortal) . -ic (dramatic) . a seven-day journey • Most common adjectives do not have a particular ending. 6 The deaf communicate by using sign language. mal- (malnounshed) . im. Whatever you choose. you're bound to have an (10) unforgettable time.(hypersensitive) . 4 We were relieved to hear that all the injured were recovered from the wreckage before the plane exploded. -less (mindless) . sub- (subterranean) ._ Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons 5 A life that is free of trouble. EXCITE and (1 ) delightful experience. hyper. -ory (celebratory) .(pro-industry) . -ish (selfish) . the elderly.

..... _.. subject + verb place ~ manner time time subject + verb · place manner .. ......... There are also relative adverbs (when.. during the winter) . how often (adverbs of frequency . They also go in front position to emphasise the time... (reluctantly. where (adverbs of place ..... .. 3 She waited for her test results. :J :....... 4 The clock strikes twelve times.... 7 They go by car............. in front position they give emphasis.. She always comes on time In short answers. in the evenings) My mother always used to read aloud to me in the evenings.. All afternoon th..... however.....~. etc) go after the auxiliary but before the main verb.. to the gym ' on foot : every day. He swims very fast They tell us how (adverbs of manner . qwetly .completely) something happens...... sometimes) (At weekends) they sometimes go to the leisure centre by car (at weekends) . every week) (Every week) he reluctantly does the shopping at the supermarket (every week) ...Ferries sail to the island only twice weekly during the winter..... ... .... ever.... .. at the supermarket. Rewrite the sentences putting the adverbs in the correct place and making any other necessary changes.... ... . She opened the letter carefully Carefully......tomorrow)... (weekly. usually...... she opened the letter.. mid or end position in a sentence. She goes . . ..·d. .... . Every day : =~···········..... sometimes... She is always complaining.. seldom.... (at weekends...-y·-p..... ...there)...:. q~i~tiy i~ th. always... . OR how much (adverbs of degree .. . (exactly... ... • Adverbs of frequency (always... why) and sentence adverbs (maybe) ...... occasionally. adverbs of frequency go before the auxiliary. ... Note that when there is a verb of movement....... Front Mid End i . in the hospital... where........ Is he always so bad tempered?" 'Yes. bravely.... place and time. Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons ____...:.e sltting r~~~~······! • Adverbs of manner can be used in any position . ll she goes .. ...... ........... 1 Ferries sail to the island .. (anxiously........ when (adverbs of time .... (emphasis) • Adverbs of manner. yesterday) (Yesterday) the soldiers marched bravely to the battlefield (yesterday) ... quite..y....~ .. Order of Adverbs • Adverbs can be used in front. ....~~:..carefully). Adverbs normally describe verbs. ... .: :. : to the gym : on foot............ 2 He does the shopping..:... ...... in the hall... to the leisure centre. Ive almost finished.... ..:.. other adverbs or whole sentences... .... hardly. = . .. subject + verb place manner time : She went . the order is place .d~y. ..:..... twice .. 5 My mother used to read to me. . ~~e:..always). are usually placed as follows: subject + verb manner place time He was workmg ... '! • Adverbs of time usually go in end position. when used in the same sentence. (aloud.~~~. etc) go before the words they modify..:. (to the battlefield.. all day) She waited anxiously in the hospital all day for her test results. 6 The soldiers marched . only. . at midday) (At midday) the clock in the hall strikes exactly twelve times (at midday) ._ ...manner .... he always is • Adverbs of degree (almost.. m the shed : a// day. adjectives....X~st~'. .time. :.

low. Those adverbs with an asterisk (*) can be found with -ly ending without a difference in meaning.. 18 He ran to answer the phone. straight. nervously. 9 The detective had been following the suspect. carefully) The detective had been (carefully) following the suspect (carefully) all day. extremely) (Eventually) we (eventually) arrived in Scotland safely after an extremely bumpy flight. She was an early riser She woke up early. to the hall . These are: best. quickly) He ran quickly down the stairs to the hall to answer the phone. 14 She looked at her reflection. last.Hav~ you thought oa~lly about your chlld'e futur~?. direct. fast. well . thin* . clear* . in his bedroom) (All morning) he studied hard in his bedroom (all morning). happily) The children sit (in their room) and play happily for hours (in their room). sadly) He sadly waved goodbye to his friend at the airport. all morning. cheap*. dear* . hourly. clean* . 10 She walks. but have been particularly worried about how your child would react to being away from you? (particularly) On the 22nd and 23rd of this month. by the fire) (All day) she sat (lazily) by the fire (lazily) (all day) reading a book (all day). 16 He waved goodbye. dead . (excitedly. late. deep. (at once) . etc. free . through the water. extra. wrong. this morning) (This morning) he looked (nervously) out the window (nervously) (this morning) to see if anyone was there. 13 He studied. I bought it cheap. eventually. past. quick*. (at the party. fine* . we can guarantee you and your child wi ll want to reserve a place at once. slow. (down the stairs. this afternoon) The old boat sailed (slowly) through the water (slowly) this afternoon.. cold. hard. (slowly. (quickly. at St James. kindly._____ Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons 8 We arrived after a bumpy flight. high. at the airport. in the mirror) (For ten minutes) she (carefully) looked at her reflection (carefully) in the mirror (for ten minutes) . better. dirty. (all day) In the evening they can sit in our comfo rtable canteen for a very nutritious meal prepared daily by our resident chef who expertly selects only fresh ingredients. (daily/expertly) Once you 've spent the day with us. 11 The little boy ran. (informal) ALSO I bought it cheaply (formal) 64 . There are certain adverbs which have the same form as their adjectives. (in their room . for hours. wide. daily. sure. to the station) (Every morning) she walks to the station quickly (every morning). further. 15 The children sit and play. easy. (for ten minutes. (to his friend . right. far. inside. tight. we. Rewrite the text putting the adverbs in the correct place. yearly. every morning . suddenly) (Suddenly) the little boy (suddenly) ran excitedly out of the room. 20 He looked to see if anyone was there.. 19 She sat reading a book. (conveniently/picturesquely) Students sleep in twin rooms that have been tastefully decorated and are specially designed to be as comfortable as possi ble. (hard . lazily. (out the window. (all day. unexpectedly. early. big. (tastefully/specially) Students work hard all day and are supervised by experienced teachers. close* . monthly. St James is conveniently located near Chatwick main train station and sits picturesquely on a mountainside overlooking the Menta Lakes. long . weekly. loud* . (all day. terribly) She turned up (unexpectedly) at the party (unexpectedly) looking terribly annoyed. but then they are more formal. Have you th ought about your child's future? (carefully) Have you thought about sending your child to boarding school. (in Scotland. are opening our doors to parents like you. thick. 12 She turned up looking annoyed . safely. . 17 The old boat sailed. carefully. quiet* . out of the room.

and all the drivers drove 20) well (adv) .Y/high regarded in the school as people can get on with her easily/easy.- 14 The hotel's wide/widely range of sports facilities left the guests pretty/prettily satisfi ed. and his car stopped 18) instantly (adv) as it collided with a safety barrier. The race was due to start at 11 o'clock. They had trained 8) long (adv) and 9) hard (adv) to get here." 9 He'll surely/sure get a good grade. I've nearly/near finished. he's been studying very hardly/hard for the past year. 1 I managed to get to New York easy/easily by flying there directly/direct. 7 I was not full/fully satisfied with the doctor as he had wrong/wrongly diagnosed my previous illness.. It was a 6) cold (adj) morning. 8 "Do you intend to leave shortly/short?" "I think so. and entrance to the main stand is 3) free (adj) . 4 It is wide/widely believed that she was wrong/wrongly accused . There was a 12) loud (adj) roar when all the drivers started their cars. then they proceeded 13) quickly (adv) to the starting line. 13 She free/freely admitted that she had not been working very hard/hardly recently. Identify the words in bold as adjectives or adverbs.. 15 Sure/Surely we must be near/nearly there by now. and the cars moved. The event is held 2) yearly (adv) . 3 Lately/Late the cost of living has been increasing. 2 She has been deeply/deep upset by his behaviour late/lately. as if in 14) slow (adj) motion. with effort nearly = almost widely = to a large direct = by the shortest route hardly = scarcely pretty = fairly extent directly = immediately high = at/to a high level prettily = in a pretty way wrong = incorrectly easy = gently and slowly highly = very much short = suddenly wrongly = unjustly easily = without difficulty last = after all others shortly = soon (wrongly goes before free = without cost lastly = finally sure = certainly verbs/past part... Over the rest of the race he managed to distance himself 23) further (adv) from all the other cars. very lately = recently l'fil Underline the correct item. They drove 15) past (adv) the stands. Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons . ... and the teams had woken up 7) early (adv) to get their cars ready. 12 The train goes direct/directly to Edinburgh without stopping so it will probably be full/fully. 5 Laura is a very shy person who rare/rarely goes out and she does not mix free/freely with the other students. 6 She is !!!9!!!. . The gun went off. It was an 24) easy (adj) victory for him.. On the fifth lap one driver made a 17) wrong (adj) decision. Adverbs with two forms and differences in meaning deep = a long way down fully = completely near = close wide = off-target deeply = greatly hard = intently. 10 I was prettily/pretty embarrassed when I realised that I had hardly/hard enough money to pay the bill.. The race was 19) fast (adj) . 11 He came last/lastly in the race and was ~/prettily disappointed with his performance. This year's road race was the 1) best (adj) I've ever seen . but it was 21) clear (adj) from the beginning who was going to win: an Australian driver had taken the 22) inside (adj) lane and overtaken everybody in only the second lap. and he continued round the track for an 25) extra (adj) lap to celebrate his win. things generally are not nearly/near as cheap as they used to be. but started 10) late (adv) as the track wasn't 11) clean (adj) .wrong/ freely = willingly late = not early surely = without a doubt wrongly go after verbs) full = exactly. and turned a 16) tight (adj) corner onto the main circuit. The race is always a 4) sure (adj) exhibition of exceptionally 5) fine (adj) driving.

stupid . ridiculous . shallow. She's a rather co day 1s rather a cotd da. 1 Ann has four children . different. He's quite good at tennis. perfect. She's a fairly/pret wor ng •e ·soi Underline the words in bold which can be used. exhausted . and they're all quite/rather/fairly/pretty well-behaved. cruel. brilliant. 11 This exercise is quite/rath er/fairly/p retty difficult but I'm quite/rath er/fairly/p retty certain you retty cheap. (it was more interesting rather taller than me Rather is used before or after a/an. useless. right.. narrow. I find her quite/rath er/fairly/p retty difficult with . can do it. -w silly sillier (than) the silliest '(of/in) also add -er/-est narrow narrower (than) . to get on 8 She's quite/rath er/fairly/p retty an arrogant woman. gentle. Be quite/rath er/fairly/p retty up well. The mee11ng was rather interestin g. ty hard • Fairly/Pretty are synonymous with quite and rather. It is used ian. 5 Ken is quite/rath er/fairly/p retty a good painter and quite/rath er/fairly/p retty imaginative too. She's rather bad at Maths. adjectives such as: alone. 2 That was quite/rather/fairly/p retty an interesting speech Jane gave. false. sure. the horrible. to some degree) is used in favourable comments . 9 Can we stop for a bite to eat soon? I'm feeling qu ite/rather/fairly/pre tty hungry. but they are 6 The supermarket stocks quite/rath er/fairly/p retty a wide variety of imported products quite/rather/fairly/pre tty expensive . -y. Hes quite a successful business/T certain. amazing. some verbs and a/an . o 1rro~ ·er . It s quite certain he committed crime I m quite sure he hasn't told us the truth. quiet form comparative and superlative forms with -er/-est or more/most. etc. extraordin ary.na1 rawest ALSO narrow more na• ·o~ . Quite (= completely) is used with adverbs. friendly. • Rather is used: a) in unfavourable comments . b) in favourable comments than we meaning to an unusual degree. They can be used after a. 4 It was quite/rath er/fairly/p retty obvious that he was lying. 10 The exercise took quite/rather/fairly/p retty longer than I expected. polite. impressed . true. the narrowest (of/in) of two or more syllables take modern more modern (than) the most modern (of/in) more/most beautiful more beautiful (than) the most beautiful (of/in) their Note: clever. I was quite/rather/fairly/~ 3 Life is quite/rath er/fairly/p retty more difficult now than it was in the past. 12 The journey takes quite/rath er/fairly/p retty a long time but the ticket is quite/rath er/fairly/p Regular Compara tive and Superlat ive Forms Adjectives Positive Comparative Superlative of one syllable add -(e)r/-(e)st to tall taller (than) the tallest (of/in) form their comparative and close closer (than) the closest (of/in) superlative forms sad sadder (than) the saddest (of/in) of two syllables ending in -ly. simple. expected) and c) with comparative degree. In some sentences all words might be possible.most narrow 166 . dreadful. impossibl e. common . sure to dress 7 It's quite/rath er/fairly/p retty colder today than it was yesterday .~ Adie ctive s I Adve rbs I Com paris ons before • Quite (= fairly.

s uccess is guaranteed . It's situated by the sea.. A 7) huge (huge) cathedral overlooks the town and it is one of 8) the most breathtaking (breathtaking) in the whole area... .... far farther farthest d) most + adj/adv of positive degree = very She was waiting most patiently to see the doctor. much more most ·i b) very + positive degree I'm very happy in my job....~~~.. It gets the dirt out 4) quicker/more quickly (quick) and 5) more thoroughly (thorough) than any ordi nary powder. So go ahead and visit Kinsale...) .. Adverbs ~ Positive ~ Comparative . Most tourists visit Kinsale for its fish restaurants. Some of 4) the best (good) known chefs in the world have trained in the restaurants there... dd (e) (e)st adiec 1ves a ..... With a prize-winning formula that has been researched 7) more extensively (extensive) by our scientists than any other product.the 5mallest..~.: ~~~:~:~~~~~~~~~t::::..... with its many craft shops and narrow cobbled streets.... New 'All-bright' cleans 3) more powerfully (powerful) than any oth er product on the market.~~~.. which are family owned ...~#... The town is very 10) beautiful (beautiful) ........~~~~~~~:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: two-syllable or compound adverbs take often more often ~ the most often more/most (Compound adverbs are adjectives + -ly...:::::::::::::::::: :::r~~~1:~~:~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::r::~~:~: i. So pick up your box of new 'All-bright' today! . The town itself is one of 5) the most picturesque (picturesque) in Southern Ireland....effectively......-' ..::::::::::::::r~~~!i......r/- l~ slow !~ slower l~ the slowest e~~ly ~~... ....... The staff are 12) more welcoming (welcoming) there than anywhere else.!..... t. Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons _ Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form. .t··································-·············1·························································· adverbs having the same forms as their .......: any + comparative (used in negatives and questions) Well is the adverb of good.. in no time at all new 'All-bright' will be selling 6) better (good) than any other brand at you r supermarket.. Finally..~.. which ensures that it is 6) cooler (cool) in the summer than other inland towns. bad I badly worse worst further (adj) = more I need further information on this..:~. useful _ usefully) comfortably more comfortably I the most · comfortably Irregular Forms .~.. Indeed.......... (effective) and leaves your clothes 2) brilliantly (brilliant) white.. f. He is a good cookj e) Can't you drive any faster? He cooks well.~~~::~i. ········• ·I good I well better · best ' His office is further/farther away than mine... many I a lot of ~ more most c) even/much/far/a bit + comparative degree The working little · less least cond. (small) towns in Southern Ireland but it's also one of 2) the most famous (famous) .. j Change the words in brackets into adverbs and put them into the correct form. It is well known for its 3) wonderful (wonderful) fish restaurants.. To the north of the town lies one of 9) the highest (high) mountain ranges in the country.....~.... The food may be 13) expensive (expensive) but you'll have one of 14) the most pleasurable (pleasurable) evenings of your life there....... Positive ~ Comparative ~ Superlative ~ a) further/farther (adv) = longer (in distance) ·• ·• C· •••••··••• . With new 'All-bright' your money will go 8) further (far) and you' ll get the 9) best (good) possible results .......... ~ar.~ . ······················1············-·····················..... a new washing powder that gets rid of stains 1) .tions were even worse than we expected... Kinsale may be one of 1) ... .. This means that the service there is 11) better (good) than in other restaurants..... Superlative ...

• comparative + and + comparative It's getting colder and colder every day. he seems to become more sensible. So my question is.. . Use two to five words. This book says the battle was in 1066. etc/half as .. as He is as handsome as everyone says he is! not so/as . + inf without to (specific preference) • would rather/sooner + inf without to I'd rather walk than drive... Also. do you do discounts for pensioners? Your holidays are 7) very/even expensive for someone on a low income. than The students would prefer to start early rather than finish late.. Nonetheless.. (positive degree) .. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. 2 The students would rather start early than finish late. I am 2) most/much interested in climbing . • look. the more sensible. such a(n)/so . he seems.. will there be climbs which are 6) a bit/most easier for older ones like me? In addition . the higher your marks will be. taste + like That dress looks like an old sack. whereas that book says it (comparison by contrast) was in 1166..... (positive degree) .. 3 Wouldn't you rather have juice than water? to Wouldn't you prefer juice to water? 4 I spent half as much money as my brother.. 6 Wouldn 't you prefer to come out instead of staying at home alone? rather Wouldn't you rather come out than stay at home alone? 7 I didn't think it would be so difficult... (positive degree) . Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons filill Underline the correct item. • would prefer + to-inf+ rather than I would prefer to go swimming rather than watch television all day. • the same as He has the same views as his father. than This chocolate has less fat than that one but the Swiss chocolate the least ... . he'd be extremely rich. as If he was half as lucky as you. I am 4) far/very less fit than I used to be . 5 Riding a bike is easier than riding a horse.. form/noun (general preference) Children usually prefer chips to vegetables. smell.. 1 As he gets older.. as She isn't as tall as her sister.. as Mrs Jones 1s not so friendly as she looks. as Riding a horse is not as easy as riding a bike. (positive degree) . more It was more difficult than I thought. the The older he becomes. the + The easier the exam. + than + inf without to • clause + whereas/while + clause .. • less . Types of Comparisons • as . I am 5) even/very keener on the sport than ever. 168 . (positive degree) . sound .. She puts four times as much sugar in her tea as me. of/in has the least fat of all. the better it is for the environment. • the + comparative . but fear that I will be 3) most/much older than the other participants. comparative The more people who use buses. I am writing to request 1) farther/further information on the climbing holidays you run.... I look forward to hearing from you and receiving 8) any/more details. • prefer + -ing form/noun + to + -ing I prefer eating healthily to eating junk food.. twice My brother spent twice as much money as I did. • twice/three times.

far The post office was not as far as we thought. 17 Today I feel happier than ever. b) after accept. He thinks he has a voice like an angel. 2 My friend George describes himself as a great singer. It 's like walking on a tightrope. taste. pronouns or the -ing form to express similarity. as. eating I prefer eating chocolate to (eating) apples. the The harder you work. the prices are not as high as you might expect. as If I ate as much as you. She works like a slave (she isn't a slave). Surprisingly. It looks like Turner 1s going to win the race. 18 That dress is a third of the cost of the blue one. describe.. b) after feel. It feels like velvet. Do it as I showed you. as much. so· The church is not so old as this building. She works extremely hard and at the end of a long day in court all she feels like doing is collapsing in front of the TV. 9 His job is getting more hectic all the time. (she's a clerk). not Physics is not as easy as Maths for Chris. any I'm sorry but I can't go any faster than this. She works as a clerk.As • Like is used : a) for similarities. the whale is classed . \@ Fill in as or like. the exam will be easy. as I've never felt as happy as (I do) today. • As is used: a) to say what somebody or something really is Gobs/roles) . Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons 8 This building is older than the church . the same as. with dishes that smell delicious and taste like homemade food . 16 My husband likes a cooked breakfast but I prefer just toast. but when he sings it sounds like a cat howling! He works as a taxi driver and everybody keeps telling him not to give up his job! 3 McTaverty's Tavern has been described as the b est restaurant in Perthshire. look. many I have received as many presents as David . Certain items such as scissors. 15 I would rather eat chocolate than apples. refer to. whereas I prefer just toast.. regard. 1 Although it lives in the sea. It may look like a dangerous beast. and c) with nouns. 13 If you work hard . He's known as an expert on antiques c) in the expressions: as usual. smell. 12 The post office was nearer than we thought. 10 David and I have received the same number of presents. knives etc should be kept out of reach of children and d) in clauses of manner to mean in the way that. . Like . 19 Chris finds Maths easier than Physics.. more The more people (who) come. 11 I'd weigh a ton if I ate all you do. use. class. and His job is getting more and more hectic all the time . be known. atL a mammal. the easier the exam will be. I'd weigh a ton. sound + noun. 20 I' m sorry but this is the fastest I can go. but it can be as gentle as a lamb. whereas my husband likes a cooked breakfast. much The blue dress costs three times as much as that one.. as . the better the party will be. 4 Marjorie works as a criminal lawyer and is regarded as an expert in her field. 14 The party will be better if many people come.

He's better than any other dancer. He was sent a ticket for a 3-week holiday in Africa as a winning prize for a comp13tition he had entered. 8 Howard and Hugh aren't related but they look almost exactly the same as each other. When her friends saw her they were so impressed that they kept referring to her as 'The Diva' for the rest of the day! CJJ • In Other Words Kate is more intelligent than Ruth. 9 Charlotte and Elizabeth look very much alike. . Is this the fastest car you can find? Ruth is less intelligent than Kate.you know. I'll never forget my first holiday in Hawaii. I like olives more than pickles. No one else dances as well as he does. Samantha. the more selfish he becomes. When they walk into a room . • I've never seen such a cute baby. Her hair wasn't as unruly as usual and her new make-up gave her face a glamorous look. • That shirt is similar to this one. Ann behaves in a motherly way towards her child . He plays basketball well. 1 Samantha is prettier than Julia. 4 As I get older. well John can cook very well when he is in the right mood. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. the happier I become. 7 Caroline is the meanest woman I've ever met. When Josh opened it. Josh ran like the wind to pack his things and let his boss know of the unexpected journey. it's like seeing double. you look exactly like my cousin Hilary . 6 As I was saying . • As he gets richer. • Ann is very motherly to her child. • I prefer (eating) olives to (eating) pickles. Since the trip was scheduled for the following day.. professionally Laura has danced/has been dancing professionally for five years. • Can't you find a faster car than this? Ruth isn't as intelligent as Kate (is). The richer he gets. Use two to five words. I'd prefer to eat olives rather than (eat) pickles. • He's the best dancer of all. but is a low-fat food.. It was like paradise. 3 John can be a very good cook when he is in the right mood. similar Charlotte looks very similar to Elizabeth. It's the cutest baby I've ever seen. I intend to return there as soon as I can afford the air fare. do as your doctor tells you. They are referred to as 'The Twins'. Last week he received an envelope that looked like an invitation.. than He is more amusing than anyone I've ever met. you want to go on a diet. never I've never met such a mean woman as Caroline. 7 Nobody is as lucky as Josh. That shirt and this one are alike. he went as white as a sheet. He's a better dancer than anyone else. • He's a good basketball player. 2 He's the most amusing person I've ever met. the one who works as an air hostess. the The older I get. is not as pretty as. Why not try soya meat? It tastes just like real meat and can be used in the same way as mince. There are some foods such as vegetables which you can eat as much of as you want. 10 After Myrna left the beauty parlour she felt like a film star. Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons 5 If. 9 For as long as I live. I'd rather eat olives than pickles. many I have got as many brothers as you. 8 We have got the same number of brothers. 5 Why didn't you find a cheaper restaurant? cheapest Is this the cheapest restaurant you could find? 6 Laura has been a professional dancer for five years. as Julia . he becomes more selfish.. I become happier. He dances better than any other dancer.

expensive to feed . \. drinks. intelligent.. good He is a very good snooker player. 11 We've never had such a wonderful holiday.I Look at the pictures below. rather He prefers to read rather than watch TV.. way Doctor Doyle behaves in a caring way to all her patients.. mo re than 500 b illio n cups of USUAL coffee are cons umed (2) globally each year. The coffee industry is worth 60 billion dollars VALUE (4) annually. 12 He plays snooker very well.. coffee is the world's second most GLOBAL (3) valuable traded product a fter oil. beautiful . instant coffee is popular. But different nations have very different (8) preferences as to how they like to drink the ir coffee.. EFFECT :--t·Jt tI•1JU4t. good companion etc.• Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line . . favourite. In fact. However you drink ~ 1t.1. 1C· ------------------------------------------------~ ----------: 'I (See Suggested Answer section) ./ world. it sta rted producing an inte rnatio na l SIGNIFY postage stamp which sme lt like coffee in orde r to promo te it! Coffee is drunk in (7) virtually every country around the VIRTUAL . T oday. A dog is more expensive to feed than a budgie. 1t 1s an (10) effective way to start your day. less I am less artistic than Jane. Brazil 's coffee industry is so (6) significant to its econo my that in 2001. useful. 13 Tracy eats more cheese than I do. . In FASHION t. 1. . ~t h~r~.!~ Coffee is o ne of the world 's (0) . 15 Jane is more artistic than I am . ANNUAL The world 's la rgest coffee (5) produce r is Brazil. t§. PREFER ' In some countries espresso is very (9) fas hionable. Legend has it th at it was FAVOUR discovered in the 9th ce ntury by a shepherd when he no ticed his he rd of goats 'dancing' after eating some red be rri es from a(n) (1) unusual tree. The country has a lmost 4 billio n coffee PRODUCE trees a nd produces about 30% of the world 's supply. 14 He likes reading more than watching TV. then talk about the animals using comparative and superlative : forms. . most This is the most wonderful holiday we've ever had . difficult. Adiectives I Adverbs I Comparisons __ 10 Doctor Doyle is caring to all her patients. Use the suggestions given as well as your own ideas. less I eat less cheese than Tracy does.. friend ly.

summer to come. in . 15 Professor Davidson is an expert in Sociology. she is capable of crossing 23 This music is familiar to me. 4 Tom failed to pass his driving test for the fourth time. 14 He wants to save up to buy a car so he'll have to 7 You shouldn't put your parents down.. you'll be evicted. opposed His parents are opposed to him/his becoming a musician. the street on her own. then fill in the correct preposition(s). ~ Complete the sentences using the words in bold. with . then fill in the correct particle(s) .. friend. 1 Carpool lane penalties should be done .. 22 Everybody congratulated him on his success. 3 You shouldn't spend all your money as you may 11 Peter went to the bank to draw out £300 to pay for need something to fall back on in the future. 26 She was envious of my diamond engagement ring . 9 Now that Jane is nine. 12 The boss was furious with me about the mix-up in the travel arrangements. record . 10 The house was so badly built that two walls fell 2 The car drew up at the side of the road . 19 All the children are fond of their new teacher. 16 After a long discussion she fell in with our plan .. his new computer.. 1 The smell of burning wood reminds me of my childhood.. 5 London is famous tor its museums. brings back memories. defeated them. worn They were worn out by the intensive course. 3 The intensive course has exhausted them. 8 Joan is crying because she fell out with her best only to find he was a con man. 25 All the students were enthusiastic about the school 11 I don't think there is any excuse for such bad trip. 17 She's an expert in/on Greek history.away 9 Do up your shoe laces or you'll trip. 13 The receptionist had a little difficulty in 2 He was doubtful about passing his Physics tests. 4 It was after midnight when the train finally drew in 12 Our holiday plans fell through due to lack of at the station. of my childhood . 1 She's experienced . 24 A literature student should be familiar with Jane 10 He didn 't accept the job because he was Austen's novels. the ironing.. 6 Mary found it difficult to cope with two children and 18 The memory of this computer is equal to that one.. 13 When the man approached her. . restoring paintings.. in/down after three months. 16 He's an expert with this type of machinery. brings The smell of burning wood .. dissatisfied with the wages offered . 4 His parents do not want him to become a musician. money. understanding the foreign tourist.. a full -time job. 5 If you fall behind with your rent.. better It would have been better if he had made up for his mistake. she drew back in 6 The soldiers fell on the oncoming army and fear. Look at Appendix 3. 2 He ought to have made up for his mistake. 21 Most people believe that experiments on animals 8 After such a hard winter we are all eager for should be stopped. 7 Diane argued with Sally about/over who would do 20 She remained faithful to her beliefs.Folder lfil Look at Appendix 2. 15 She fell for his story and gave him all her money. care for you. behaviour. They do do without a holiday this year. 3 The athlete failed in his attempt to break the world 14 She is an expert at cooking Japanese food . Use two to five words..

(in s very good phyelcsl etate). life. a bat. (unable to see clearly or well) 6 I thought John was abroad . likely She is likely to look for another flat./ prolong . (very quiet) Put a tick in the appropriate boxes. I must have forgotten to pack something. He still jogs ten miles every morning. 6 She'll probably look for another flat../ . (very silly) 5 My dad is as blind as a bat without his glasses./ ./ gain . a experience a living a prize a salary possession weight a game sb's heart win ../ ./ . 7 She put on warm clothes so that she wouldn't catch a cold . two peas in a pod 1 Old Mr Higgins is as fit as . intention I had no intention of offending you.. a fi ddle. gold . (very well-behaved) 10 We have to be as quiet as a mouse so that we don 't wake up the baby. clockwork. permission John gave me (his) permission to borrow his bike. 5 Everybody went to the party except for Anna./ b life a passport disease rumours a road the agony a building spread ./ . . then explain D the idioms. Complete the sentences below with a suitable word or words from the box. 11 When did the earthquake happen? is How long is it since the earthquake happened? 12 Train tickets aren't as expensive as plane tickets. I didn't hear a peep out of them all night.. . less Train tickets are less expensive than plane tickets. Nobody can tell them apart. avoid She put on warm clothes to avoid catching a cold ./ extend ./ .. 8 John said I could borrow his bike.a fiddle. Then choose any three to make sentences. (causing surprise by one's unexpected presence somewhere) 7 The twins are as alike as two peas in a pod. a brush . who Anna was the only one who did not go to the party./ . but he turned up at the meeting as large as life./ . (lacking due respect) 9 The children were as good as gold. (look exactly the same) 8 She marched to the front of the queue as bold as brass and demanded to be served at once. a feather. a mouse. b rass . . (very light} 4 I wouldn 't take any notice of anything he says./ earn ./ .. (extremely regular) 3 My suitcase feels as light as a feather. He's as daft as a brush. pride He takes pride in his collection of French impressionists.. 9 I didn't mean to offend you. 2 She gets up at six every morning as regular as clockwork./ . 10 He is proud of his collection of French impressionists.

.. Whatever methods we might decide to use... Ponds which filter used water are also becoming popular.. read the text below and decide which answer (A.. (10) ... D... ~..~ -~......Jo ..... C or D) best fits each gap... especially by reminding them of the (9) ... There is an example at the beginning (0)..: . Unfortunately... this problem worse since much of the rain that falls is (7) ....Practice Test [! _ _ _ __ Part 1 For questions 1 .. to (O) ... by people's misuse of our water supply... B.... the value of water and do our best to conserve it.... many of us seem to have forgotten this fact..~.-..."-' . but also that we are (5) ...12.............. of water.... the destruction of the rain forests has (6) ....... Water is one Water ~~....... ...... a great deal of this precious resource.. a solution to this problem before it is too late.. ... This not only means that we have polluted our rivers and seas.. we must (12) ...~ . The population of the earth is increasing daily. ·-"' ' of our most precious ~.....~J " :!..... I Example: 0 A show B make C write D put 0 ~ A ~ B C ~ -D biJ'&:: .... without water there would be no life.~:t.. • ~ ......... One of the simplest ways of doing this is to reuse bath or shower water for (11) ..> '·. cleaning or watering the garden.. and as a result the world is (1) . . 1 @ facing B witnessing c viewing D noticing 2 @ out of B into c off D away with 3 A lots B many © little D few 4 A brought out @ caused c done D happened 5 A exploiting @ wasting c spending D throwing 6 A caused B done c created @ made 7 A missed B fallen © lost D given up 8 A recover B discover c come up @ find 9@ value B cost c price D worth 10 A if only @ whether c weather D either 11 A housing @ household c housekeeping D housework 12 A focus B estimate c view @ appreciate 174 ........... so we seldom bother to think about it.. fresh water....... Unfortunately.... The problem has been (4) .. since the time of the dinosaurs. resources..... the danger of running (2) . because it runs off into the sea.... to bathe in or to drink.... People then need to be taught how to reuse or recycle water..1t :\! : simply..... ................ so it is vital that we (8) ... For most of us it is available whenever we require it... The first step is to educate people..........:. The actual amount of water on earth has changed (3) .

a distinguished psychologist at Stanford University.. . .. eight (13) ot. Example: 0 I TI0 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Shyness is a problem that is common (0) . many people .. especially at social gatherings (16) like parties. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided .24. However. Keeping away from such situations is not really a solution . (23) a number of treatments are available and come in the form of individual (24) or group therapy and training.. read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. Those suffering (20) from this condition are very often bright.. can lead to additional problems (22) such as eating disorders or addiction to medication. the label 'shyness' is inappropriate.. At this stage it is termed 'social phobia'.. (21) But feelings of social isolation.. Fortunately. a person who has social phobia has an excellent chance of recovery. Use only one word in each gap.. resulting from loneliness. ifthe case of shyness (19) is severe . they can gain a feeling of self-satisfaction as (18) well as improve their social life.. There is an example at the beginning (0). and if a shy person (17) can manage to overcome their fears.. Therefore. Most people (15) who have this extreme emotion suffer feelings of discomfort and anxiety at the thought of meeting others. According to Mr Zimbardo. Part 2 For questions 13 .. talented and sensitive people.:t of ten people are reported to have (14) been shy at some time in their lives.

. It was on ly in INITIAL (30) later years that more events were added .. athletes who were (32) victorious in their events became VICTORY celebrities and brought great glory to their cities of birth They would receive many perks from their home cities such as (33) invitations to feasts. Special privileges such as (34) exclusion from paying EXCLUDE taxes or a position on the local council were also common...000 years ago... It is believed that a month before the games. male citizens were given (26) permission to take part in the PERMIT games . Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line... There is an example at the beginning (0).. SAVE (29) Initially.. All wars and hostilities had to stop so that (27) competitors COMPETE and spectators could travel to Olympia in complete (28) safety. 176 .. the Olympics consisted of just one event: a sprint. Olympic Games began in Greece ORIGIN almost 3... These crowns were (31) highly prized... They were held in the valley of Olympia and were part of a (25) festival to honour the Greek FESTIVE God Zeus. Winners of events received a crown LATE made of wild olive leaves. front-row seats at the INVITE theatre.. read the text below..Practice Test 9 Part 3 For questions 25-34... a sacred truce was cal led over the entire Greek world... Only free.. HIGH Just as it happens today. and free meals for life. The (0) . Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided....

....... . FLUENT She is a fluent speaker of Spanish........... There is an example at the beginning (0)..... .......... 39 After the film finished the audience left through the back exit... your phone? Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the a nswer boxes provided......... 4 1 It was hard for her to get used to living abroad ............. TWICE Don't think twice about calling me if you need me. .......... 42 She speaks Spanish fluently.. 35 Can't you think of a better excuse? BEST Is that the best excuse you can think of? 36 Would you mind if I turned down the volume? TO Would you object to me/my turning down the volume? 37 It's possible that they will call before they visit us....... END At the end of the film the audience left through the back exit. using the word given.... Example: O Could I use your phone please? MIND Would .. including the word given. You must use between two and five words.... Part 4 For questions 35-42....... LIKELY They are likely to call before they visit us.. 40 Don't hesitate to call me if you need me.... 38 I'm sure he was trying to be kind.......... .... BEEN He must have been trying to be kind ..... ................ .. complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence...... TIM E She had a hard time getting used to living abroad . .. Do not change the word given.

. .... for the delay.... 1 He greeted us and went on .. to university than get a job.. B having revealed D reveal A from C of @ with D about 5 It's ............... A until C already 7 The more carefully you read . Revision 1 [@ Choose the correct item. . A bat @ fiddle 21 It was . a pizza tonight? B any @ even A to order © ordering B have ordered D order 13 My exam results are nearly the same .. A much C very 18 Don't forget to congratulate Robin ... 15 She would prefer to go out .. B apologise D apologising @ to C from B but D than 2 Sheila stopped ....... @ on C of 6 I'd rather buy a silk dress . D in B about A of @ than B from D rather than 19 She hasn't enrolled for the course . so much money on space travel? @ rather D pretty A have spent C spend B to spend @ spending 22 I'd sooner . .. cold today to go surfing.. A farther C very 12 Do you fancy ............. A informing C inform 24 The journey was ...... 16 The little girl admitted .... ........ 14 Most children prefer watching TV ..... B best D better A to jog @ jogging B to jogging D been jogging 8 Mr Smith is as fit as a .............. longer than I thought it B have informed @ to inform would be. the medicine... reading a A have apologised @ to apologise book... @ the better C the best 20 Brian hates ... passing B far @ too her driving test....... A to go C having gone 10 We saw a great film at the cinema two weeks @ go D going A yet C before 23 My brother objects . as it wasn't doing any good.. you that you haven 't passed....... the name of his accessory.................. a cotton one...... . he likes swimming instead...... some sweets from A as C alike the jar..... you 'll D still @ yet understand the book...... @ ago D still A to help C have helped B help @ to helping 11 I regret . A to take C take A of C from B have taken @ taking @ rather than D to 3 I don't look . despite his age.... that's a real coincidence! @ as C of B in D like 178 ..... ...... an uninspiring speech and we were B glove D hat very disappointed... .................... B similar @ like A take C to take @ to having taken D taken 4 He was made ..... yours... ......... me with my homework. A fairly C very 9 Is it worth .. .. her exam resu lts... stay at home. A revealing © to reveal 17 She was dissatisfied ....... my mother at all...........

I'm sure I 8) will be (be) sad to leave this earthly paradise. Next month. 10 She is likely to be at work. used Mike is not used to working on a word processor. was He was tired from the strenuous work. point They were on the point of leaving when the phone rang. never I have never met such a lovely woman as his wife. 11 Johnnie is the nicest man I've ever met. 4 She hasn't been to the gym for six months. since It's hours since Barbara (last) had a break. He hopes he will not let his aunt down as he 8) has not worked (not/work) in a simi lar post before. still Bob still hasn't got his results. asked him to join her. He 7) will be working (work) next to an experienced accountant for the first two weeks. anyone Johnnie is nicer than anyone I've ever met. 16 Mike finds working on a word processor difficult. will It is likely (that) she will be at work. last The last time she went to the gym was six months ago . going She was going to come but she had some important business to attend to . 3 His wife is the loveliest woman I've ever met. I 5) am staying (stay) here at the moment because I 6) need (need) some sea air. He 2) decided (decide) to leave his old job when his aunt. Use two to five words. 15 His jokes were so amusing that we laughed for hours. My father was very pleased when he 1) bought (buy) this house because he 2) had always wanted (always/want) to own a house by the sea. were We were so amused by his jokes that we laughed for hours. 8 Could you open the w indow? mind Would you mind opening the window? 9 It was her intention to come but she had some important business to attend to. must You must not walk on the grass. 14 The policeman let the prisoner make one phone call. 5 It was hard for him to hear you as he was standing so far away. 6 Bob hasn't got his results yet. 1 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. was The prisoner was allowed to make one phone call. He is sure that he 4) will enjoy (enjoy) the new job as he 5) has always wanted (always/ want) to work in business. It's wonderful. . At the moment he 6) is going (go) through the company files so that he can learn as much as possible. 12 He found the strenuous work tiring. John 1) is starting/is going to start (start) a new job. My parents 3) have been living (live) here for twenty years now and they 4) have never regretted (never/regret) leaving the city. Revision 1 : Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 7 Barbara hasn't had a break for hours. 1 Shall I bring your meal now? me Would you like me to bring your meal now? 2 It is forbidden to walk on the grass. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. I 7) walk (walk) on the beach every day. who 3) owns (own) a company. found He found it hard to hear you as he was standing so far away. 13 They were about to leave when the phone rang.

SUCCESS 3 Traffic jams are almost unavoidable during rush hour. 3 English people always comment on the weather. PROVE 180 . have He can't have forgotten to invite them . AVOID 4 The location of the new office block will be in central London . 6 Sleeping Beauty will be on at the Royal Theatre for 2 The woman was brought round by having water three weeks. similar Your watch is similar to mine. [iID Fill in the blanks with the correct particle(s) . past decade. 2 She's always dreamed of becoming a famous 6 The government has no choice but to comply with singer. Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold. must The Smiths must be on holiday this week. CERTAIN 9 His job is very stressful as it involves a lot of responsibility. particularly if there is fog. PARTICULAR 2 Mr Travers is retiring after a successful career in advertising . splashed on her face. 19 I'm sure the Smiths are on holiday this week . SUGGEST 11 My grandfather was born in a distant village high in the mountains. local primary school. snow. the suspect was found not guilty. POSSESS 6 A new organisation has been formed to combat air pollution . 7 If we fall behind with the rent. DISTANCE 12 Because there was no proof. LOCATE 5 The refugees fled the country with all their possessions in a single suitcase. 1 Drivers should drive slowly in bad weather. 8 He bought a mansion after he came into a lot of 4 Access to several villages was cut off by the deep money. wouldn't be punished . REMOVE 8 John's father certainly won't let him use the car again after he crashed it. have Jenny needn't have spent so much on Bill's wedding present. 18 Jenny spent more than was necessary on Bill's wedding present. the workers' demands. Revision 1 17 Your watch and mine look very much alike. takes place every February. STRESS 10 Everyone at the meeting made suggestions about how to raise money. 1 It is not nice to put people down when they can't 5 This situation calls for immediate action . 20 I'm sure he didn't forget to invite them . 7 The schoolboy put the blame on his friend so he It's in their nature. defend themselves. (it] Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition(s). ORGANISE 7 The removal of her name from the list was an unexpected shock. 1 We took advantage of the fine weather and went 5 Demand for sugar has fallen dramatically over the for a picnic. 4 My boss has given me more work than I can cope 8 Rio de Janeiro is famous for its carnival which with. the landlord has the 3 An epidemic of measles has broken out at the right to evict us.

. ... place.~!. so you have to find a time 3) (when) you are both free. many of. Clauses I Linking Words Sentences can consist of main and subordinate clauses. she didn t get me job..'that ! The dog (which 'that) you saw 1 That's the table the leg of animals ... condition. whose .~?... Place where (= in/at/on/to which) That's the place (where) we went last week..::!~...~::~ ini· lfP.~~. ~~~ .J.d fr ~~ ~c~:--ian~:. However. .!. j That 's the glfl who 'that ! The boy (who 'whom 'that) he ! That's the ma .. when. it is also no easy job buying a present for a close member of your family.~ .. 1c nic ).~~.... time. that or b) relative adverbs i.~~~~~...... Relative Pronouns Subject of the verb of the Object of the verb of the Possession relative clause relative clause (cannot be omitted) (cannot be omitted) (can be omitted) used for who/that r·. Then you might want to buy a joint present with a friend.L~. .~:.e.J. .~:. Buying a present for someone is often a tricky business.J 1 s· or e. whom. comparison.r:~~:~ ~~... 1 you have to decide is what to buy and the shop 2) (where) you should go to buy it. which ... .~~:. who s sir. . ~~!. who/whom/that .. ry She rece p.~:'. (Although she is experienced.:. b) relative clauses (/ sa~ the f"'lan who stole your ring. . which.~~:~':.. which..:···..~'.~~~... when and why. !. who. used for which/that ! which/that ! whose/of which things/ I saw a film which..e.~.'. ..~-~:.!.. It is probably most difficult buying a present for someone 4) (who) you don't know very well and 5) whose tastes you know little about. purpose. .. .. concession. where. whose. ~. • Whom . The first thing 1) .. half of.o i" my cousin.~~~~. clauses of manner. whose can be used in expressions of quantity with of (some of.. whose.. no n •x o llf (that is not possible) Relative Adverbs Time when (= in/on/at which) 2005 was the year (when) I finished my studies.. who. ..~. ) Relative Clauses They are introduced by: a) relative pronouns i. etc) She received a lot of presents for her birthday Mos1 of hem were rom her fam...~.) and c) adverbial clauses i.'. . birthday most of which were from her 1afl1 /y • That can be used instead of who. Reason why ( = for which) That's the reason (why) I moved house.. . why.. I can't tell her the reason 7) (why) I'm going out because I want to surprise her on the big day.:'..e. ~.vhose wife people /Jves next door . Fill in: where. reason.:::. such as your mother. whom or which but it is never used after commas or prepositions. result.. Still .. Subordinate clauses can be: a) noun clauses (/suppose that he 'll be back in an hour ). it is worth all the trouble just to see the look of pleasure on someone's face the moment 8) (when) they receive your gift..... You have to try to find something 6) (which) you think they would like. I never know what to tell my mother when I go out. 1e g who that go1 a 1ery good deg ee ~ re J ie bac <.

The friend with whom I was travelling spoke German. Unfortunately. (more usual) Rewrite the sentences in as many ways as possible. (when). It had a swimming pool and a gym I I) which we used every morning. The office in which she works 1s in the town centre.We found some very good discos 19) where we spent many of our evenings. was comforted by an air stewardess 9) who was very courteous and helpful. whose. realised that she had got badly burned. Prepositions in Relative Clauses We do not normally use prepositions before relative pronouns.. Cynthia. After these three days. 3) who went to a lot of trouble to find us a resort 4) which was quiet by day but 5) which had a lively night life. 2 That's the box where we keep the books. 182 . The girl who John was talking to is my sister. when we got back to the hotel that night my friend. she remembers to bring a high factor suncream with her. The flight to Malaga. where or why. which.. 1993 was the year I) . 4 The house where I spent my childhood has been demolished. We were students at the time. 5 That's the man to whom he spoke on the day of the party. . which is the reason 2) (why) we decided to go to Spain. He telephoned the local doctor. I 5) who was very helpful. Whenever we go on holiday in a country 22) whose climate is hotter than ours. He advised my friend to stay in bed for at least three days. .not usual) The office which she works in is in the town centre.We made some good friends 21) (who) we are still in contact with. The friend (who) I was travelling with spoke German. That's the box in which we keep the books.. Clauses I Linking Words Fill in: who. when. I took my first holiday abroad. The girl John was talking to is my sister. The house (which) I spent my childhood in has been demolished. That's the box (which) we keep the books in. We booked through the local travel agent. my friend.. I went with my friend Cynthia. That's the man he spoke to on the day of the party. 7) which took over five hours. 6) who has been my friend for many years now. I explained the situation to the hotel manager. We spent the first day of our holiday on the beach. 3 The girl to whom John was talking is my sister. That's the man who he spoke to on the day of the party. . too. (formal ..The hotel we stayed in was in the mountains.The hotel in which we stayed was in the mountains. We found a lovely restaurant 18) where we tried some local dishes. 12) which was beautiful.. (usual) The office she works in is in the town centre. 8) who was a little nervous..i-. with very little money. 6 The friend I was travelling with spoke German. We also went to some places 20) which had live Spanish music..-.. 16) who arrived shortly afterwards. was very comfortable.... 13) whose skin is very pale. The hotel I 0) where we stayed was just a I0-minute walk from the centre .. We had a great time for the rest of our holiday. 1 The hotel where we stayed was in the mountains . The suncream 14) (which) she had applied was simply not strong enough. Cynthia has learned her lesson. was ready to go out for the evening. The house in which I spent my childhood has been demolished . 17) who had fully recovered.

The cheque (which/that) he posted last week only arrived today. He posted it last week. It was written by Emily Bronte. 7 This is Mary. ND not omitted 3 The hospital where he was treated is a very good one. It is put between commas. Its name is Riley. is a great place for holidays. D omitted 17 The man who/that the police arrested last night was charged with theft. . We stayed there last summer. D not omitted 6 The book which/that I am reading at the moment is very interesting. whose name is Sarah. D omitted 16 Majorca was the first place where we went on holiday together. was taken to hospital last night Note how the commas change the meaning of a sentence. 6 This is the cinema... D not omitted 11 My best friend. Write 0 for defining. . He bought it at an auction . ND not omitted 10 People who/that hurt other people should be punished. 3 That's the woman . 1 The woman . . D not omitted 15 The flat which she lives in is very cold.. Shakespeare lived here.D. D not omitted 4 People who don't eat meat are called vegetarians ... She bought a new dress which she wore to my party.. who is a generous person . who I'm sharing a flat with.This is the house where Shakespeare lived. (Only the players who were involved in the fight were sent off. has broken down. 2 Ann. ND not omitted 12 Greece. D omitted 18 The newspaper which/that I buy is always full of interesting articles. is a very beautiful city. took us all on holiday. Paul's new car.000. . D not omitted 14 Women who/that are pregnant should not drink coffee. My friend has a new cat whose name is Ailey. were ·n off the pitch {All the players were sent off.000. 4 This is the vase.. This is the vase (which/that) he bought at an auction. 9 I'm reading Wuthering Heights. .) Fill in the relative pronoun or adverb. The players. D not omitted 8 People who/that speak two languages equally well are called bilingual. D not omitted Combine the following sentences using relatives. • A non-defining relative clause gives extra information which is not essential to the meaning of the main clause. This c·ar cost him £10 . She wore it to my party. It was built in 1945. 8 The cheque only arrived today.. 2 She bought a new dress. That's the woman who/that got promoted last week. which cost him £10. Here's a photograph of the hotel where/in which we stayed last summer. ND not omitted 13 People who/that drink and drive should be heavily fined .. adding commas where necessary. Clauses I Linking Words _ Defining / Non-defining Relative Clauses • A defining relative clause gives necessary information and is essential to the meaning of the main clause... 5 My friend has a new cat. This is the cinema which was built in 1945. who/that. This is Mary.. I'm reading Wuthering Heights. which has a population of one mi llion. D not omitted 9 Dublin. People who drive carelessly should be banned from the roads. She got promoted last week. . ND for non-defining and whether the relative can be omitted or not. Mr Jones. D omitted 20 The students who/that were involved in the march were arrested .. It is not put between commas. 1 This is the house.. I'm sharing a flat with her. which has many beautiful islands. bought the house next door is very friendly. 10 Paul's new car has broken down.) The players who were involved in the fight were sent off the pitch. D omitted 7 The hotel which/that is opposite the museum is very expensive. who helps me with the garden. 11 Here's a photograph of the hotel. not omitted . is livi ng in Poland now. D omitted 19 The velvet dress which/that she wore to the party was very expensive. who were involved in the fight. which was written by Emily Bronte. D not omitted 5 The house where they live is very small..

This is Joan .he felt as if they had misjudged h r (but they hadn't) 184 . 3 We went to a very expensive restaurant. sound. which was a pity. (In) the same way as. 4 We had some visitors .. They released some men..) She und1 •d as if she had a cold.. on holiday. were from England .. that It is a pity that I lost my favourite earrings. 6 Members of the AA can ring this number when their cars break down. the way In which. three of whom were Chinese. 7 There are eighty people working here . whom There are eighty people working here. She aces as if she were was n ch1rge or n pro Note how the tense forms are used after as if/as though : • as If/as though + any tense form (showing probability/similarity . 1 We met many people on holiday . • We missed most of the film. as. Polish.how sb/sth seems) Sf e el as 1f she has got a tempera ire (She may have a temperature. two of them are yours. seem. many of whom are Irish. feel.. behave.. taste). with whom I went out. Complete the sentences using the words in bold.._. can ring this number. • This is Joan. smell. look.many of them were from England. That's the woman who helped me find the March is the month in which she was born. who My brother. is in India. is from Wales. how. 8 I lost my favourite earrings. whom We had some visitors . (She may have had a cold. • They released some men . which is a pity. who is twenty-three. three of whom are It was a pity that we missed most of the film . who I went out with.. whose cars break down. • March is the month when she was born . whom We met many people . be. appear. three of them are I've got some letters. many of whom . Clauses I Linking Words [(P Jn Other Words • That's the village I grew up in.. Try to do it as I showed you • In clauses of manner introduced with as if/as though we can use were instead of was in all persons in formal English . Polish. 5 Many tourists stay at Jury's Hotel. 9 My twenty-three year old brother is in India. whose son is a footballer. (in) the way.many of them are Irish. 10 Matthew.) • as If/as though + Past Simple/Past Continuous (unreal in the present) She acts as if she knew everything (but she doesn't) • as If/as though + Past Perfect (unreal in the past) . • I've got some letters.. who That's the customer who refused to pay his bi ll. is from Wales.. Clauses of Manner • Clauses of manner are introduced by: as if/as though (after act. who Matthew.three of them were Chinese. Use two to five words. 2 That customer refused to pay his bill. her son is a footballer. That's the village where I grew up. That's the village which I grew up in. w hose Members of the AA. where Jury's Hotel is where many tourists stay. • That woman helped me find the way. (in) the same way. (in) the way that. two of which are yours. way. which The restaurant which we went to was very expensive .

10 I spoke to Simon last night and he sounded as though he were/was (be) really upset about something. 4 She had a feeling she had met Gary before. 5 The weather here is so bad . 3 He seems to have lost weight since I last saw him. 16 He talks about karate as if he had (have) a black belt but we know he's only just started lessons. but in fact she's quite shy. way I taught the class (in) the way she had instructed me to . 3 It looks as though it is going to rain (rain). as She behaves as if/though she were/was a beauty queen. 17 Little Tommy was trembling as though he had seen (see) a ghost. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. 1 Someone must have used too much garlic in the sauce.. (be) there but we know he never has. 6 It smells as if you (have) put (put) lots of herbs in the stew.. it looks as though we will have to (have to) holiday abroad .. Use two to five words. : Complete the sentences using the words in bold. . 5 She behaves like a beauty queen. too much garlic. if She acts as if she were/was a millionairess... if She looks as if/though she needs a rest. 10 My grandfather seems to have got much thinner since I last saw him. but she had gone to bed quite early. 18 She behaved as if nothing had happened (happen)... 6 She seems to need a rest... 11 She sounded as if she were/was (be) French. 2 She looks as if she is (be) really ill. 9 She spoke about university as though she had spent (spend) years there but in fact she'd only spent a month there. Bring her some water. 2 You look like you need a holiday. 4 She behaves as if she is (be) in trouble. 8 She isn't rich but she acts like a millionairess.. . 7 I mowed the lawn as he had told me to. 12 This sauce tastes as if you have put (put) too much pepper in it. way I polished the silver the way she told me to. way I mowed the lawn (in) the way he had told me to. 12 He orders me like his slave. as My grandfather looks as if/though he has got much thinner since I last saw him. John behaved as if the world had ended (end).. 8 When he speaks.. 14 She acts as though she were/was (be) very confident.. if The sauce tasted . as He orders me as if/though I were his slave.. 9 I taught the class as she had instructed me to. 7 Maeve looked as though she had had (have) little sleep the night before.as if someone had used. 20 That woman looks as though she is going to faint (faint) . if You look as if you need a holiday.. 19 When Moira broke off their relationship.. 13 My sister isn't rich but she spends money as though she had (have) loads of it. it sounds as if English is not (not/be) his first language. 1 He talked about Denmark as though he . had been . Clauses I Linking Words . 15 She treats me as though I were/was (be) her child.. though She felt as though she had met Gary before. 11 I polished the si lver like she told me to... as He looks as if/though he has lost weight since I last saw him.

that is. The World Wildlife Fund is currently launching its most important campaign ever to help protect our vanishing species of wildlife from extinction. 5) As long as/As soon as animal habitats continue to be burnt. 8 If we can't come up with the money soon . 7 When I am (be) ready. (fin ish) work today. less than 2. 10 When will you stop (you/stop) lying about your age? 186 . WWF can't fight alone.. By the time ho arrived.t. 3) Before/Until twenty years ago. 4 When will you finish (yo u/fin ish) this report? 5 When John returns (retu rn) from work . 750. (NOT: as sooR as I 1·A. 1) Before/As soon as the turn of the century. 13) Every time/While a crime against wildlife 14) is exposed (be/exposed). • Clauses of time follow the rule of the sequence of tenses. like me. 9 When the star arrives (arrive) at the hotel . once. Now. 7) While/When there 8) is (be) still a demand for illegal rhino horns and tiger bones. I'll cook dinner as soon as I've finished washing up. not later than). Please support this crucial work. We must act now 11) before/until these animals 12) disappear (disappear) forever. he'll be given more money. If he works hard. 2 The aeroplane will take off without us 1f we arrive (arrive) late at the airport. as long as. When he gets promoted.000. every time.500 remain. 6 If Jack rings (ring) while I am out. When (question word) + will/would . I .f f+RieR) She left her JOb as soon as she got mamed (NOT: as sooR as sfle get8) • When the time clause precedes the main clause. until/till (= up to the time when). she will be greeted by crowds of fans . immediately. the verb of the time clause is in a past form too. Your gift will go directly to our vanishing species programme. by the time (= before. finish . tell him to be here at 12. When will he arrive? • When is used for things which are sure to happen. That's why WWF is urging all governments to get tough on illegal traders. when the verb of the main clause is in a present or future form. just as. I'll give you a call. before.. the verb of the time clause is in the present form. as. while now there are around 3. species 6) will continue (continue) to disappear. when . as soon as._ Clauses I Linking Words Clauses of Time • Clauses of time are introduced by: after. 1 I will visit you . I'll call back tomorrow. when. a comma is used. Note that will/would are never used in a clause of time.000 tigers in India. the deal will fall through (fall through) . while. The castaway had to wait five years 11ntil he was resc 1ed. the hunting of wildlife will continue. the numbers of Black Rhinos 4) exceeded (exceed) 60. she had loft BUT She had left by the time he amved • Underline the appropriate time phrase and put the verbs into the correct tense. you believe that we must do all we can to stop this destruction. If. there 2) were (be) more than 40. we are one step closer to our goal.. /'II call you.. polluted and destroyed. etc.. • When (time conjunction) + present tense. no comma is used. When the time clause follows.00.. When I arrive.. the moment (that) . he'll be promoted. t Fill in if or when and put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. Dear Friend. 3 If you haven't reached (not/reach) a decision yet. and when the verb of the main clause is in a past form. join the fight today and support the WWF campaign. 9) By the time/Every time people 10) become (become) aware of the situation. If is used for things which may happen.. it may be too late. we can go shopping .

I looked . She wasn 't feeling well.. for he couldn't stand the weather. 8 She was soaked to the skin.. I didn 't know that she had been married. 8 I couldn't find a parking space anywhere close to 4 David tends to be happy wherever he is living. (because) She took a break because she wasn't feeling well. no one could get to work last Tuesday.. wherever. (for) He left the country.. 1 The shop had closed . everywhere or anywhere. dancing . on the grounds that. 2 She went into the classroom while/as the teacher was speaking. anywhere/wherever she wants. 5 She made mistakes. Clauses of Place Clauses of place are introduced by: where. The match was called off. (since) Since she seldom talks about herself. Wherever/Everywhere. (for) They turned back. 2 He left the country. people were 5 I don't mind where we go to eat. the reason for. She 'll follow him wherever he g11e• Will/Would are never used in clauses of place. There's too much work to do. (on the grounds that) On the grounds that he is in debt. (as) She was soaked to the skin as it was raining very hard.. 7 She took a break. she always misses England. the match was called off.. (because) She made mistakes because she wasn't experienced.. (as) I can't come with you as I have to visit my uncle. as long as it's tasty. "Why didn 't you mvite him?" Because I don't like him. he was unable to buy her a birthday present Join the sentences using the words in brackets. They didn't want to get stuck in the traffic.. he will have to drastically reduce his spending.. She wasn't experienced. • Because usually answers a why-question . for. Due to the rain. 9 He is in debt. 10 They turned back. He will have to drastically reduce his spending. (since) Since there is so much work to do. Clauses I Linking Words _ Complete the sentences in any meaningful way using an appropriate time word... (due to) . the office. wherever. As they had no money to buy a ticket. 4 I recognised him as soon as I saw him.. for I don 't /Ike him (very formal) • Because of/Due to + noun/-ing form Because of the train strike. the reason (why) etc. anywhere. . because. for they didn't want to get stuck in the traffic.. they hitchhiked. 8 I want to see you when you've got some time.. 4 I can't come with you . 6 I will meet you as soon as I finish work. 3 We can't go on holiday. Due to the fact that he had no money. we can't go on holiday. She seldom talks about herself. Because of/Due to + the fact that . He couldn't stand the weather. 5 The cake must be left to cool down before you cut it. 3 The baby cried for its mother whenever/every time it was hungry. everywhere. ) Fill in: where. 1 .. It was raining very hard . 6 Have you seen my watch anywhere in the house? 2 Wherever Ruth goes. etc. 6 I didn 't know that she had been married . before/by the time they got there. Clauses of Reason • Clauses of reason are introduced by: as. I didn't invite him. 7 She couldn't walk properly until she had an operation. . I have to visit my uncle. Everywhere Joan goes she gets into trouble (NOT: ~cery1i<Rer-0 cleaf1 will > r rnvr fj0 . " For (= because) always comes after a comma in written speech or a pause in oral speech. 1 It was raining . 7 You can see these advertisements anywhere/ 3 Now that Hilary has a car she can go everywhere/ everywhere/wherever you go..

There were many_people in the station. Then. We used to spend a lot of time together. "Marilyn . about five minutes after the ferry had left I met 2) such a nice American couple that I stayed with them for the whole holiday. etc.. but her ~yes looked re_filly sad. that. exchanging letters and postcards. she said that everything was fine . I was unable to find the friend I had arranged to meet. Come on! Let's go somewhere for coffee. we were pushed onto a bus that was filled with 3) such a lot of people that we felt as if we couldn 't breathe. He had so much luggage that he couldn 't carry ir.. so. It will be great to see them again. 0 Rewrite the text using such/so .." I took her to a lovely cafe I know. We had brought 8) so few things with us. "We've been such good friends for many years now that you can't possibly think I can't tell that you're upset. It was a very nice day so we decided to sit outside in the sun. "It's been terribly long. We had never kept secrets from each other." I took her to a lovely cafe I know. We had never kept secrets from each other. is that really you? " Rachel smiled at me. It had also been such a long time since I'd seen her that I barely remembered what she looked like. she said that everything was fine.. Come on! Let's go somewhere for coffee. such or such a(n) .. • so + adjective + a(n) + noun. It was such lovely scenery that we took lots of photos. "Marilyn. and the view was 7) so good that we took it immediately. She drives so carelessly that she 's bound to have an accident. We didn 't notice the time fly. is that really you?" Rachel smiled at me. "I said. preferring to walk along the main road to find somewhere to stay ourselves. We asked an old man if he knew of anywhere we could stay." 188 . Rachel. "It's been so long that I've got an awful lot of things to tell you.. When I confronted her. A few years ago. Rachel. At the bus station there were 4) so many people waiting to offer us accommodation that we decided to ignore them . Now. Its so hot a day that everyone is going to the beach (not usual) • as a result/therefore/consequently/so + clause. After an hour or so we started to think that not accepting any of the offers of accommodation had been 5) such a bad idea that we decided to ask someone for help. "Don't try to pretend . (and) as a consequence. "Don't try to pretend . • so + adjective/adverb. she seemed happy enough.. I always knew what she was thinking. He is such a rude person that nobody likes him. and it took us 9) such a short time to unpack that we were on the famous black sand beach in no time. It was 6) such a gorgeous flat. We had 10) such a nice time together and we became 11) such good friends that we sti ll keep in touch. I barely remembered what she looked like." I said. I've got an awful lot of things to tell you. I was sure that there was something she wasn 't telling me. There were such a lot of people on the train that we couldn't get on. When I confronted her. It had also been a long time since I'd seen her. We had such a lot to say to each other that we didn't notice the time fly. Now. We had a lot to say to each other.. He was ill and as a result he didn't go to work • such a(n) + (adjective) + singular countable noun. When we docked . suddenly I heard a familiar voice behind me. ). It was such a nice day that we decided to sit outside in the sun . • such + a lot of + noun. You can't possibly think I can't tell that you' re upset. worried about travelling alone that I became quite nervous. " There were so many people in the station that I was unable to find the friend I had arranged to meet. • such + (adjective) + uncountable/plural noun . I spent my holiday on the Greek island of Santorini. I was 1) . but her eyes looked so sad that I was sure there was something she wasn't telling me. Clauses I Linking Words Clauses of Result Clauses of result are introduced by: • that (after such/so . He led us to a lovely little apartment on the edge of a cliff. consequently. so . she seemed happy enough . The cinema was crowded so we left. ~ Fill in: so. (and) as a result. However. It was such bad weather that we stayed in. suddenly I heard a familiar voice behind me. Then. This year Scott and Arianne are coming to Scotland to spend a few days with me. • so +few/little/many/much + noun. We used to spend such a lot of time together that I always knew what she was thinking . "We've been YfilY_QOOd friends for ma_ny_years now.

. for He couldn 't eat the food. consequently She was rushing to the office and consequently she couldn't talk to me.. paid enough.. why No one knows (the reason) why he is/became/got/fell ill.. Clauses I Linking Words _ [(SJ In Other Words • She was so upset that she couldn't stop • He missed the train so he was late for the crying. time words and words introducing clauses of reason. we left immediately... weren't paid enough ..--C·1f 1•·1§14 [._________--------. He missed the train and as a result/consequently/ • It's such a heavy box that I can 't lift it.. Try to link your ideas together using relative pronouns/adverbs. . She was too upset to stop crying.. 1 The town was so unfriendly that we left immediately.gained his colleagues' respect • found treasure on a ship . place or result. therefore he was late for the meeting. 2 He couldn 't eat the food because it was very spicy. result She lost her ticket and as a result she had to buy another one . 6 She was rushing to the office so she couldn't talk to me. Bill Rogers (Wales) • was fascinated by the sea • joined the National diving team • keen on protecting endangered species • participated in many expeditions • hard working . of The trip abroad was cancelled because ~flack of interest. 5 The trip abroad was cancelled due to lack of interest. for it was very spicy. wae eo faecinated . so It was so lovely a summer in England that we stayed at home. for they weren't No one knows (the reason) why he left.. The box is too heavy for me to lift. 8 No one knows what caused his illness. euch an unfriendly town that. an It was ..J•J. The workers went on strike. 3 Do you know the reason for her being so upset? why Do you know why she is so upset? 4 It was such a lovely summer in England that we stayed at home.became famous • no time for a fami ly Bill Rogere. meeting.. 9 She lost her ticket so she had to buy another one.. Use two to five words. t§. 7 It was such an interesting book that I stayed up all night to finish it.----------. who comee from Walee. • No one knows the reason for his leaving.-. • Complete the sentences using the words in bold.: (See Suggested Answer section) : I Use the notes below and your own ideas to talk about Bill Rogers.. . • The workers went on strike because they It's so heavy a box that I can't lift it. i. so It was so interesting a book that I stayed up all night to finish it.-.

i~ ~ m: : : : : :1 Negative Purpose is normally expressed with: oo o o o oooo:••• o ooo oo o OOOUo oo ooo O HO O OOOooooo O OOO o O oooooo OOOooooooooooOO O OOOooooO OH ooOO OO OH O OOO O OOOH Oe oo oooo o o o u o o ooooo o oo oo oooo oo oo oooo: L• so as not/in order not + to -inf They spoke in whispers so as not to wake the children.. etc..... (fear) She kept her jewellery in a safe deposit box for fear it might be stolen..... . We took some food m ca5e we got hungry on the journey............ He wants to be healthy and fit for the summer. !• so that + can't/won't (present/future reference) /'II invite her so that she won 't feel lonely...Sh~ ·i. ..... j• :... 4 He has joined a gym.............. He wants to be able to drive to work ..~~:.......... so that + couldn 't/wouldn't (past reference) ...• so that + could/would (past reference) He employed a detective so that he could find the missing person.~:~. It may be stolen..t~ .C~ a~·~~rly.....: .... ······1 I• so that + can/will (present/future reference) w~·:.• 0 0 000000 ooooou ooouoo w ooo o o u o .....: ............~·dyf~·g... .....:::rB. ....~.. •••••••••• ..?.... We took 5ome food to avoid getting hungry on the journey....:~{~...~·~:·····~ i................. ' !• j. She didn't want to spend any money .... ........~ ........ 2 She left her jewellery in a safe deposit box.. ..... .• to/in order to/so as to + inf ..... She trains evel}' day so that she can enter the compet1tlon She trained evel}' day so that she could enter the competition.. (See Suggested Answer section) 1 We took some food......._ Clauses I Linking Words Expressing Purpose ......b~··~··d~·~(... .....Clauses of Purpose Purpose is expressed with : L. 3 We flew direct to Rome..... Join the sentences using the words in brackets .... h~......./. ~ avoid + -ing form : ::: : :....... ... ..............~~~.. 2 She studies hard....: They hid the letter so that he wouldn 't find out the truth...~~:~!#... . .. Join the sentences in as many ways as possible.~fght·~·~ th..... ........ ...~~?....:: : : :........... ...OooooOo OO · o O oO U ....... ....::~~::~~?.i.a :• for fear/lest + might/should ! They put on their life jackets for fear they might drown. : : : : : :..... .....: :~ ~: ~:... as in the example...... ••••••••••.......~~~~~~~...............o.. 0000 ) oooouuoO •• ooooooooH •· ·•ooooooO O O o o ooooooo · oooooo o OOo •• ........... .....~t·~~··~~·~·:t· b·~··t...~~............ We might get hungry on the journey ..He'5 taking driving /e5son5 50 that he'll be able to drive to work............... .......... 5 She didn't go to town yesterday.. .:i!~[~~:~f~~ft:f~ifff!J ...............~::~~?.. . 1· prevent + noun/pronoun + (from) + -ing form I They put up notices to prevent people (from) walking on the: 1~~ l I. We didn 't want to get stuck in London. i.... : : : :::................ .. We took 5ome food so that we wouldn't get hungry on the journey.:~ Clauses of purpose follow the rule of the sequence of tenses..:: :::: ..... for fear of sth/doing sth ! He left his money in the hotel safe for fear of losing 1t...............~:::::::::::.! i..... 1 He's taking driving lessons.~............ . .... We took some food 50 as not to get hungry on the journey.............. : ... She wants to get a good job when she finishes university..........!.. ........ .. (so that) .·.

6 I'll pack some juice for the picnic. view She started an art and design course last year with a view to opening her own business. (avoid) The beekeeper put on a veil and helmet to avoid being stung by the bees.. Their luggage may go astray. avoid He had taken an anorak . Complete the sentences using the words in bold.. He wants to go to Australia. You will then be given your student identification card which may be used 7) for taki ng out/to take out (take out) books. view John took up karate with a view to becoming fitter. 4 She is on a strict diet. (in order to) He left home early in order to be at the restaurant on time. You must also bring your passport with you 5) so that they wil l be able to verify (verify) these details. aim Lynn bought a new car with the aim of driving around Europe this summer. 10 Dennis is saving money. She didn't want to leave it until the last minute. 8 This is a hammer. 11 She started an art and design course last year. t Fill in an appropriate purpose word and put the verbs into the correct form.. which is used for keeping bread fresh. 9 Mary did her shopping early. making. Read it carefully 2) so as to fa miliarise/so that you wi ll fami liarise/in order to fam iliarise/to familiarise (familiarise) yourself with the procedure. Dear S ir/Madam. Jane Smith . The weather forecast said it would rain later. You use it to bang in nails. We look forward to seeing you on registration day. avoid Mary did her shopping early to avoid leaving it until the last minute. You must report to the registrar 's office 4) in order to give/so as to g ive/to g ive (give) her your personal detail s. You use it to keep bread fresh. Yours faithfully. to avoid g~tting . in I went to the market early in order to buy some fresh fish. Each student must registe r at a certain time so pl ease do come on time 3) so as not to make/so that you won' t make (not/make) the process more difficult. (for) This is a bread bin. (make) the reg istration procedure easier for y ou. to . case Travellers are advised to take out insurance in case their luggage goes astray. We have produced this information sheet 1) . 6 I'll bring something for dessert. with a 'ic\L. wet. She plans to open her own business. 8 I brought my umbrella. (as) She is on a strict diet so as to fit into her black dress for the party. case I'll pack some juice for the picnic in case we are thirsty later. We may be thirsty later. 1 He had taken an anorak so he wouldn't get wet. 3 Lynn has just bought a new car. 7 This is a bread bin.. He wanted to be at the restaurant on time. She wants to fit into her black dress for the party.. (in case) I'll bring something for desert in case we want to eat something sweet later. 5 John took up karate. She plans to drive around Europe this summer. Clauses I Linking Words __ 3 The beekeeper put on a veil and helmet.. 7 I went to the market early. He didn't want to be stung by the bees. Use two to five words. for A hammer is used for banging in nails. . 4 There are ramps in the road so that motorists won't drive too fast. 5 He left home early. 2 Travellers are advised to take out insurance. After this you must go to the main section 6) (so as/in order) to have/so that you have (have) you r photograph taken. prevent There are ramps in the road to prevent motorists (from) driving too fast.... We may want to eat something sweet later. (in case) I brought my umbrella in case it rained later. order Dennis is saving money in order to go to Australia. We have included a map of the campus 8) so that you won ' t get (not/get) lost. I wanted to buy some fresh fish. He wanted to become fitter.

5) but she wouldn't have anything to do with his book. 4) Althoughffhough/Even though he was highly knowledgeable about taking care of a garden. He has lots of experience. 6) whereas/while Mrs Jones was a little more down-to-earth. although/yet she makes little progress. After his retirement Mr Jones decided that he would write a book about gardening . 3 Despite/Even though the bad weather forecast. • Despite/In spite of + noun/-ing form. she refuses to sing in public. • nevertheless/however + clause. he came to the meeting. He insisted that it would be a fun thing to do now that he had all this free time. Fill in: although/though/even though. 6 Lots of people drive fast. though. whereas/although he won't admit it. 4 She tries hard. 10 However/While much she denies it. he can't beat Tom. 13 Janine turned up at the wedding . I can't accept her point of view on this matter. or nevertheless. Desp ite his illness/being ill. what he hadn't anticipated was the difficulty of the whole venture. he went to the party. 8 She is a brilliant singer. the film became a box office success. • adj/adv+ though + subject+ verb/(may + bare inf). he went to the party He went to the party. although/in spite of police warnings._ Clauses I Linking Words Clauses of Concession Concession is expressed with: • Although/Even though/Though + clause. she always finds something to complain about. 5 Tom's wife drives better than he does. He asked his wife for help and she replied that she would gladly help him in the garden. 3) nevertheless. 14 However/Though hard he tries. . however. A comma is used when the clause of concession either precedes or follows the main clause. 2) No matter how/However hard his family tried to convince him otherwise. Though can also be put at the end of the sentence. He came to the meeting. 12 In spite of/However all the bacfPublicity. • adj/adv + as + subject + verb. Skinny as he is he can't fit into his son's jeans. 1) despite never having written anything in his life before. • Despite/In spite of the fact (that) + clause . he went to the party. he didn 't get the job • However/No matter how+ adj/adv+ subject(+ may) +verb. however/no matter how. I can t afford a holiday this year. while/nevertheless. despite.00 am. they own a small home. It snowed heavily. he was determined to go ahead. In spite of the fact that he was ill. she does dye her hair blonde. 7 Bad mannered though/yet he is. Even though he was tired. Although it snowed heavily. The difference between them was that Mr Jones was an overly ambitious man who often walked around with his head in the clouds . even though/despite she wasn't invited. even though he was tired. yet he failed to meet the deadline. However fast he runs. • while/whereas/but/on the other hand/yet + clause. 1 Yet/No matter what he does to please her. whereas/as the east gets more snow. He worked hard. 16 The northwest of the country gets a lot of rain. 2 Although/However I set my alarm clock for 7. he'll never outsmart Pat. Susan and Jim went climbing. yet/despite she has never visited the country. his laziness caused him to fail the exam Much though I may want it. but. Clever though he is. he didn 't know the first thing about writing a book. WJll Underline the correct item. 11 She speaks Japanese fluently. while/whereas. it didn't go off. 15 Much as/yet I admire her. 9 Rich as/even though they are. he has got lots of friends.

7 Even though he didn't mean to................. he insulted her.. nevertheless.... fact He read the book .... I don't think he'l l win . His wife enjoys gardening..... ......... you mustn't believe him.. ........ 3 He didn't get the job although he had the right qualifications................. they frighten me. 5 He wants to buy a new car.... 8 The film was boring . 1 .... she allowed her children to get a dog..... De!Spite the weather being cold.. No matter what he says....... he can't play the piano........... ..... even I like horror films.. even though they frighten me... 2 The weather is so warm that we're wearing T-shirts.... he lost the election ..... even though it's early December....... . He never spends money on himself ... despite the fact he found it boring. they enjoyed the picnic........ no matter how hard you try... etc... 7 Although she dislikes pets. 3 He is thin ............ although he found it boring ..... but you'll never convince him to help you.... Although the weather wa5 cold............ 4 No matter how much he tries/Although he tries hard........ .. ... how No matter how hard he tried to solve the problem... while his wife enjoys gardening........... though Even .. The weather wa5 cold..... though Upset though she was. She is sensible ... yet he hasn't got enough money... Cold as the weather wa5...... Complete the sentences using the words in bold.. nevertheless She dislikes pets.. They enjoyed the picnic........... though.. 6 You can say what you like but I don't think he'll win ........ 2 She is young ......... Rephrase the sentences in as many ways as possible in order to express concession.. they enjoyed the picnic...... .... 10 She was very upset. but she managed to behave cheerfully.................. yet It's early December.. 4 She had no qualifications.......... matter No matter what you say. 4 He got a well-paid job even though he didn't have much experience. 5 He read the book................. 3 He tried to solve the problem but he couldn 't find the solution. we watched all of it.... In !Spite of the fact that the weather wa5 cold.... 11 I like horror films.. he got a well-paid job...... They enjoyed the picnic ... .................. 8 John is interested in computers.... She applied for the job... 2 Despite the fact he was popular.... (See Suggested Answer section) 1 The weather was cold .............. He went on a diet...... 6 Although the CD was damaged....... she managed to behave cheerfully. matter You'll never convince him to help you.... ... the shop wouldn't replace it....... while John is interested in computers..... though diamonds are expensive. Clauses I Linking Words .. 9 You can try all you want............... 5 He is wealthy. of In spite of not having much experience.... she allowed her children to get a dog.. people buy them................... they enjoyed the picnic.... ....... yet the weather is so warm that we're wearing T-shirts.. ..... though.................... Complete the missing parts of the sentences using words expressing concession............ nevertheless...... he couldn't find the solution. Use two to five words........ 1 Diamonds are expensive but people buy them.. they enjoyed the picnic.....

194 . strong nerves. order You are advised to book early in order to be sure of a place.___ Clauses I Linking Words ·--t·Jt 1•·1J'2Jt ..-- (See Suggested Answer section) Look at the pictures and notes below... even though our team lost..1. Use two to five words . 8 The film got several reviews. as Impatient as he is.· . such It was such a high mountain (that) we couldn't climb it in one day.•-----------------------. · · · · .. all of which were from Tony. by The match had already finished by the time I got there. Gymnastics Rafting good body. 7 It was an exciting match. then talk about them using words expressing concession. control swimmer. strong fame. contact with nature.. accidents.• ---------. none of them were favourable. 9 The children ran away to avoid being bitten by the dog. 1• .. so tired that she. you'd think she was the director. 5 You are advised to book early so that you can be sure of a place. t4. 3 She received three letters this morning. wh ich The film got several reviews. 11 He is an impatient man who loses his temper very easily. wh ich She received three letters this morning.. 4 The way she behaves. 6 The match had already finished when I got there.~ . he loses his temper very easily. 12 He didn't get the j ob because he did badly in the interview. adventure activity Gymnastics takes long hours of hard work whereas ra~ing is an adventure activity. 2 The player was disqualified because he had been caught cheating.--. You may use your own ideas. as She behaves as if/though she were/was the director.--------------- . 13 Be sure to arrive early if you don't want to miss the beginning of the play.· · ... All of them were from Tony.· . long hours of work. none of which were favourable. patience. etc ~ Complete the sentences using the words in bold. despite It was an exciting match. that She was .· . despite the fact our team lost. adventurous spirit. 1 She was very tired and as a result she fell asleep on the sofa.-.. little time for personal life. injuries willing to take risks.n. over one's body/mind. fell asleep on the sofa. as Be sure to arrive early so as not to miss the beginning of the play. due The player was disqualified due to the fact that he had been caught cheating.. 10 The mountain was too high for us to climb in one day. fear The children ran away for fear the dog might bite them. his He didn 't get the job due to his doing badly in the interview.

. 2 How expensive a coat! 7 What cold hands! 3 Isn't she clever! 8 How lucky John is! 4 It was such a waste of time! 9 He's so forgetful! 5 The water is so dirty! 10 She cooks so well! 6 Wasn't it a terrible storm! 11 Doesn't he talk nonsense! Fill in: what (a/an). shock.. Exclamations Exclamations are used to express anger.. . • What + a(n) + (adjective) + singular countable noun What a sweet baby! • What + (adjective) + uncountable/plural noun What nice weather! What beautiful paintings! • How + adjective/adverb How tall he is. 1 .negative question at the beginning of the sentence Aren't they nice children! ~ Fill in: what (a/an).. They always take an exclamation mark (!) . What a . 1 It was such an exciting match! . I couldn't stop thinking about it. Ah! . fear. How quickly she WA r. John: Did you see that film last night? I've never seen anything as good as that! Simon: The one with Harrison Ford? Yes.. so or such (a/an). Wasn't the match excitingl!What an exciting match// How exciting a matchl!Waen't it an exciting match// The match wae eo exciting/. well made! John: And I couldn't believe 2) how funny it was in places! Simon: And 3) what a lot of special effects! John: Yes.. as the film was 5) so good! . surprise. The whole thing had 4) such a strong effect on me! Actually. We say: Here ts Ann') • Interrogative . etc. Oh!.. I imagine. Clauses I Linking Words _____.. strange man he is! 11 What an awful day I had! 2 How inconsiderate of you! 12 What tasty biscuits! 3 It was such a lovely meal! 13 How high he j umps! 4 How sweet she is! 14 Her pies are so delicious! 5 What shiny hair she has! 15 They are such noisy neighbours! 6 The film was so boring! 16 How warm the sea is! 7 How cold it is! 17 What an odd thing to do! 8 What nice eyes he's got! 18 They had such a wonderful holiday! 9 The journey was so long! 19 How dirty Tommy is! 10 He's such an interesting person! 20 What nice weather we're having! Rephrase the following as in the example. Simon: I wonder how long it will be before there's a sequel. it follows the verb. so or such (a/an). Some exclamations are: Oh dear!.. John: I don 't know.eo. Good gracious!. etc. how.. Very soon . how. It was 1) ..S • How + adjective + a(n) + noun How clever a boy (not common) • You + (adjective) + noun You lucky girl! • such (a/an) + (adjective) + noun She's such an arrogant person! • so + adjective/adverb She's so arrogant' • adverb/adverbial particle + subject + verb of movement Off the competitors wen•' • Here/There + subject + verb Here h (But when the subject is a proper noun.

..~~:~·~:.. however. as well as + -ing such as....... ·~~~~~iz:.... (in) the way. similarly..... in contrast..... ........ nor...j Manner the same way (as) ......... also.... and..:.... in the same way.... whereas. ~:~~~~~h~i... whereas. however........ to put it another way.. . ...... as if..... .~~~:~.. ! London is a vef)' noisy city but I like it.:.. -ing. I can 't cook.....== J= Reason of. despite. .. Rewrite the sentences from the table in as many ways as possible.. also...... i Cyclists should wear helmets.... (but also/as well).... and .. (even) though . regardless of. ............ .... let alone .. as '.. a . whereas my husband can.. Whenever this is not ossible....... although.... while. ... ... equally ~ horse riders should.... . even if. . or.. let alone..... it is Clarification specifically... moreover. Neither Tracy nor Maeve speaks Spanish. ..... enough... besides....~~~~~~~. now that..... not only that.....·~.. ....i==...... neither..=='. : nonetheless ... . too..~·~··~... too. He's not only rich but also good looking.... the way in which... .. cleaned the house.. (See Suggested Answer section) He Is both rich and good looking. : Positive Addition He is rich and good-looking.... I mean... ~::::~::::~~· :::c:::~. on the Contrast : Nick doesn 't like pop music. make up a new sentence so that other linking words can be used..... on the other hand . rules. .~..········· .. owing to..= fact.. .... at the same time... . .. ·~~J~~~... considering...... ... .... · · ••o•• O-O-oeO oo o o Oeeeeeooo o ooo Ue e OOOOOOOOeooO OO OOOOeUeOOOOOOOOH OOOooOoOooOOUoOooo~ 196 . in addition to. (and) still ..t~·~·~lace.......... .... ........ . (and) yet......·~~~rl~~~.... .. i .. tor example........ even though. not only . . as well as + -ing :•OOOHO OOOooooooOIOOOOOOooooooHOOOooOHIOOoooooooOHOOOOoooOOOOOOOOOooooooooOOOoOooooooooOoOo: Negative Addition neither .•••••... not only this but .. neeeo oe...~~ii~:·~~ini: !•OOOUeHOooOOUH UUO O oO OOO Cause/Effect/ .. Similarity similarly..... etc .... ... even if. . both .·~·~.... it seems that ~~~~:=~~:i... nor. further... .. for.... · London is a very noisy city and yet I like it. actually. how... (in) ~~ . ..·~.. ·~~C:io~7nt~:w -.. ...Clauses I Linking Words Linking Words Linking words show the logical relationship between sentences or parts of a sentence. but. evidently. such...:~i.J ·~· ... Exemplification -·====.1 Emphasis well. . based on the fact that........:······••••·····.. but he loves other hand . . ... not to mention the fact that........ what is more... either i•.. ! We could either go to a restaurant or get l :::~:::v:l~ng. although..... either . instead of + -ing !. like...... it is evident that... not.... Alternative or.."""'-""'... to tell you the truth.. likewise.. furthermore. so. by + had risen........... on the other hand ...but..~:.. . indeed.. remembering the grammar apparent that. for instance. in fact... ~~~~~:. too as. ! -i but.~·~~·~~. while...: :~~::::::~::r:p:~:::~I::..... .. . (and) Concession yet... as a matter of She never even made the bed.·a...~~Y-:. .. ~~~. as though he's only a waiter...:.......~~~~:~··~~·~~~:. . even so.. 1 0 .-.. : admittedly. ...... despite/in spite of..... nevertheless..

........ ' Finally. ::..........~........ on condition ~ (that).. . account that i'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ''''''''' ···:·················· .... afterwards..... apart from .... .... in summary.. .........~.........~.... as..... regarding ....·~:...... ·haff"as .........·....... or .... ' Condition : stay up late provided that they i as/so long as.•·••••··•·••••••••••••• •••·•••• •• •••f · •• ·•••· · ••••••••• •• ·····•· ······················• •· •• ••· ·····•···•· •••••· · •· •·••·· ····I•·••••·•·•··••••••••••··· ··••··•·•··•· .... .......... Effect/Result reason .... : most subjects except for maths........~~.............. l ~ in conclusion.. assuming (that) . for.:'..~"k~··....... until. .... so. ............ cou n go o e zoo..... ..... for fear (that) .. in respect/regard/ i Write the report with reference to Reference ..~.......... 1 not.. '.~~~·~:~~--=~~~·.. ~ start/begin with.. eventually.. in order (not) to..... ..... otherwise... ·:: '.......' in doing so.. · ' ..........i...... short.~~···.. ey are ' than ' ·.......... .... first of all. in all...... . Id 't t th · · d ...... Exception . · nothing like each other.·· ~~~-.L~.~?... .... •••••.... ...... ~...... ··= ~··R. ..... I en................. firstly ' Chronological : continuing: secondly ...... what....... at last.~ -. ................ after........ : I··•··••··••••••••..... m a rat we won 't be able to go out =........ ...• Purpose ' so that.. Consequence of a . all in all... ••• •• ••••• ••.. ............ whether ............ in the end .......... . .. as........ ...... .. : : i !....•... in case... at first.. . Allen told the children they could unless....... u.....~rever ~':. When I was at school I was good at : I •••••••• 1 but (for) ..~.... which......:~:. to sum up........ .~~~~·~ ·:. only if........ whose...... ... till.... (mO're}''"... with respect/ l : ' regard/reference to...... first . in case of ...~~~/~~· ~::··~~~~:··~~~~~~·u·~~~.... wherever . ····...J..: when. taking into : the points we discussed last week......... ...... . briefly. ...... as a resu It o f + -mg....... ...... .. the whole. on ! although found the plot hard to . Summarising : have said..... who....... ... ... in Louise went to bed early so as not ! l order that. then. ' ' this way i the car tonight....... last but not least : and stir them gently..... before this ~ concluding: finally.. that ~ That woman over there 1s the one ~ who owns the hotel by the sea. before................... pour the eggs into the pan .·~......·.. .. lastly....... in case ' to be tired during the exam.... ... or (else) ....·~· ........... ere ore 1n · .. . reference to this/to the fact that. .. then....... so as (not) to. as I · : All in all.... .......... except (for). 1 no so.... provided (that)..~·~~··· ...': ... . next... thus.. in 1 · ..... didn 't watch too much TV.......oyed the book.... whom........:·~~·~··t~i~· ...~.. consequently.. ! second ....... : Time ..... ... ................. ···•••••••• •••• ••I : ~ concerning.. ·:············..... ~ . by the ... ' .. . ···················································································································· ··················· l : if. by......... ............ providing (that) .... now (that) .~~"d~······ ' Place where........... .... "'!"as"':·::· a's..... in omg so ... since.........~~.... circumstances....... Then break the eggs and beat them... .~ ...)... ! ' (alternative condition)...... r····· ...~.... altogether.... whenever... ·l•••••••••••••••U••••••••••••••·••••••••• •••••uooo ......... as (it) was previously stated ... .. beginning: initially... i Comparison ' nothing like the the twice as as less · ven oug ey are ms.................. therefore......... even if.. otherwise..... ... in the event (that)....····· . thus... : . . after this/ that..........:·t·=:··~:~:····1 ............. in the event of.........~··· ... while. if so........I• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••"·)·••••••••• ...d ·t~~d~· (......... I will leave when I'm ready..... than .............. whether................ heat the oil in a pan. f /' ~ ·d I condition ! that case...• .. Clauses I Linking Words ......· ·...... as a consequence...... ............ ........~..... to put it briefly 1 follow in places. to ~ Firstly......· : i !. ...... . ~ ' ....... ! ~ : Relative '.fndetr thosteh f ········~ ···:··~·:~·-~:~~~.. ......

... : ......: . brothers....... I All in all .....ii...~!~.....~~~:~l....he··.!=..to.~:...... . ...........~~:.......:...f!. ~. .... I In all.........~... ... ... ................... i···········--1 when ! should take regular breaks...........··b·....... ~~t~ ~.._!.....! · while While watching TV.. .. ..... I As I have said........ I Moreover........ ..~············· ... ... ......... I In short... .~...... ' Expressing effect/result: Consequently..........:~l... . .... ... ........... lost a lo~.... ~'.. '...~ ........~~...... ................. ..lik~· having -~··... ... ..... r....~... forgotten to feed the cat.... ...... I In the end..~~....... ...the ...the cinema.... ....: .. . .............. .............·(~ My·{..y t~~th before g~ing·t....... .. ..... .. I Lastly..................ga%eo~n~ra~~~ ~: ~~~=~-~~·-· :......... I Second(ly) . (noun) ...~:~........ . I As was previously stated.... i Clarifying and giving examples: For example.. : instead of ! at home .......... students BUT When Brad Pitt··~(~......!............... ... 1 ~ Linking words and phrases immediately followed by a comma Expressing contrast/concessio n/alternatives: However............... / Admittedly........... ....... ~··d 11 1 j:: : despite/in spite of spite of the cool weather (noun) . . the blue one..~~~..... ············· ..... 1 until . I First(ly) .. ...... .......... apart from .. Since taking up jogging last year.... ..~~~~... .. . (noun) ................. .... .. .::~:..?................. I Nevertheless.... I Next......~~n (noun) ...._ Clauses I Linking Words ........: ! after ! I was tired after climbing Mount BUT I went home straight after the party..... .. ····················~ .............·~~thi~9....·:...... I Therefore..·.. before ······················r....................... ..... .... Summarising and sequencing ideas: Last but not least....~~......... ... (noun) 1 Dess_kpeitses/lpnesnpditnegomfobneeiyng .~~......... ...........·~~tead of going to............... . be other solutions to the problem :. I have BUT I haven't seen you since our since .......... .._'....../... (noun) : BUT I am ·9... I On the whole....... ..... always go to see it. I Thus.........·····1 ! Apart from going gym twice a . I l To put it another way......?.............. · · · · · · · · · · · · ·i'· ~·~... we will have to work at the being made..................:.. ....~f weig~~:...i~"h:·....... j . . :..................... ....... ....... I In conclusion.... . ..... ......·is nothi~g like his !: BUT j nothing like .. .. the bank has promised to : weekend............ ..'...~~~~~!...... I stayed BUT I bought the red pullover instead of . .-p~·rl·f..... I For this reason........ .........-bed.....:! as well as/ BUT I study French as well as German.. I Nonetheless.. ........... I study German.. /Finally. (noun) ! Jones has two dogs............ I To tell you the truth.. ... BUT I took a nap before the ball...(....... I Briefly. :.... ............ . I Adding information: Furthermore. .......... ...... ......(-.......... I For instance. I As a consequence/result . .. I On the other hand... ....~-~~~....: 198 ...... ·•· BUTWe went on the picnic despite/i~ ......... . ! /n the event of us not completing the BUT In the unlikely event of an error ... .......... ... Note: If the linking word or phrase comes in the middle of a sentence...... ..... ............. I In that case..J....... ! : give an immediate refund (noun) ........~~-~.. Linking words followed by -ing verbs a~d nouns ...... Physics (noun) ! ! When studying for exams....'.... I To put it briefly..... I Alternatively........... I After this/that..~.... Mr ~ in addition to/ Besides French.. :I·•••besides • .~·(·/........ ... . two commas are necessary! There may............~~..... j As well as having three children.. ...r. I realised that I had i~ ...~:~:........ j · ·········rrh~.... ........... . ..... I I mean........................ I In other words.. ~. I To sum up..?.... ... ~. .ifii~g·..) ...... Expressing a point: As a matter of fact.......... ..... however... in the event of l project today............ .. ...·1~··~--.......... .......... ........~~~~... ..~!~:.. ..·~d··~t·~·C~............ I In summary..~................ ....?:.... I That is to say.....~I ~~..... .......

12 I don't study hard. (concerning) I would like to make an appointment with the bank manager concerning my application for a loan. nor) Neither Peter nor Tom can afford a holiday this year... (regardless of) The firefighter rushed into the blazing building. Tom can't either. 15 Barny speaks both Spanish and French equally well. It's about my application for a loan. 14 I think travelling abroad will be great for Tom. (concession) 6 The film was good. She was probably in great pain. However. (as if) The elderly woman walked very slowly and hesitantly as if she was in great pain. 16 Neither Laura nor Mark enjoyed the party. I would like you to be home by 11 . It contained over a hundred pounds. not to mention the fact that he is patient. 5 Her first album was a huge success and her latest single has likewise received good reviews. 2 It's such a pity I spent so long making paella as neither Kate nor Tim like seafood. (although) I really enjoy surfing. (negative addition) 4 Many famous people supported the cause.30 . 17 Instead of flying to Scotland we decided to go by train. although it's difficult. Both . (relative) 14 I really enjoy surfing. yet I do well at school. . 3 Not only do I like listening to classical music but I also like listening to pop. though. 7 In addition to the project we were given to do for Friday. Besides. negative addition.. (clarification) 3 Peter can't afford a holiday this year. (in order to) I always have some hot chocolate before I go to bed in order to help me sleep. Clauses I Linking Words _ Join the sentences.. He didn't think of the danger... (condition) 12 I always have some hot chocolate before I go to bed. (exception) 7 The firefighter rushed into the blazing building. then identify the function of the linking words in brackets. (except for) The film was good except for the ending. (even though) My nephew likes to wear a watch. You mustn't tell anyone else. (providing) I suppose I can tell you providing (that) you don't tell anyone else. It's difficult.. In contrast. he will get the opportunity to make new friends. The ending was a bit of a disappointment. (specifically) This new website has been specifically designed to help teenagers. not all adults like reading books. (neither . (concession) Complete the sentences using linkers expressing positive addition . 4 I didn't get the job and Paula didn't either. (reason) 13 Yesterday I found a wallet. regardless of the danger. In addition to being reliable Claire is also conscientious. She is conscientious too. 1 Claire is reliable. (which) Yesterday I found a wallet which contained over a hundred pounds." mum said. though.. even if you think he is arrogant. though. (manner) 10 I would like to make an appointment with the bank manager. Mozart and Beethoven were classical composers who lived in the 19th century. salaries are much higher in Europe. 1 . Mrs Jones has also given us an essay to write. Tom Cruise and Brad Pitt did. (concession) 8 Colin's mother is French. 8 Maggie's English has improved a lot.. while/whereas/but mine has got worse. (such as) Many famous people such as Tom Cruise and Brad Pitt supported the cause. 13 Not all children like watching TV. It helps me sleep. (positive addition) . (and yet) Colin's mother is French and yet he can't speak a word of the language. (contrast) 9 The elderly woman walked very slowly and hesitantly. In the same way. even though he can't tell the time yet. He can't speak a word of the language. (in addition to) . 11 "You can go to the party.. 6 I like Tommy. 2 This is a new website. 10 The cost of living in the US is really high . 9 Mr Jenkins is one of the nicest and fairest teachers. He can't tell the time yet. contrast and similarity. It has been designed to help teenagers. for example. (reference) 11 I suppose I can tell you. (exemplification) 5 My nephew likes to wear a watch.

Clauses I Linking Words
Complete the sentences using linkers expressing concession, alternatives,
O· emphasis and exemplification.

1 Finland is one of the most interesting countries I have ever visited . ... Even. .. so, I could never imagine
spending the rest of my life in such a cold place.
2 "Mary is the kindest and loveliest person you could ever meet." "She is indeed ."
3 John is a great skier. This is illustrated by him winning yet another gold medal at the Olympics.
4 Considering that he is not a native speaker, his accent is remarkable.
5 All people should be treated equally, regardless of race , age and gender.
6 I have never been in a foreign country, let alone spoken a foreign language.
7 My favourite places are islands such as Cyprus and Crete.
8 The shop assistant asked me if I was looking for anything in particular.
9 I bought a new pair of trousers and a pair of shoes as well.
10 We can have the party at our beach house. Alternatively, we can go out to a disco.
11 I plan to either study Medicine or Law at university.
12 I didn't get picked to play in the team but I'm going to the match nevertheless/nonetheless.
13 I told Jenny I wouldn't lend her any more money, (and) still/yet she keeps asking for some.
14 Uncle David is arriving tomorrow. To tell you the truth, I'm not really looking forward to listening to all his bad
jokes.
15 "Are you going anywhere nice this summer?" "As a matter of fact, I've just booked a holiday in the
Seychelles."

Complete the sentences using linkers expressing clarification, cause/reason ,
manner and condition.

1 She will be able to go to university .. .only.. . if she passes the entrance exam.
2 We 'd better go now, otherwise we might miss our flight.
3 He was allowed to spend the weekend with his friends on condition that he would tidy up his room first.
4 The engineer gave us instructions of what we should do in the event of a power cut.
5 I totally disapprove of the way in which she treats her pet cat.
6 They decided to move to a bigger house owing to the fact that they need more space for the newborn baby.
7 Smoking has been banned in public places on the grounds that it poses a public health hazard.
8 Assuming that I pass my driving test, I'll be able to get a car soon.
9 By adopting a healthy diet you are sure to get all the vitamins and minerals your body needs.
10 The data was thought to be inaccurate seeing that very few people had participated in the research .
11 I cannot dance (in) the same way as you do - we all have our own unique style!
12 In view of the recent changes, we will hold a meeting to discuss our plans for the future.
13 All those in favour, in other words those who support the project, please raise your hand.
14 It is evident that crime is increasing in our area as there have been three burglaries this month alone.

Complete the sentences using linkers expressing consequence of a condition, purpose,
effect/result, comparison, time and exception.

1 Keep training hard for another month or so. In ... doing... so, you will get stronger and fitter for the race.
2 Ben woke up late, consequently missing the plane to Amsterdam.
3 I got up really early for fear that I would be late for the interview.
4 Tim can type twice as fast as me.
5 The more I think about the exam , the more nervous I become.
6 There's nothing like a nice hot bath after a hard day at work.
7 In order not to offend Penny, I invited her to the party.
8 I hope I haven't upset you . If so, I apologise.
9 The weather was nice all week, except/but for Sunday morning when it rained.
10 But for the help of my neighbour, I wouldn't have been able to get into my house.
11 Since you are here, you can start now.

1100

Clauses I Linking Words -..........
12 Being ill, I shouldn't have entered the competition but I did quite well under the circumstances.
13 Come early. This way you will get the chance to meet everyone before we go out.

Complete the sentences using linkers expressing chronological order,
reference and summarising.

1 The famous actress refused to give any information ...concerning/regarding ... her private life.
2 We waited ages for a bus and eventually one came.
3 Initially, I didn't want to move to another city, but then I was glad I did.
4 I went to the wedding ceremony but I was too tired to go to the reception afterwards.
5 First, take a large pan and fill it with water. Next, place it on the stove and bring to the boil.
6 I would like to thank mum, dad, my brother, my sister Suzie and last but not least, my husband Harry for
making this such a special day.
7 On the whole, I was pleased with my exam results.
8 Students at Rowntree High have great choice with respect/regard to the sports on offer.
9 To sum up, language learning provides us with not only exciting opportunities to communicate with others,
but also the chance to broaden our minds.
10 There's lots I could tell you about my year in Ghana as a volunteer but I wouldn't know where to begin. To
put it briefly, I had the time of my life.
11 With reference to your recent application, I am pleased to inform you that you have been short-listed to come
for an interview.
12 Taking into account that it is difficult for the body to burn calories late in the evening, you should eat only
light snacks before you go to bed .
13 As (it) was previously stated in my last presentation, the company is ready to expand.

Fill in the gap with an appropriate linking word or phrase. Sometimes more than
one option might be appropriate.

1 ... Even though/Although ... Jim is 80, he insists on continuing to work.
2 Despite having a university degree, Sally is having difficulty finding a good job.
3 John works really hard, but/yet he gets poor marks in tests.
4 The U.K. gets very little sunshine in the winter. Greece, in contrast/however, gets plenty.
5 As well as/In addition to being a full-time teacher, Kerry is also a mum.
6 Knowing a foreign language can be good for your career. Furthermore/Moreover/In addition, it can introduce
you to another culture.
7 Besides having a large flat in London, the Smiths own a villa in Spain.
8 Harry sprained his ankle yesterday. Consequently/As a consequence/As a result/Thus{Therefore, he can't play in
today's match.
9 I am going to evening classes in order to/so as to improve my German.
10 A lot of her tiredness is due to/because of/owing to the pregnancy.
11 Because of/Due to/Owing to the bad weather, the road will remain closed .
12 After many attempts, I finally passed my driving test.
13 I waited ages for the bus. Eventually it came .
14 You wipe the tables, sweep the floor, and lastly, mop the whole dining area.
15 Before we finish , has anyone got any questions?
16 Beat the butter and sugar until it is soft and fluffy.
17 The children were playing happily in the garden while the grown-ups enjoyed a cup of tea.
18 Children need to get plenty of sleep ; similarly/likewise, adults should make sure they get a good night's rest.
19 Many students failed the examination . Some, however, obtained top marks.
20 You like buying designer labels, whereas/while I prefer shopping for bargains.
21 He is not only a good singer, but also a great song-writer too.
22 Diana performed well in the test considering she was ill.
23 On the one hand , it's good to eat out in restaurants but on the other hand, it's expensive.
24 I didn't want to go to the concert, but I enjoyed it nevertheless/nonetheless.

____. Clauses I Linking Words
25 The food at The Four Seasons tastes very good indeed.
26 On the whole/All in all , I enjoyed my trip to New York.
27 To sum up, there are many reasons why we should use renewable forms of energy.
28 As I have said before, eating a vegetarian diet is very healthy.
29 First, I will present the advantages of the proposal and then we will discuss any objections.
30 In short / Briefly/To put it briefly, we need to take action immediately before it is too late.
31 Everyone received a prize except for/apart from/but Kay.
32 I received a letter today concerning/regarding/with regard to my application to college.
33 It may seem an easy task, but in fact it is rather difficult.
34 I will let you read this book when/after I've finished reading it.

: Fill in each gap with one of the words in the box.

0 except, apart, besides, but for, instead

1 Everyone had a good time except for Jane.
2 I decided not to go shopping. I went swimming instead.
3 But for the support of my parents, I would never have got through university.
4 I really want you to come on holiday with us. Besides, you really deserve a break .
5 Do you read anything else apart from Shakespeare?

even if, even so, even though, only if

1 Even though these shoes are expensive, they are worth every penny.
2 Even if you hurry, you'll still miss the bus.
3 I'll lend you some money, but only if you promise to pay me back .
4 I saved my pocket money for six months. Even so, I still couldn't afford to buy a computer.

and , but, or, so

1 Which would you like - chicken or cheese?
2 I bought a jacket and a pair of trousers .
3 I'd like to go to the concert but I'm far too busy.
4 I wanted to get a good seat, so I arrived early.

() both ... and, not only ... but also, either ... or, neither ... nor, whether ... or

1 Not only did he turn up late for work, but he also took a long lunch break.
2 Neither Ann nor Kelly likes fish.
3 I've worked in both America and Australia.
4 If either my dad or my friends call , let me know.
5 When I heard the news I didn 't know whether to laugh or cry.

in the event of, in spite of, in addition to, in case, in order (not) to

1 Take a coat, in case it gets cold.
2 The teacher explained what we should do in the event of an earthquake.
3 In order to get into shape, you have to do regular exercise.
4 We went sightseeing in spite of the extremely high temperatures.
5 In addition to being a music teacher, Rebecca also plays in a band .

1102

Clauses I Linking Words _
0 whenever, when , while, until, whereas, wherever

1 Houses in the city are very expensive, whereas those in the country are slightly cheaper.
2 I always think of you whenever/when I hear Bon Jovi on the radio.
3 Dave waited until he was in his 30s to get married and have children.
4 While owning a pet is good for your health, it is also a big responsibility.
5 I made lots of new friends when I was in London.
6 Jason always feels at home wherever he is.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 I haven't worn my blue dress for a long time.
since It's a long time ...since I last wore ... my blue dress.
2 There was a queue at the supermarket so I was late home.
due I arrived home late due to the fact (that) there was a queue at the supermarket.
3 James has decided to buy a motorbike; we can't stop him.
prevent We can 't prevent James from buying a motorbike.
4 She studied biology because she wanted to be a nurse.
view She stud ied biology with a view to becoming a nurse.
5 He was hard-working but he couldn't find a job.
though Hard-working though he was, he could not find a job.
6 She left all her money in the bank because she was afraid of being burgled.
fear She left all her money in the bank for fear of being/for fear she might be burgled .
7 I cashed a cheque because I might need more money.
case I cashed a cheque in case I needed more money.
8 Take some sandwiches. There may not be a cafe at the station.
in Take some sandwiches in case there isn't a cafe at the station.
9 My little brother is very different from me.
like My little brother is nothing like me.
10 He was the only one who didn't enjoy the film .
except Everyone enjoyed the film except (for) him.
11 Always drive carefully if you don't want to have an accident.
avoid Always drive carefully to avoid having an accident.
12 He won 't agree to modernising the office, not even to hiring more staff.
alone He won't agree to modernising the office let alone hiring more staff.
13 Whatever you say, I will never believe him.
what I will never believe him, no matter what you say.
14 You can come with me but only if you promise to behave yourself.
provided You can come with me provided (that) you promise to behave yourself.
15 Once everybody had arrived, the teacher began the lesson.
had The teacher waited until everyone had arrived before she started the lesson.
16 I used to work in that shop .
where That's the shop where I used to work.
17 She was so worried that she couldn't concentrate on her work.
too She was too worried to concentrate on her work.
18 I didn't tell him what I thought because I didn't want to upset him.
so I didn't tell him what I thought so as not to upset him.
19 It was such a loud bang that we all jumped.
so It was so loud a bang that we all jumped.
20 The music was too loud ; I got a headache.
such It was such loud music (that) I got a headache.

Folder O
• 1 Look at Appendix 2, then explain the phrasal verbs in bold.

1 They managed to get along despite their 8 The people couldn't get on the bus because it
difficulties . ... have a good relationship... was already full. enter, board
2 I don't understand what you 're getting at by 9 It took him three weeks to get over his chest
saying such things. mean/imply infection. recover from
3 She gets on with all her colleagues; she's such a 10 The student failed to get through the whole exam
nice person . be on friendly terms with in the time allowed. finish
4 He tried to get through to Ann but the phone was 11 The thieves had to give in when the police
engaged. reach by phone surrounded them . surrender
5 Although he caused the accident, he got away 12 She tried hard to give up eating sweets. abandon
with a small fine. escape punishment a habit
6 She's good at getting her ideas across ; everyone 13 The food supplies gave out after three days so
understands her. successfully communicate they had nothing but water. come to an end
7 She gives away all her old clothes to charity. give 14 The engine was dirty so the car gave off a lot of
free of charge fumes. emit

Look at Appendix 3, then fill in the correct preposition(s).

1 He was very jealous .. .of... his friend 's success. 14 Belinda has been really good to Mark, yet he is
2 The little boy was very frightened of the dog next rude to her.
door. 15 I've heard about him but I haven't met him.
3 To make a good impression on his employer he 16 He forgave me for insulting him.
volunteered to work late. 17 The man was found guilty of mu rder.
4 The actress was not impressed with/by the 18 The woman felt guilty about leaving her dog
role she was offered . outside all night.
5 The watch he bought from the man was identical 19 The boy was expelled from school for writing
to the one I had lost. graffiti on the walls.
6 The key to his success is his decisiveness. 20 There has been an increase in the price of fuel
7 The students were dismissed from class at the end recently.
of the lesson. 21 She is especially good at history at school.
8 The doctor was intent on helping the patient. 22 The man was not involved in the fight.
9 The baby had no intention of eating her food . 23 Mary was hopeless at Maths and asked her
10 He is very keen on playing computer games. teacher to help her.
11 They were keen to do something different at the 24 The ice-cream consisted of chocolate, bananas,
weekend. coconut and cream.
12 The girl had heard about the accident from an old 25 Susan is hoping to travel to Africa next year.
friend.
13 He has not heard from his penfriend in Russia for
ages .

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 You mustn't reveal anything to the press.
allowed You ... aren't allowed to reveal ... anything to the press.
2 It's your duty to check the progress of the project.
responsible You are responsible for checking the progress of the project.
3 She was too young to travel on her own.
old She was not old enough to travel on her own.
4 Josh emigrated to Britain . He wanted to start a new life there.
view Josh emigrated to Britain with a view to starting a new life there.

I104

laid (tr) = cause to place down (ALSO lay the arise . horse. bear. cows . to become less successful than in the past 10 I could stay and talk to you till the cows come home. 6 He only cleans his room because it makes his mother happy.. to annoy 6 Karen is like a(n) bear with a sore head this morning.arose . lay . fish · 1 I felt like a . clear What the film was about was not clear to me. 8 She laid/li ed/~ on the floor. 5 I wouldn 't mind lending him money but what gets my goat is that he never pays me back. elephant. do you think? 12 I couldn't understand what the film was about. 5 People say he was the best opera singer of the century. for a very long time ~ Underline the correct item. What has made her so bad-tempered? in a very bad mood 7 The man told me he had come to mend the photocopier but I began to smell a(n) rat when I found him in the director's office.. 6 They lied/laid/lay the unconscious man on the bed .lied = not to tell the truth raise . rise .. bird.arisen = (of problems) appear table. \_ Complete the idioms below using an appropriate word from the box.. 7 May I take this chair? mind Would you mind me/my taking/mind if I took this chair? 8 Although she had a headache. goat. out of water in my new job for the first few weeks . 9 He started learning Spanish three years ago.raised . to suspect somebody of something 8 The deal was supposed to be secret. 11 How deep do you think this pool is? of What is the depth of this pool . rat. make ~ lie .. then explain the meaning of the idioms.rose . cat. fieh . been He has been learning Spanish for three years.that's why she's so thin.lain (intr) = be in a horizontal position higher or greater . . she carried on with her work. she carried on with her work. advantage You must take advantage of the opportunity to attend this festival. dogs.. 3 We'll have to put off making a decision because a problem has arisen/risen/raised . to waste time doing something that has no chance of succeeding. supposed He is supposed to have been the best opera singer of the century.lied . to eat very little 3 The extension turned out to be a white elephant as nobody needed the extra space. 2 She always lies/lays about her age so no one knows how old she really is. 2 She eats like a bird . -- 5 I always wake up just after the sun has arisen/risen/raised. but I really must leave now. 7 Everyone arose/rose/raised to their feet when the judge entered the courtroom. move upward \ lie . spite In spite of having a headache.. groaning in pain.risen (int) = get higher. The service is not up to standard and the staff are inexperienced. You'll never get me to change my mind.. uncomfortable . Who let the cat out of the bag? to reveal a secret 9 Since the new manager took over.raised (tr) = cause to rise.lay .laid . 4 It's not good for you to lie/lay in bed all day.. the business is really going to the dogs. lay eggs) 1 You should raise/rise/arise your hand to get the teacher's attention. something expensive but useless 4 You 're flogging a dead horse trying to persuade me to come with you. so He only cleans his room so as to make his mother happy. 10 You mustn't miss the opportunity to attend this festival.

. c:::::J c:::::J c:::::J Ancient forests (also (0) .. Today. read the text below and decide which answer (A. ancient forests covered most of central and western Europe.. I Example: A B C D O A known B considered C told D reminded 0 .... Ancient forests are incredibly (2) ....Practice Test Part 1 For questions 1-12... They are also asking governments to regenerate forests and mana9e them in a more nature-friendly way.. What is more.. it is hoped that the remaining areas will be (12) . They also store carbon dioxide which would otherwise (4) ...... ...... C or D) best fits each gap...A.. ancient woodlands exist only in the far north of Europe.... Recent evidence indicates that only 17 per cent of the forest that used to cover Europe remains. ..... In fact..... any more. (5) .... By (11) ........... B..... this is not the (6) . There is an example at the beginning (0). The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) has decided to (9) . the atmosphere. awareness of the value of ancient forests......K) are areas that (1) . .. ... as 'ancient woodlands' in the U... with the ancient trees that are destroyed.. Unfortunately...... 3 per cent in Sweden and Finland and 14 per cent in European Russia. .. 1 A contain @ consist c include D involve 2 A wealthy B full c prosperous @ rich 3 A house I B place © home D country 4@ pollute B infect c contaminate D spoil 5 A Then @ Once c Ago D Before 6@ case B instance c occasion D condition 7 A of @ along c next D alongside 8 A gone B dead c lost @ extinct 9@ draw B bring c carry D move 10 A business B job c exchange @ trade 11 A arising B rising © raising D lifting 12 A released B kept c survived @ saved 106 ...... attention to the importance of Europe's ancient woodlands...... rare plants and animals are becoming (8) ........... in wildlife.......... They are calling for the remaining forests to be protected through the control of the wood (10) .. . they are (3) .. This is worrying because (7) ... to nearly two thirds of the world's animal and plant species found on land.... ancient forests control the world's climate by absorbing large amounts of water from rainfall. of trees which can be as old as a thousand years....

. It is this movement of the earth's pl ates (called ' Plate Tectonics') that scientists believe explain s geological phenomena (17) such as mountain formation... the Himalayas are grow ing t aller (21) and taller each year because t hese two plates are (22) constantly/still colliding.. . For example..... In fact.. The plate which carri es India above it crashed into the plate w hich carries Asia.. M any people noted. .. . read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. the strange coincidence that many coastlines .. however. earthquakes. the continents can 'buckle' and 'fold ' to create mountain ranges.. Use only one word in each gap. the plates are all moving (14) in different directions. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided . Part 2 For questions 13-24. There is an example at the beginning (0) .... m any scient ists believed that the eart h's cont inents (23) had always been in t he same place.. That is. Less than 100 years ago.. so (16) do the continents and oceans that lie above it.11111111!!111'!15il looked as if they could fit together..... Some plates are moving towards each other. when two pl ates (19) that/which are carrying continental crust above them crash into each other. . is broken up into a number of large pieces called 'plates '. and (15) some are sliding past each other.. and the movement of continents (18) in/throughout time. This is (20) how the Himalayas formed. As each plate moves. These plates are not fixed in one spot but are moving very slowly (about 1-10 cm a year) and independently of one (13) another. for instance. .... some are moving away from each other. The position of the continents is also explained by moving plates. . Example: 0 IBI U IT J J J I J J J I J J J I I Ot1r Moving Earth I Geologi sts believe that the earth's top layer is not solid (0) ... The east coast of South America looked as (24) -i.t' it could fit perfectly with the west coast of Africa. .

The city of Tyre became rich and very FAME (32) famous in ancient times because its purple-dyed clothes were so HIGH (33) highly prized. read the text below. purple was the colour of (29) royalty.. But in EVERY ancient times. In POWER fact...000 Murex snails to produce VALUE enough dye to colour just one robe. The only people who could afford to wear EXPENSE purple clothes were kings..Practice Test ~ Part 3 For questions 25-34. It took more than 12.. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. that in ancient Rome one gram of purple dye was worth more than twenty grams of gold! 1108 .......the colour of kings Today... Purple dye was so (34} valuable. you can see the colour purple (0) .. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.... ROYAL Legend has it that purple was first discovered by the god Melkarth BEAUTY when his dog ate a sea snail.... This snail (called Murex) became the first source of purple dye.. The dye was called 'Tyrian Purple' after the DISCOVER place of its (31) discovery: Tyre.. for many centuries. or very wealthy or (28) powerful people. Pur le .. Cloth which was dyed purple was (26) incredibly rare INCREDIBLE and very (27) expensive. purple was a(n) (25) exceptionally difficult colour to EXCEPTION produce in a dye. The snail left a (30) beautiful purple colour around the dog's mouth.. There is an example at the beginning (0)..

41 Nobody knows what the answer is. 42 They invited both their relatives and their friends to the wedding............ NOT He is not as domineering as his brother..... \ 40 They won't make it to the final this year... including the word given....... 37 You'd better book a ticket well in advance. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided ...... CHANCE They have no chance of making it to the final th is year.... 35 The company rejected his offer......... 38 He is less domineering than his brother. the accident. I would book a ticket well in advance........... complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.. 36 I can't believe that he managed to escape so easily......... DIFFICULT I find it difficult to believe that he managed to escape so easily........ Do not change the word given... There is an example at the beginning (0) ...... 39 His parents won 't let him stay out late. ON LY They invited not only their relatives but also their friends to the wedding............. ALLOWED He is not allowed to stay out late.......... BLAME He ......... Example: O The accident wasn 't his fault. ANYBODY There is not anybody who knows what the answer is.. You must use between two and five words... WERE If I were you........Part 4 For questions 35-42. ........ DOWN His offer was turned down by the company...... ........... using the word given.

9 She asked the doctor how long she would have to stay in hospital.. 6 Don't tell the secret to anybody else..... . .. It is also used in Reported Speech when it is not followed by the person the words were spoken to. .... ...~~'.. ·············································· .i·~~--~1~·····.......said...... tell sb so.. tell and ask ... I just can 't remember exactly what................ 14 Mum promised to tell us a story before we go to bed.. He said it was a nice song...r~:.. tell sb's fortune. speak/talk about instead..........~-~. He told them/spoke/talked about the incident..Speak ... 3 Never tell me a lie again...... l : xpress1ons w1 e11 : ..... . 16 She stopped to tell a passer-by the time.. :... ...... 7 My neighbour always says "hello " whenever he sees me.. .. 17 The twins look alike..E . Reported Speech Direct Speech gives the exact words someone said. We do not use "It's a nice song...~· ·-~ ~~-f?~... ············· ···:.~~.~~-~o ~?.. but I think she's divorced... ..Talk • Say is used in Direct Speech... Say ... tell sb one's name.... tell one from another.--~~k th~·p. ..infinitive BUT never say about. : ............... tell the difference etc ~ rE~p.. ..... ......... tell or ask in the correct form...... 'th t [ tell the truth. He said to me. • Ask is used in reported questions and commands or in direct questions... 1 Tony ...... say a few words... 19 I remember her saying something .~ . 21 To tell you the truth..... 22 She did tell me her name but I can't remember it now.... 11 "Of course I'll help you. .. ·········· ·········· ···················! : ... 5 She asked me for a loan of £50 . ......... he enjoyed the performance.. ... : ~ ! tell sb the way........ 20 And now I would like to say a few words about this year's competition .... 10 He said he had never seen such a ridiculous film before..Tell . "Please leave " • He asked me to leave... .. "She won't come.. • He told me (that) she wouldn 't come.... ... ..... . ... . this is the first time I've tasted blackberries.." he said. • We use say + to ... .Ask . tell sb a secret....:··~.... tell (sb) the time... tell a lie...'.. 8 Please tell me if I look okay in this dress..~.. s~~...." he said..... .. "Have you got any money?" • He asked me if I had any money.... ! Reported Speech gives the exact meaning of what We use inverted commas in Direct Speech..... 2 I can't say for sure.. We use tell sb.....k··~ ~-~~~t1~·~·. • He said (that) she wouldn't come.... "She won 't come... .. ~~~~ ~~~ . ......... 23 I don't teel like arguing so we'll say no more about the subject.." he said to me.00............ I can 't tell one from another............ Ann said to call her at 12. 12 Can you tell me the way to the nearest bank? 13 Don 't say I didn 't tell you they were coming . ................. say one's prayers.!..... ························································: ! Expressions with say say good morning/evening etc. 4 The teacher said she was happy with our results.. ~?...y something....... .. 18 She asked/told me to meet her at the cinema at 8 o'clock .k·1h·~··11~~:··~.. sa. Fill in: say.. ... 15 I wish she'd stop asking favours . Expressions with say.. • Tell is used in Reported Speech when it is followed by the person the words were spoken to. ~... ... .... . tell a story. ...... .... .......... He asked...~-~ ~i~~~--~11·h· ~-~k··r·~~·k ·~-1~~~-~... someone said but not the exact words.. " she said to me....~~. ! inverted commas in Reported Speech...

• She said he is seeing the dentist tomght. ! Past Cont.. come • go etc "He isn 't coming to the meeting. .. ... but if it is up-to-date.. • Time words can change or remain the same depending on the time reference." he said. Future or Present Perfect.. .... questions and commands/requests/sugges tions.. " he said..! Present Perf.... he said . .... .... .. ~.." he said.......· . Statements • Reported statements are usually introduced with say or tell..Re"sa/'c{{that) she wo'ik'eci"fiard: . ! Present Perfect : "She has worked hard. " he says • He says (that) he can 't drive. However... the tenses can remain the same..... • the speaker is reporting something immediately after it was said (up-to-date).... "He 1s nch... ...1 Present Simple .. 'The food is delicious. next week/month/year • the following day/the day after.. · he said... i . that day. • He said (that) she had been working hard. . 1 "She is working hard. When the reported sentence contains a time clause." he said • He said (that) she likes/llked seafood..... (speech reported before he sees the dentist .. .. .. • He said (that) she had worked hard. "The sun rises m the east. " he said • He said (that) the food is delicious (up-to-date) Note: If the speaker expresses something which is believed to be true.. " he said. (speech reported after she had called ..... ..... • the reported sentence deals with conditionals type 2/type 3.''She works hard.speecii.. this week/month/year • that night.... .. permanent states or conditions.1 Present Cont. . ... There are three types of Reported Speech: statements. " he said. That is optional in the reported sentence.... • He told Mary that he liked her car Tenses change as follows : . the previous night/week/month/year tomorrow. . I like your car. " he said to Mary. Cont... " he said.iiidireci. iii. .. • He said (that) she had worked hard... j "She will be working hard... i Future Simple ! uShe will work hard.. the tenses of the time clause remain unchanged. .. immediately now that • since yesterday... " he said... 1 Past Simple ! "She worked hard..." she said. • Past Simple changes to Past Perfect or remains the same.h...up-to-date) Tenses do not change In Reported Speech when: • the reporting verb (said.... that week/month/year now • then. • She said (that) she went to a party last night (up-to-date reporting) • certain words change depending on the context: this/these • that/those.. • If the reported sentence is out-of-date.{.. . • She said he wasn 't going to the meetmg. ..... • He said (that) she had come/came round to his house while he was doing his shoppmg...... the following/next week/month/year two days/months/years etc ago • two days/months/years etc before "The report Is due m next week..." he said. ~ "She was working hard.speec. today.. Direct Speech Indirect Speech tonight... • He said (that) he wished he was flying to Brazil. . the tenses may change or remain the same. "She likes seafood.. ·• he said.. "She has been working hard.reci. • The teacher said (that) the sun rises m the east.... . She came round to my house while I was doing my shopping... · the lecturer said.. · Ann said • Ann said (that) he was nch. at that time. Inverted commas are omitted in Reported Speech.. • He said (that) she had called the week before. "She called last week.. told. • Past Perfect and Past Perfect Continuous do not change in Reported Speech.. • He said (that) India was a nch country.. "India is a rich country.... last night/week/month/year • the day before. • He said (that) she had been working hard. ... • He said (that) she was working hard. • He said (that) she would be working hard. here • there. the tenses change. " the teacher said. etc) is in the Present...." he said.. " she said. ·1can 't dnve.....out-of-date) He is seeing the dentist tomght. • the speaker expresses general truths. l Future Cont. . at once.. the tenses change.. .. • The lecturer said (that) the report was due in the following week (out-of-date reporting) "I went to a party last night.. if the speaker expresses something which is believed to be untrue. . • Personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change according to context... • He said (that) she would work hard. "I wish I was flying to Brazil..... ' she said........ wishes or unreal past.

3 "He' ll repair the car next Friday..~~.. Reported Speech [@ .. 15 "If I were you.~. The coach said that if they had played well they would have won..t·. (up-to-date reporting) He said that she doesn't seem to be enjoying herself.." he said.. how etc) when the direct question begins with a question word. (up-to-date reporting) Tim said he can't possibly be serious. He said they would have arrived in Bali by then .Indonesia he will buy..~~!~~. ....~~~... '..~~." the secretary said . ..~:. (out-of-date reporting) She said they had been to Australia two years before.. have etc) . inquire... wonder. 14 "She looks very pretty today. (up- to-date reporting) He said he hasn't decided what type of car Bali ... do..'.~." he said . I'd enter the competition. 2 "I've always hated the music they play at this disco. 13 "I've been sunbathing all afternoon.~ .. 12 "Paris is a small city." he said . 18 "Water freezes at 0°C . Lucy said Paris was a small city. (up-to-date reporting) She said she is meeting Terry tomorrow.. 16 "If they had played well." she said ...~!.... 1 "They will have arrived in Bali by now." he said ..... (out-of-date reporting) My boss said that I would have to do better than that the next time. " she said. 21 "We went to Australia two years ago. He said that when they were fishing they caught a trout. 19 "She ought to see a doctor. (out-of- date reporting) ..~~........" she said.l. they'd have won." he said.. Paul said she looks/looked very pretty today/that day..... Inverted commas are omitted .. : Direct Speech Reported Speech i ... ." she said .." he said. :. want to know etc.... 11 "Dinosaurs are extinct..~.::.. (up-to-date reporting) The secretary said my/our reports are all typed up... She said it was time we/they went out. (out-of-date reporting) He said he had been sunbathing all afternoon..~.... Reported Questions • Reported Questions are introduced with ask. !." she says.. .~. (out-of-date reporting) Tom said Mum was making a cake then. 4 "I'll be travelling home this time next week..X?." he said. Her father said they had been/were watching television when they heard the news. (out-of-date reporting) He said he had always hated the music they played at that disco.. 6 "I haven't decided what type of car I'll buy.. personal pronouns.. He said she ought to see a doctor.. 25 "Next time you' ll have to do better than that.. . ....':~..." the coach said. (out-of-date reporting) She said she would be travelling home that time the following week." my boss said." he said . 8 "The earth is round. 10 "Your reports are all typed up.. 22 "He can't possibly be serious." said Tom.~:~.." her father said . She asked him what time it was.~.~~. possessive adjectives.. where. 9 "When they were fishing they caught a trout.." the teacher said .. 20 "Mum is making a cake now. The teacher said dinosaurs are extinct. The professor said that water freezes at o·c." he said.::1.. (up-to- date reporting) She said he will repair the car next Friday....~. He said that if he were me he would enter the competition . which. . and b) ask+ If/whether when the direct question begins with an auxiliary verb (can. time words etc change as in statements.~~~~~." Tim said . "What time is it?" she asked him. 112 .~s~~~. .~'. '!!~~~.." said Lucy.. 24 "I am meeting Terry tomorrow. .. In reported questions we use affirmative word order and the question mark becomes a full stop. 5 "He left last Monday." said Paul." the professor said. 17 "She doesn't seem to be enjoying herself. To report a question we use: a) ask + question word (who.. 7 "It's time we went out." she said.. She says he left last Monday.~. Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech. 23 "We were watching television when we heard the news.. Tenses. He said the earth is round..

.... etc) or whether can be followed by an infinitive in the indirect question if the subject of the question is the speaker . where......) I wonder if/whether he speaks French fluently... Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech........ 7 "Why is he acting this way? " she asked me...... ) He wanted to know where I/he/she/we/they had been. .. 1 "Will you take the dog out for a walk? " he asked me .. 7 Does he speak French fluently? (I wonder . ask.) She wondered who had done it........ who... He asked me how much money I had........00? " he asked me... 8 Will she be on time? (I doubt ........ ....... _... I doubt .......: "What shall I do next?" he asked me.... beg .... She asked Sue if/whether she had been to York before........ :. She asked me why he was acting that way.) I doubted that he had stolen the money..........! He wanted to know what he should do/what to do next.. ..... . : Direct Speech j Indirect Speech I::~~~:..... He asked me why I hadn't told him about the party.::- 1:... 6 "Is that your daughter walking along the pier. .... ... He asked me if/ whether I would take the dog out for a walk ..... 2 Did he steal the money? (I doubted ... ····· .....) I want to know if/whether they are moving house.... ... I want to know where you are going. .... • He told me to watch out..... 2 "How much money have you got?" he asked me.... .. 4 What time does the train leave? (Could you tell me ......... the question mark is omitted... They are introduced with: Could you tell me .... 'Watch out........... (suggestion) "You'd better see a doctor...~:?t~:~.. 13 "Why didn't you tell me about the party?" he asked me.... • He suggested that I (should) see a doctor (suggestion) ..." he said.... don't move......~:~. 10 "Does this bicycle belong to anyone?" he asked......... ) . 6 Where have you been? (He wanted to know ... ...... • He asked me not to move (request) ·Let's play chess... Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions Reported Commands/Requests/Suggestions are introduced with a special introductory verb (advise . She asked me if/whether I could let Joan know she would be late.. He asked who had used his toothbrush... Do you know ....... ...... Turn the following sentences into indirect questions........00....... • He suggested playing chess... ) I doubt that she will be on time.?.. ) Could you tell me what time the train leaves? 5 Who did it? (She wondered ... He asked her if/whether she would be going on holiday the following summer...) Do you know how long he has been working here? 10 Are they moving house? (I want to know . 12 "Do you want to join us at 6.. "I wonder .. Joan asked Mary if/whether that was her daughter walking along the pier.... She asked Lynn which of those dresses suited her best. he said to me..... 4 "How did the operation go? " they asked the doctor. 3 Has she told anyone about our engagement? (He wondered ... ·-··1... I wonder .......~f~iis~=~~:::·=::·1 ~f}~~:~~::... He asked if/whether that bicycle belonged to anyone.. He asked me if/whether I wanted to join them at 6..." he said.... She asked Tim if/whether he had really written that poem. (command) "Please................. 5 "Will you be going on holiday next summer?" he asked her. ) He wondered if/whether she had told anyone about their engagement. 11 "Who used my toothbrush?" he asked.... 9 "Which of these dresses suits me best?" she asked Lynn.. suggest etc) (see pages 103-104) followed by a to-infinitive..... an -ing form or a that-clause depending on the introductory verb...· he said to me.... 1 Where are you going? (I want to know . 8 "Can you let Joan know I'll be late?" she asked me.... " or "I doubt .... Question words (what. etc and the verb is in the affirmative................ 9 How long has he been working here? (Do you know ............ • Indirect questions are used to ask for advice or information.... "...........?... ... I want to know .. Omit question marks where necessary.... 14 "Have you been to York before?" she asked Sue..~........i~(... They asked the doctor how the operation had gone...... Mary? " Joan asked..... 3 "Did you really write this poem?" she asked Tim... ........"....~:~~~had told ~: t~:··........ If the indirect question starts with "I want to know .

"What time shall we leave?" • He asked what time we would leave. shall • should (asking for advice)/would (asking for information)/offer (expressing offers) ." Hen ry said.. "We' ll go to the zoo tomorrow. Would. . Barry asked her to pass him the salt. "Shall I carry your suitcase?" She offered to carry my suitcase. 9 She said . (advice) He said . 7 She said. "I can't play chess very well. 6 "Be here on time in future. He said." She said (that) Tony must have missed the bus. (deduction) He said . can • could (present reference)/would be able to (future reference)." • He said (that) she had better pay him back. "They needn't be at the meeting next week. 13 She said . He said ." Tom's boss said.. He asked me if/whether I could babysit/to babysit for him that night." She said (that) I didn't have/need to wear formal clothes. He asked us to turn off the light.. 8 "Let's buy some new curtains! " Sally said . will/shall • would. "When shall we let them know?" She asked when we would let them know. 6 She said. must • must/had to (obligation) (* "must" remains the same when it expresses possibility or deduction) . Modal Verbs in Reported Speech Note how the following modal verbs change in Reported Speech when the reported sentence is out-of-date. could. "I will always love you . He said . She said (that) I wouldn't have to pay until the following month. "They should try a little harder. mustn't." • He said (that) he couldn't help me. might. "Shall I help you?" • He offered to help me. "Tony must have missed the bus. Reported Speech Turn the following sentences from Direct to Reported Speech." ~t\e ~ald. 10 She said .. should.Q {Q~~l\(~ t\~~ . 1 She said . He said . ought to and had better remain unchanged in Reported Speech. (offer) He said. "I may ta ke up skiing .." She said (that) they would go to the zoo the following day. Mother told me/us to wipe my/our feet on the mat. "You needn't wear formal clothes." She said (that) they wouldn't have to be at the meeting the following week. (obligation) He said . 3 She said. "We must finish the work today. He said . 5 "You sho uldn't eat so much meat. 7 "Could you pass me the salt?" Barry said to her.. " • He said (that) I had to tell the truth . 14 She said . 2 She said. "You should take more exercise." • He said (that) I wouldn't have to go to work on Friday." She said (that) they had to finish the work that day." • He said (that) I didn't have to/didn't need to hurry. " She said (that) she couldn't play chess very well. may • might/could. 4 "Could you babysit for me ton ight?" he said to me.. His father told him not to be horrible to his little sister. 5 She said. "Shall I get you an aspirin?" She offered to get me an aspirin. "You must tell the truth. He said ." ." She said (that) I should take more exercise. 12 She said . 10 "Don 't be horrible to your little sister! " his father said .. needn't • didn't need to/didn't have to (present reference)/wouldn't have to (future reference)." • He said (that) she must have got lost. .~~d m~ t. "We can come soon. 'l " l?lea~e lQ~~l\{e mel.. "It may snow.. "You needn't come to work on Friday. 2 "Wipe your feet on the mat!" mother said . . Tom's boss told him to be there on time in futu re." • He said (that) they would be able to come soon." she said to me. "What shall I buy him for his birthday?" She asked me what she should buy him for his birthday. "They won't arrive on time. Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech." She said (that) they wouldn't arrive on time." • He said (that) they should try a little hard er. He said . 1 ''Turn off the light please! " he said to us." • He said (that) it might snow. 8 She said. 11 She said . 4 She said. "She must have got lost. 9 "You'd better go to bed early. (information) He said . "I can't help you." • He said (that) he would always love me. "She had better pay me back. "You needn't pay until next month . "You needn't hurry. used to. "Shall I buy a red one?" • He asked (me) if he should buy a red one. Henry advised me/him/her/us/them to go to bed early. St\~ a«.." She said (that) she might take up skiing. Sally suggested buying some new curtains. She advised me not to eat so much meat. Direct Speech Indirect Speech He said .

-- encourage "Go ahead. complain "You never listen to me.. accuse sb of + -ing form apologise for adm it (to) "You broke the vase!" "I'm sorry I upset you .. agree + that-clause "Yes." "You can use my phone.. ." • He explained to me how to make it." • He refused to come with me. deny "No." He insisted on me/my wearing warm clothes. warn want "Don't touch that switch." "I'd like you to study harder. " • He suggested that I take the other road .. He begged me to help him." • He claimed to have heard her say that. ." "Yes.. offer "Would you like me to carry it?" • He offered to carry it. insist on "You must wear warm clothes.. . " He agreed that it was a beautiful hat. . " --. suggest "You ought to take the other road." -. --- permit "You may speak now. advise + sb +to-inf allow ask "You should take a coat." .. ." He complained that I never listened to him ." He denied stealing/having stolen the car. He commanded the soldiers to fire. I lied to her. promise ''I'll study more.." He urged me to finish my work. He boasted about being better than me. ---- claim "I know the answer. . He wanted me to study harder. He warned me not to touch that switch... claim "I heard her say that. instruct "Insert your card and wait for the He instructed me to insert my card invite sb instructions to appear." He suggested going to the theatre....." • He threatened to punish me if I didn't behave myself. forbid "You mustn't eat sweets. remind "Don't forget to pay the bill. ·." He denied that he had ever spoken to her. He apologised for upsetting/having upset me.. He complained to me about my never --- tidying up.. boast ''I'm a brilliant dentist." • He agreed to come with me. deny "I've never spoken to her.. He admitted (to) lying/having lied to her." "Fire! " -.." "You never tidy up." "Please. .. explain "It's an easy recipe to follow. " He explained that it was an easy recipe to follow.." He claimed that he knew the answer." He reminded me to pay the bill. exclaim "It's wonderful! " He exclaimed that it was wonderful.. " He boasted that he was a brilliant dentist. order house?" "Sit down immediately. boast about complain to sb about "I am better than you. explain to sb + how "This is how you make it.. He allowed me to use his phone. He accused me of breaking the vase... that is a beautiful hat." • He promised to study more. ... threaten "Behave yourself or I'll punish you. . He invited me to go to his house. beg command "Please. promise "I won 't lie to you again." -- He ordered me to sit down immediately.. I didn 't steal the car. I'll come with you... . urge "Finish your work. --- . demand "Tell me everything! " • He demanded to be told everything.." He forbade me to eat sweets. inform sb "You will be called for an interview.. ... phone her. refuse "No... . put it away. Special Introductory Verbs Introductory verb Direct Speech Reported Speech agree + to-inf "Yes.." • He informed me that I would be called for an interview..." • He promised that he wouldn't lie to me again. . He asked me to put it away. suggest "Let's go to the theatre. I won't come with you..." He permitted me to speak. ." --- • He advised me to take a coat. please help me." He encouraged me to phone her." "Would you like to come to my -and wait for the instructions to appear...

. 7 " Peter is unable to attend the meeting tomorrow.. I told them everything.He ordered me to give him everything..." explain .He threatened to ground me if I didn't clean my room.He complained to me about him never telling the truth..~~~~. " apologise ... " accuse . " inform . 24 "Go ahead.He apologised for being/having been late.. 5 'Tm so good at Maths. 31 "Would you like me to help?" offer . "How can she reach • He wondered how she could reach why/how + clause l the top?" the top. 13 "Yes.... then report the following sentences.He complained that I was never on time. 28 "You can take my car.. ~. in the reported question) ! ··wai1Cie·r· +··-wilei"her··+··1··He.£7.He suggested that I (should) see a doctor..~~.He exclaimed that she was very beautiful." admit ." promise ...wheitier. (when the subject of the l He asked himself. " advise .." order .d er where/what l He asked himself.." suggest . " instruct ..He boasted that he was very good at Maths... 2 "Press the button first... how + to-inf (when the ! He asked himself. 1 "I'll be home early.He offered to help..." forbid .." complain ..~~.He encouraged me to enter the race.c:i:!.. "What is she doing?" • He wondered what she was doing.··as.He agreed that he was very handsome. 32 "Give me everything . He promised to be home early..He commanded us/me to run immediately. 34 "Yes.../ He boasted about being very good at Maths./He complained that he never told/tells the truth.···...ta··5u·y·ffi...~~-~--~-~~-~~.. " claim . please tell me the truth! " beg ... .~t.... " insist .. 30 "Clean your room now or I'll ground you. " remind ..·.He insisted on her attending more frequently. 12 "This is how I began my career... wonder where/what/ ! He asked himself...He accused me of lying/having lied to him..." complain ..He invited me to go to the theatre. " explain .He claimed that he knew/He claimed to know the musician well.<!. 33 "I'm sorry I was late.He explained to me how to fix it. ..~ .He permitted me to go..He advised me to go home.. I won 't tell you what happened.He asked me to explain once more.. " deny .~. "Why is she crying?" • He wondered why she was crying."silaii·r·5u·y·th"ax·c·a.~ -~~£7." ask . 8 "No...:?.... " threaten ...He denied copying/having copied John's work. 3 "I didn't copy John's work. " . 18 "Don 't touch this wire. 23 "You mustn't talk during the exam.····He.. "Where am I going?" • He wondered where he was going ... 20 "Come on. 15 "You lied to me.He wanted me to carry the bag ..He informed me that Peter was unable to attend the meeting the following day.." boast . the same as the subject : of the verb) First write an appropriate introductory verb.He refused to tell me what had happened... Reported Speech Introductory verb Direct Speech Reported Speech : won.. " permit . 6 "She's so beautiful! " exclaim ... "What should I tell her?" • He wondered what he should tell her. 9 "I think you should go home..He warned me not to touch that wire..He begged me to tell him the truth..He instructed me to press the button first.at··car:··············· .i ...~'." allow . 36 "Please.He reminded me to ask Janet." want . "Where is Joan?" • He wondered where Joan was.He explained to me how he began his career......He promised that he wouldn 't do it again . enter the race! " encourage .... " apologise .i<ed.. 14 "I'm sorry I shouted... explain once more... 27 "James never told me he was working undercover.He apologised for shouting/having shouted. try it again! " urge . 11 "You really ought to see a doctor.~r...~~--~~-~~~9.." deny . 16 "I'd like you to carry the bag ...reCi... 4 "He never tells the truth..He allowed me to take his car....~Y." agree ... the same as the subject l He asked himself...He urged me to try it again..~ ...... introductory verb is not j He asked himself. ~~~·i·~-~.He denied that James had told him he was working undercover... 25 "Run immediately! " command . 17 "Don 't forget to ask Janet../He complained about me/my never being on time.." warn . 26 " Please... "How can I fix it?" • He wondered how to fix it......... 22 "Would you like to go to the theatre? " invite . 19 "You may go now... subject of the infinitive is : He asked himself. he is very handsome. 37 "You are never on time.He admitted telling/having told them everything. promise. 21 "She really must attend more frequently. 10 "That's how you fix it.illmseif.He forbade me/us to talk during the exam.wond"e. 29 "I won 't do it again. 35 "I know that musician well." refuse ..

• Yes/No short answers are expressed in Reported Speech with subject + appropriate auxiliary verb OR subject + appropriate introductory verb. for a walk. . "Did you enjoy it?" the manager asked .. his boss asked whether he had enjoyed his holiday. " • She said that she couldn 't wear it because it was too tight. isn 't she?" he said. as." said Carter. Well!. "So." explaining that he wanted to arrive on time. You went in March." said Andrea." said Carter. • She cried out in surprise when she saw the huge cake. "Well." she said. An appropriate introductory verb can be used if we want to retain their effect. The boss then asked him if he had any plans to go back there. Ouch! . sir. while. "Let's take a taxi. arrive on time. Carter explained that he had already been on holiday. Andrea promised to teach her how to ski. To report these we use: and. Oh dear!. His boss then wanted to know whether Carter had gone in March . I've already been on holiday. . say. • He asked her if she would tell him but she said she wouldn 't." said Andrea . of course." Carter replied . Carter informed him that he had already booked tickets for the following year in February. Wow!. and then he/she went on to say.Question tags • Exclamations are replaced in Reported Speech with exclaim. etc.. OR He asked her if she would tell him but she refused. etc or the introductory verb in the present participle form. " he said. "Oh yes. The boss ended the conversation by saying jokingly that they would be looking for a new accountant if Carter came face to face with a lion. adding that he thought it would be a better time for seeing the animals. B "Let's spend the weekend in Scotland . The exclamation mark becomes a full stop. but. sir. . "Actually. It was very disappointing. " she said. cry out in pain. Exclamations such as: Oh! . Cathy wanted to know what they were going to do all weekend with nothing but sheep for company. Eek! . Carter explained that as he hadn't managed to see many animals. • Question tags are omitted in Reported Speech. when are you taking your holidays this year?" said the manager. "I can 't wear it. I think it will be a better time for seeing the animals. we'll be looking for a new accountant then." said Carter. if you come face to face with a lion ." "And just what are we going to do all weekend with nothing but sheep for company?" Cathy asked . Shafi we go • He said that it was a lovely evening and suggested going for a walk? " he said. since. "Will you tell me? " he said. explaining that. then . "Have you got any plans to go back there?" the manager said ... give an exclamation of surprise/horror/disgust/delight." said the manager . etc are omitted in the Reported Speech . "It's too tight.. Turn the following conversations into Reported Speech using special introductory verbs. • He wondered if she was stiff at work. I didn't manage to see many animals. The manager asked Carter when he was taking his holidays that year. "She is stiff at work. "No. "Well. commands and questions. "I want to • He suggested that they should take/He suggested taking a taxi. the weekend in Scotland adding that they would be able to find a cheap bed and breakfast in the Highlands. When Carter said that that was correct.. and he/she added that. Don't you remember? I went on safari in Kenya. because. etc. Exclamations .. "I'll teach you to ski ."Yes/ No" short answers . Direct Speech Reported Speech "Oh. wish. didn 't you?" "That's correct. Reported Speech Reporting a dialogue or a conversation • Everyday conversations and dialogues are a mixture of statements. Oh no! etc are omitted in Reported Speech. it's a lovely evening. it had been (very) disappointing. so. thank.Andrea suggested spending . actually I've already booked tickets for next year. Exclamatory words such as Oh! . adding that. "We can find a cheap bed and breakfast in the Highlands.. reminding his boss that he had been on safari in Kenya. yes. . I'm going in February. "Wow!" she said when she saw the huge cake. A "Carter.

The full stop.. " moved house. Punctuation in Direct Speech • We capitalise the first word of the quoted sentence. "He moved house." he said." said James. asked." said Sarah. asked. James apologised..." "The thing is that I'm afraid I won't pass my Spanish exam." "Yes.... "He moved house... had written to the University of Madrid..... the question mark.." said Mr Mills. ... .... She laughed and suggested that perhaps he should try holding the map the right way up.. James then admitted that he was afraid of not passing his Spanish exam. "Can I speak to you?" • When the subject is a pronoun. Stephen promised that they would find somewhere to stay.. etc at the end or in the middle of the quoted sentence. ar:.. it comes before the reporting verb (said..." said Sarah ." said James. the exclamation mark and the comma come inside the inverted commas. "It's not my fault we got lost.. "He moved house... His friend accused him of lying as that part of the sea had been explored thoroughly.." "There's no point in apologising to me.. "No. Then his friend went on to tell him that if that was the case..He.. he should notify the authorities as soon as possible in order to lay claim to the treasure. Mind the punctuation ." she said.. Reported Speech C "James. Catherine accused him of not knowing how to read a map." (NOT: Saifi Sam!?. "Yes. ..." said James. etc) but when the subject is a noun. He said. I'll write as soon as I get home... claiming that only he had searched that particular area... Stephen complained that she always made him do all the work.. "/ have found... Catherine apologised for not helping but begged him to do something . and urged her to keep calm. She warned him that if he failed to do this someone else might claim the treasure for themselves. . if he." said Mr Mills. • Rewrite the following as a conversation ... '"She went out. "Well... . I have." BUT She/Sarah said. it's true you are better at French.. James promised to write as soon as he got home.. and threatened to leave him if he didn't get them out of the mess. Mr Mills agreed that James was better at French and wanted to know whether he would write to the Sorbonne that night if he put his name down. yet the diver still insisted . The comma comes outside the inverted commas only when he said/asked precedes the quoted sentence. " "She. I'm sorry.. B The diver boasted about having found a shipwreck full of treasure on the ocean floor...." James promised .. 118 .She went out. "Can I speak to you?" I asked BUT I asked.. ... James said that he had but he had hoped to apply to Paris as he was much better at French .... we normally start a new paragraph." he said. it often comes after said .. Mr Mills asked him if he had been working hard. It was at this stage that the diver admitted that the wreck wasn't that old and that the treasure consisted of Monopoly money! ... have you been working hard?" said Mr Mills. explaining that he hadn't had time.......... "but I'm much better at French. "He moved house. have you written to the University of Madrid yet?" Mr Mills said. and I had hoped to apply to Paris. Mr Mi/Ir:. will you write tonight? " "Yes sir.. " We do not use a comma after the question mark..ked Jamer:. "went out. James." Stephen said.. "If I put your name down for the Sorbonne...... "You see.. . He eventually asked her to help him with the map reading. "I haven't had time.. adding that she didn 't want to spend the night out in the open . (See Suggested Answer section) A Stephen denied having got them lost and refused to take responsibility for their situation .. you must apply early because they fill their places very quickly. Mr Mills said that there was no point in apologising to him but he pointed out that James had to apply early because the universities/they fill their places very quickly..") • Each time the speaker changes..

4 "Let's have the wedding in the spring. 1 "Don't go near the bull.. suggest." He boasted that he was/about being the best tennis player in the club. I must have dropped it in the car park. 9 "No. (See Suggested Answer section) Joan: Mmm." She apologised for not being/having been there when I needed her..She warned me not to go near the bull. (request) She requested (that) I (should) bring her a cup of tea." he said.. Geoffrey: I'll go back and look for it if you like. 5 "Please. . 5 "You must do your homework." He complained that I was always late. What shall we do this afternoon? Geoffrey: Let's go to the folk museum. 6 "You are always late." said Mr Smith. 2 "What a brilliant idea! " He exclaimed that it was a brilliant idea. In British English we normally use should + simple form instead of the bare infinitive form of the subjunctive. Joan: Why not just have a glass of milk then? Geoffrey: Good idea. it is necessary. filID Turn the following dialogue into Reported Speech.. " ." She explained to me how to switch on the machine. 4 "Please bring me a cup of tea. Joan: Yes. 2 "Let's go to the beach . request." she said. (recommend) Dad recommended (that) I {should) paint the room blue." He reminded me to send Mum a birthday card." he said . (insist) Mr Smith insisted (that) we (should) do our homework. 10 "You can 't go to the party tonight.... " She begged me not to tell her father what had happened. 1 "I would eat only the fish. I haven 't eaten anything since breakfast. 3 "Why not paint the room blue?" said Dad .. propose. 14 "I'm the best tennis player in the club. 12 "Don 't forget to send Mum a birthday card. it is imperative. I can 't eat another thing. . it is essential. 7 "I'm sorry I wasn't there when you needed me. propose to her. 8 "You switched the reports. (propose) He proposed (that) we/they {should) go to the beach . . ask. it is vital followed by (that) + subject.Joan said that she was going to enjoy her sandwich because. demand. Turn the following sentences into Reported Speech using special introductory verbs. (more usual) t Rewrite the following sentences using the words in brackets.. please don 't tell my father what happened. 11 "Shall I hang out the washing?" She offered to hang out the washing. but don 't forget we have to be back at the hotel by six.." She refused to lend me the money. (suggest) . Reported Speech Subjunctive The bare infinitive form of the subjunctive is used after certain verbs and expressions to give emphasis. Joan: I really enjoyed the visit to the aquarium this morning. Are you sure you don't want anything? Geoffrey: Yes. " She encouraged me to propose to her. 13 "This is how you switch on the machine.. Geoffrey: We definitely have enough time. (less usual) It is vital that you should deliver the parcel today. Joan: Oh no! I can't find my purse. It 1s vital (that) you deliver the parcel today. He suggested (that) I (should) eat only the fish . 3 "I'll definitely take you to the park tomorrow.. It looks very interesting. 15 "Go ahead." She promised to take me to the park the next day. didn't you?" He accused me of switching/having switched the reports. insist. I'm really going to enjoy this sandwich .. I won't lend you the money.. I've eaten too much already today. it is important." She suggested having/She suggested (that) they (should) have t he wedding in the spring. " He forbade me to go to the party that night. These are: advise. recommend. I'm so hungry. don 't worry.

......" he said ........" he said................. ................................ "I'm going to Paris for my holidays.. adding that he was going to Paris for his holidays ................................................... 15 "You could become famous........... " ......... 7 "Come to our house tonight............ "or I might miss the bus..... "It's too dangerous.. ......................... "I need to write something.." .......... . ............. 10 "I don't want any more cake.. " she said.................." .......... Daniel admitted that he'd never had his own business before..... ....................... "I heard she has had a fight with Mark.......................... 23 "I must go now." their mother said ....... " ..... .. The bank manager agreed that it was a good idea but urged him to be very careful before investing a lot of money..." she said... "It's bad for your health................... Complete the sentences using the words in bold................. ............ ........ The bank manager asked him exactly what he wanted the money for. 12 "I like Susan ." .was wondering if it was possible for me to apply for a loan..... 17 "Can you phone Julie?" she asked me.. "She's lived here a long time...................... ........................ Daniel agreed to return the following Thursday ................... "He doesn 't know a thing about them................. .... "I've never been there.............. .......... 13 ''I'm teaching Jane's class.. "tell them I won 't be here until tomorrow." said the teacher................ 18 "Do you know when May will be back?" she asked. Use two to five words. He said he was [earning French..................." he said... " ................. " ....... "It's ten o'clock... .." .. advised He .......... ........ (See Suggested Answer section) 1 "I'm learning French........ urged She urged us to remember our books the next day.............. ...................... ................." ......................" she said ...." 20 "If anyone phones.... ........." ............................................................... ......... Daniel explained that he wanted to set up his own cleaning business... ......." Daniel said to the bank manager...." she said ....... 11 "Don't play near the road ......... "I've had enough................." she said .... 9 "The baby should be asleep..." he said. 3 "You shouldn't eat too many sweets. .. " ..........." she said ............" .. .. "She's very friendly....... "You're a very good singer................ June...... 120 ...... ..................... " .......... "I'm busy... . "I want to look at it... please?" he said to her... 14 "Sarah would like to have the house.......... Rewrite the following sentences in Reported Speech.... to the dentist... 16 "Are you going to take the job?" he asked her................advised Tina to go......... ................................." .................. ...... 4 "Can I borrow your pen .." he said. ........... 6 "Why don 't you turn off the TV?" she said to him..............." she said ................ . "I had to visit my aunt.. ................ "Or will you wait for a better one?" .................. ~." he said.. 2 "Can you take the dog for a walk?" he said to her.... ." ......... ..... " ............ ....." said Charlotte....... ...... 19 "Do you think we should try this new restaurant tonight?" he asked his wife............." she said..................... "I've heard it's very good..................... 21 "I'd love to go to Venice..... ... Mary...... ........ 5 "Please don 't talk......... 1 "You should go to the dentist Tina...... 24 "I'm sorry I didn't phone you yesterday.. "She's been away all week . .... " ..... "She's on holiday this week. Reported Speech Turn the following text into Direct Speech. ... 22 "Don 't ask Simon how to use the computer......................... 8 "Have you read your newspaper?" he asked her......... 2 "Try to remember your books tomorrow... The bank manager apologised for being unable to promise Daniel a loan immediately... " . " ....................... (See Suggested Answer section) Daniel asked the bank manager for a loan.. .. .." ..........." ..........." .... ....." said Samantha....... "This is a test. He suggested that Daniel write a business plan and come back in a week................ "You aren't watching it.. "Jim wants to see you.

" said Grandad. not Dad warned me not to drive the car because the brakes weren't working ." I said. promised Ian promised never to let/he would never let Elizabeth down. 26 "No." said Greg." she said. 3 "You took my pencil!" Mark said to Mandy. 25 "Would you like me to do the washing-up? " said Dan. 16 "Don't drive the car." he said to me. 5 "I hate the English weather." Clare said to them . 23 "OK. I think you are right to complain . that Greg boasted that he was the best-looking boy in the class. 15 "You may now kiss the bride. . about Celine complained about the English weather." said Lorna to me." said Celine. agreed Catherine agreed to paint the bathroom. " said Lisa to us. refused Lena refused to go to the party with me. me Dad reminded me to take my keys. complained Mary complained that John never put/complained about John never putting the cap on the toothpaste. 20 "Yes. " said Dad. 27 "You can use my credit card. having She admitted (to) having torn Mum's new dress. 7 "I'll never let you down. 14 "He knows where the stolen paintings are. 4 "Don 't forget to take your keys. hurting I apologised to Jane for hurting her feelings. 30 "Yes. I'll paint the bathroom." said the priest to David . 6 "You must have another piece of apple pie. agreed Lorna agreed that I was right to complain. 13 "You must not touch these ornaments. on Grandad insisted on Laura having another piece of apple pie." Ian told Elizabeth. to Bob asked/told the passer-by to call an ambulance immediately. 2 1 "Please leave me alone. urged She urged me to give her the money. 8 "You never put the cap on the toothpaste. 24 "Call an ambulance immediately! " said Bob to the passer-by. 22 "I'm sorry I hurt your feelings. of Mark accused Mandy of taking/having taken his pencil." said Amanda." said Sue. please don't tickle me. 17 "It's a boy!" said the midwife. it was me. 9 "I'm the best-looking boy in the class. not She begged him not to tickle her. invited Bill invited me to lunch the following Friday. offered Dan offered to do the washing-up. asked Clare asked them to leave her alone. 10 "Would you like to come to lunch next Friday?" Bill said to me. join the expedition . exclaimed The m idwife exclaimed that it was a boy." said Alex. 28 "Go ahead. the brakes aren't working. 29 "Go away or I'll lose my temper. Laura. 19 "Do give me the money!" she said to me. me Jake allowed me to use his credit card . 11 "I did not eat the biscuits." Dad said to me. 18 "Please." said Lena. going Amanda suggested going out for dinner. John. I tore Mum's new dress. 12 "Let's go out for dinner. to Lisa told us not to touch/forbade us to touch the ornaments." said Catherine. Jane. his He threatened to lose his temper if I didn't go away. permission The priest gave David permission to kiss the bride." he said to her. eating Alex denied eating the biscuits . claimed Sue claimed (that) he knew where the stolen paintings were. I won't go to the party with you. encouraged He encouraged me to join the expedition." said Mary." Jake said to me." she cried.

Sharon met her friend Joan last Monday.). (1) it is also its largest and longest living parrot. The Kakapo (which means 'night parrot' in Maori) is (0) . Think of the word which best fits each gap. the effort to save them has not come (10) too late. This green colour provides them with excellent camouflage in the New Zealand bush. ·-t·) iii I •1§14 (. One of the (5) most striking characteristics of the kakapo is their extremely strong smell. When kakapos feel threatened. Hopefully. and 'flowery'. Kakapos are found only in New Zealand. They are incredibly gentle birds and can live more (3) than 60 years. Last month Monica and Philip went on a cruise. They do this by standing completely still (9) to 'blend' in with their surroundings. There were once millions (7) of kakapos in New Zealand. Reported Speech • .---~ ------· (See Suggested Answer section) In pairs. Instead. moss-green coloured feathers on (4) their body. they do not (8) run away or attack. What could they have been talking about? What could they have been talking about? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 1122 . 'fru ity'. Next.... of the most unusual birds in the world. one. Write only one word in each one. everything is being done to try to stop the kakapo from going extinct. They have an owl-like face and exceptionally soft. The students report the conversation. Today. Not only is it nature's only flightless and nocturnal parrot. they try to hide. The story of their decline is a sad one.. Sadly. students look at the first picture and make up a short dialogue based on the situation given. It is very sweet and (6) has been described as 'honey-like'. Do the same with the other picture. the Kakapo is one of the world's most endangered species: there are only 86 left (2) on the entire planet.I t§I tt •------------------------------------------------... When humans arrived in New Zealand (bringing rats. cats and other predators) the kakapo was an easy meal to catch. a pair of students act out the dialogue while the rest of the class take notes.

to the cinema. 11 Even though the police went over the evidence 5 Melanie is going to go in for the dancing many times.bring some friends with you . hold in/back his anger.. 23 John is notorious for telling lies. 3 He insisted on having his lawyer present. my father 13 His arguments are lacking in logic. 11 He wrote a cheq ue for £250. 5 If he persists in coming to work late every day. have You needn't have bought me this ring. . 2 Ireland qualified for the World Cup Finals in 1990. instead We stayed in . 14 John takes great pride in his new car. difficu lt to part with his money. 20 He was presented with a gold watch on his 8 There were many objections to the council retirement. effects of pollution. 4 Sorry for being late but I was held up in the traffic. 5 He lost his job because he was extremely disorganised... phone. the 8 Yes. television programme to watch. • Complete the sentences using the words in bold. 7 They didn't want to spend a lot of money so they booked a self-catering holiday.• Look at Appendix 3. he's gone down with 10 Even though Joe was very angry. 1 We stayed in and didn't go to the cinema. after. on . ability Mary doesn 't have the ability to take over the company. caused this problem. Folder ~ Look at Appendix 2. have to speak to him. 7 The robbers held up the bank and escaped with thousands of pounds.. tomorrow.. 1 Even though the police went . He's 7 Frank is a very cheap person. wondered She wondered if/whether they would give her the job.. achievements. then fill in the correct preposition(s) . 4 "Will they give me the job?" she kept asking herself. . 18 As the shop didn't accept credit cards. 3 The director has called a meeting so that he can introduce the new manager.. 24 He's fortunate in having many good friends. 15 Sally prides herself on being very honest. result He was extremely disorganised and as a result he lost his job.. There should be plenty of food to go round. 2 "His line is engaged at the moment. 16 Carmel is very proud of her daughter's 4 Mary has been married to John for nearly 5 years. 1 The surgeon is going to operate .. then fill in the correct particle(s). they didn 't find anything. hold out for the summer. Do you want 9 She held back some very important information to hold on or ring back later?" which she refused to reveal. 19 You can 't expect Joe to know everything. 6 Mary isn't capable of taking over the company. instead of going .. order The director has called a meeting in order to introduce the new manager. criminals.. He finds it very still relatively new to the job. competition. of course . 12 The student showed a complete lack of respect 25 She quarrelled with Andrew abouVover which towards his teacher. 10 Many people are ignorant of/about the long-term 22 I'm hoping for a second interview next week. he managed to the flu. they didn 't catch them . Use two to five words . I had to 6 Continuous neglect of our environment has pay in cash .. 3 John won't be at work today. 21 I sometimes mistake Clare for her sister on the 9 Mary was very nervous about having a blood test. 12 The villagers fear that the supply of water will not 6 The fire will go out if you don't put more wood on it. avoid They booked a self-catering holiday to avoid spending a lot of money. I'll 17 She paid for her new dress by cheque. 2 You didn't need to buy me this ring. building another shopping centre.

a washing-up. 3 We had better start making preparations for the 10 They find it difficult to make ends meet. work. case Take your own pillow with you in case there are not enoug h in Sue's house . a exercise. a discovery. 12 A man phoned earlier to make an appointment. living in Japan. 8 Take your own pillow w ith you because Sue might not have enough in her house.. a good turn . following her own practical experience and not a set of rules 6 If you put your back into it. a difference. an acquaintance. 7 She does her exercises every morning before 15 Can 't you at least make an effort? work. research. an appointment. a fortune. sth for a living. a cake. sure. war. through people telling each other about him 10 The employee was stealing company property right under our noses. the 1 preparations. the crossword in The Guardian. homework. ends meet. etc l will. miracles 1 (of). I124 . good. an experiment. • Explain the meaning of the idioms in bold. 1 I enjoy . a service. doing . a decision." the teacher said. shopping. never does anything 5 My grandmother never looks at a recipe. 13 He asked me what I did for a living. a profit. crossword . 6 The boy promised to do his best in the test. openly but without having been noticed Expressions with "Do" Expressions with "Make" one 's best/worst. changes. coffee. 9 Mrs Sm ith wasn't sure whether she should submit her proposal. 5 It's your turn to do the washing-up tonight. progress. an offer. the best of. She's all fingers and thumbs. I'm sure you'll manage to finish all this work by tonight. She isn't very enthusiastic about it. having He denied having given them my name. a fool of sb. improvements. fun housework. a translation. an effort. 12 David does not intend to move house soon. 1 Mary has agreed to help us raise the money but her heart isn't in it. business with sb. 1 enemy of. a translation. a mess. somebody a 1 deal with sb. 10 "Students are not allowed in the c lassrooms during breaks. peace. a joke. 9 I made friends with some people from Germany 2 It's not a good idea to make an enemy of Clare. an impression. haste.. harm. money. 2 The students were told to learn the poem by heart as they would be asked to recite it in class the next day. trouble. while I was travell ing to Budapest. intention David has no intention of moving house soon. very easily 8 Sue is looking very down in the mouth this morning. friends with. the beds.. a nuisance." he said to me. make a great effort 7 Max has been drawing up contracts for so long that he can now do it standing on his head. a 1 allowances for. etc ~ Fill in do or make in the correct form . by memory 3 That's the third glass she's broken this morning. very clumsy 4 I don't know how Carla manages with two small children and a husband who never lifts a finger to help. 16 It appears that she made a fortune when she was 8 Pat doesn't appreciate being made a fool of. 11 Mum has promised to make a cake for the party. damage (to). doubtful Mrs Smith was doubtful about submitting her proposal. an excuse. one's duty. a job. party. (a) noise. a (for). the 1 mistake. a note. right/wrong . insisted The teacher insisted on students staying/remaining outside during breaks. She prefers to cook by rule of thumb. Has she had bad news? depressed 9 Larry never had to advertise his business as people heard about him through word of mouth. certain. one's hair.. 4 Pete has done a great deal of damage al ready. an favour. an arrangement. 11 "Of course I didn 't give them your name. an ~ a bargain. 14 Our neighbours are always making noise. wonders .

. they are kept (4) ..... The eggs are (2) .. This takes place at a research centre in Oklahoma ....... ....... .. Eight hours after the birds emerge. America has taken (1) ..... As time (9) . All would agree that the (11) . and are flown straight to the centre by aeroplane..... . The (7) .. of these beautiful birds flying high in the southern skies makes all the (12) .... .. read the text below and decide which answer (A.. . where 300 eagles have been bred and then released into the wild. .. At 6 weeks old. .. ... they are taken outside to get used to the cooler temperature. which c ould easily kill them.. . they are continually (6) . Practice Test Part 1 For questions 1-12.. the number of this species has dropped from 50. . worthwhile..... There is an example at the beginning (0).. I Example: A B C D 0 A to B for C like D as 0 c:::::J c:::::J c:::::J - L America 's national symbol is that great bird which is known (0) . from wild eagles' nests.....000 in the 1940s to less than 300 today.......... by........... Once they are at the centre .. B. by starting to breed these eagles....... they are given their first meal... where they are kept in a big cage and fed on fish... stages of the bird 's introduction to the wild take place at the top of a(n) (8) ..... C or D) best fits each gap.... consisting of little pieces of a special meat. ... However... . .. ....... 1 A measu re B move © action D step 2 A assembled B concentrated c pi led @ collected 3 @ throu ghout B all c among D through 4 A certain @ safe c sure D harmless 5 A avoids B prevents c hinders @ protects 6 A cont rolled @ observed c seen D noted 7 A end @ final c latest D finished 8 A eminent B deep c outstanding @ high 9 A passes B flies c runs @ goes 10 ® learn B train c teach D practise 11 A vision B picture © sight D view 12 A attempts @ effort c trial D experiment 1251 .. . to fly... found (3) ...... ... the country.... in a special container which (5) ... tower.. the cages are removed and the birds eventually (10) . . the bald eagle.... D. until they hatch. them from sunlight.. .... ...... During the journey.. Fortunately. ....

most of these 'snack' foods are (14) full of fat. You can enjoy dried fruit during morning and afternoon breaks... So next time you fancy (23) something sweet.. salt and sugar and thus contain a (15) lot of calories.. there is a temptation to eat more (17) as they still leave you feeling hungry.. grapes and apples available at (21) all/most/many supermarkets..... One of the best and healthiest snack options is dried fruit. in the car or (22) while watching television .Practice Test· ~L. at school or at work. apricots. be very healthy if you just choose carefully.... it's a bar of chocolate after breakfast or a packet of crisps before dinner... Use only one word in each gap.. We all love to eat between meals. . It's really tasty and makes a brilliant.. as (19) well as leaving you satisfied. Dried fruit also makes the perfect fast food for late-night homework sessions. There is an example at the begmnmg (0) . But when we think (13) about it. But who says snack foods have to be bad (18) for you? They can. in fact.. I126 . (O) ..-------------~--- P·art 2 For questions 13-24.. read the text below and think of the word ~hi~h best fits each gap. with dried bananas.. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETIERS in the answer boxes provided . There is also a (20) great/wide variety to choose from. try the healthy option and you'll (24) be pleasantly surprised.. easy-to-eat snack. Another disadvantage is that after (16) having consumed these foods.

....000 years ago. WORLD the words for 'rice' and 'food' are identical. USUAL They planted the seeds in the waterlogged soil and rice grew..... when and where humans first started CERTAIN farming rice..Part 3 For questions 25-34. One day..... In Japan and China. but (25) historians agree it was being grown in Asia at HISTORY least 10.. There is an example at the beginning (0). cheering people welcome in the New Year with the words "May your rice never burn!" ..... Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.. read the text below. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. Today. About 3 billion people (27) totally depend on it for TOTAL (28) survival.. The importance of rice can also be seen in language and culture (33) worldwide... rice is the most (26) valuable food VALUE crop in the world.. SURVIVE The (29) significance of rice is reflected worldwide in many myths and SIGNIFY legends... In Asia.. (3 1) starving people saw a dog with STARVE (32) unusual yellow seeds on its tail. And in China. One Chinese legend tells of a time when a (30) terrifying flood TERRIFY destroyed all the crops ....... Rice the world 's most important crop It is (0) . wedding guests throw rice to bring (34) prosperity PROSPER and fertility to the bride and groom.

... Do not change the word given ... .. so She should not have been so rude to Dan... 41 Helen's daughter has sufficient talent to become a successful actress..... You must use between two and five words................. ENOUGH Helen's daughter is talented enough to become a successful actress... ......Practice Test m Part 4 For questions 35-42......... REGRETS He regrets renting/having rented such a big house.. NOTORIOUS Jack . There is an example at the beginning (0)... 1128 ... using the word given... according to Pat............ complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence." he said.. .. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided..... .. TO I'm not likely to reach my destination on time........... . Example: O "Jack never tells the truth. PREVENTED His swollen ankle prevented him (from) running fast......." Pat said.. 39 The doctor won't let him do any strenuous exercise... 35 It was thoughtless of her to treat Dan with such rudeness.. RATHER Peter would rather ski than go on hiking trips........ 36 He couldn't run fast because of his swollen ankle........ including the word given.. 40 Peter prefers skiing to going on hiking trips ... FOR He apologised for spoiling my plans...... ALLOWED He won't be allowed to do any strenuous exercise .... 38 He wishes he hadn't rented a house which was so big.. 37 "I'm sorry I spoilt your plans..... 42 It's unlikely that I'll reach my destination on time.

.. My dress has been ruined.... 9 Heartbreak House was written (write) by George Bernard Shaw..... l -ing form l She remembers him giving a lecture.... 5 Teachers ought to be paid (pay) a higher salary. .... ! The lecture having been given... I'm afraid! 14 The wedding reception must be booked (book) a month before the wedding.~ .) and d) when we are more interested in the action than the agent............ formal notices. • Get is used in colloquial English instead of be to express something happening by accident... ~ Active Voice ! Passive Voice ! ~--P~~~~~t··51·~·p·i~················i···H~··91..obvious agent) b) to emphasise the agent..... ! Past Perfect l He had given a lecture........ ! A lecture should be given......... The meeting will be held tomorrow................ Only transitive verbs (verbs which take an object) can be put into the passive............. etc...... 8 She hopes her home will have been built (build) by May. It's too late now... ! A lecture will be given. Her flat was broken into yesterday... · ..... such as in news reports...~~--i~~t~~-~~·... ..... ! Present Perfect ~ He has given a lecture.... 6 Hotel rooms must be vacated (vacate) by 12 noon............l.. l Perfect Infinitive l He should have given a lecture...... advertisements...... :..... Put the verbs in brackets into the correct passive form ... Future Continuous and Past Perfect Continuous are not normally used in the passive...is said .....~.......... she will have been promoted (promote) by the end of next month ..~..... ! A lecture had been given. 7 The villa will be sold/is being sold/is going to be sold (sell) by public auction next week............ l A lecture is being given. .................... l Present Infinitive l He should give a lecture..... 4 Their telephone was installed (install) yesterday. ! Future Simple l He will give a lecture...... ! Future Perfect ~ He will have given a lecture..... ' ! Past Simple l He gave a lecture..... ..~:~~~~~--~~~~--~-~--~~~~-~:.................. 129 .. instructions.~~~~-~......... Use The passive is used: a) when the person who performs the action (agent) is unknown... She'll get in trouble if she goes on driving like that. 10 My car is being resprayed (respray) at the moment..: • Present Perfect Continuous... ! Perfect -ing form l Having given the lecture... ! A lecture was given.................. l She remembers a lecture being given...~--~~~-~--~·i·~~--~--~~-~~-~~-~:.... unimportant or obvious from the context........... ! Past Continuous ~ He was giving a lecture. ! A lecture was being given ...... 11 Hopefully. (by a burglar . (more polite than saying "You have ruined my dress.···················································r-L~~t~-~~~-~~~·91~~~·:··················································: l Present Continuous l He is giving a lecture.. ! A lecture has been given. Passive Voice I Causative Form Passive Voice The passive is formed with the appropriate tense of the verb to be + past participle.. 12 I wish I had been taught (teach) how to type when I was at school.. 3 My television will be delivered/is being delivered/is going to be delivered (deliver) tomorrow........ 15 The building had been evacuated (evacuate) ten minutes before the storm hit... processes.. (say) to be one of the prettiest countries in Europe. c) to make statements more formal or polite.. ! A lecture should have been given.. Her wedding dress was delivered to her by the dressmaker herself yesterday..... 2 I hate being told (tell) lies.. ! A lecture will have been given.................... 1 Holland .. headlines. 13 Your application should have been handed in (hand in) last Monday.....

~~~. P?...!. She was knocked down by a car. • In passive questions with who... (~~~'. :.'!~'.. Note that hear. Omit the agent where it can be omitted. watch can be followed by a present participle in the active and passive. She took down the minutes of the meeting. cause an increase in asthma attacks.. 8 A new educational law will be brought to parliament 4 A baby boy was rescued by a dog in Brighton.~~. ® SCREENED NEXT MONTH. not the inanimate (thing) object.1. Smoking banned Extensive droughts and extreme @ Mobile phones CD in public places in ® weather conditions caused by @ Air pollution and considered responsible for Europe.. ~~. • The truth was revealed. 5 Remains of an ancient city have been discovered in China.. ~Y... The active verb changes into a passive form and the subject of the active verb becomes the agent.. which is either introduced with by or is omitted. • Ann was offered a bunch of flowers.... whom or which we do not omit by... They revealed the truth.l . flavoured.. They offered Ann a bunch of flowers...~~~? . • The minutes of the meeting were taken down.: :::::::::::::::::::::::::::~~:~~!~~: Y~!~~:::::::::::::::::::::::::i ! subject l verb l object : l •• •• •••••• ••• •• •• •••• l •••••••••••••••••••••->•••••••••••••••••••••••••••• I !1··························· subject ! verb ! agent l =································1······················1 !. P. 7 Vincent van Gogh's painting was sold for £20 million at 3 Air pollution and processed foods are believed to auction in London last week. take down.. obvious from the context or referred to by words such as: someone. A lecture on the benefits of technology will be given by Professor White t omorrow.an increase in causing VINCENT VAN GOGH'S asthma attacks..... (more usual than: A bunch of flowers was offered to Ann...... Who gave you this information? • Who were you given this information by? • Hear... • She was seen crying. 3 Teachers mark hundreds of exam papers every year. 2 Bad organisation spoiled their holiday.. By + agent is omitted when the agent is unknown.. • I was made to work overtime.. @ PAINTING SOLD FOR £20 ® Remains of 111clenl cHJ MILLION AT AUCTION IN LONDON LAST WEEK.. unimportant. . t...i.~~~. are caused by global warming. Your hair should be dried before you go out. We saw her crying. etc. 130 .... With + instrument/ material is used to say what the agent used or after past participles such as coloured.~'!~. headaches. Change the sentences from the active into the passive.... BY DOG IN @ BRIGHTON. NEW JAMES BOND FILM @ NEW EDUCATIONAL LAW BROUGHT TO PARLIAMENT NEXT WEEK.~. 1 Smoking has been/is banned in public places in Europe.~. Hundreds of exam papers are marked by teachers every year.1 • By + agent is used to say who or what did the action. filled...~.. processed foods believed to cause... etc) form their passive in two ways. She made me work overtime..~~. 6 You mustn't tell him the truth. Their holiday was spoiled by bad organisation. . (by them is omitted) • Verbs which take two objects (give.. 6 Mobile phones are considered (to be) responsible for 2 Extensive droughts and extreme weather conditions causing headaches.... global warming.~~'.~~~. Passive Voice I Causative Form BABY BOY RESCUED Read the following headlines and write full sentences. crammed ...i i..... discovered in Chino.~:. next week.. crowded. help. She was injured with a hammer. ~~:.~:. see are followed by a to-infinitive in the passive.. 9 The new James Bond film will be screened next month. T~~. make.Y.) • Verbs followed by a preposition (accuse of. people.~'!~. packed. offer. Changing from Active into Passive • The object of the active verb becomes the subject in the passive sentence.. ... 4 Who wrote Romeo and Julien Who was Romeo and Juliet written by? 5 You should dry your hair before you go out. it is more usual to start the sentence with the animate (person) object.... etc) take the preposition immediately after them when turned into the passive.. etc. 1 Professor White will give a lecture on the benefits of technology tomorrow . He mustn't be told the truth/The truth mustn't be told to him.. I.~. see.

19 We heard her complaining strongly to the manager. . They will have removed the furniture by noon . 16 Our house was done up by a famous interior decorator. They saw her leave the building. Farmers are to introduce a new breed of cow into the country. all the rooms had been filled. Some antique vases were found in the old house (by workmen). 25 What time do you expect him to arrive? What time is he expected to arrive? Change the sentences from the passive into the active. 18 Thousands of rare birds are killed by hunters every year. They will choose a famous actress to advertise the product. 15 When we arrived at the hotel. 2 The old barn has been pulled down. Plans for the new library have been drawn up. 12 Fog has delayed all flights. The earthquake caused the cracks in the wall. 26 Who were you going to be replaced by? Who was going to replace you? 27 The island is being ruined by tourists. Her travel agent had booked two rooms for her. 15 A bring-and-buy sale is being held next month . Someone stole her purse on the bus. The house had been cleaned before I got there. They will publish the results in July. She likes being taken to the theatre. Pollution is gradually destroying the ozone layer. 22 Why hasn't the dishwasher been repaired yet? Why haven't they repaired the dishwasher yet? 23 A new drug is being developed by scientists. Who painted the Mona Lisa?. The new community centre is being opened by the mayor next week. She was heard complaining strongly to the manager. 14 She had cleaned the house before I got there.. Scientists are developing a new drug. They should have posted the letter last week. Tourists are ruining the island. Archaeologists have uncovered an ancient village. 11 I can't bear being cheated. 20 When will we be told the time of his arrival? When will they tell us the time of his arrival? 21 An ancient village has been uncovered by archaeologists. They heard her shouting. You will be helped by Paula to finish your project. They should have reserved seats a week ago. 13 John was made to do the washing up. They have pulled down the old barn. 5 The letter should have been posted last week. Passive Voice I Causative Form 7 She likes people taking her to the theatre. 131 . 1 Who was the Mona Lisa painted by? . Someone has stolen his car. 24 A new breed of cow is to be introduced into the country by farmers. When we arrived at the hotel. I can't bear people cheating me. 14 The ozone layer is gradually being destroyed by pollution.. 29 She was seen to leave the building . All flights have been delayed by fog. 16 Why haven't you invited Mary to the party? Why hasn't Mary been invited to the party? 17 Paula will help you finish your project. They were told not to tell anyone. 3 The results will be published in July. 8 Why didn 't they give her the job? Why wasn't she given the job? 9 She told them not to tell anyone. Your bags can be left with the left-luggage service. A famous interior decorator did up our house. 13 She didn 't send me any parcels. 30 Seats should have been reserved a week ago. Hunters kill thousands of rare birds every year. 18 The mayor is opening the new community centre next week. 20 You can leave your bags with the left-luggage service. 23 Who gave him the new car? Who was he given the new car by?/By whom was he given the new car? 24 They are going to set the lion free next week. 6 Who was the money raised by? Who raised the money? 7 Why hasn't the house been painted yet? Why haven't they painted the house yet? 8 She was heard shouting.IA bonus should have been given to us.. 11 The doctors will bring him in for an examination. I wasn't sent any parcels. 28 Two rooms had been booked for her by her travel agent. They made John do the washing up. Bad weather ruined the trip. 19 Her purse was stolen on the bus. 25 The furniture will have been removed by noon. 10 They should have given us a bonus. 22 The architects have drawn up plans for the new library. 9 How much were you paid? How much did they pay you? 10 His car has been stolen. We should have been given a bonus./No parcels were sent to me. 4 The trip was ruined by bad weather. they had filled all the rooms. He will be brought in for an examination (by the doctors). 12 A famous actress will be chosen to advertise the product. The lion is going to be set free next week. 17 The cracks in the wall were caused by the earthquake. They are holding a bring-and-buy sale next month. 21 Workmen found some antique vases in the old house.

. The hotel is being closed for a few months for redecoration. and all the rooms are being redecorated . She was said to have been wrongly accused . 8'Born in the USA' was s ung by Springsteen. in the Hattersby area are being investigated by the police. 1 They think he is lying. 6The glass was cut with a special tool. hope.. 4 They said the president had been in a meeting. The president was said to have been in a meeting. • it + passive verb + that-clause (impersonal construction) It is reported that she is in France.. know. by. 5 They believe she was respons ible for the accident. He is believed to be leaving soon. 6 They expect he will pass his driving test. 8 They believe he is leaving soon. 10 They report that some papers have been stolen. l@l Change into the passive. John Fowles. Noises have been heard by residents. It is reported that some papers have been stolen. Fill in by or with. 2 Who was the radio invented by? 7Her hair is coloured with henna. Passive Voice I Causative Form lm) . It is believed that he is leaving soon. Residents have heard noises... 1 The Magus was written . but t hey couldn't find enough money.. Some papers are reported to have been stolen. It is expected that he will pass his driving test. 5 The car was fixed by a mechanic.. w orkmen are polishing the floors and redecorating all t he rooms. etc are used in the following passive patterns in personal and impersonal constructions. Residents have been shocked by the recent rise in crime in the neighbourhood. It was said that she was wrongly accused. Turn the following sentences into the passive. The new owner is closing the hotel for a few months for redecoration .. is thought that he is lying . He is believed to have got lost in the forest. It . and the building should have been restored many years ago. It is believed that he got lost in the forest.. 3 The cyclist was knocked down by a bus. His health is said to be very poor. 132 . 9 They say his health is very poor. 4 Soup is eaten with a spoon. Matters of security are being discussed with the police and greater police presence in the area has been requested. He is expected to pass his driving test. say. He .. A Police are investigati ng a series of break-ins in t he Hat tersby area .. 2 They believe he got lost in the forest. At the moment the floors are being polished by workmen. 7 They said she was wrongly accused. but nobody has actually seen anything suspicious. The Black Swan Hotel has just been bought by a wealthy businessman. She is believed to have been responsible for the accident. It is said that his health is very poor. She is said to have been very ill. expect. Locals are discussing mat ters of security with the police and they have requested greater police presence in the area . 9The roast was flavo ured with wine. as in the example.. A series of break-ins. think. It was said that the president had been in a meeting. It is said that she has been very ill. but not enough money could be found. report. The recent rise in crime in the neighbou rhood has shocked residents. feel. The police report that she is in France. The Barrett family owned it fo r many years and they should have restored the building many years ago. It is believed that she was responsible for the accident. At t he moment. . The verbs believe. 10 Music will be played by the local band . 3 They say she has been very ill. is thought to be lying . but nothing suspicious has actually been seen.. B A wealthy businessman has just bought the Black Swan Hotel. It was owned by the Barrett family for many years... • subject (person) + passive verb + to -inf (personal construction) She is reported to be in France....

British audiences are reported to have bought a lot of tickets. 9 The mother told her son off for shouting. . 1 Many people believe that eating too fast causes indigestion. George Stubbs. The Hawk was directed by Richard Able and people are being encouraged (by critics) to see it. painted the work in 1760. where the picture will be restored to its former glory. a famous animal artist. too fast causes indigestion. The Hawk. The painting is being examined (by art historians) and has been valued at £500. but after his death it was stored away in the attic by his family. as it is known that fewer people go to the cinema in the summer. where experts will restore the picture to its former glory.. They will have finished the restoration work by June. Mr Owen Gibbon has discovered a valuable oil painting in the attic of his house in Rochester. been The construction will have been completed by September.. 3 They are going to transfer him to Portugal. 10 They are opening the new restaurant this evening. been A new director will have been appointed by the end of the week. The film which the public has been waiting for for so long.complete the sentences using the words in bold. 4 They will have completed the construction by September. be The story is going to be covered by a journalist. a famous animal artist. It was originally going to be released by the Winter Company in August but they decided to wait until October.000. 2 The teacher will send you out if you keep on talking. Passive Voice I Causative Form . so the Hawk is sure to be a success. 8 They gave him a gold watch when he retired.. The work was painted by George Stubbs. Art historians are examining the painting and have valued it at £500. but after his death the family stored it away in the attic. in 1760. 6 A journalist is going to cover the story.. 5 They are holding the caretaker responsible for the problems. was He was given a gold watch when he retired. A valuable painting has been discovered by Mr Owen Gibbon in the attic of his house in Rochester. be He is going to be transferred to Portugal. Mr Gibbon has offered the work to the National Gallery. was He was told off by his mother for shouting. is believed that eating . Richard Able directed The Hawk and critics are encouraging people to see it. li!!1 Rewrite the following texts in the passive. A The Winter Production Company has finally released the film which the public has been waiting for so long: The Hawk. is The new restaurant is being opened this evening. believed It . The restoration work will have been finished by June. Mr Gibbon's great-grandfather bought the picture in the 1890s. The picture was bought by Mr Gibbon's great-grandfather in the 1890s.000. The Winter Company was originally going to release the film in August but they decided to wait until October as they know that fewer people go to the cinema in the summer. Cinemas report that British audiences have bought a lot of tickets and that they are sure The Hawk will be a success. be You will be sent out by the teacher if you keep on talking. The work has been offered to the National Gallery (by Mr Gibbon). 7 They will have appointed a new director by the end of the week. is The caretaker is being held responsible for the problems. has finally been released by the Winter Production Company. Use two to five words. Rewrite the following text in the passive.

--. ~~~. 1·fl :t4 aI:·---------------------------------------------------. Environmentalists say that they need a lot of volunteers if they are to minimise the damage.. .. -{•Jti I•1424t.: 1 ..·······························: ! Present Continuous ! She is making a dress. ! ! Past Simple ! She made a dress.... ~~. used in the causative.. Flames were noticed 0t1 the 2 nd floor by a passer-by ..~. the government has promised that it will prosecute the owners of any tankers that pollute the North Sea in this way. ! She will be having a dress made.. ! ! Future Simple ! She will make a dress.~.~:~~.• • . • fi re . ! She will have a dress made. ! l Infinitive l She can make dresses. l !. In future. . ! She had had a dress made..~ ~.... • The verb to have.. forms its negations and questions with do/does (Present Simple) or did (Past Simple) ..--------· . .. • . ! ! Past Continuous ! She was making a dress.~~:~ ~~·~·i·~·~· ~~. (He didn't do it himself . ! ! Past Perfect Continuous ! She had been making dresses. . 1 (See Suggested Answer section) A fire broke out yesterday at Chelsea. You may use ideas of your own. . .taken to hospital • now treated for third-degree burns • half building destroyed • reason for fire : electrical fault A fire broke out at 11.~:. . Over the past ten years the seas surrounding Britain have been polluted by oil spills. Did you have/get your nails polished? • The causative can be used instead of the passive to express accidents and misfortunes. It is said by environmentalists that a lot of volunteers are needed if the damage is to be minimised. ~~... ! She had been having dresses made.~~. He asked Sally to type the letters...try to put it out • 2 night watchmen trapped .~~~~.. ~~~..~:..~!.. He had his nose broken in a fight. ! She was having a dress made. Passive Voice I Causative Form B Over the past ten years oil spills have polluted the seas surrounding Britain..00 pm last night.·. ! She is having a dress made..) I134 . ! She had a dress made.. He doesn 't have his shirts ironed..l...11 .~..~... Oil is spilled onto the coast (by tankers) and many forms of wildlife are harmed . He had the letters typed.. ! ! Present Perfect Continuous ! She has been making dresses. ~~-~.~.00 pm last night • passer-by notice flames 2nd floor • call firefighters .Sally did it.~~~·~1·5·i~pi~·····························1··sh·~ ··~~·k~~·ci~~~~~~:·············· ···········1··sh~··h~~··ci·~~~~-~~··~~ci·~·. ! She has had a dress made..) :··. . Causative Form (have sth done) • We use have + object + past participle to say that we arrange for someone to do something for us. ~.. • • • • • ·... .. ! ! Present Perfect ! She has made a dress. then report the incident. l. The government also hopes that they can prevent such incidents by building more lighthouses along the coastline. Look at the notes below. . . ~~~~. ! ! Past Perfect ! She had made a dress... Use passive forms. It has been promised by the government that in future the owners of any tankers that pollute the North Sea in this way will be prosecuted...department store . It is also hoped that such incidents can be prevented if more lighthouses are built along the coastline.. ! ! Future Continuous ! She will be making a dress. Tankers spill oil onto the coast and this harms many forms of wildlife.~~.. l She can have dresses made. ..... ( = His nose was broken in a fight. Did he have the brakes checked? • Get is often used in the causative instead of have. ! She has been having dresses made.

What has she done? She has had her hair cut and styled. 4 Someone will repair our leaking roof... 10 They renovated the Smiths' house last year. He had his boots re-heeled . 18 Our cooker was being repaired when the lights went out. The model had her nails polished. What will Jan do? Jan will have her attic done up. My father likes having his photograph taken. 15 Will she get someone to deliver the computer? Will she have the computer delivered? 16 She prefers sending her clothes to the dry cleaner's. 8 I'll get the men to move this for you by this evening. Passive Voice I Causative Form _Write the sentences in the causative. 7 Don 't ask them to post the letters. 10 Someone has written the actor's life story for him. 9 A detective investigated the case for her.. What had he done? He had had the agenda prepared before the meeting. 11 Someone is organising a birthday party for her.. 3 He was mending the table for Sophie. . . 12 Where do they take their photographs to be developed? Where do they have their photographs developed? 13 He doesn't mind the barber cutting his hair short. I will have the appointment made for Friday.. What does she do? She has her groceries delivered once a week. 2 I'll ask her to make the appointment for Friday.. 4 He took his boots to be re-heeled. I'll have this moved for you by this evening . She is having her car repaired by the mechanic. 7 A builder will do up Jan's attic. 8 Someone is designing some furniture for him. 14 You should ask someone to water your plants while you 're on holiday. What did they do? They had their lawn cut while they were away. I will have the meeting cancelled tomorrow. Sophie was having the table mend~d . . What had they done? They had had their car serviced before they went on holiday. He doesn't mind having his hair cut short. as in the example. He had hie ankle examined. She prefers having her clothes dry cleaned . You should have your plants watered while you're on holiday. 19 Would you like someone to do the shopping for you? Would you like to have the shopping done for you? 20 The beautician polished the model's nails. 13 He was building their swimming pool.. Don't have the letters posted . 1 The doctor examined Paul's ankle. 5 Someone cut the lawn for them while they were away. What did she do? She had the case investigated by a detective.. 5 Has your leg been X-rayed? Have you had you leg X-rayed? 6 I will tell James to cancel the meeting tomorrow. 6 Somebody had serviced their car before they went on holiday. What were they doing? They were having their swimming pool built. The Smiths had their house renovated last year. as in the example. 3 A hairdresser has cut and styled Pamela's hair.. 14 He had someone paint his daughter's portrait. 12 The secretary had prepared the agenda for him before the meeting. They had the reception organised by caterers . 2 Someone delivers her groceries once a week. 11 They are going to clean our swimming pool. What has he done? He has had his life story written . What is she doing? She is having a birthday party organised for her. What will we do? We will have our leaking roof repaired. 17 My father likes people taking his photograph. What is he doing? He is having some furniture designed. We are going to have our swimming pool cleaned. What did he do? He had his daughter's portrait painted. What did Paul do? . We were having our cooker repaired when the lights went out. 9 The mechanic is repairing her car. 1 The reception was organised by caterers . Write the sentences in the causative.

9 She persuaded her friend to help her with the cleaning. 14 I'll ask Pam to turn down the radio. Passive Voice I Causative Form . 6 They are resurfacing our drive tomorrow. made Her mother made her buy a new dress for the party.. 8 My brother insisted that I give him back his book. 5 Jane insisted that I have some more cake. 11 Their house had been burgled when I last saw them. had I had my parents pay for my flight home.) • Get + object + to-inf shows that someone persuades someone else to do something. We got Paul to lend us some money. Mr Smith made Jane stay late at work. She got Ann to tidy her room. 12 My father persuaded me to help him wash his car. got Barney got attacked by hooligans outside the stadium. The dentist made George sit still. 2 We are going to ask the plumber to install a new shower. 8 Someone cleans my house every week. 7 Our furnace will need servicing soon. (She insisted that John should do the shopping..• Make/Have + object + bare infinitive are used to express that someone causes someone else to do something.. He made them keep quiet. My father got me to help him wash his car.. 12 I asked my parents to pay for my flight home. 5 The dentist insisted that George sit still. . have You'll . had They had had their house burgled when I last saw them .. 11 He insisted on them keeping quiet. 7 The doctor persuaded her to go to the hospital. 4 Someone will steal your purse if you don 't look after it. 3 Her mother insisted that she buy a new dress for the party. My brother made me give him back his book. Mrs Jones will have the attendant fetch her car. 9 How did he persuade you to do it? get How did he get you to do it? 10 She got a friend to make her an evening dress. 13 Hooligans attacked Barney outside the stadium. (She asked John to do the shopping. have I have my house cleaned every week. cut. She made John do the shopping. 1 The hairdresser will have to cut your hair. Sue got the caretaker to fix the door.) She had John do the shopping. The teacher had Sam open the window. She made them go to the meeting . Use two to five words. get or make. We are going to have the plumber install a new shower. as in the example. 15 He arranged for a friend to bring his books over from England. 2 A large dog has attacked my cat.. done She doesn't like ironing so she has it done by the cleaner.. had He had his books brought over from England. 6 Mrs Jones will ask the attendant to fetch her car. (She persuaded Ann to tidy her room. The doctor got her to go to the hospital. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. made Jane made me have some more cake. have We will need to have our furnace serviced soon.. be Your purse will be stolen if you don't look after it.. I'll have Pam turn down the radio. made She had an evening dress made by a friend . 1136 . We'll have the receptionist give him his key. 1 She insisted that they go to the meeting . been My cat has been attacked by a large dog. 15 Sue persuaded the caretaker to fix the door. 14 She doesn 't like ironing so the cleaner does it for her. resurfaced We are having our drive resurfaced tomorrow. have to have your hair. 3 We persuaded Paul to lend us some money. 10 We'll ask the receptionist to give him his key. 13 Mr Smith insisted that Jane stay late at work. She got her friend to help her with the cleaning. 4 The teacher asked Sam to open the window. but their meaning is slightly different.) Rephrase the following using have.

17 The contract will have been drawn up for you by the time you get back. put up tile toilets. looked I must have this painting looked at . 1 Lucy persuaded Andrew to take her out to dinner. 2 Our heater needs repairing. put in drinking fountain They have had the isw/mmlng pool built. Read the notes below. got Lucy . then make sentences using the causative. out to dinner. Passive Voice I Causative Form ·. made We were made to come early. had We will have had the contract drawn up for you by the time you get back. hire climbing frame. done He used to have his accounts done once a month.it might be valuable. 5 I'll ask Mark to fetch my laundry.. have I will have Mark fetch my laundry. 10 The gardener had mowed the lawn for Jane. 9 She insisted that we come home early. made The police made him tell them what had happened. paint walls...it might be valuable. Use two to five words. things already done things to be done build swimming pool. done She has her nails done by a beautician every week.got Andrew to take her. paint the end of the month roundabout complete first-aid room. had Jane had had the lawn mowed (by the gardener). broken The boxer had/got his arm broken in a fight. install benches. 7 Shopkeepers are forced to work on Sundays.~~iiiiiiiiiiii~~ I {See Suggested Answer section) The local council has decided to improve the children's park. 11 They can get someone to groom the dog next week. 137 . sent He had a fax sent by someone at the office.. 12 He used to pay someone to do his accounts once a month. had He had his car badly damaged in an accident. You can also use your own ideas. have They can have the dog groomed next week . • 16 I must have someone look at this painting . made Shopkeepers are made to work on Sundays. have We have to have our heater repaired. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. 4 The dentist is extracting her tooth now. 8 He got someone at the office to send the fax. 18 The police ordered him to tell them what had happened. 13 Why did he insist that I buy this dress? make Why did he make me buy this dress? 14 Did he ask the nurse to dress the wound? get Did he have the nurse dress the wound? 15 The boxer broke his arm in a fight. 3 A beautician does her nails every week. extracted She is having her tooth extracted now. 6 His car was badly damaged in an accident. plant lawn supervisors things being done things that will have been done by put up swings.

. let us off 8 Sarah is growing so chubby that I have to make her clothes bigger. approval by the council.to be kept away. looks down on 15 They examined the flat before they rented it. 27 Spain is very popular with British holiday makers. 4 Several diseases may result from not getting 18 I had to lean against/on the wall because I felt as enough vitamin C. 22 Don 't say you're sorry for annoying me if you 9 Doctors are meant to be sympathetic to/towards don't mean it. 138 . 1 Ireland relies .. membership. look it up \J4 Look at Appendix 3. 10 Sally was able to sympathise with my situation as 24 I don't think they'll offer her the job. 2 You should sta awa from fattening foods. 5 The quarrel resulted in Catherine leaving the house. then substitute the underlined words with keep. let her clothes out 9 He really disappointed us by not keeping his promise. . . 3 Her family have always abstained from meat and 17 Jim is such a horrible person . they weren't a 8 Everyone joins in with the choir at the end of the bit sorry about it... 1 Mary had to stay away from school as she was ill. on . upset to listen. . 21 Although they spoiled our plans. looked round 16 She examined the contract before she signed it. everyone. tourism to boost its economy 15 The builders have submitted their plans for and provide employment. looked over 17 If you don 't understand a word .. if I was going to faint. 13 I tried to reason with David but he was just too 28 Children are prone to illnesses such as chickenpox. 14 I decided to leave the club rather than submit to its new rules. 12 The reason for the closure of the club was lack of 26 John has got such a great relationshi p with Clare. service. let up 7 We thought we would be fined but fortunately the policeman didn't punish us. then fill in the correct preposition(s). 6 The results of the competition were announced 20 The burglars ransacked the house in search of yesterday. mumps and measles. despite the heavy traffic. 19 The police searched the premises for weapons .he's rude to fatty foods. looks back fondly on 12 She looked guickly at her notes before entering the office. their patients' fears. 11 Has it ever occurred to you that you need more 25 The relationship between a mother and her baby interests in your life? is a very special one. 7 Carrots are rich in vitamin A. keep up with 5 You have to continue to be informed of the latest news. age will count against her. 23 I'm really counting on all the family being there. keep off/keep away from 3 They continued climbing despite the heavy snowfall.. kept on 4 He had to run to move at the same speed as the boys. looked through 13 Do visit us some day! look in on 14 She despises people who don't have a university degree. look for it in a dictionary. let us down 10 Can you take care of my children this afternoon? look after 11 My grandfather fondly remembers the days of his youth..Folder b m Look at Appendix 2. keep up with 6 It was raining so heavily that I thought it would never become less strong. valuables. 2 My teeth are very sensitive to cold things such as 16 Joe succeeded in reaching the airport on time ice-cream. I thin k her she'd been through something similar before. let or look and the • · appropriate particles.

... A makes B drives C leads D arranges A create @ work C turn D develop 2 The audience .. expect him to ..... 6 The President's hotel room was full of flowers...... . a business on his own.............I'm sure you 'll succeed if . lost his temper with ....... check the phone directory... 3 He asked his mum to shorten his trousers. the shouldn 't expect her to always ...... but 6 We have enough problems without you ....... 11 Could you give me your opinion on the new project I prepared for school? know Could you let me know what you think about the new project I prepared for school? 12 Eilleen doesn't get on well with Helen....... 7 He hates his mother telling him off... the line at your staying out all night. succeeded Alex finally succeeded in persuading his father to buy him an iPod.... habit of telling lies....... 2 He is the worst singer of all...... 10 They expect that he will announce what he's decided soon... because I still won't change my mind... look If you don't know her phone number.. ...... 9 George is the most boring person I've ever met.... worth It's not worth arguing about it any more.... 8 If you don't know her phone number.. but don't ..... Use two to five words..... miracles. told He hates being told off by his mother.. a party for Tim's 3 I don't think Robert is responsible enough to birthday.. we 4 They're trying to help their child ............................. badly No one else sings as badly as he does... time in prison.... difference It makes no difference what you say... 5 It's pointless to argue about it any more.. decision He is expected to announce his decision soon....... 1 I don 't like doing business with him because he 7 The doctor may be able to help you................. @ foot B stand C run D carry A finish B end C change @ break 11 He was found guilty of burglary and had to 5 Don 't . filled The President's hotel room was filled with flowers. 1 John became extremely angry with the waiter after getting his order wrong twice.... A mark @ draw C rule D colour A falling B getting C being @ making ..Q ~omplete the sentences using the words in bold. their breath until the 8 Surely you know it's rude to ... look it up in the phone directory...... shortened He had his trousers shortened by his mum. ......... such I've never met such a boring person as George. you keep trying ..... A drop B put © throw D cast @ run B do C bear D make 10 Just because Louise makes a lot of money. people names? acrobat was safely down from the highwire. B.. A have B make © do D take A take B cross © lose D sink 12 I don't mind if you come home late..... trouble all the time... the bill.. 13 It doesn't matter what you say.... temper John ...... such a hard bargain.. terms Eilleen is not in good terms with Helen. 4 Alex finally managed to persuade his father to buy him an iPod. heart .. the waiter after getting his order wrong twice. because I still won't change my mind.... Choose the correct verb to complete the sentences...... A shout @ call C insult D give A took B caught C wasted @ held 9 I think we ought to ...

........ or you ma y even be given detail s of partic ul ar paints the art ist has used......... the Briti sh artist Da vid Hockney t alk abou t o ne of his pain tings.... w ho have ( 2) .... read the text below and decide which answer (A..... There is an example at the beginning (0)........ of audi o guides is a great help to peo ple want ing to (12) .. B....... C or D) best fits each gap... ... .......... prestigi o u s art insti tuti o ns .. David Hock ney. . such a syste m in the Louv re in Paris.... Man y of the co mm e ntari es on works of a rt (8) ....Practice Test Part 1 For questions 1-12........ A. rewind o r fa st-forward their electron ic devices (7) ... a better underst anding of art... which is (1) . ..... At the (5) .. Example: A B C D O A hear B listen C attend D observe 0 .. ... Some of the art ists (9) ... ...... ....... c:::J c:::J c:::J Visitors to th e famous Tate Gallery in Lo ndo n can now (O) . Following the e xa mp le of the French .. 1 A told B said c announced @ called 2 @ brought in B brought on c brought about D brought along 3 A much B wholly © most D great 4 A presentation B exhibition © show D sight 5 A switch @ touch c press D push 6@ catches B opens c turns D fills 7 A any B every c each @ whenever 8@ offer B say c propose D tell 9 A aim @ focus c look D direct 10 A illustration B sample © instance D case 11 A start @ introduction c presentation D discovery 12 A earn B take © gain D win 140 .. Sty le. . severa l layers of information .... .... The Bigger Splas h. they can stop.......and to t he th emes of certa in disp lays... technology is coming to both the Tate a nd th e National Ga llery.. ... on th e ins pirati on for the ir ow n works.. start . the y want...... .... ta lks abou t his interest in the s urface and moveme nt of wa te r in his co mm enta ry for The Bigger Sp las h.. a persona l aud io g uide to the paintings and sculpt ures on (4) ..... of a b utt on visitors ca n listen to artists...... co nt en t and sy mbols may be expla ined. the ir interest....... two of Britain's (3) .. The Tate is now offering Tate inform ........... The (11) . fo r (10) . . art crit ics and gallery curato rs ex plaining an y wo rk that (6) ....

owls are probably the most interesting and intriguing birds (14) on earth! They have been associated with everything from wisdom. owls are (21) no longer regarded with such fear and superstition. Part 2 For questions 13-24.. . In (13) fact.. Owls are incredibly beautiful and fascinating birds with many special characteristics. If an owl flew above soldiers before a battle. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided..... There is an example at the beginning (0).. Use only one word in each gap. So much (17) so. on the other (19) hand. There are fewer animals (16) that have captivated our imagination so much. the sight of an owl was believed to be an extremely unlucky omen .. wealth and courage (15) to bad luck... that Ancient Romans thought that hearing the call of an owl (18) may mean death. owls were associated with wisdom.... Today. and noiseless flight. the Greeks believed it was a sign that they would (20) be victorious. In ancient Rome. special significance to the owl.. cultures across the world have (0) . Owl feathers have very special fluffy edges (23) which muffle the sound of their wings and make their flight virtually silent. This allows owls to 'creep' up on (24) their prey..... For thousands of years. excellent hearing... dishonesty and death. Roman legend has it that owls were heard screeching before Julius Caesar was killed.. such (22) as huge eyes. . read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. In ancient Greece...

. -~. They lived and hunted in groups.. It became GRASS extinct about 10. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LE!fERS in the answer boxes provided. They often fought over food or mates as PEACE lions do today... It ENVIRONMENT shared many (27) similarities with the modern-day lion. . the Sabre-toothed cat's bite was only one third of the (32) strength of a lion. -~. ----~ -~-.000 years ago as a result of the (26) environmental changes after the last Ice Age. The Sabre-toothed cat. But.Practice Test fJ Part 3 For questions 25-34. called the CORRECT Sabre-toothed tiger. They were known as (29) frightening predators due FRIGHTEN to their two enormous teeth which could grow up to 20 cm in (30) length .... .. read the text below. Sabre-toothed cats were social animals. --~~- .... Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. . was commonly found in the (25) grassy plains of North and South America. often (0) ... There is an example at the beginning (0).. In STRONG addition. However. . they had no ABLE difficulty finding food. It SIMILAR was about the same size but it was more (28) powerfully POWER built. their life was not always (34) peaceful... With front legs powerful enough to LONG (31) enable them to spring up on prey. (33) unlike other cats that are LIKE solitary hunters.

... .... 35 The children can't wait for the summer holidays to begin.. LOOKING The children are looking forward to the summer holidays...... There is an example at the beginning (0) . Example: O Everyone believes that she's planning to take over the company.. 41 He is too cowardly to start an extreme sport...... the meeting was cancelled.... You must use between two and five words. Do not change the word given............... if possible...... the meeting was cancelled. BRAVE He is not brave enough to take up an extreme sport...... if possible...... Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided . 40 Josh went abroad in order to earn more money..... INTEREST Due to lack of interest...... AVOIDED Foods that are rich in fat should be avoided. 36 Is it OK if I park my car here? OBJECTION Is there any objection to me/my parking my car here? 37 Since no one was interested..... complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.......... Part 4 For questions 35-42.... VIEW Josh went abroad with a view to earning more money...... 38 Why did the clients insist that we sign a new contract? MADE Why were we made to sign a new contract by the clients? 39 I haven't been to the theatre for ages.. 42 It's a good idea to avoid foods with too much fat...... TIME The last time I went to the theatre was ages ago..... using the word given... to take over the company............... BELIEVED She ..... including the word given..

. you can start working on your essay.. she would have known about the earthquake....i:~~t{~~~~f~jf~~~~~f~.~..) If you will/would be quiet.k~i~-~~···································· real present j (Present S... doubt/uncertainty or insistence..d~·...·~-~ ··3····················r······i1 ··~··p~~t-·r~-rt~~1 ·~~················:·····~~-~ici/~~~-ici·i~i~ht··~··h~~~·········:····1~~9·i·~~~--~it~~!i~~--~·~·~ 1.. (Type 1) 6 If you talked (talk) less.. (Type 2) 7 If she had read (read) the newspaper.:······································· • When the if-clause precedes the main clause. then identify the types of conditionals... we separate the two clauses with a comma...~~-······· unreal past l Past Perteet Continuous i + past participle j to facts in the past. in case. only if... • In conditionals type 2 in formal English we normally use were instead of was after if for all persons... (Type 3) 11 Unless you turn down (turn down) the music.~~.·t.. (=if not) . (Type 3) 8 If the food hadn't been (not/be) so good...) However. he'd be able to buy a car. otherwise... 2 If he took out (take out) a loan .. (not/do) your homework.. you will burn yourself......... (NOT: ifye1:1 vii/I l3t:JY............~........ it would have been too late to change their minds. ...1~··.... (Type 1) 12 Unemployment will decrease provided the government takes (take) appropriate measures. (no comma) • Conditionals are usually introduced by If.......... If you are ill..... tell him to come immediately.~··h~d·-. you won't be allowed to go out. the subject and the verb of the main clause are inverted.... we would be able to get some work done.... we wouldn 't have eaten so much.. will .... or Present Perteet) ..... (Type 2) 3 Keep the noise down or else someone will hear (hear) us........ (Type 1) 4 The state of the economy will improve (improve) provided that there is a change of government. also unreal present [ or Past Continuous [ infinitive [ used to give advice Il~f~~:rg:.... j If you have taken the books..i~~~-~~~....... (Type 2) 144 .. provided (that) ...... Other expressions are: unless. or else.. Type 2 1 If + Past Simple ! would/could/might + bare ! untrue in the present. I will have to (have to) seek legal advice.. but for + -ing form/noun.... j If you see him.. Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past Conditionals .. Present Cont....:.. would or should can be used in if-clauses to make a request or express annoyance... (Type 1) 13 If you continue to threaten me.j..... j can/may/might/must/should j happen in the j + bare inf/Present Simple j present or future .... . If you buy this. Note that when only If begins a sentence....1~-~~d-hi~··..~... supposing .. (Type 1) 14 I would speak (speak) to her if she apologised for her appalling behaviour.·....... (Type 3) 9 If you stopped (stop) complaining..Will you please be more quiet?) Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense....i··h~-~.. Only if you have a ticket will you be allowed in.I doubt that she will call ....... .... . (doubt/uncertainty . even if. he would travel round the world.. . BUT You must stay in bed if you are ill.i·-~1.. Get up now or else you'll be late for school.. would or should in if-clauses.. • We do not normally use will . ' ········:r...~~~-~ ~--f~....... j If you play with matches...~·-·········i······F~~~. providing. we'll watch the video.·..·~~~..... I won't be able to concentrate on what I'm doing.. you would be able to concentrate on your work.. you may regret it..~~····························r···~-~~-~--~~-·i... (Type 1) .... as long as. put her through to me. 1 If you .. If he were/was rich... (Type 2) 10 Even if I had phoned (phone) them.. If-clause (hypothesis) l Main clause (result clause) [ Use ········1~-~~··1····················r······it-·~--~~~-~....... you must stay in bed........don't do . she'll have heart problems.....~.... also used 1 i 1 to express regrets or criticism r······... what if.... ···········································('··············································································································································································································..... (request ..·~d~i~~~--h~--~~~-... If she should call..... on condition (that) . (Type 1) 5 I won't go on holiday unless you come (come) with me.. Unless she stops eating like that.

we would have given you a full refund ... 4 As long as the rain continues. well-organised life. 1 As long as it rains. you will get (get) an idea of how difficult life is for these tribes. Rewrite the following as conditional sentences. Only if I save enough money will I go to France on holiday. you can see the Acropolis. he 8) would have had (have) to live in Africa for two years and he 9) would have enjoyed (enjoy) an enormous increase in his salary as well.. If you enter this competition. you could win a mountain bike. then I'll go to France on holiday. his life 6) might change (change) for the better.. otherwise I won't be able to go to France on holiday. I won't go to France on holiday unless I can save enough money. For example.. 12) would he have taken (he/take) it. But Chris is not the type of person who will give up the security of his home unless he 10) feels (feel) even more secure about his new circumstances. (Type 3) 16 What would he say (he/say) if you told him the truth? (Type 2) 17 If you watch this film. . you can make an authentic Indian meal. he wouldn't have got one.. I'll go to France on holiday. (Type 1) 18 If you had returned (return) the product within the time limit. (Type 3) 19 If she had realised how late it was.. she wouldn't have rung (not/ring) us.a t home. Unless he arrives in the next ten minutes. he 16) will not make/will not be making (not/make) any dramatic changes to the way he lives. Unless you pass your driving test. 145 . although deep down he knows that there's not much li kelihood of this happening. 7 Going there by bus will be cheaper than going by train.. Yet he sometimes feels that if he 5) made (make) braver decisions. Unless the weather improves. I must save enough money. If I save enough money. 1 You have to go to Athens to see the Acropolis. 2 You need to pass your driving test before you can drive. 10 We will be able to go swimming if the weather improves.. (Type 2) Complete the text by putting the verbs in brackets into the correct tense. you can't drive. Chris Isles often thinks how different his life 1) .. we can 't play football. I won't stay at home unless it rains . I'll stay at home . Rewrite the following as conditional sentences. Yet Chris says that as long as he 15) remains (remain) happy with the way things are. we will have to leave without him . He's a rather cautious man who 3) will take (take) risks only provided that they 4) do not unsettle (not/unsettle) his cosy.you go to Athens. I'll stay . (become) if he 2) were (be) more adventurous . If you don't study harder. Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past 15 I wouldn't have been able to pass the exam if you hadn't helped (not/help) me. Unless Tom had asked for a pay rise. you will pass your exams. If you go there by bus. His friends try to convince him that he 13) would discover/will discover (discover) the fun in life if he 14) decided/decides (decide) to be a little more daring.. Only if that job offered to him 11) had been (be) close to home. Unless the rain stops/it stops raining .. If you have all the right spices.If it rains. Only if it rains will I stay at home. If . I'll go to France on holiday. three years ago they offered him a job in Africa. As long as I can save enough money. (Type 3) 20 We would have some fresh air if you opened (open) the window. 5 Tom had to ask for a pay rise or he wouldn't have got one. I'll go to France on holiday only if I save enough money. 2 I'll save money. we won 't be able to go swimming . 3 You must study harder to pass your exams. 6 You need all the right spices to make an authentic Indian meal. 8 Entering this competition could win you a mountain bike. it will be cheaper than going by train.. If he 7) had accepted (accept) the offer. we can't play football.. would become. 9 We will have to leave without him if he doesn 't arrive in the next 10 minutes. you won 't pass your exams/If you study harder.

I •. I would go tonight...] : j (She was sleeping all day so she feels better now. ... ······ . I wouldn't apply for the post of firefighter .. ....... i [ Type 3 [ If I had been invited.. .... Rewrite the following sentences omitting if. i:::::::::::::::::::::::::1::::~~~: : Type 2 ~~~~~~::: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :she ~ If she was sleeping all day........... I would have spoken to her.. . In this case should (conditionals type 1).. • Were I him.... ~E~~~=~t=~~=s~~~~)such amess........... I'd accept his offer..... i Type 2 l : [ (I wasn't invited so I' m not going tonight..... were (conditionals type 2) .... ...··~e~~··..... . 1 If I were you.. If I had seen her...~~·~·:. .............. ...... he will receive £1... 5 If I were younger.. ..·..:.. .. ···-:···:rvj>"e...... so they're exhausted now. .. come before the subject... I wouldn't apply for the post of firefighter. Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past 3 Wait five minutes and I'll give you a lift..... If you do the washing-up afterwards....... 1 He's not a good worker.. . he will receive £1. ...J..... .... otherwise I won't cook.. .. .....) : : l··+yi>e··2··········1·····.....) : l :......~·~1d·h~~e ·"b~~9hi·~··..... Omission of " if" If can be omitted in if-clauses. If he should win the race.. .... I'll cook......... If you can wait five minutes...... ..... I'll cook.. .. ·········· .. .. otherwise I can't give you a lift. Provided you can wait five minutes. : : : : :will ~....000. .... will you take a message? 4 If you had turned off the oven sooner... could you buy me some stamps? 3 If anyone should ring. .. I won't give you a lift unless you can wait five minutes.. could you buy me some stamps? Should you go to the post office.......000...... ............... Had you turned off the oven sooner... I'll cook if you do the washing-up afterwards.: • Rewrite the following as mixed conditionals. Only if you do the washing-up afterwards will I cook......~ ······ . You must wait 5 minutes.i....... .... and had (conditionals type 3). ..... will you take a message? Should anyone ring .... I would have spoken to her....... I won't cook unless you do the washing- up afterwards..~better .......... I'll give you a lift. .. 4 I'll cook and you can do the washing-up afterwards. Provided you do the washing-up afterwards.. .... .... I'll give you a lift.... ..... the pizza wouldn't have burnt.. 1 I ' E~l~fr::~:=~t7:~n...... . ..If he were a good worker... I'll give you a lift if you can wait five minutes....... I wouldn 't eat meat. As long as you can wait five minutes.. .. so he wasn't promoted . If they hadn't walked 40 kilometres.... Mixed Conditionals All types of conditionals can be mixed... I'll give you a lift.......... • Had I seen her.........""""""""' : Type 1 : ·"""""""""'.. .i~h:·········································· .. ... You must do the washing-up afterwards................ I'd accept his offer.-..... I wouldn 't eat meat... • Should he win the race. .i .. . Any tense combination is possible if the context permits it....... Were I you.·:now....feel ~::~... 2 If you should go to the post office... As long as you do the washing-up afterwards.... 2 They walked 40 kilometres.. .. ...... . . If I were him. .~~.~~·~~·~:··············· ..... . they wouldn't be exhausted now.... he would have been promoted........ ...... . the pizza wouldn't have burnt... Only if you can wait five minutes will I be able to give you a lift.. ... ...... ······ ··· ~·· ········· ········· .... ..:..... . .. ..... Were I younger.. I'll cook. i·........ .... 146 ...

I would . she would have many friends. cut down on sugar. 3 If you don't tell him what he is doing wrong. so they're soaking wet now. Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past 3 You didn't make an appointment. 2 Tom got lost because we didn't give him clear directions.. we should get there by ten. 10 He doesn't listen to anyone's advice. If he weren 't so gullible. 13 Had he given me clearer instructions. 2 Unless you give him enough notice. unless He'll never improve unless you tell him what he is doing wrong. 4 Had I known she was in trouble. he'll never improve. her throat wouldn 't be sore now. If Jake was cleaning all morning. I'll try and get to know her better. so he didn't do what you suggested. Complete the following sentences with an appropriate conditional clause. 15 Should she ring while I'm out. 4 She doesn't have many friends because she is shy.. you would have done better. so they will be in Moscow by now. his room will be tidy now. If you had made an appointment. 147 . 7 Jake was cleaning all morning so his room must be very tidy now. . she wouldn't be ill now. we would see you tomorrow. I would have tried to help her. he wouldn't have believed everything you said. he would have done what you suggested. If he listened to anyone's advice. If the flight left on time.. 6 They were working in the rain all day. were If I . were If she were not shy. 10 Had I known how late I was going to be. so her throat is sore now. I would take up a hobby. 1 You'd better cut down on sugar.. 5 The flight left on time. Use two to five words. it wouldn't have been sick. 8 You wouldn't have had so much trouble if you had been more careful... 12 If you had tried harder.. were you. If they hadn't been working in the rain all day... 11 Only if we start recycling will we solve the problem of waste.you 5hould go to Singapore . 3 If you hadn't overfed the cat. 4 She didn't take the medication and now she's ill again. If she hadn't been talking all day. I would have rung you. If she had taken the medication. they wouldn't be soaking wet now. so we can 't see you tomorrow. 14 If we leave at six o'clock. they will be in Moscow by now. 9 She was talking all day. tell her to ring back later. 7 If I had more time. have Tom wouldn 't have got lost if we had given him clear directions. 5 Only if he apologises will I speak to him again. I wouldn 't have made so many mistakes. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. 6 The argument wouldn 't have started if you hadn't been rude to him. 9 Should I meet her again. 1 If you want an exotic holiday. he won 't have it ready in time. 8 He's so gullible that he believed everything you said.

~~'...~.~...~1........t~~~1~s~to j I wish I would..... i~·h~p·p~~)..: :~!~:~::~: ~~o/:~~::~~~:~'. ~~~·~~~·~~~~·~~~~~~·i·~~·~~·~~~·~~~ ~·~ .... had If I had her fax number.. .... I wish he were/was more helpful.~i~:i~i~:~f~r i~~~... . .: . ..........~.~~..... . . not Had he not forgotten about the invitation............~.....~. taken If we had taken a map.... He wishes he would ete polite request implying J l b) wish + Inanimate subject + would l dissatisfaction or lack of l is used to express the speaker's ! hope ~ disappointment or lack of hope ~ t.. .....~~ (..... you can borrow my book..........~...... ~... 7 Lucy can prepare the report.~g~. ....~x:: : : : : : : ::: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : i I wish (if only) ~ + could + bare infinitive ! wish/regret in the present (wish/regret about the present) ~ ! concerning lack of ability :..........!!. 8 As long as you give it back by Friday. .~~... . 6 He's afraid of heights.~h·1~·~ ·~·fu1~·~~·~h·~~~~. ........i~...~?.... ~~~'d.~'.. Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past 5 We'll only sign the contract if he changes that clause... ~~·1i·k~iv. ..9...~~..... .. ~!........r.~~. ..(~~~.~. ..~.. .~!..... I would look for a better job. .P........ ···~· · ················ · ···· .. ·~...~1i·1........ will Only if he changes that clause will we sign the contract.. . (aur"i"ci~~.. ......... .. ...... were If he were not afraid of heights..: :················································································:..... . 14 We didn't take a map so we got lost.. .~~~~~ ici!..... only Lucy can prepare the report only if she is given instructions.·1.... ....~.~~~... . . ......~~~.·~. (BUT I'm afraid it won't stop snowing.~~... .. · provided You can borrow my book provided you give it back by Friday. she wouldn 't have told Pam..~~.... 15 Mark didn't tell her it was a secret so she told Pam..j ! I wish they would take this-more seriously... .. but she'll have to be given instructions...~~j • After I wish we can use were instead of was in all persons...... ~~~~~~'...i~9:. h·~.. were If I were Bill...l:ji:~. 148 .... ...... (BUT I can't) ~ ...?.....1·thi~k........ . (regret about the past) l l didn't happen in the past [.... ~...~9.......~:......... ........~~....~~.~~~~..~.~i....wish implying disappointment) ~ L~. ..!.... we won't be able to go to the theatre. I could get this to her... have If Mark had told her it was a secret... . .. Wishes Form ········· .. .... broken She wouldn 't have missed the meeting if her car had not broken down.... · · · · ······· · ·····~ · ····· · ·········· · ·· · ·· . ..~iE. 10 She missed the meeting because her car broke down.... ...'. . ...~piy~.... ..... .....~ .~:~?... i.. ~ ~~~~·~~~~~~ ..~. .. I wish (if only) l + Past tense ! wish/regret about a present (wish/regret about the present) l l situation we want to be different r::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::x~~~~:~~::~~!~::?. .... ...~E:. 13 I think Bill should look for a better job....?... . .9.. ...... . .. ..... .?. he would have gone to the dinner...........i.. T..... so he won't come climbing........ (dissatisfaction) ~ ! I wish it would stop snowing.....~~.~..... unless We won't be able to go to the theatre unless you lend us some money........ ....~ ~·~·.. .. but I haven't got her fax number.. 11 I need to get this to her..'.. Use ........~. l I wish I could speak French.... he would come climbing.... ..~~i.......~)' ........ 12 He forgot about the invitation so he didn't go to the dinner.. we wouldn't have got lost...[!~~~~~~1.~·~i. l....~~~. .. 9 If you don't lend us some money..

Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

I've had a long career. If I 1) ... hadn't been chosen ... (not/be/chosen) to play the
lead in my school play, I 2) wouldn't have become (not/become) w hat I am today. I
was only nine and I'm sure I 3) would have felt (feel) nervous if I 4) hadn't had
(not/have) my parents' support. They encouraged me to take dancing classes
after that. If only I 5) hadn't refused (not/refuse)! I love dance now and if I
6) were/was (be) younger, I 7) would study (study) ballet. Apart from that, I don't
have many regrets about my career. I wish I 8) had performed (perform) more in
the theatre, but I suppose if I 9) had (have), I 1O) wouldn't have had (not/have)
time to do so many film roles.

[fil Write sentences, as in the example.

1 You didn 't watch the news so you didn't know there was a train strike .
... I wish I had watched the news. If I had watched the news, I would have known there was a train
strike....
2 You work long hours and you can't spend much time with your family.
I wish I didn't work long hours. If I didn't work long hours, I could spend more time with my fami ly.
3 You wanted to travel abroad but you forgot to renew your passport.
I wish I had renewed my passport. If I had renewed my passport, I could have travelled abroad.
4 You can't drive a car so you can't get around easily.
I wish I could drive a car. If I could drive a car, I could get around easily.
5 You wanted to play tennis but you broke your racquet.
I wish I hadn't broken my racquet. If I hadn't broken my racquet, I could have played tennis.
6 You want to go swimming but you have lost your swimming costume.
I wish I hadn't lost my swimming costume. If I hadn't lost my swimming costume, I could go swimming.
7 You want to climb the mountain but you are afraid of heights.
I wish I weren't/wasn't afraid of heights. If I weren't/wasn't afraid of heights, I could climb the mountain.
8 You didn 't set your video correctly so you didn't record the film.
I wish I had set my video correctly. If I had set my video correctly, I would have recorded the fi lm.
9 You want to go out tonight but you haven't got enough money.
I wish I had enough money. If I had enough money, I could go out tonight.
10 You want to cook an Italian meal but you have no pasta left.
I wish I had some pasta. If I had some pasta, I would cook an Italian meal.

Rewrite the text using wishes or if-clauses, as in the example.
(See Suggested Answer section)

80 8
Dear Mary,
I just had to write and let yo u know what a terrible day I've had toda y. As my neighbour 1s ill I offered to take
her dog, Rex, for a walk. My neighbour did warn me that Rex is very energet ic but I d idn't listen. He dragged me
all around the park. W hat a disaster! He was so excited that he kn ocked another neighbour off her bicycle.
Unfort unately, she hurt her leg and she was ve ry angry wi th me. I shouldn't have taken the dog for a wa lk. To
make matters worse, I had forgotten to lock the front door as we'd left the house in a rush . My house was
burgled . Why was I so stupid? l hadn't even renewed our house insu rance. My husba nd keeps going on about it.
Well , hopefu ll y tomorrow will be better.
Wi th love,
Lisa

... I wish I hadn't had such a terrible day today....

Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.
1 It's a pity I can't go to the cinema today, but I have to babysit.
could I wish ... /could go to the ... cinema today, but I have to babysit.
2 It's a shame we didn't go out for dinner.
gone I wish we had gone out for dinner.
3 I don't have many friends here.
had I wish I had more friends here.
4 It's a pity I can't go out tonight, but I have to work late.
could I wish I could go out tonight, but I have to work late.
5 It's a shame we didn't go to Italy for our summer holidays.
gone I wish we had gone to Italy for our summer holidays.
6 If it weren't raining, we could go for a walk.
stop I wish it would stop raining, so we could go for a walk.
7 It's a pity that I wasn't given the position.
been I wish I had been given the position .
8 I've been offered a job in Spain , but I can't speak Spanish.
speak I wish I could speak Spanish because I've been offered a job in Spain.
9 If it weren't snowing , we could go for a drive.
stop I wish it would stop snowing , so we could go for a drive.
10 It's a shame we missed the beginning of the film.
missed I wish we hadn't missed the beginning of the film.

m Complete the following sentences.
1 If Bob hadn't broken his leg , ... he could have come with us....
2 If only he hadn't lied to Sally, she wouldn't be so upset.
3 If John is in trouble, we should help him.
4 If only she had more patience, she would have a better relationship with her children.
5 If she had won the competition , she would have gone to Hawaii.
6 If Ann had set the alarm, she wouldn't have been late for work.
7 If I hadn't left the oven on too long , I wouldn't have burnt the dinner.
8 If only I had written down her phone number, I could phone her now.
9 If she hadn't been sitting in the sun all afternoon, she wouldn't have got sunburnt.
10 If Tom hadn't forgotten to lock the door, he wouldn't have had his money stolen .

Unreal Past
The Simple Past can be used to talk about imaginary, unreal or improbable situations in the present and the
Past Perfect can be used to talk about imaginary, unreal or improbable situations in the past. This is called
Unreal Past. Unreal Past is used as follows:

Past Slmple Past Perfect
• Conditionals Type 2 (unreal in the present) Conditionals Type 3 (unreal in the past)
If I were you, I would leave now. If I had known before, I wouldn't have come.
• wish (present) • wish (past)
I wish she worked more efficiently. If only he hadn't lied to me.
• I'd rather/sooner sb ... (present) • I'd rather/sooner sb ... (past)
I'd rather you left the files here, please. I'd rather you had not spol<en like that yesterday.
• Suppose/Supposing • Suppose/Supposing
Suppose you found money in the street, what Suppose she hadn't reminded you, would you
would you do with it? have remembered?
• as if/as though (untrue situation in the present) • as if/as though (untrue situation in the past)
He acts as if he were a genius. She looked at me as if she had never seen me
• it's (about/high) time ... before.
It's about time you learnt to drive.

I150

Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense.

1 Suppose they ... had not turned up... (not/turn up) to meet you, what would you have done?
2 If only I hadn't eaten (not/eat) so much last night.
3 If she had told (tell) me it was a secret, I wouldn't have told anyone.
4. Suppose you had missed (miss) the train , how would you have got home?
5 Suppose the teacher caught (catch) you cheating, what would you do?
6 I'd rather W€ left (leave) now.
7 If only I hadn't stayed (not/stay) out so late last night.
8 It's high time you took (take) some responsibility for your actions.
9 Supposing you had tailed (fail) your exams, what would you have done?
10 It's time you lit (light) the fire - it's getting very cold.
11 · She spends money as if she had (have) loads of it, but I know she's in debt.
12 If we had installed (install) a burglar alarm, this wouldn 't have happened.
13 I'd rather we went (go) home now.
14 I wish she studied/would study (study) harder instead of watching TV all the time.
15 I'd rather she hadn't worn (not/wear) my dress last night. She's ruined it.

had better = should
• I had better + present bare inf (present/future reference)
He had better not wait any longer. (= He should not wait any longer.)
• It would have been better if + Past Perfect (past reference) .
It would have been better if he had phoned us' to tell us not to wait. (= He should have phoned us to tell us
not to wait.)

would rather = I'd prefer
• when the subject of would rather is also the subject of the following verb
I'd rather + { Present bare infinitive (present/future reference) I'd rather stay in tonight.
Perfect bare infinitive (past reference) I'd rather not have taken the bus, but I had no choice.

• when the subject of would rather is different from the subject of the following verb
I'd rather sb + { Past Simple (present/future reference) I'd rather you didn't shout so much.
· Past Perfect (past reference) I'd rather you had come with me yesterday.

• prefer + gerund/noun + to + gerund/noun (general) I prefer watching TV to reading books.
• prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare infinitive (general preference)
I prefer to eat what I want rather than count calories.
• would prefer + full infinitive + rather than + bare Infinitive (specific preference)
I'd prefer to play football rather than watch it.
• would rather + bare Infinitive + than + bare infinitive I'd rather ski than skate.

Read the following situations, then make sentences using would rather or had better.

1 You want to play tennis not squash . ... / would rat her play t ennis than play squash ....
2 You don 't want her to invite him to the party. I would rather she didn't/She had better not invite him to the party.
3 You want to be left alone to read and don 't want to go to the cinema. I would rather be left alone to read than
go to the cinema.
4 It would be more sensible for you to go and rest for an hour. You had better go and rest tor an hour.
5 I woul prefer to spend more time in Spain and not go home. I would rather spend more time in Spain than go home.
6 We stiould have waited for him at home. It would have been better it we had waited tor him at home.
7 Mary always wears horrible orange lipstick. You wish she wouldn 't. I would rather Mary didn't wear that horrible
orange lipstick.
8 Your friend turns up late and you are angry with him. I'd rather you didn't always turn up late.

____ Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.

1 I'd rather ... go... (go) fishing this afternoon.
2 I'd rather you didn't wear (not/wear) my red dress to the dance tonight.
3 I'd rather you had said (say) that you didn't want to come!
4 I'd rather have gone (go) by plane but I couldn't afford the air fare.
5 I'd rather you didn't use (not/use) such bad language! It upsets people.
6 We prefer watching (watch) films to watching (watch) political programmes.
7 I'd rather you didn't tell (not/tell) them the news yet.
8 I prefer to cook (cook) dinner rather than eat (eat) in that restaurant.
9 We'd prefer to call (call) our child David, rather than call (call) him Stephen.
10 We would rather recycle (recycle) our rubbish than use (use) the bin for everything.
11 He had better not tell (not/tell) her or I' ll be furious!
12 After a lot of thought, we've decided that we would prefer to get married (get/married) in Portugal rather than
in England .
13 It would have been better if she had given (give) us the information sooner.
14 You'd better not wake (not/wake) her up because she hasn't slept for two days.
15 I would prefer to pay (pay) in cash rather than by credit card.

Fill in the gaps with the appropriate auxiliary verb.

1 She had her hair permed and now she wishes she ... hadn't...
2 Her husband spends a lot of money and she wishes he didn't/wouldn't.
3 I suspect they'll be late again but I wish they wouldn't.
4 She always forgets people's names but she wishes she didn't.
5 He invited 20 people for dinner and now he wishes he hadn't.
6 She doesn't know how to use a computer but she wishes she did.
7 They never ring before coming round but I wish they would/did.
8 You're always interfering in my affairs and I wish you wouldn't/didn't.
9 We didn't invite the Smiths but I wish we had.
10 You told them I could do the job but I wish you hadn't.

.. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form .

Dear Sarah,
I'm having an absolutely fabulous time here in Geneva! I wish you
1) ... had decided... (decide) to come with me. It 2) would be (be) even
better if you were here. I wish I 3) had tried (try) harder to persuade you
to come with me. If only you 4) would change (change) your mind!
I'm sure you could get time off work if you 5) asked (ask). If you can't
come to Geneva, 6) will you consider (you/consider) meeting in Rome
at the beginning of next month? Of course if you 7) had come (come)
with me in the first place, we 8) would be having (have) a great time
right now. Anyway, if you 9) give (give) me a ring, I 10) will tell (tell)
you exactly what my plans are and then you can decide what you
want to do.

Love,
Julia

1152

Conditionals I Wishes I Unreal Past ..-..
0 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. Use two to five words.

1 Jo was about to get on the train when she realised it was the wrong one.
if Jo would have got on the train ...if she hadn't realised ... it was the wrong one.
2 He didn't go to the party because he didn't know where it was.
known If he had known where the party was, he would have gone.
3 I think you should have your hair cut.
were If I were you, I would have my hair cut.
4 You'd think she was a film star.
though She behaves as though she were/was a film star.
5 It would have been better if you had arrived on time.
only If only you had arrived on time.
6 He shouldn't have used my mug.
used I'd rather he hadn't used my mug .
7 We should leave now if we want to get the bus.
time It's time we left if we want to get the bus.
8 It would have been better if you hadn't told her that.
only If only you hadn't told her that.
9 It's a pity you missed the performance.
had I wish you hadn't missed/had seen the performance.
10 If John doesn't turn up, we won't be able to finish the project.
should We won 't be able to finish the project should John not turn up.
11 She didn't buy a ticket for the theatre, so she is not coming with us tonight.
if She would come with us tonight if she had bought a ticket for the theatre.
12 I am afraid John won't accept our offer.
would I wish John would accept our offer.
13 You should have told me the truth.
would It would have been better if you had told me the truth .
14 As long as you have a ticket, you'll be allowed on the train.
not Unless you have a ticket you will not be allowed on the train.
15 You had better take an umbrella with you.
were If I were you, I would take an umbrella.

·--t•>ti•·141z4t.1.uIt§; 1Ir•11------------------------------------------------------.-----·
(See Suggested Answer section)
Look at the pictures, then make sentences using conditionals or wishes to say what each
person is thinking.

S1: I wish I didn't have so much homework. etc

crime. that island and wait for the 8 "I'll pay you back for that! " shouted Johnny to a storm to pass. of watching it.Folder rEJ au . 1 Let's make .it's too sweet and 22 If you throw the fish to the seals. shelves... 3 My season ticket is valid for three months. so I 17 Your dress is really similar to the one I've just don 't have to renew it until February. old building. em Look at Appendix 3. 28 The teacher asked the students to write about their 14 I'm tired of listening to you moaning about him all summer holidays. I 154 . Look at Appendix 2. 13 Pull yourself together and stop crying.. 8 I don't like the taste of this juice . the 12 John said he would vouch for me if anyone were to thief escaped with a bag full of jewellery. theatre? 5 She spent a lot of time in explaining the project to 19 Feel free to make use of any of the books on the us. suggest that I committed the crime. music so we try to 15 I feel obliged to be nice to Jack because he's given encourage her as much as possible. for.I'm 25 If you subscribe to this magazine now. 10 I'm very suspicious of that man in the corner . 24 Her role in the film is definitely worthy of an Oscar. you'll have to pay for your used to make up stories. 27 As Tom saw Julia at the airport. they are sure to has a funny smell too.for . me so much help.. 1 She said she was sorry she had lost her temper. 3 Instead of reading books to her. friend 's train to pull in. 2 Can't you use a different pencil? I can hardly 9 I'll have to pay off my Visa bill or I'll be charged a make out your writing. there's nothing you can do now to silly things. fll Complete the sentences using the words In bold.. they 12 He waited excitedly on the platform for his decided to make up. 11 How is your statement relevant to this discussion? 26 After threatening the shopkeeper with a knife. economic crisis . Use two to five words.. you. losing She . 4 He offered to make up for all the inconvenience by 11 We watched the demolition men pull down that sending them on a free holiday. 1 She has a talent . 23 You shouldn't let yourself get upset about such After all .terest. 2 You were wrong to keep these facts from me. 6 She passes out every time she sees blood . apolog/e. then fill in the correct particle(s). 2 Why do you waste so much money on phone 16 I tried to warn you about him but you wouldn't calls? listen.. come to eat them. then fill In the correct preposltion(s). the time. 9 You should not worry about your exam results. fortune in in.. friend who had played a trick on him. 6 I like to spend my money on clothes and foreign 20 Now that I've become used to all the noise I quite holidays. I could never tire write to him.. but it is 18 Could you please refrain from talking in the only valid in certain shops. 7 We were very sorry to hear that your grandfather 14 The company pulled through despite the passed away last week.ed for losing . 7 Peter has terrible taste in clothes. bought! 4 My student card gives me a 10% discount. I'll throw this book at shirts with green and orange striped jeans.. He wears flowery 21 If you don't stop teasing me. change them. Mary's father 10 If you get caught.. she promised to 13 Harry Potter is my favourite film.. enjoy living here. 5 After shouting at each other for an hour. you get a sure he's been following me! 30% discount. her temper. have You should not have kept these facts from me.

. 12 You have to be lucky to find a well-paid job these days. have We wouldn't have lost our way to the centre if we had followed the map. 7 He couldn't contact us because our phone line was cut off. 5 You're full of beans this morning. You must really be looking forward to the school trip. 10 People believe she is planning to go freelance. 11 We lost our way to the centre because we didn't follow the map. 13 I don't want to interfere in their business. first It was the first time I had ever tasted chocolate.. I wouldn't have changed my plans. then complete the sentences with an appropriate idiom from the list. She's too pig-headed. 6 Her husband is an unpleasant. He's forever asking if he can borrow money. She's just a loud-mouthed old lady who thinks she knows everything and never stops telling everyone off. 3 I had never tasted chocolate before. 9 I find Pat very difficult to get on with. She's just bought an expensive new car. 2 It's no good trying to persuade her to change her mind . often offensively 7 d 8 hard-up h annoyed 8 f 9 full of beans honest 9 b 10 above board arrogant 10 1 The business entrepreneur assured us that the deal was above board. 8 I changed my plans because you asked me to. 4 People say he is very moody.. said He is said to be very moody.. 5 You'd better hurry up! were If I were you .. if Only if you are lucky can you find a well-paid job these days. Match the following idioms with the correct definition. 2 big-headed b excited 2 j 3 loud-mouthed c stubborn 3 g 4 stuck-up d comfortably rich 4 a 5 cheesed off e exhausted 5 h 6 pig-headed f short of money 6 c 7 well-off g talking too much . 4 She must be quite well-off. gets His tone of voice really gets on my nerves. big-headed man who always thinks he knows best. 9 I am not in the mood for going out tonight. would If you hadn't asked me to. 6 I find his tone of voice really irritating. 1 dead beat a snobbish 1 . I would hurry up. prevented He was prevented from contacting us because our phone line was cut off. She's stuck-up and thinks she's too good for the likes of us.e. rather I would rather not interfere in their business. believed She is believed to be planning to go freelance. 3 Alan was extremely cheesed off when Barbara cancelled their date. 7 At the end of the marking weekend all of the examiners were dead beat. 10 Kevin always seems to be hard-up. 8 Don 't worry about Mrs Norton. feel I don't feel like going out tonight.

....... Queen Marie Antoinette.......... c=i c=i c=i Egyptomania 'Egyptomania' is a new art exhibition which has (0) .......... and there are chairs and tables decorated with small statues of young Pharaohs. for Egyptian art in France........... and examines why this ancient culture has (2) .. I Example: A B C D O A opened B made C launched D come 0 ... It has generally been thought that European (7) ...... (11) ... five years to prepare the exhibition...... Her bedroom ceiling in Versailles is painted with Egyptian images.. an important role in starting the (12) .. B. all of the arts.......... .... in Egypt started with Napoleon Bonaparte 's military campaign which lasted from 1798 to 180 I... well known for her (10) . It shows just how many images of Egypt have emerged through the (1) .... back to the early 17th century..... to have such a powerful influence on the western imagination.. C or D) best fits each gap.. of strange and exotic things.. which includes more than 300 items.... read the text below and decide which answer (A.... at the Louvre Museum in Paris........ but the exhibition shows that this is not the (8) ............ It has (3) ........ ... There are examples of Egyptian influence (9) ..Practice Test Part 1 For quesUons 1-12..... many of which are on (5) .... A.... from opera and cinema to architecture and furniture design... There is an example at the beginning (0).. 1 A periods @ ages c times D history 2 A persisted B remained c lasted @ continued 3 A moved B directed c impressed @ influenced 4@ took B needed c used D was 5 A credit B advance © loan D gift 6 A from @ away c along D abroad 7 @ interest B attention c attraction D curiosity 8 A situation B event c state @ case 9 A moving B turning © going D coming 10 A affection ® love c care D like 11 A did B affected © played D took 12 A custom B style c convention @ fashion I156 ..... It (4) ... as Australia.................. from international museums as far (6) .

Example: ~ IA ISI I I I I I I I I I I I I I T he ancient Egyptians used a form of wn tmg known (O) . Champoll ion rea lised that Egyptian hi erogly phics r epresented so unds of th e Egyptian langu age..... t he 'Rosetta Stone' was fo und in Lower Egypt on (17) whi ch Egyptian scribes had w ritte~ the same piece o f informati o n three tim es: once in hieroglyphics. . But with time. the mystery of (24) this ancient script was solved. in 1799. There is an example at the beginning (0). . The discover y of the Rosetta Stone enabl ed linguists to (19) work/figure o ut how to read Egyptian hierogl yp hi cs. . This meant that the things the Egyptians had w ritten (15) o n the s ides of their pyramids and tombs.. By read in g t he te x t w ritten in Greek. once in (18) another ancient Egy ptian script and o nce in Gr eek. Finall y. Before the Rosetta Stone was discovered. ' Hierogl y phics' fo r over three thousand years.. event uall y no one (14) could rea d it a n y m ore. He cou ld speak over (2 1) a dozen lang uages by the time he was a teenager. (16) we re a mystery.... Part2 For questions 13-24. Then... (23) Due/Than ks to this rea lisation.. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.. hieroglyphics became replaced (13) by another fo rm of writing and .. Use only one word in each gap. many people were trying to und erstand hieroglyp hi cs but no o n e was havi ng (22) any luck. th ey were able to und erstand (20) what the other texts stood for. read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap..... Th e key perso n in the b reak th rough was Jean Francois Champolli on..

. The (27) remaining 4%. CULTURE 1158 . consists of the famous river Nile and its REMAIN rich fertile banks..Practice Test EJ Part 3 For questions 25-34... such as the Great Pyramids and ARCHAEOLOGY The Sphinx at Giza.. POPULATE Every year.. LONG Almost the entire Egyptian (29) population lives along its banks. Egypt is the most (0) ......... Located in North APPROXIMATE Africa. Ancient CIVILISE Egyptian society lasted for more than 3.. Egypt is an extremely dry land as the (26) majority (96%) of it is MAJOR desert... Egypt gave rise to one of the greatest REMARK (31) civilisations and richest cultures the world has ever seen..000 years and left magnificent (32) archaeological wonders behind. millions of tourists travel to Egypt because of its truly (30) remarkable history.. Egypt is a (33) fascinating country which remains just as vibrant FASCINATE and (34) culturally rich today as it was in the past. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. read the text below.. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. There is an example at the beginning (0).. populated country in the HEAVY Middle East with (25) approximately 80 million people.. The Nile runs the entire (28) length of the country.

There is an example at the beginning (0).. Part 4 For questions 35-42........... 40 Shall I help you with the washing-up? LIKE Would you like me to help you with the washing-up? 41 They're advertising a new detergent at the moment.... RATHER I would rather you saw to it personally. using the word given... BEING A new detergent is being advertised at the moment........ ~. 39 I was completely unaware of Sue's decision to leave school....... .... 35 He will probably be late for the interview........................... OLD Angie ........... Brad..... . You must use between two and five words...... complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence.. Do not change the word given... 37 It's a two-hour drive to the seaside............... BY Only by working hard will you get promoted.. TAKES It takes two hours to drive to the seaside.... IDEA I had no idea that Sue had decided to leave school...... 42 I'd prefer you to see to it personally. FULL The detective asked the witness to give a full description of the suspect... Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. Example: O Brad and Angie are the same age.......... 36 The detective asked the witness to describe the suspect in detail...... 38 You won't get promoted if you don't work hard................... including the word given... UNLIKELY He is unlikely to be on time for the interview.....

. at 7 Unless you ........ 5 Can 't you work ..... how to swim.............. her a lot more... the exam.................. reading books...... a house of his own................ here? 8 I don't know when she .. to bed. to see that play last night.... A than C rather @ such C such a B from @ to B so D that 16 If he were better off................~ Choose the correct item.... 24 The new theatre . to you about it..... 9 ... A whQra C wh~ A has been opened © will be opened B that @ which B is opened D was opened 1160 .. I grew up is in Brighton....... next month. my mother to sew ~the hole in my shirt... 6 I ... 4 I wish he ........... she couldn't afford it............ 14 She wishes she ...... you have to home... his house broken into last week... he .... 1 He was accused of . harder than that? A ask C speak A very C too @ tell D say B such @ any 18 If she behaved better... @ would like C will like A made \£) got B would have liked D like · B had D insisted 19 She would rather go shopping than ......... people's fortunes... @ had C will have A But © Although B has D is having B However D Despite 12 The house in .............................. A get C had got A speaks C had spoken B has got @ will get @ will speak D has spoken 21 He goes on ............... what would you do? A said C talked @ failed C had failed B spoke @ asked B would fail D have failed 23 . 10 Suppose you .... even though it annoys everyone. she bought a new 11 He .......... A to stay © stay @ know C don't know B to staying D staying B will have known D will know 20 Do you know when Sarah ...... talk to me but he never does...... dress.... wear a life jacket.................... her father to collect her from school............ people .. from the supermarket.. sweets or you'll get fat.... A to eat © eating A would have gone C went B eat D having eaten @ had gone D would go 3 It was bad weather that we stayed 15 I prefer watching television ..... A steal C stole @ went C go B stolen @ stealing B have gone D would go 2 Stop ... 13 It's time the children . helpful people they are! @ whistling C whistle A So C Such B have whistled D to whistle B How @ what 22 She .. A buys © would buy A had C can B bought D will buy @ would D will 17 I don't know how to .... indoors....

though. me Mike made me do the washing-up. 6 My father pays someone to wash his car every week. 2 He regrets ever having met her. having Daisy admitted (to) having left the door unlocked. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets. Use two to five words. offered My mother offered to help me with my homework . If only I 8) could turn (turn) back the clock. 12 "Would you like me to help you with your homework?" said my mother. maybe things 3) would have turned out (turn out) differently. wishes He wishes he had never met her. agreed Mark agreed that the food was delicious. not He warned/told us not to touch the wires because we might get electrocuted . 15 He said he was sorry he had forgotten my birthday. 4 "I thought the food was delicious too. would If I had had enough money. complained Pat complained that I never listened when she talked to me." she says. However if she 4) were/was (be) honest with herself she 5) would admit (admit) that being a vet was never a possibility. Jennifer wishes she 1) were/was (be) a vet. 1 Complete the sentences using the words in bold. washed My father has his car washed every week. 10 "Yes. had I had my car keys taken while I was in the shop. 17 "Don't touch the wires because you might get electrocuted. though Friendly though she was. 9 Somebody took my car keys while I was in the shop. Life 2) would be (be) much easier if I 3) had (have) some savings in the bank. If I 6) had been (be) careful . At the time. I wish I 1) had (have) more money. 5 "You never listen when I talk to you. I wish I 5) had known (know) then what I know now. for He apologised for forgetting my birthday. If only I 4) had saved (save) my money when I was young. 7 She was miserable because it had been raining all weekend. but Peter didn't like her. "If I 2) had studied (study) biology at school." said Daisy. I would have bought a new car. 13 She was friendly. she 8) would tell (tell) you that in reality she's allergic to animals. 14 Mike insisted that I do the washing-up. then I 7) would have made (make) my life much easier. If Jennifer 7) were/was (be) more realistic. 8 He asked the landlord to change the lock. had He had the lock changed by the landlord." said Pat. Lots of people wish they 6) did/could do (do) something for which they are not qualified." he said to us. I left the door unlocked . Peter didn't like her. due She was miserable due to the fact (that) it had been raining all weekend. avoid Never behave badly in class if you want to avoid being sent out." said Mark. 11 She worked hard because she wanted to be promoted. 3 I didn't buy a new car because I didn't have enough money. I lived only for the moment. 1 Never behave badly in class if you don 't want to be sent out. fear She wouldn't walk home alone for fear of being/she might be mugged. Revision 2 Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the verb in brackets. 16 She wouldn't walk home alone because she was afraid of being mugged. . view She worked hard with a view to being promoted.

5 All passengers got ready to get off the train as it pulled in at the station. 20 She said she hadn't put my papers in the rubbish bin. PROTECT 7 The weather is considerably better today than it was CONSIDERABLE yesterday. 8 He goes to the dentist regularly. ECONOMIC 10 The company's production of shoes has doubled in the past PRODUCE year. ~ Fill in the correct preposition(s). 3 His heroic act resulted in his being awarded a medal. 19 Someone must have cleaned the hotel room while we were out. SOPHISTICATE 5 He has changed dramatically since the last time I saw him. 1 The butter was left out of the fridge and now it's gone off. 5 She had no intention of going to meet him. 1 I'm relying on you to get the job done. 2 Jake and Simon get on well with their cousins. He's very ill. Ilfil Fill in the correct particle(s). Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold. 6 They might have to operate on him. throwing She denied throwing away my papers. 2 Students must refrain from talking during the exam. if The hotel room looked as if it had been cleaned while we were out. 1 Trains run frequently throughout the day. 12 The new equipment they have ordered is technologically advanced. Revision 2 18 He isn't a famous actor but he acts like one. 7 The soldier was presented with a medal after the war. though He acts as though he were/was a famous actor. 7 They were held up by heavy traffic on the roads. 8 John claimed that he was not guilty of committing the crime. SCENE 3 Our electricity was cut off because we hadn't paid the bill. 11 She listened sympathetically to her friend's problems. DRAMATIC 6 Young children need their parents' protection. 4 I can't vouch for him. 3 I keep up with current affairs by reading the newspapers. I162 . I've never met him. 8 I want to look round the house to see if I like it. REGULAR 9 It is not economically viable to buy out that company. FREQUENT 2 We picked a scenic spot to sit and have our picnic. 6 You mustn't give in to temptation. 4 My grandfather was very good at making up stories. ELECTRIC 4 They use very sophisticated machinery in this factory. though she said she would.

When we refer to ships.ewe.. boy . uncle . tiger . India.. love.widow). typ'e . man . invent . feminine (women and girls) and neuter (inanimate things. etc.spinster. ram . train . nephew .attendance -ment commit .policewoman. We use neutral forms instead. magic . a teaching (0) .daughter.niece. waiter .lioness.duck..pregnancy -iness happy . cock .conductress. flight attendant. emperor .mare.contentment -cy pregnant . chair. however.. vehicles (when regarded with affection or respect) and countries. client. BUT gorilla . collective (crowd.lady.bride.happiness -ty anxious .empress.deprivation -sion revise . Apart from OCCUPY (6) patience.. which have different forms according to gender. etc). son . etc) and proper (James.hen. etc) • Some domestic animals and wild animals have different forms according to gender: bull .honesty [ID Fill in the correct noun. though.independence -lty pure .typist Suffixes used to form nouns from verbs: -age break .bitch.purity -y honest . host . etc). etc). father . Your (1) personality plays a big PERSON part in the (2) effectiveness of your work. or-ian. Nouns I Articles Nouns • Nouns are: abstract (happiness.woman. hero . duke . bridegroom . stallion . eg. is QUALIFY not all you need.heroine. qualification .commitment -y injure .hypnosis -al remove .inspection -ti on abolish .aunt. (10) Knowledge is not enough . prince .revision Suffixes used to form nouns from adjectives: -ance tolerant . etc) . we consider them feminine. Gender: Nouns can be masculine (men and boys). gentleman . animals and babies whose sex we do not know) . Noun Formation To describe people we add -ar. dog .mother. There are some nouns. To be a good teacher. -ist to the end of nouns or verbs making any necessary spelling changes. WILLING (9) Sensitivity to the needs of your students is also SENSITIVE important. Most nouns remain the same whether they are masculine or feminine (doctor.who you are is KNOW much more important. etc.negligence -sis hypnotise . painter.desperation -ment content .hostess. lion . gander .abolition -ance attend .anxiety -ence independent .tolerance -ion desperate .actress. stag .inventor.cow.gorilla.girl. group. b) by changing the word (bachelor . widower . -or to the end of verbs.princess.beggar. many gendered forms are avoided.duchess. .injury -ation deprive . beg .waitress. These forms can be expressed in two ways: a) by changing the ending (actor . -er. policeman . conductor . you also need the PATIENT (7) ability to accept others' ideas and a ABLE (8) willingness to learn from your own mistakes.goose. concrete (doctor. -ee.tigress. Tangiers.magician. etc). police officer. drake . so it's best to EFFECTIVE make a thorough (3) examination of your own EXAMINE character before taking the (4) decision to take up this DECIDE challenging (5) occupation. In modern usage. heir - heiress.breakage -ence neglect .trainer/trainee. common (radio.removal -ion inspect .doe.

deer .babies 22 brush .termini. -s. abbreviations (photograph/photo .vi(leos). Note that some nouns ending in -o take either -es or -s.cats.oxen.aircraft. . -sh. species .tomatoes) BUT -s to nouns ending in : vowel + o (video . terminus .selves) BUT chiefs. 1 day .corkscrews 23 piano .cliffs 3 kilo .ladies 4 tomato . medium . . days .zoos) . fish .deer. Nouns I Articles ~ .trout. tooth .teeth 19 passer-by .torches. goose . (sister-in-law . etc) BUT -s to nouns ending in vowel + y.lice. spacecraft . etc • Some nouns of Greek or Latin origin form their plural by adding Greek or Latin suffixes. bush ..sisters-in-law) • at the end of the compound if this is not made up of any nouns.tomatoes 12 medium . x.geese.children 2 box . (basis . 1 husband . cliffs. aircraft . (self . 9 thief .boxes 10 fly.brushes 8 person .women..countries 27 wife .feet 24 child . mouse . mosquitoes/mosquitos.hovercraft ~ Write the plural of the following words.media.pianos 1164 . musical instruments (piano .. louse . (cat . tornadoes/tornados. criterion .ladies.bases. boy .fish (ALSO fishes).lives 25 cliff . salmon .criteria.media 20 country . wife .donkeys 14 photo . bus .men.children.frying pans) • to the first noun if the compound consists of two nouns connected with a preposition or to the noun if the compound has only one noun. -ss. 28 kiss .kilos 11 tooth .men 15 baby . zeroes/zeros.people (BUT peoples = ethnic groups). (baby .boys.buses.flies 18 life. glass .. (schoolboy . (runaway .bushes.feet. 14 widower widow 2 gentleman lady 15 uncle aunt 3 emperor empress 16 nephew niece 4 hero heroine 17 policeman _ policewoman 5 count countess 18 landlord landlady 6 bachelor spinster 19 bridegroom bride 7 father mother 20 host hostess 8 duke duchess 21 actor actress 9 heir heiress 22 conductor conductress 10 manager manageress 23 steward stewardess 11 salesman saleswoman 24 lion lioness 12 king queen 25 waiter waitress 13 prince princess 26 dog bitch The Plural of Nouns Nouns are made plural by adding: • -s to the noun. etc. • -ves to some nouns ending in -f/-fe.mice. crisis - crises. foot . roofs. fox - foxes.trout .pianos) and proper nouns (Navajo .Navajos).thieves 17 foot .. etc) • -ies to nouns ending in consonant + y.glasses.photos steering wheels 7 man . etc) • -es to nouns ending in -ch.. lady . These are: buffaloes/ buffalos..toys.photos).spacecraft. etc) Compound nouns form their plural by adding -s/-es: • to the second noun if the compound consists of two nouns. ox .people 16 corkscrew .runaways) Irregular Plurals: man .knives 13 shelf . child . sheep . (toy .babies. person . woman . (tomato . double o (zoo .kisses 6 donkey . Complete each pair below by adding the male or female equivalent.salmon.schoolboys) • to the noun if the compound consists of an adjective and a noun.wives 5 knife .. etc) • -es to nouns ending in -o.sheep. volcanoes/volcanos. (frying pan .teeth.species. safes.shelves 21 steering wheel . hovercraft .passers-by 26 lady .. (torch .

. etc can be used with them. etc) . a can of Coke.1. housework. luck.... measles. compasses... l l The rain is falling really heavily now..they are more accurate... a bag of flour.~·'i1~~··t.. knowledge.... l l The face of the clock is made of wood.. etc or uncountable (those that can't be counted) bread. a(n) item/piece of news. ! : On a scale of 1-20 I'd give that joke a 5. traffic..tiii~k·J... etc • Sports: baseball.. etc • Languages: Chinese. etc) can take either a singular or a plural verb depending on whether we see the group as a whole or as individuals. crew. solids. an ice cube. behaviour. scissors..1 :·5. music. jewellery. Economics. crowd.... family... !Use the compasses to make a perfect circle.. football. Would you like a coffee? Two sodas. Portuguese. : Use these scales to weigh that . a game of soccer. surroundings. a clap/peal of thunder. audience... please. luggage.! !Could I have a glass of lemonade? !She bought a new pair of reading glasses.. a packet of tea. sunlight... machinery. air. cricket... a glass/bottle of milk/water/juice. etc Notes: a) Words for drinks are mass nouns but can be used as countable nouns when we order or offer drinks. l If you go travelling. !The exhibition includes many works of Boudin. advice.... Some. l The people were praying for the rains to come. stationery.. Japanese.ox/sheet of paper.. information. a knowledge (of sth). tuberculosis. etc) • arms... a shame.. etc • Diseases: chickenpox.. clothes.~.. bread. cycling. assistance. 2 books. Many uncountable nouns can be made countable. gravity. work. riches..•••••••••••••••••••••••••••. a block of wood. committee. people. Physics.. pneumonia.. a wonder. business. applause. wages. police. etc). mumps. rubbish. wealth.······························r·M. countryside.. evidence.. Five thousand pounds was his prize for winning the competition.... Chemistry.. furniture. flu. rugby. public. a pot of yoghurt.. a flash/bolt of lightning. a tube of toothpaste. crockery. council. dirt. (each member of the team separately) Note: Certain nouns can be used in the singular and plural with a different meaning: :············································51~9~i~~ ··········· ·······························r···· · ····················· · ··························· · ··· · ···F>i ~~~·i ··· ········· . Spanish.. no. •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••. seaside... etc • Natural phenomena: darkness. a relief. Maths. corn. education. premises... shade..i~ ~/g.. distance or money meaning 'a whole amount' we use a singular verb. any. government. homework. butter.... etc • Some nouns: accommodation. etc. !Many papers have been written on the benefits of daily exercise. a bit/piece of chalk.Uncountable Nouns Nouns can be countable (those that can be counted) 1 book.. class. Uncountable nouns take a singular verb and are not used with a/an.·'1~~··i. progress.. anger.. fog. jury. courage. golf. a piece of advice/cake/furniture /information/paper.. trouble. 1 We had nothing to declare at customs.... Literature. money.. club. company. Where are my clothes? Group nouns (army. gases. : 1 It is not a custom to kiss your friends in Japan. stairs.. cutlery. a pair of trousers. ! : •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••. Heavy rain caused the match to be postponed. a kilo/pound of meat.. ashes. barracks..••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••• : . instruments (binoculars. intelligence.. staff.. trousers. congratulations. wood. outskirts.~~~·iii~i. particles): blood. etc • Collective nouns: baggage. flour. BUT a help.. b) With expressions of duration. truth. hail. snow. a pity. . etc • Subjects of study: Accounting. ! l Only people with experience may apply for this job.~:················ . l l Draw a chart on graph paper.. Nouns I Articles Countable . a b. you are sure to have many exciting experiences. tools (pliers..~y·h~·i. Italian.. peace.. I need to buy some food. a lump of sugar. headquarters. shopping. What a relief! What a pity! What a shame! Uncountable nouns are: • Mass nouns (fluids. news.... darts. billiards. French.... 1 !Take a compass in case you get lost. a carton of milk.·...••••••••••••••••••••• ... team ... a slice/loaf of bread.~(t. press.... (the team as a group) The team were given bonuses for their performance. etc. l l Ca// me when you 've finished work. l I love walking in the woods.~i. much ... chaos. History.. etc Plural Nouns • objects consisting of two parts: garments (pyjamas.. oxygen..~~~··t.. a pot/cup of tea... a drop/can/litre of oil. The team was chosen as the most promising. (good) looks. a bar of chocolate/soap. earnings. a jar of jam.

(look) very clean. 15 Knowledge of other languages helps (help) people in business. His trousers were torn in the fight. Wedding dresses are being sold at half price in that shop. Money isn't needed for one to be happy. 9 Your trousers don't match (not/match) your shirt. 17 Every time I travel . The best wood has been used by traditional craftsmen to make these ornaments. 1166 .. 6 He tore his trousers in the fight. some of my luggage gets (get) damaged.. 3 Traditional craftsmen have used the best wood to make these ornaments. 7 The applause was (be) very loud.. 19 Mumps is/are contagious. 3 £2000 is/are far too expensive for that stereo. The woods are protected by rangers. 3 Maths doesn't interest (not/interest) me very much. 16 Binoculars is/areneeded to see that far. Her luggage . 5 The police is/are coming to the rescue. 8 He classified the information as 'Top Secret'. Cheap silver jewellery can always be found in Portugal. 6 Snow rarely falls (fall) in this part of the country. Nouns I Articles ~ Underline the correct verb form. 16 Ten minutes is (be) too little time to finish this report. 12 Water is/are necessary for plants to grow. 4 All of our furniture is (be) brand new. 14 The pliers are (be) in the tool box. 13 The accommodation here seems (seem) very expensive. 12 Billiards is (be) his favourite game. 20 Sophisticated machinery costs (cost) a lot of money. Finish the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first sentence.. 13 One doesn't need money to be happy. Exam advice is given at the end of the course. was found by an official near the check-in desk. 9 These trousers is/are terribly unflattering. 10 Education are/is considered to be very important 20 The news was/were unexpected. 8 The scissors don't/doesn't work very well. Our property is protected by a security guard. 9 A security guard protects our property. 1 The water in this lake .. 18 The stairs is/are very dangerous. pong. 11 Chickenpox gives (give) you an itchy rash. 19 The staff are/were (be) happy with the pay rise. Physics is being taught in room 2A. 4 Table tennis is/are sometimes referred to as ping. 6 Paper is/are made from wood. Experience is needed if you wish to apply for this job. 13 In the summer my hair becomes/become dry. 1 An official found her luggage near the check-in desk. 15 The information is/are inaccurate.. 10 That shop is selling wedding dresses at half price. 7 We give exam advice at the end of the course. 5 Rangers protect the woods. 2 They are teaching Physics in room 2A.. 11 Most people worry/worries about the effect of 2 Your bathroom scales is/are not very accurate. Our tennis club needs new members.. 11 We need new members for our tennis club. pollution on the environment. 17 His luggage was/were left on the platform. 12 You can always find cheap silver jewellery in Portugal. 14 The rubbish has/have been taken away. The information was classified as "Top Secret". 7 Children likes/like playing games. 4 You need to have experience if you wish to apply for this job. 5 Sugar damages (damage) your teeth. 10 The team discuss (discuss) strategy before every game. 8 The news they brought us was (be) good. 18 Welsh is (be) difficult to learn. 21 His experience of travel is/are limited. Put the ver s in brackets into the correct form. looks . by almost everyone. 2 Making mistakes is (be) only natural. 1 Chemistry are/is my least favourite subject.

to talk about something specific or when the noun is mentioned for a second time. many. a lot of. a few rooms available on the island. • We use a/an before Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms when we refer to an unknown person. a good dearof.. several milk left . a few.) • A/An can also be used meaning per. many. We need some butter and some sugar. lots of. (Too) much. • We do not use a/an: a) with uncountable nouns or plural countable nouns. 10 She bought a few. too much money. a great quantity of. a couple of. A lot of. a good deal of his films. both are followed by a countable noun.) : Fill in: a. smoked salmon? " "I ordered some last week. animals or things. a little. several.) There's a bicycle outside. There are some glasses on the table. several. "I've got the wrong house. countable and uncountable ones. (Which boy? The one in jeans. no. a small quantity of people at the meeting. (A person that we don't know.six months but he can 't speak . okay. 15 The crime is being investigated by the police. any or some where necessary. some. (We mean all cats) . an. A Mr Brown called you this morning. 1 "Have you got . a few. a few. a lot of. They bought some cakes. We use some instead of a/an. BUT This is a big room. The boy in jeans is my brother. 9 There were several. a (large/great/good) number of. a little. Cats are domestic animals. plenty of. a lot of. • A/An or the is used before singular countable nouns to refer to a group of people. 8 She left many. A/An or the is never used before a noun in the plural when it represents a group. The police are investigating the crime. Is there any flour left? There aren't any strawberries in the fridge. 13 She always takes several. plenty of are followed by a countable or uncountable noun. several. saying. plenty of. specific. 2 She drinks too much . plenty of useful advice. but the supplier had run out so it'll be a while before I have any.. few. 1 We've had a great deal of. Nouns I Articles 14 He used his experiences in Africa to write his book. little. no. both . several . a man was standing there with some flowers in his hand. a great/good deal of. a little rain this year. A/The cat is a domestic animal. A couple of. a little cups of tea every day. a few. • The is used with singular and plural nouns. . a good deal of support from the public. How much is the smoked trout?" 2 When I opened the door this morning. 12 He's made several. no. a lot of. When I asked him if I could be of any help. This room is big. a large/small amount/quantity of are followed by an uncountable noun. many time at our country house. some. 5 There is many. hardly any. a large quantity of. lots of new cutlery. some jewellery to her grandchildren. 14 He gave us a couple of. plenty of. much. many. no. both. plenty of. no. 15 There were much. a great deal of. There 's a boy leaning on the fence. both. a few. lots of. a few. 7 They couldn't give us hardly any.could you buy some? 6 He wastes many.The (definite article) • A/An is used with singular countable nouns to talk about indefinite things. a lot of progress in his studies. 11 I've enjoyed a number of. the. b) before an adjective if it is not followed by a noun. (indefinite) Some can be used in the affirmative with plural countable nouns or uncountable nouns and any in questions and negations. [ill Underline the correct items. please. A/An (indefinite article) . some. The bicycle is Tony's. a little. he blushed.English yet. a good deal of.any. hardly any." and ran away. plenty of.." "Oh. several. Give him some help with learning the language.. 4 We spend a number of. There 's some butter in the fridge. a large number of evidence so we had to release the suspect. 3 He's been in the country for . (NOT: TF1e eats are domestic animals. 3 The proposal got a lot of. His experiences in Africa were used to write his book. a number of luggage when she travels. too many. some. She goes to the cinema twice a/per week. some.

usually in narration. One summer. but I like that one. the Smiths decided to go to Italy. frequency/time (twice a month). fractions (a/one quarter). week. 11 Bill needed a rest so badly that he couldn 't keep his eyes open. 2 He bought her a very expensive ring as a gift for her birthday. my English teacher. ryve are not talking about a specific dress. 5 You need only a cup of sugar for the cake or else it will be too sweet to eat. one or ones. 13 I am going to make a hot drink. 9 Do you see those two musicians over there? They are the ones who won all the top awards in last year's competition. weighVmeasures (an/one inch). 8 We visit granny at least once a week. Kelly was walking home when she saw something unusual in the park. One of my friends is from Russia.One/Ones • We use a/an to refer to an unspecified thing with the meaning any one. but the ones I like best are the platforms. 10 The best time to do exercise is in the morning . (a) backache etc) . • We use a/an with one when there is an adjective before one. 3 After trying on various shoes. I like the blue shirt best. an. I want to buy a sofa. 11 A Mr Jenkins called while you were out. 15 Rob can't afford a new car so he decided to buy a second-hand one. She bought a dress. Would you like one? 14 As they walked past the old building they heard the voice of an old woman asking for help. 1 The recommended maximum speed on motorways is 130 km an hour. My jacket is the one with the hood. 10 A Mrs McGregor called earlier on and left a message for you. 5 Mum wouldn't let us get a puppy. but the others were slow.) She bought one dress. a fever. the other is huge. 2 One day. distance/fuel (BO miles a gallon). Which one do you like? 0 Fill in with a. (a) toothache. One day. you will be proud of me. although we live quite far from each other. morning. Nouns I Articles A(n)/One . price/weight (£3 a litre). One train was fast. • We use one or one of . 7 I have two English dictionaries at home: One is pocket-sized . BUT I want to buy a sofa. I168 . but I could only afford to buy one. to put emphasis on number. We use one when we are counting. 8 I liked both of the paintings.) • We use one with the words day. distance/speed (BO km an hour) and illnesses (a cold. year. 6 Peter's dog is a German Shepherd. one or ones. One Friday. It usually contrasts with another/other(s). winter. when we mean one person/thing out of many. 12 I can 't believe that she paid a/one thousand pounds for a pair of shoes. she decided to buy the most expensive ones. month. (a) stomachache. 4 One morning . whole numbers (a/one million). • We use one/ones with this/that. • We use a/an or one with no difference in meaning with money (a/one dollar). I want a red one. I don't like this pair of jeans. • We use which one(s) in questions. We can use one day to refer to the future. the. (She didn't buy two dresses.. I want one in red. Sue woke up to find out that her bicycle had been stolen from the back yard. Ben was working late. 12 All of the shoes look great. 7 The first story was terribly boring but the second one was actually quite interesting .. etc or with a specific day or month to say when something happened. 9 One Friday. • We use one in the singular and ones in the plural to avoid repeating the noun when it is clear what we mean . Which one do you like? 4 Penny goes to the supermarket every Friday. 6 The person with the moustache is Mr Floyd . 1 I helped an old lady cross the road . \iO Fill in a/an. you'll thank me for making you work hard! 3 I like the cotton dress best. night.

the Prince of Wales. the flute. Gobi desert) . noun. mountain ranges (the Alps) . • Note: most used as a determiner followed by a BUT We have to be at the court at 2. Harrods. the South of Cross Station). newspapers/magazines love tennis. individual mountains (Mount France. radio. night. BUT at night. holidays. Sea) . which have the name of their founder and end in Queen Elizabeth II -s or -'s. Chinese language is fascinating to study. That is my book. continents (Africa) • musical instruments. • the words home. the • names of rivers (the Thames) . / went to the shop to buy • means of transport: by bus/by car/by train/by bread. institutions (The Royal Academy of Art) . coast. cities (Manchester). I Museum of Modern Art). measles/the measles. restaurants. meals and theatres (The Theatre Royal) . -ch or -ese (the Welsh. seas (the North Vatican. Most students pass the exams.30 every morning. university when we refer to the purpose for which they exist. sea(side) . plane etc BUT in the car. jungle. hotels (The Ritz) . lakes (Lake Geneva). She Note: 'the' is optional with seasons. afternoon . the Tower of • proper nouns. shop. etc). BUT The most I have to go to work now. As always. nationalities ending in -sh. the Netherlands. • pubs. you are the first person to arrive. city. museums (The languages (not followed by the word language). He is at school by 8. by day/night. Baring 's Bank BUT the Queen 's Arms (hotel) (because Queen's Arms • adjectives used as plural nouns (the blind. • names of cinemas (The Odeon). the South/West/North/East Everest). deserts (the the M4 motorway. stations (King's Note: the equator. does not take 'the'. Edinburgh with or without 'the'. prison. canals (the Suez bridges (Tower Bridge) BUT the Bridge of Sighs. BUT (Time) . the poor. college. activities. Mum is at home earth. • names of families (the Smiths) . the Second World War BUT World War II • only. court. the Moon. games. theatre. (the South Africans. (The National Gallery) . station. hospital. sky. . ground. islands (Corsica). weather. country(side). the Dutch. the USA) . I'll come • We say: flu/the flu. the Severn Bridge. the Queen). the is not the name of the founder) elderly. the Arctic/Antarctic. Liverpool London • names of sports. cinema. BUT She was on the bus when the accident happened. BUT the High Street. squares (George Square). at midnight. Work (= place of work) never takes the. ships (The QE2) . Other plural nationalities are used a person or place. (the) Sudan. evening.00 for the trial. on the bus/train etc. first (used as adjectives). at 5 o'clock. last. etc) and the superlative degree of adjectives/adverbs. galleries • names of countries (France) . Can you speak French? BUT The (The Times) . streets (Bond Street). dances. the Mall. the Queen of England) Gate Bridge). pub. the French Revolution. Amy. etc the mumps BUT He's got pneumonia. Nouns I Articles 'The' is used before 'The' is omitted before • nouns which are unique. (the) autumn came by plane. BUT the Philippines. the Golden Spain. father/mother when we talk • the words: beach. now. (the King of the Forth Bridge. colours. the A 11. shops. oceans (the Pacific) . the Hague. the tango • possessive adjectives. the rich. about our own home/parents. groups of islands/states (the Orkney Islands. village. Jim 's Cafe. Interesting article was on Nostradamus. days. Glasgow Airport. banks and hotels The is omitted before titles with proper names. etc but not before man (= people). mumps/ round in the morning. months. intelligent one here. Canal) and names or nouns with 'of'. school. the Strand. at noon. the Castle BUT The White House (because the first Australians etc) word White is not the name of a person' or a place) • titles (the President. drinks. • morning. world. parks (Central Park). • historical references/events. the • two-word names whose first word is the name of Chinese. He's the most • bed.

----. which is in - East Sussex.Lewes.train .-. Flamenco music. the Mendip Hills. 3 The Rock Garden Cafe is half way up . Last year we went to . which has some of the most charming and helpful waiters I've ever met.Crete and liked the people there very much.-. 4 The Quins are holding a ball in the Sherbrooke Castle Hotel on the fifth of June.the ..old maps of the world and see how (the) borders have changed.snowboarding and . first of April. then say each item using the where necessary. 12 Belfast is the capital of ..tricks ·on each other. it is the custom for British people to make . so we won't be able to go to the ski slopes until . the Virgin Islands.Central Park. you must visit .jokes and play . Great Wall of China is said to be the only man-made structure seen from . he went straight to . 7 It's interesting to look at . 3 The universities of Oxford and Cambridge are two of the most famous universities in . Regent Street. It§i i1111---. solved a lot of mysteries. Fill in the where necessary. the Duchess of Devonshire.infant school we moved to .Times Square.---------------. who is the nicest person I've ever worked for..Glasgow.Great Britain for 12 years. Rachel was waiting for us at the arrivals gate. the High Street.lunch. the Red Sea. the Guggenheim museum and the Statue of Liberty.1. 13 I was born in the North of England. the East River. 5 When we arrived at . off . 2 The Prince of Wales visited a shelter for the homeless yesterday. 16 On Sunday we decided to go to the beach by . the Atlantic. 15 Many people enjoy . She will have no problem in her career as a nanny. UNESCO. 4 If you want to work abroad . the Queen of Spain 1170 . but by the time we got to the station the weather looked so threatening that we went to the cinema instead.summer cruising in the Caribbean.Detective Sherlock Holmes and his assistant.Baroness Thatcher of Kesteven. 10 As soon as Jim got home from .Spain. . 14 Julia is an extremely patient girl. has a PhD in . but don't bother to visit .George Square.Northern Ireland and Dublin is the capital of the Republic of .lasagne.. 15 Stephen has a seminar on . King George VI . 6 James went to the hospital to pick up his wife.Queen Street. 9 Mrs Hamilton holds a flower arranging class on .Rome was the best I've ever had.Canada. 6 The holiday I took in .Ireland. Mount Etna.. Red Lion Square. is in the Himalayas. Harrods. 1 On .----------.most people have a degree in .1f iI·141§t. 7 .] . but my boss.-. 9 I was thinking of making . 2 Of all the countries on the continent of .Manchester Airport. The . Phil has only visited .---· Look at the following list.--. ·--(.astronomy.Doctor Watson . Nouns I Articles m.school.Sunday. Kew Gardens. who was the Prime Minister of . 11 There is a wonderful 1920s style restaurant-cafe in . the Dutch language. 10 The highest mountain in the world. why don't you contact the agency I went to in .hiking in the Alps and the Pyrenees.---------. Pancras Station . but if you prefer we can go to a restaurant for .Saturday morning. but when I was in . is to the north of Seville.Wednesday evenings.Europe. Charles de Gaulle Airport. is now known as .. Lake Windermere. Malta. 12 We've decided to go to the Canary Islands on holiday. fg\ Fill in a/an or the where necessary.Madrid. Macy's. 8 I would love to spend a/the/. .New York. the Andes. 13 The Balearic Islands lie to the east of Spain . who is a surgeon there. 8 If you go to ...English.bed because he felt as if he had (the) flu.North America. 11 Margaret Thatcher.. St.Lamb Street? 5 The capital city of .. 1 . . 14 In the office where I work .Mount Everest.space. the British Museum. the Uffizi Gallery.

succeed They did not succeed in winning the elections. the age of eight months I took my first 15 We decided to go by bus. advised The group leader advised us to take a raincoat. 20 The teacher asked the children to learn the poem 7 The computer chooses data at random. 14 We've run out of bread . Please hold the line. place at the right time. when 3 At/In the beginning we got along very well. the most delicious bread. then fill in the correct particle(s). much to everyone's amazement. square to honour her. 21 Although she seems to be a selfish old woman. 2 The army was called in to put down the rebellion.. 1 . Use two to five words. . but 4 At the end of the story the murderer was caught. 5 We had decided to go to France.. 10 Our babysitter lives close at hand. she didn't notice us. I'll just put you through to Mrs Thomson's office. they ordered me a taxi. m Complete the sentences using the words in bold.At. The next time we go. 13 He runs people down all the time. 13 The sports shop is at 31 . 17 We saw her sitting in the taxi and waved at her. 25 The ship was lost at sea.. Go and get some. homework by mistake. 6 Over the winter I've put on at least 3 kilos. like him. but I did the wrong exercise for Dave Jones. I won't post it. his 50th birthday. 1 You must contact the headquarters as soon as you get the information . 11 We haven't heard from Diane for ages. but now I quite is delivered by hand. Look at Appendix 3. 19 Don 't worry.your friend Tom! 5 The cricket match was put off until the weather 12 Can you believe that he ran away with all our money? had improved. I proudly present comedian 22 I'm sorry. but in the end we 18 He must have reached Israel by now. she must be kind at heart. He never says 7 At home we have two fire extinguishers in case we anything nice about anyone. now all we seem to do is fight and argue. 2 Raymond started driving ten years ago. Pine Street. away. touch You must .. I'll put .. . a statue was put up in the town for next year.[ii _Look at Appendix 2. an hour at the bus stop. 1 If you like. all your winter clothes 9 After her death. 16 I was sitting on the bus reading my book. please! 8 Of course sir. have to put out a fire.. then fill in the correct preposition . 24 She told me that she had sent the letter by post a 12 Put your essay on top of that pile over there. but I'll have to put up with his 3 He puts his success down to being in the right being there because John likes him. 8 At my request. there is no bias or discrimination involved. she was a well-behaved little girl... 4 They failed to win the elections. been Raymond has been driving for ten years. 9 " By popular request. went to Rome. but Dave sat down beside me.. 14 From/By all accounts. the headquarters as soon as you get the information.. get in touch with .. 11 You'll never guess who I ran into in the supermarket 4 The idea Ian put forward is the best so far." said the announcer. so it's no 23 We took him by surprise by arranging a party for problem calling her at a moment's notice. 10 I can't stand him. I'll make sure the letter 6 At first I thought he was very rude. we'll 2 At the top of the street there's a baker's that sells go by taxi for sure. so that by heart. week ago. but we had to wait for steps. I didn't think he was capable of theft. 3 "You had better take a raincoat" said the group leader..

...? I have to study.. of car is the Ferrari. 1 When you . . . blind Mary is (as) blind as a bat without her glasses. @ fatal B final C solemn D lethal @ fade B soften C weaken D faint 9 I'm really . aim She joined a university course with the aim of studying business. much better than 2 Even with five children and two dogs to take care of. she is unhappy. clean and tidy 3 She was very embarrassed when she realised she had gone to the party with her pullover on inside out... after ten years it was unable to stand up to the wear and tear of continual use.. though She is unhappy (even) though she is rich and famous.. 7 She joined a university course in order to study business. which is why she is soon to be made a company director... 7 From my point of . A guide B instruct C learn @ train @ beat B earned C gained D won 6 Could you leave me .. fed up with 7 After falling off her horse Laura was black and blue all over..... damage caused by everyday use 6 I'm sick and tired of listening to his excuses. 6 The thief wore gloves in order not to leave fingerprints. . · round She never seems to get round to writing letters.. A idea B opinion @ view D belief 2 My favourite .. 9 D~spite being rich and famous... A see B glance C glimpse @ stare @ anxious B careful C watchful D afraid 10 She . all over his body m Choose the correct item. 8 She never seems to have the time to write letters. to be obedient.. • Explain the meaning of the idioms in bold..he was holding his book upside down.. me The food is too spicy for me to eat.... were We were fascinated by the new Harry Potter film.. 10 How long is it since you moved back home? ago How long ago did you move back home? 11 We found the new Harry Potter film fascinating.. about this situation so I hope we can find a solution.... the wrong way round 4 The new house has its problems. Margaret's house is always spic and span. there is no point in remaining A arrive @ reach C get D come here. ® alone B only C single D lonely 1172 . Folder ~ 5 Mary can't see at all without her glasses. A style @ make C trademark D class 8 His injuries turned out to be .. on the whole 5 Even though the carpet was well made.... 12 The food is so spicy that I can't eat it. the wrong way up 10 The footballer was covered in mud from head to foot. all her classmates and finished the race 5 With lots of time and patience you can .. 1 She is head and shoulders above her colleagues... at people..... that The thief wore gloves so that he would not leave fingerprints.... 4 It's very rude to .he died the day after the accident. but by and large it's an improvement on the old one. if you wash it with bleach. dogs first. 3 The colour of this shirt will ... first in one direction and then in the opposite one 9 The student was only pretending to read . the traffic lights turn left.... covered with bruises 8 The nervous customer paced back and forth outside the bank manager's office.

........ panama hats are expensive.... over the world...... read the text below and decide which answer (A.. However the hat itself (4) . the palm leaves are gathered by the men and the hats are woven by the women. . Stylish. flexible.... B... but the air must be moist enough for it to (9) . light and cool on the head..... Practice Test Part 1 For questions 1-12...... It can (6) . the fine straw......... up to 12 palm leaves to make a (7) . This means that the women can usually only work in the (10) . (11) . C... ........... and often receive only a fraction of the price you pay in the shops.. sometimes at exorbitant (3) ........ In a long tradition (5) .. c:::::J ( When summer comes and the sun appears.... Example: A B C D 0 A well B right C good D functional 0 c:::::J c:::::J ..... . these palm leaf hats are flexible enough to roll up and put in a pocket or bag............ Nowadays panamas can be found in fashionable shops (2) ............ morning..... There is an example at the beginning (0).. The women's job is dictated by the weather and visibility: there must be enough light for them to (8) . ( 1 A sought B got @ gone D tried 2 A on B at C throughout @ all 3 A prizes B amounts © prices D costs 4 A born B came © originated D produced 5 @ handed B past C given D delivered 6 A need B be @ take D want 7 A great @ top c height D grade 8 A watch @ see c look D attend 9 A continue B endure c persist @ remain 10 A prompt @ early c soon D fast 11 ® Although B Still c But D Even 12 A live B existing @ alive D lively .... back in the villages the craftsmen and women are struggling to keep the tradition (12) .... quality hat.... in rather humble surroundings in the jungles of South America. it's (0) .... down from generation to generation.. ... Many people have traditionally (1) .. C or D) best fits each gap. Each leaf is split up to 25 times to obtain a straw that is fine enough to be woven into a hat.. to have a hat......... for the panama hat...

I (_ . read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap. orange and lemon groves. Example: ~ IL I0 ITISI I I I I I I I I I I I With its warm sunshine. sandy beaches and old harbours (15) is washed by the Mediterranean. Paphos has developed into a thriving modern city and is a large tourist resort..... The sun shines most days of the year and even in the (14) middle of winter the days are warm and inviting. The old harbour is still the central part of the town with tavernas lining the waterside. The exact spot is (19) believed/said/supposed/thought to be the Rocks of Romiou. you (16) will/can discover another world of ancient mountains and green valleys with neat fields. Use only one word in each gap. Aphrodite. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. This is (20) the largest town in Cyprus and is located (21) in the south western part of the island. Inland... sparkling seas and serene landscapes. Cyprus offers (O) .Practice Test H Part 2 For questions 13-24... but even (22) so... (23) There are also excellent shops and restaurants in the modern part of town (24) where visitors can enjoy shopping and traditional food.. vineyards and old villages built out (17) of stone. Legend has it that Cyprus was the place (18) where the ancient Greek goddess of love..... The shoreline of rough cliffs..... a beautiful C beach just along the coast from the old port and town of Paphos.. was born .. There is an example at the beginning (0). it has managed to preserve its ancient past.. Cyprus has so (13) many attractions as a holiday island... of reasons to escape the grey winter days...

Because Saudi Arabia has no · lakes or rivers and very low and (31) irregular rainfall .. Riyadh.... There is an example at the beginning (0).. read the text below. Huge oil reserves EXPORT were discovered near the capital.. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line... It is now the world's largest (33) manufacturer of MANUFACTURE desalinated water. and oil now provides (30) approximately 90% of the country's APPROXIMATE income..... Saudi Arabia The (0) . It is one of the driest countries on earth and the (25) majority of its landscape (95%) is MAJOR desert. DRINK .. Over one billion m3 of fresh water are produced each year from seawater.. It FOREIGN is home to two of Islam's holiest cities: Mecca and Medina... providing about 70% of the Kingdom's (34) drinking needs... roughly 20% of which are resident (27) foreigners (or 'expats').. where every year. Saudi Arabia is the world's largest (28) producer and PRODUCE (29) exporter of oil. in 1937. of Saudi KING Arabia lies on the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia... Saudi Arabia is a Muslim country with a (26) population of about POPULATE 27 million. an estimated two million Muslims make a pilgrimage.Part 3 For questions 25-34.... it has invested REGULAR (32) heavily in seawater desalination HEAVY technology. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.

..... we'll make the necessary arrangements..... 40 She tried to pay the rent on time. DEAL We had . ACCUSED She accused me of breaking her camera.......... 35 We enjoyed the party very much..... FALL She tried not to fall behind with the rent... 38 But for the help of my friends I'd never have survived.. FOR If it hadn't been for my friends' help.. FULL Not all political parties were in full agreement with the new policy..... including the word given.. ADVANCE Provided they let us know in advance. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence....... 37 If we are told earlier.. 42 One has to hear it to appreciate it. we'll make the necessary arrangements......... There is an example at the beginning (0)... SALE Tickets for the performance will be on sale at the school canteen.......... rain last year...... Do not change the word given............. HEARD It has to be heard to be appreciated . 39 "You broke my camera" she said to me. 1176 ..... FUN We had lots of/great fun at the party.... You must use between two and five words.. using the word given... Example: O It rained a lot last year... 41 They will be selling tickets for the performance at the school canteen......Practice Test ~ Part 4 For questions 35-42... I'd never have survived.......................... 36 Not all political parties completely agreed with the new policy.........

That's how he survived the shipwreck." "Hello? This is James Smith. "We 're getting engaged in June. several. quantifiers (some. The others don't really suit you. 8 "Is your sister in. Who's that. either. neither. "Liz. enough. 6 Those buildings in the centre of town need to be pulled down. both. • when the speaker is in or near the place he/she is • to refer back to something mentioned before. That woman over there is the director. 22 Hello. any. Q Fill in: this. • for people or things not near us. let me introduce you to Stephen ." explained the guide as we all looked at the painting. this is Mary. 20 Could you take these bags? I'm about to drop them. please?" This/These . definite article (the). that is how we met. 12 "I'll get these earrings. weren 't they? 18 "Jason and Caroline were chosen for the lead roles. This dress is mine. demonstratives (this . wasn 't it? 25 Can you reach those jars on the top shelf? . " 13 That car parked over there belongs to my boss. each. most etc) and numbers (one. (The speaker is in the marvellous! " room.these/that . every. 24 That curry we had last night was delicious. " 11 I wish I'd bought one of those jackets we saw last week.these I that . referring to.those).000 a year? " "That is scandalous! " 17 Those peaches were extremely juicy. Determiners I Pronouns Determiners are: indefinite article (a/an). possessive adjectives (my. hot air balloons. that or those. these.That/Those are not always followed by nouns. your. I'm seeing George this Friday. They are an eyesore." "That is impossible! " 19 Do you remember our holiday in Spain? That was one of the best times of my life.) • when speaking on the phone to ask who the other • to introduce people or to identify ourselves on the person is. those . " she explained as she reached the end of her story. this is Rachel.. two etc). 3 Look! This is the fabric I want for our bedroom curtains.. Jane? This is Diana speaking.. this is Stephen. please? 23 "This is the house where Wordsworth lived. 1 Look at . Can I speak to your mother. 21 "So you see. Demonstratives (this . Aren't they spectacular? 2 James and Claire have decided to get married this year. all. 5 That girl over there is going to move in next door. no. " "That's This room is quite spacious.. 7 "Those were the best days of my life! " grandpa said. That month was the best. 4 Those people over there come from Swansea. " "That is a good choice. • for past situations. 15 Do you know that boy who has just walked past? 16 "Did you know that the director earns over £500. Stephen . • for present/future situations. 14 "This is one of his earlier works. his etc)." said the guide as she stood outside the front door.those) This/These are used That/Those are used • for people or things near us. phone. " 9 "Marilyn and Ian are engaged!" "Isn't that brilliant! " 10 "Rachel.

. Interrogative ! many ! much ! Are there many paintings in the museum? i i i Did you have much time to talk to him? '''' ' ''' ' '''' ' '''' ' '''''''''''''''''''~''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''' ' ''' ''' '''''''~''''''''''*'' ' '''''''''' ' '''''''"'''''''''''' : '''''''''' ' ''' ' '''' ' '''' ' '''' ' ''' ' ''' ' ' '' ' ' ' '' ''''' ' '''' ' ''''•••• • ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••000000•0000•••••••••••• Negative ! many ! much ! There aren 't many tickets left. 1178 .. ... etc are followed by of when a noun follows.. .~~:. . .... the or a.~. so. .~~...... so please hurry up..... .. A lot of can also be used in questions and negations in informal English.. almost none) ·is followed by uncountable nouns. a small number) is followed by countable nouns. Few people are allowed to meet the Queen. .~~~. .~~.:~. . I've had very little response to my offer. too or in formal English. 1 Not . one.... J. all. most. . A little(= some.~.. 5 I have too many books to carry so my bag is very heavy. both. 15 There was so much traffic that we were delayed for an hour. .. many. .!.?. .~. ~. .much . .. . several. • A few (= some. Ann has a little flour left so she'll make a few cakes.that's why she's so thin. two.. much or many.~~!.. 8 There were too many misprints in the letter.. .. . Determiners I Pronouns A lot of . Are there many boxes? Many and much are often used in positive sentences after how.~.... 2 It takes a lot of hard work to get a university degree... that...'!!.~:~. these.. .~. almost none) is followed by countable nouns. j many.. • Few(= not many. She had few doubts about marrying him even though she had known him only a little while.(a) little ! countables ~ uncountables .~~~.... . .. ...~~~.~~!. . ...!~.~. not enough) j A little sugar will make the pie sweeter. 11 Are there many English people living in Germany? 12 How much milk do you need? 13 She's working overtime as she's got so much to do. . You're eating too much. Both a few and a little have a positive meaning... .. .. . . .~. He 's got lots of patience. There isn't much sugar left. 6 He must have a lot of money if he has a big car like that..~~.. . i a few (= some)/ i a little (= some)/ i A few people were invited to the party.~!?.~. .... there's still a lot of work to be done....'. . ... .!. .. 9 Have you invited many guests to your dinner party? 10 She doesn't have much of an appetite . He didn't realise how much food he had eaten.. some. .?.~.l. .... a small amount) is followed by uncountable nouns... ······································:·············································: ·············································:························································································································· Positive i a lot (of)/lots of/ i a lot (of)/lots of/ i There are a lot of books in the library. people attended the opening ceremony. . ... . . 14 The house isn't finished yet. ~~. 3 I haven't got much money at the moment so I can't go shopping.. .. . Were there a lot of arguments caused by the election? • Many is followed by countable nouns and much is followed by uncountable nouns. .~. You should go on a diet.l. ..!.. {SJ Fill in: a lot (of) .i... .. ~. i very few (= not i very little (= not i Very few people are billionaires.~:.~..~... .. 4 He ate too much food last night so today he's not feeling well. • A lot (of)/Lots of are followed by countable or uncountable nouns and are normally used in positive sentences. .. Both few and little have a negative meaning and are rather formal.~~.. ... Very few/very little.many ... ..~. How much of the money you earn do you need for food? I have lent her so many of my books that I have nothing to read.... . much..~~. . Little(= not much. . . . .. . .~~:.(a) few .~~. .. ~!?. 7 I haven't got much time... . not enough) j much. ..~. .. those.. They are normally used in negations or questions... '!!. 1.~~. ~. only a few/only a little are more usual.. . . preceded by possessives or words such as: this..~~~~~. . any. (a) little. .. 1.~. (a) few. ... . • Many.. . There were a lot of people at the reception.. . .. .~~~~~...?..

. Are there any apples left? Is there any milk in the fridge? Any and its compounds (anyone... .. ......... etc) are normally used in questions............ Any and its compounds can be used after if in a positive sentence............ .j. Every candidate has to complete a form. There's someone in the kitchen.... 11 A few/A little/ Little students here have passed the exam....... r················ .. 9 You must pay many/lots of/few attention to understand this. He did nothing to help me. ····1. ·····t····~~. .h·~~~··· . ...... nothing/not anything...............~·······~······· ...··~~~~b~ci~--(~ii··P~~~i~)··t·· ..... (all the things) Every person working in the laboratory has to wear a uniform............... rarely.. .. 4 If you add a little/a few/many salt..····························1······~~~~~~/~~yb~·dy···· .... They can also be used in questions to make an offer. .. ····t·····~~~........ .. ······················r·····p·~~~i~··················· . There's no news from him. ..~················ ... Determiners I Pronouns Q Underline the correct item............... a request or when we expect a positive answer....... ·~~~~hi~~·....JeFR gees Raw"1e.......... .... .. something. I want some strawberries. 7 Few/ Much/A little people are as pretty as she is...i...... 10 Lots of/Much/ Little flowers were planted in the garden......"O these days.. · ·············· ... ············. 12 There was many/few/much annoyance caused by her outbreak of anger... There are not any pens in the drawer..... ········t·····~~·~·h1~9··········t·····~~~h·~.. never.... (NOT: She seff.. 3 A lot/ Much/Few visitors are disappointed by our hotel. ··· ~·h·i·~~~· ···············r·····p·I·~~~~ ························ · ·· .... ··· ...... She asked for some help. Take anything you like.... 8 There's been few/very little/a few news about the earthquake................ -- Some . . Everything he does is wrong.. . She seldom goes anywhere these days..... ! any ! anyone/anybody ! anything ! anywhere ········i~t·~~~~g~ti~~········ .. ················.......... .... /s there anything for me? They can also be used in positive sentences meaning "It doesn't matter how/whaVwhen/which/where/who".. (all the candidates) Every and its compounds take a verb in the singular. ... 6 We've had many/ little/too many rain this winter.................... ...... etc) are normally used in positive sentences.) BUT Is there anyone in the garden? (I'm asking in general) • Every is used before singular countable nouns. ..~~·i·ii·~~iN~·~-~ii~~..... (all persons) • Any is used before countable or uncountable nouns. (positive) Would you like something to drink? (offer) Could I have something to eat? (request) Is there someone in the garden? (I expect there is............. No/not any and their compounds (no one/not anyone.. etc) are used in negations................ . .. If you let anyone in.. etc)..No Adjectives Pronouns Adverbs ....) .... Any .. .. seldom. it will taste better. He didn't do anything to help me.i... anything.. • No/not any are used before countable and uncountable nouns.················ ... 2 We spent a lot of/many/few money on holiday.. without. 5 There are much/a lot of/ little people on this bus..... Interrogative I j everyone j (all things) j (in all places) • Some is used before countable or uncountable nouns... -r. you'll be in trouble. ~ .... Some and its compounds (somebody. 1 There are much/many/a lot skyscrapers in Chicago.....··t····~~~~··················..:. Negative j no/not any j no one/not anyone j nothing j nowhere j j nobody/not anybody ! not anything i not anywhere .... Any and its compounds are used with negative words (hardly......... ········p~~·i·ti~~·························t····~-~~-~························1······~~~~·~·~~i~·~·~-~b~d·y······t·····~·~·~-~thi~9······t·····~~~~~h~·..

14 I want to go somewhere this weekend. or more). 4 I'm so tired! I just want to go somewhere to relax for a few days. It and not the other) refer to two people or things is the opposite of neither/not either. my etc + whole + singular or plural.. • All refers to more than two people or things. "Which car is yours?" "That one. 7 We didn't go nowhere/anywhere this year. 2 Everyone/Everybody knows Charlie but no one/nobody really likes him. 8 Can I have some/any water. 12 They looked everywhere for Helen but they couldn't find her. considered individually (it singular verb. She cooks lunch every day. 5 I've never been anywhere more exciting than London. dinner. countable noun. Underline the correct item. 3 We need to take some/any food with us. wrong with her. None of is used before nouns or object • Whole(= complete) is used with countable nouns. everyone. James and and are used before singular countable nouns.. I said nothing/anything. There 's no place safer than • One/Ones are used to avoid repetition of a one's own house. All three of them laughed. It is the opposite of all. "Are there any biscuits left?" "No. Neither of them is/are married. pronouns followed by a verb either in the We always use a. All the children all. 3 We could hardly see anything in the dark. please? 4 It took him any/some time to recover from his 9 The doctor told her there was anything/nothing illness. It All + that-clause ( = the only thing) takes a means one by one. It Note that every one and each one have of has a negative meaning and isn't followed by a constructions. any. All that she did was to stare at him usually means only two). • None refers to more than two people or things. Each student was awarded a diploma. Fill in: some. " workers will be given a bonus. 13 Everyone/Everybody is wondering why no one/nobody noticed anything before. building. 6 Is there any/some sugar in th is coffee? It's very 2 Pete didn't see anyone/no one come out of the bitter. 10 Has anyone/anybody told you anything about what you have to do? 11 There is nothing that anyone/anybody can say to make me feel better. Every one of/Each one of the noun. • Each is used with singular countable nouns. They are both students. Both James and Robin are Neither boy likes spaghetti. 1 Ron knows . I haven't been anywhere for ages. It • Every is used with singular countable nouns.. 8 Is there any milk in the fridge or shall I go and get some? 9 Everyone/Everybody was very pleased with their results. no one/nobody was disappointed. without speaking. 7 Michael never does anything without asking someone/somebody first. 1 Don't worry. the.. " I1so . It has a e Either (= any one of two) I Neither (= not one positive meaning and takes a verb in the plural. 15 Has anyone/anybody seen my pen? I've looked for it everywhere but it's nowhere to be found. are students.__ Determiners I Pronouns EJ . None countable. no. everything. • Both refers to two people or things. It has a positive meaning and takes a verb in the refers to a group of peop le or things and means plural. Robin are students. They all laughed. 6 Are you doing anything at the moment? I need to ask you something. everything . It is the opposite of none. Note: no + noun. none. Both of them take a verb either in the singular or plural. etc (it refers to three laughed. All of them laughed. 5 Anybody/Everybody was pleased with their exam 10 He does his homework any/every evening before results. Both boys are students. Neittrer' of/Either of students. there is to know about computers. this. every or their compounds. the whole morning = all morning of the boys/them know(s) how to ride a bike.

18 Jane did not utter a single word the whole/all time she was here. Determiners I Pronouns Q Underlin e the correct item.. Either Cath or Laura could give us a lift. -- 11 He spent whole/all evening studying for the exam. 23 All of/None of us wanted to go to the party. 5 Nick worked late. 29 "Which perfume do you like best? "" I don't really like either/neither of them . Not only Nick but also Sue and Fiona worked late. 8 Every/All that he needs is a good rest. but we couldn't refuse the invitation. and . . • Both . " 22 I spent all/whole day answering the phone and had no time to do anythi ng else. so did Sue and Fiona. 20 Either/Neither you start doing some work or I'll fire you... 2 Molly is going to the cinema tomorrow and so are the Smiths. 8 Justin doesn't watch television. nor . 26 A teacher should know the names of every/all his students. Either Katie or Paula will give you directions.. but also. 9 Katie will give you directions or else Paula will.. either .. Both Pete and Kathy are lawyers. 25 Both/Either Sonia and Rachel are nurses. 9 Neither/Either the bride nor the groom arrived on time... 12 Jill is having her hair cut and so is Sally. • Either .. + plural verb. He only speaks English. Andrew doesn't either. but also. 13 There was a good film on television yesterday but all/none of us saw it.... Not only Jill but also Sally is having her hair cut. Not only Paul but also Bob and Fred work as cashiers.. 21 "Do you like these trousers?" "No.. 10 Pete is a lawyer and so is Kathy. I prefer those ones/one actually. 4 Jane has never been on an aeroplane and Victoria hasn't either. Both Frank and Terry enjoy scuba diving. Both Daniel and Guy are going to Brighton by train... 24 Joe had no/none time to waste... 1 Joe likes swimming and so does Tom .. 11 Paul works as a cashier and so does Bob and Fred. or . neither . or. 4 Both/Neither Rebecca and Charlie are teachers. 14 Sam plays football nearly each/every weekend. Rewrite the sentences using both . Neither Paula nor Sue and Clare are in the office at the moment. 6 All/Each eight men are working really hard. 7 None/Every of the applicants he interviewed were suitable for the job. 19 Annette takes the bus to work neither/every day. Either Dr Green or Dr Howe will see you. 3 He goes to the gym either/every afternoon.. 6 Dr Green will see you or else Dr Howe will. I Neither . Both James and Alex like riding horses. 12 Jim speaks neither/either French nor German. Neither Jane nor Victoria has ever been on an aeroplane. 13 Cath could give us a lift or else Laura could... 5 You will have to talk to each/both person alone to find out what happened. 17 Sally and Andrew all/both enjoyed themselves. The maid will do it.. and. the boat was leaving in five minutes. / 28 Each/Both time I try to call Jenny her phone is engaged ... .. -- 15 I like both of these skirts but I'll take this ones/one because it's cheaper. 10 There's no/none need to do the washing up. nor. 3 James and Alex like riding horses.. 27 None of/All of us eat meat so we went to a vegetarian restaurant.. + singular or plural verb depending on the subject which follows nor. Not only Molly but also the Smiths are going to the cinema tomorrow. but also ." 30 The twins' grandfather gave them all/each five pounds for their birthday. I Not only . 1 Both/ All Margo and Steve are excellent skiers. not only . 7 Daniel is going to Brighton by train and so is Guy.. Both Joe and Tom like swimming . 2 Neither/Either Julie nor Lucy enjoyed the film. or. They were all/both late. He's very tired. Neither Justin nor Andrew watch television. 16 Each/All flat will have central heating installed before November.

nor We didn't realise that neither Tina nor Ann was there. 2 Someone told me that Jim was leaving and then someone/some body else told me that he wasn 't. whoever they may be. both It is believed that both Jack and Pam are guilty. cheese. 7 We didn't realise that Tina wasn 't there and that Ann wasn't either. 3 I went shopping on my own because no one/nobody else wanted to come with me. Get a taxi or else you'll be late.. I'll still be his friend. only Sandra can not only speak Portuguese. Whoever wants a ticket must buy one now. John is too. 9 Whichever package you choose. 3 Whatever happens. 4 Sandra can speak Portuguese and Spanish. 2 William is a dentist. whichever. Whoever did this must be punished. That notebook isn't yours.. are Both William and John are dentists. 6 It is believed that Jack is guilty and that Pam is too. 4 Whenever I try to talk to Kate. I don't really like Pam and I don't think anyone else does either. wherever (= any place that). wherever . 1 I'd better get some money out of the bank . it's someone else's. wherever. 6 Sam has a Spanish friend. • Else (= more. whoever or however. 1 My father doesn't like cheese and neither does my brother. Whenever he goes to Spain . 9 He told me that Chester is worth a visit and so is York. whichever (=any of).nor my brother like(s) . and He told me that both Chester and York are worth a visit... different) is followed by a singular verb and can be used with indefinite pronouns and words such as everyone. 1 My dog follows me ... (anyone who ditl it) Fill in: whatever. Use two to five words.. whenever (= any time that).. or else. Who else can work on the project? • Else forms its possessive case with 's. 8 The bank manager explained that Terry could co-sign the account or else Janet could . 7 However hard I try. who and how to refer to people. things etc. Else can also be used with what. 10 I won't accept that behaviour from anyone. something. 5 The bus is leaving. either You can ask either Tim or Sam for a lift to work.. you're guaranteed a fabulous holiday. nor Neither my father . 1182 . Determ iners I Pronou ns Complete the sentences using the words in bold. I go.. 8 Whenever we go to the cinema. whenever. she just ignores me. I can't seem to forget that awful night. nobody etc.. places. Julie pays for me. where. I won't be able to pay the rent. 5 You can ask Tim for a lift to work or you can ask Sam. whoever(= anyone who} . • Or else means 'otherwise'. he stays with him. enjoy Both Debbie and her husband enjoy scuba diving. He never leaves my side. 2 That chair is going to break again however well you fix it. whatever (= anything that). These are: however(= in any way that) .. 10 Did you know that Carole is getting married this year and so is Amanda? not Did you know that not only Carole but also Amanda is getting married this year? • Ever can be added to question words to mean 'any'. 3 Debbie enjoys scuba diving and so does her husband. either The bank manager explained that either Terry or Janet could co-sign the account. but she can also speak Spanish. t Complete the blanks using else constructions .

the others are from the library.. please? 9 Pat visits her mother on alternate d(!YS. every other or another .. 10 That bag isn 't mine . Determiners I Pronouns 4 You'd better be in bed by ten o 'clock or else there'll be trouble... • others = several more apart from the ones already mentioned At weekends some people like to go out and dance. while others prefer to stay at home and relax. 13 Simone came to see us the other day... 6 He has to write another two pages before the article is finished .. 7 Have you got another book I can read? I've finished mine. I've only got these two dresses with me .the re$t are at home.. money and time It will take us another two hours before we get to Plymouth. Replace the underlined words with an expression containing other/another. . but the others can go home. 8 Why did they put a parking ticket on my car? No one/nobody else has one. 8 Some couples are very dependent on each other for companionship. all the others were too expensive. or else you'll fail. Some guests turned up with presents while others came empty-handed. 10 It'll be another few weeks before I see my brother again. 12 Sue has to go to the supermarket every other day to buy food. every other.. I would like another piece of meat. but the rest of you can go home. m Fill in: (the) other(s). • each other = one another Her two small children are always fighting with each other. each other. . 3 There was a good film on TV the other night. . please? • Another can be used with expressions of distance. I would like Gill and Tom to stay behind after class. please. Sam left the other day. the others will join us later.····. ···························· 1 Lisa goes riding . please? Do you think I could borrow another £5 this week.. \ 14 There's only another week to go before the summer holidays begin. 5 This car is certainly value for money but I'd prefer som~Jtiin_g_~l§e. Pat visits her mother every other day. she looked very well. 6 We always go to Nice on holiday. 11 Although they work together. . 2 I would like one more piece of meat. . 6 Some guests turned up with presents while se:l. these are falling apart.. the others hated it. Did you see it? 4 We're leaving now. 10 I would like Gill and Tom to stay behind after class. 1 He plays football once a !ortn[gh~ .the others are at home. can't we go somewhere else this year? 7 I'm afraid I can't answer that question.··························································································································. 3 Sam left a few days ago. week.···· . 5 My mother telephones every other day to see how I am. 9 You'd better write your essay. You'd better ask someone/somebody else. 7 The Butlers went to Ohio a few we~ks agq.·····. \ 15 This was the only house that we could afford. • the other one(s) = not this/these but something else I quite like this dress. but I liked the other one better. I went to his house for dinner. This car is certainly value for money but I'd prefer another one. • the other day = a few days ago I saw Joe the other day. 9 I was the only one who liked the film.. please. • another = one more apart from those already mentioned May I have another slice of cake. they don't get on with each other. 4 I've only got these two dresses with me .it must belong to someone/somebody else.. He plays football every other week.!eral more came empty-handed. 5 Why don't you agree with this plan? No one/Nobody else does. 'Other' structures • the other(s) = the rest Only those books are mine.. 8 Do you think I could borrow £5 mq~ this week. • = every other alternate I clean the house every other day... 2 I need another pair of shoes. The Butlers went to Ohio the other week..

• Nothing can be compared to this. Ted and Phil hate squash. Neither Sheila nor Paula like(s) milk. • There isn't anyone in the room. 9 Tony lives abroad. Paula doesn't like None of them like/likes squash. Determiners I Pronouns (SJ In Other Words • Sally. neither and none as well as the cues below to compare the three animals. French. I184 . carnivorous. talk.-------. ·--C·1t tI •1JU4t. Sylvia does too. 8 These exercises are not hard to do. 10 There isn't anything Joanne can do to help me. anyone There is not anyone who knows what the outcome will be. likes None of the girls likes playing tennis. furry skin. speak Both . 7 No one dances the way she does. small. 6 There isn't anything I would like better. 3 There isn't anything to watch on television tonight. All three of them work as secretaries. nothing There is nothing to watch on television tonight.t·1.. legs. Neither of them like(s) milk. Sharon is an actress too. fly. • Sheila doesn't like milk. Use two to five words. Sue and Liz work as secretaries. 1 Bob speaks French.· (See Suggested Answer section) Use both. teeth. walk. anyone There is not anyone who dances the way she does.. There isn't anything that/which can be No one dances as well as he does. Fiona is a doctor too. 5 Lucy is a doctor. run fast. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. horns. Both Lynn and Sharon are actresses .. etc All three animalB have tailB.-------------. • Lynn is an actress. nothing There is nothing Joanne can do to help me. You can use ideas of your own. is There is nothing I would like better. paws.. compared to this. live Both Tony and Sylvia live abroad . iI f · -------------------------. all. There is no one in the room. mammals. are Both Lucy and Fiona are doctors. Sam speaks French too. big. etc.-----------. milk either. tails. 2 No one knows what the outcome will be. 4 The girls all dislike playing tennis. • He's the best dancer of all. ears. • Jim. Bob and Sam Bpeak. It§. of None of these exercises is/are hard to do.

2 Your camera is not as good as mine..~. touch. Garry? 14 Please forgive me for forgetting your birthday. 9 I didn't see the twins so I couldn't thank them for the present. . 3 We were told to help ourselves to whatever we wanted for breakfast. Please come with us. .~~~~--~. 8 The heating switches itself off automatically.. punch.. . 7 He used to share a room with her brother. (NOT: &R !:its Rase) • Possessive adjective + own is used to emphasise the fact that something belongs to one person and no one else. kiss. . I will try to remember it next year. . He punched his opponent on the nose. . 5 A bee stung her on the arm while she was sunbathing. . 1 The boxer was disqualified after kicking his opponent in . .. . 7 Helen didn 't want any help with the cooking . 19 I really like Jane.~ I r~~E~~::. or They've got a house of their own. ·····································:····························<-························································<-····················································-:·········································································· I ! me ! my ! mine · ! myself you i you i your ! yours i yourself he i him j his j his j himself she j her i her i hers i herself it : it l its l i itself :~ i r~.. they've stopped going to the Internet cafe ..~~~~s··r·:~e~~:~~:T·······~~.. 10 She hasn't got a car of her own.. She has such a good sense of humour. . . .. . . . the . . 10 Donna.·~~~-~~··· Possessive adjectives . 17 My friends and I like to go shopping together. pat. • We use the instead of a possessive adjective with parts of the body after prepositions. 2 Now that they have their own computer at home. leg. slap.. . . . Jenny! 11 Mr and Mrs Jones said no-one's garden is as good as theirs is. Ben.. 1 The Smiths really enjoyed . . 13 Is this your bike. We have so much fun! 18 I bought myself a new pair of shoes yesterday."m I ~~: I f~. 6 I told him to be careful but he didn't listen. 16 Has John already left? I think that's his scarf. 8 A brick fell and hit her on the head. Determiners I Pronouns Pronouns Personal pronouns ········~=f~~t. so she had to spend two weeks in hospital. 12 The boys really enjoyed themselves at the summer camp. . you are such a good friend! 5 My parents and I are looking forward to seeing you on Saturday. 4 She kissed her father on the cheek before she went to bed. . hit. Fill in the blanks with the or possessive adjective ( + own) . 20 George didn't take the car to the garage. . Fill in the correct pronouns or possessives. He fixed it himself. trip to Disneyland. Verbs used in this pattern include: bite. l Possessive pronouns ! Reflexive-Emphatic pronouns r~-~~-. They've got their own house.~. so she has to borrow her mother's. but now he has his own room. etc. She did it all herself. .·~~~-~~r······ . . 3 Someone hit him in the face on his first day of school. . .. I have a bigger lens. . . . sting. 4 Samantha. 6 A dog bit Sharon on the leg. Kim and I are going to the party. . 15 The bird made its nest out of twigs and leaves. 9 She patted her daughter on the back and told her not to worry.~~-~~--~. their. . ..

wake up. myself.) Note: a) Each other means one another. hurt. Own can also be used in the same way as myself. The cat is washing itself. BUT She looked in front of her. I think I'd find it very challenging. We really enjoyed ourselves there. They're very clean animals which are always washing themselves.. 2 I can borrow my father's car. shave. but this is my problem and I shall handle it on my own. by yourself. burn. then identify them: reflexive or emphatic. 3 He couldn't afford to rent a flat on/of his own. She sat down and relaxed. relax. so he asked his brother to help him. They can also mean without help. (reflexive) 12 I don 't feel myself today. so he had to share with a friend. (= You're welcome to take some tea if you want some. look. The little boy is trying to dress himself. dress. etc) when the subject and the object of the verb are the same. but there are times when he just want~ to spend some time on his own. Reflexive pronouns can be used after prepositions but not after prepositions of place.. (reflexive) 4 The teacher tried to make herself understood but she failed to get the class to understand.. on one's own or one's own .. Reflexive . sit down. . but I'd really love to have a car of my own . meet. feel. Compare: Brother and sisters look after each other. She booked everything herself.. I painted my own room. (emphatic) 2 If you don't behave yourselves. (reflexive) 11 My sister is very vain. 5 I'd love to set up my own business one day. on his own. 10 She started her own hairdressing business when she was only sixteen. get up.yourself etc) • Reflexive pronouns are used after certain verbs (behave. (reflexive) 9 She prepared all the food by herself. 8 I offered to help her. He is ashamed of herself. b) On (my) own means alone and is the same as by (my)self.) Make yourself understood. Children without brothers or sisters have to look after themselves.. etc) do not normally take a reflexive pronoun. 1 There was nobody to help me so I had to do all the cleaning .) Make yourself at home! (= Feel comfortable.) Do it yourself. (NOT: iR freRt at /:iersetf) Certain verbs (wash. They give emphasis to the noun . I shall put you all to bed early. 1 She enjoys being . cut.) By myself. etc) Help yourself to tea. (reflexive) 3 The music at the party was so loud that I had to shout to make myself heard.on her own . (NOT: She sat down and relaxed~. (= Make your meaning clear.(= He lives on his own. etc (= on my own.. undress. • Fill in: of one's own. (= Speak loudly enough to be heard by others. (= Do it without being helped. (reflexive) 5 We painted the room ourselves. or the fact that a certain person performs an action. . 9 They're saving all their money so they can buy a car of their own. stand up. enjoy. kill. (reflexive) 8 I think I'll get a cat. She never stops looking at herself in the mirror. Did you enjoy yourself? They can also be used after be. (emphatic) 6 She was very pleased with herself when she got such a good job. look at. (= He likes being alone. by himself.) He lives by himself. (reflexive) 13 My father decorated the house himself. He repaired the car himself. as she wouldn't have been able to prepare all that food on her own . (emphatic) 10 I think I'd go back to Austria. 7 He couldn't paint the house on his own. . seem to describe emotions or states. 6 Thank you for your offer of help. • Emphatic pronouns have the same form as reflexive pronouns but a different meaning. (reflexive) 7 My mother warned my brother to behave himself at the wedding.) Wash or dress can be used with a reflexive pronoun to talk about young children or animals.Emphatic Pronouns (myself . 4 He's quite a sociable person. rest.) Make yourself heard. on your own. (emphatic) I186 . Fill in the correct pronoun. or I painted my room myself. She doesn't seem herself these days. I don 't know what's wrong with me. (without help) • Note these idioms: Enjoy yourselves! (= Have a good time!) Behave yourself! (= Be good!) He likes being by himself.

There are lots of clouds in the sky.. 5 There's nothing on the television tonight. It doesn't matter etc. 1 . It is said that.let's go for a picnic. It seems that there is a problem with the machine. a hat • compound noun + 's a police officer's duty of hers (one of her hats) • 's after the last of two or more names to show • of+ people (in longer phrases) She 's the mother common possession Jane and George's house of one of my friends...·t~~th:······· ·r·········~· ··+··i· ~·~~i..) \ill Fill in: there or it. 9 There's someone waiting to see you. It appears that. (BUT we also say: There seems to be a problem with the machine. 14 It's a shame he lied to you.. It's nice to be with you. to-inf/that-clause is used to begin a sentence. There's a good picnic site only 5 km from here.~--~kirt:· (. He wants to give you something..... • It + be . 15 There are several letters for you on your desk. There 's someone in the sitting room... isn't it? It appears that he's been promoted. It's a pity that he didn 't come. It is said that Rome is beautiful at this time of the year.. the children 's bedroom to this record of Jo's. It will only take us 2 hours to drive there. 13 There seems to be heavy traffic. It's your aunt... It's freezing today... 7 It's so nice to see you. There's someone in the waiting room. He wants to talk to you.... 3 We'd better take our anoraks. 16 It's another thirty miles to Brighton...·~-~·~~··+··. any.. weather and in the following expressions: It seems that. Determiners I Pronouns There ..9. It looks like it's going to rain... three months' work) . There are several parcels to be delivered before noon... 10 There are some new magazines on your desk. 8 It's a pity you can't come to the cinema tonight. 2 It's such a lovely day today ..~··d. (one of Jo's records). We may be late. 4 Let's go by car.... (they share the same house) BUT Jane's and • 's/of to talk about places or organisations George's houses (each one has got a house) Britain's history/the history of Britain phrases of place + 's (at the dentist's) time/distance expression + 's/' (last month's issue..~t~·t·hi~9i~b~t·. my mother-in-law's flat the heel of the shoe. /t. . There's a new film on..'s such a pity you can 't come with us.. 6 Mum. 11 It appears that she has quit her job.~·th~·9i. he's just bought a new car. etc) before the noun Listen the women's department. 12 This fax machine doesn't work properly. temperature. It seems to be faulty.. It looks like it's going to rain. the top of the stairs • regular plural noun t ' the farmers' tractors • of + possessive case/pronouns when there is a • irregular plural noun not ending in -s + 's determiner (this. • It + be is used for identification or to talk about the details of something mentioned before. It seems that we haven't had a proper chat in ages. time expressions.~~t·~·~·~~··········· .It • There + be is used for something mentioned for the first time or to say that someone or something exists. Possessive case 's I s' (people or animals) of (inanimate things) ·· ······~1~·9·~j~. • It is also used for distance. It looks like. It's a shame we didn't go to the cinema. there's a man at the door.. • We use a personal pronoun + be/other verb to give more details about something or someone already mentioned.

yourself You must do the work by yourself if you want to pass the exam.the house the key of the house 4 the fridge . whole She waited the whole evening for him to come.the price the price of the apples 14 the club . 1 the child . 3 It takes twelve hours to drive to Scotland .the hair Emily's hair 5 my parents . of Mrs Forrester is the headmistress of my school. 12 Bob doesn't like playing football and Sam doesn't either. by I enjoy being by myself sometimes. 8 She wanted to sit down but another person had taken her seat. 17 At my school.if.the garage the gate of the garage 16 the water . 4 I know that John dislikes playing golf and so does Simon.the room the teachers' room 25 my brother's friend . the: boss of. the child'B toyB .the clothes the women's clothes 18 Katy and Sarah . 2 This jumper used to belong to my mother.the roof the roof of the house 22 the box . Use two to five words.. 9 He doesn't know very much about cars. 11 He enjoys reading books as well as going to the cinema.the wheelchair the old man's wheelchair 28 the apples .the money the woman's money yacht 11 the men .the car my parents' car 21 the doctors . Mrs Forrester is the headmistress.the yacht my brother's friend's 10 the woman . was This was my mother's jumper. not There are not many people here tonight. Determiners I Pronouns • Rewrite the following in the correct possessive form .the office my sister's husband's 12 the train . 1 In the company where I work. 16 The journey to France takes four hours.the changing rooms the men's changing 26 the boy .. likes Neither Bob nor Sam likes playing football.. knowledge He has little knowledge of cars. 14 She waited all evening for him to come. 1188 . both He enjoys both reading books and going to the cinema.the father Brian and Jack's father 2 the women . 13 You must do the work on your own if you want to pass the exam.the garden my father-in-law's garden 9 the teachers .the conference the doctors' conference 6 the house . 17 Brian and Jack .the kittens the cats' kittens 19 the key . hour It is a twelve-hour drive to Scotland.the rules the rules of the club 29 the old woman . nor I know that neither John nor Simon likes playing golf. Mr Jones is the boss. someone She wanted to sit down but someone else had taken her seat. of The President of the USA lives in the White House.the toys .the mother the twins' mother 8 the dogs .the lid the lid of the box 7 the man . the company where I work.the trousers the man's trousers 23 the twins . is It is a four-hour journey to France.the eyes the girl's eyes 30 the gate . 1O I enjoy being alone sometimes. 5 In the USA the President lives in the White House.the cars Katy's and Sarah's cars 3 the cats ..the windows the windows of the train office 13 the old man ..the shirt the boy's shirt rooms 27 my sister's husband . thing The only thing she hadn't done was the ironing.. 6 Are you sure that you can drive to London on your own next week? yourself Are you sure you can drive to London by yourself next week? 7 There are only a few people here tonight.the temperature the temperature of the water t Complete the sentences using the words in bold.. of Mr Jones .the umbrella the old woman's umbrella 15 the girl .the kennels the dogs' kennels 24 my father-in-law .. 15 She had done everything except the ironing.the door the door of the fridge 20 Emily .

mountaineering expeditions. whenever You are free to leave whenever you choose. only We invited not only Diane. and seeks (10) inspiration. a (0) . no We have had no time to see each other. So. 25 I was supposed to meet Tony a few days ago but he didn't turn up. 22 You are free to leave at any time you choose. growing . The reason? More and more people are looking to do something a bit (1) different when DIFFER they go on holiday. whole She spent the whole evening at her friend 's house. he/ she is seeking a more unique TOUR experience. but also her fiance to the party. rock climbing.. Nowadays. all these are just a few of the types of adventure holidays that are growing in (8) popularity. deep sea diving. Determiners I Pronouns 18 There were very few guests at Sharon's wedding. 19 She went alone to see the film . Alternatively. nothing They did nothing but sit on the beach all day.. whole She finished the whole book in one night. enjoys challenges. or one which offers activities that EXPLORE provide an adrenaline rush. own She went on her own to see the film. . In short. today' s traveller wants a holiday where he/she can expect a little more (6) excitement. 29 She drank from another person's cup by mistake. Use the words in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the 0 space in the same line. . One that might involve travel to an (4) isolated or ISOLATE (5) unexplored area for example. continent The only continent he hasn't been to is Asia. safaris. 26 We haven't had any time to see each other. Instead. someone She drank from someone else's cup by mistake. if IMAGINE you are the type of traveller who loves new experiences. overland journeys. the I was supposed to meet Tony the other day but he didn't turn up. bungee jumping. we could stay in England. or We could either go to Holland or stay in England. 23 He has been to every continent except Asia. many There were not many guests at Sharon's wedding. 20 They just sat on the beach all day. 27 We invited both Diane and her fiance to the party. 24 We could go to Holland. number of travel companies are GROW adding adventure holidays to their list of getaways. Today's traveller is (2) increasingly likely to be INCREASE unsatisfied with simply lying on a beach all day or visiting the usual (3) tourist/touristy spots. why not consider an adventure trip INSPIRE for your next holiday? . (7) conservation work. cultural CONSERVE exchanges. 28 She finished the book in one night. the different POPULAR types of adventure holiday are limited only by the (9) imagination. 21 She spent all evening at her friend 's house. EXCITE Trekking. In fact.

.... friends and return with a(n) (10) .... The advantages of being a volunteer far (7) ................. Suitable applicants are invited to (5) ... But........................ of another culture and language........ Working as a volunteer means that you can not only help others. if you do choose to go. .... the disadvantages.. at least one year's experience before you can (4) . but also develop a (2) .. a year or two of their lives while they are still (1) ..... wiser person. understanding of the world and yourself... It can be difficult being (11) ..... C or D best fits each space................ There is an example at the beginning (0)... living in a foreign country and working as a volunteer... Determiners I Pronouns Read the text below and decide which word A..... B.. It can help you move up the career ladder faster....... You must have a university degree and (3) . you will return a stronger..... C. allowance is challenging... Many young people choose to (0) . 0 A take B pass © spend D stay 1 A individual B alone c unique @ single 2 @ greater B longer C larger D bigger 3 A win B earn C deserve @ gain 4 A write B enter © apply D compete 5 A visit @ attend C go D come 6 A during B by © within D before 7 @ outweigh B outrun C outdo D outgrow 8 A worthless B invalid © invaluable D worthwhile 9 A lifeless B long-lost C life-saving @ lifelong 10 A gratitude B recognition © appreciation D enjoyment 11 A cut back @ cut off c cut out D cut across 12 A middle B mixed C minimal @ modest 1190 . Applicants are usually offered a post (6) .. .... a series of interviews and are then sent on a training programme. volunteering is not for everyone....... Living on a (12) ... experience that you would otherwise not have had... However. You will make (9) ............. months and can be sent anywhere from the Sahara to Siberia.... from friends and family. Being a volunteer can enable you to get (8) .

once bad weather sets to his visitor as he stood up to leave.00 a. " came into his garden again.m. had set him up." cried Tina. 17 As the time came for Daniel and Jessica to part. then fill in the correct particle(s). ..somebody town again!" shouted John's boss. by. Look at Appendix 2. I won't buy a car. 13 In our hi-tech world there are many things that we 27 I would like to see your proposal in writing before take for granted. ..." 12 I've never been introduced to Patricia but I know 26 The room was in a mess because Joanna had not her by sight. She has lost three kilos in a week. dropped her purse.. Take Mrs Jones. had time to clear it up. yourself! " said Tom to his brother. jetskis for hire". Look at Appendix 3. 1 My brother left for France last night so the whole 8 We set off/out at 6. I'm never going back 9 When Jenny went to buy the dress she had been to Australia again. driving test. then fill in the correct preposition.." I told the babysitter.. said David to his son.00 6 My name's William but people call me Bill for short. 21 When I went to make a phone call all the 8 The sign by the beach said "Motorboats and telephones were in use. 3 We asked if we could see over the vacant house. 10 It was only by chance that Kathy learned about 24 Dora was still in pain after her operation . off. Birmingham by lunchtime. 10 A problem at the Nantes office has set the thinking we might want to buy it. 7 Before a plan is carried out. 19 "You'll be in charge of the children until 12. she was disappointed to find that 23 Jane was in a hurry and didn 't notice she had the shop did not have her size in stock.. He 12 If we want to get this done by five o'clock. in order to reach family went to the airport to see him . luck than 16 When the teacher opened the door to the .. · until she finds a flat. 11 "I wonder if we could discuss my salary in private. have bought them very cheaply. we'd could see right through her. so I had to wait. words." Nick's brother assured him. 14 Ann collapsed in tears upon hearing of her 28 She's staying with her aunt for the time being. she her friend 's wedding. . 22 "This time I'm back for good. 1 I won the competition more . grandfather's death. and dangerous. better set to work immed iately. 6 "Don 't worry about your university fees. classroom he was pleased to see all the pupils 2 Jane's bad behaviour left everyone at a loss for hard at work. by. 4 "I'm going to see to it that you never work in this 11 It wasn 't his fault that he lost his job . 5 James was not fooled by Helen 's charm. saving up for." said Lord Thornton 9 In the north of Scotland. in it usually lasts for a long time. they promised each other that they would stay in 4 We must catch this man at all costs! He is armed touch. couldn't even get out of bed. 7 It took only a few weeks to set up the business. I didn 't mean to 5 "For once in your life think of someone besides hurt her. it must be studied in 20 This diet seems to work fine.." 25 "Until I know for certain that I've passed my said Bob to his boss. when we get back. 2 "The butler will see you out. for detail to make sure everyone knows what they instance. We've 13 He said he would set his dogs on the boys if they got some money set aside for your education.. 15 Why don't we do something else for a change? 29 Most shops sell goods at a profit because they I'm tired of going to the cinema every Saturday. 18 "I pushed Sarah over by accident. I make a decision. 3 The old building was in danger of collapsing.. have to do. skill. programme back by about three months.

from scratch .. (paid for by the restaurant) 5 I haven 't heard from Diane for donkey's years. under the thumb . 12 Is it OK with you if I lower the volume of the radio? turning Would you mind me/my turning down the radio? 13 In all honesty. had He had the report photocopied before he left the office.. out of the b lue. 8 Police are diverting the traffic. (have nothing to do) 8 Gath was over the moon when her team won the championship. at a loose end. I wonder where she may be. (extremely happy) 9 Charlie is really under the thumb of his wife.(from the beginning) . looked Mark looked after his sister while their parents were away. for donkey's years. Use two to five words. who To be honest. her dress. 6 Perhaps he forgot our date. on all fours . down the drain . for a song 1 When the model fell to pieces Mary had to build it again . drive It is a two-hour drive to the countryside. 2 That's the second bad film we've seen in two weeks. 15 You should always write down the errands you have to run every day. He does whatever she says. Folder rnJ Complete the sentences using the words in bold. diverted The traffic is being diverted by the police.. turned If she had caught the 8 o 'clock bus. Everyone thought they had split up.. (for a long time) 6 The news of the wedding came quite out of the blue. these two paintings are completely different from each other. Another £5 down the drain. (on one's hands and knees) I192 .. she would have turned up on time. been The demonstrators were reported to have been taken away by the police. 14 She arrived late because she missed the 8 o'clock bus. 2 It takes 2 hours to reach the countryside by car... more Judy got the leading role in the play more by luck than because of her talent. (completely under one's control/influence) 10 Young children very often walk on all fours for a while before they get strong enough to make their first steps... Meals are on the house tonight. the demonstrators were taken away by the police. accused me of ruining .. 5 Mark took care of his sister during their parents' absence. on the house. then explain the idioms. over the moon. . comparison In my opinion. 9 He didn't leave the office until his secretary photocopied the report. 7 In my opinion. 4 According to the news report. 10 These chairs and coffee tables are so lovely! How did you get them? come How did you come by such lovely furniture? 11 If only someone hadn't stolen Tom's wallet! pity It is a pity Tom had his wallet stolen. (unexpectedly) 7 When Pauline finally retired she was at a loose end as she didn't know what to do all day. 1 "You ruined my dress! " she said to me. . I was the one responsible for cancelling the wedding. have He may/might have forgotten our date. 3 It was luck and not talent that helped Judy get the leading role in the play. of She . (wasted) 3 He bought the house for a song ten years ago before property prices started to rise. it was I/me who cancelled the wedding . note You should always make a note of the errands you have to run every day. Complete the sentences below using an appropriate idiom from the list. there is no comparison between these two paintings.from scratch .. (at a very low price) 4 Please get what you want for dinner. .

.. read the text below and decide which answer (A. carrots. radically in the north.............. .... There is an example at the beginning (0). In fact.... They come in (3) ... (5) .. Secondly... role in the nation's diet and so do spicy and sour. on the fresh ingredients.. with vegetables eastern part of Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia. dishes or simply plain. (12) . mint.... As in many Asian noodles.. all the food is served at noodles are eaten at any time of once and people (9) . rice (2) . of its focus on vegetables. . the Vietnamese countries...... ........ and (1) . . Vietnamese cuisine has eaten in soups.. .... the dishes in the centre of the shapes and thicknesses and are table... it is steamed or shop for food at least twice a day simmered.. .. chilli and but two key features stand out. Salads are oil free....... eggplants. I Example: A B C D O A stays B places C lies D keeps 0 c:::::J c:::::J .. Food is rarely fried . The characteristic flavours Firstly. worldwide because it is not only fresh vegetables and herbs are a delicious but also extremely major focus of every meal.. B.. coriander..... the Vietnamese do not are crazy about noodles! Made eat their meals in (8) .. incredibly nutritious.... from the day. Vietnam (0) ... 1 A slightly B fu lly c mainly @ quite 2 A holds @ plays c acts D gives 3 A unlike @ different c uncommon D altered 4@ side B accompanied c aside D beside 5 A True B Although c However @ Indeed 6@ explains B justifies c accounts D reasons 7 A handed B given c introduced @ presented a@ cou rses B proportions c parts D starters 9 A divide @ share C split D portion 10 A esteem B recognition © popularity D attraction 11 A However @ Instead C And D Still 12 A than ks B since © because D due 1931 ..... healthy. Dishes are (7) ... rice or mung beans. . .... seasoned with herbs like lemon centre and south of the country grass. as (4) ... basil... It is which (6) ...... . water spinach. most Vietnamese (11) .. Vietnamese cuisine differs cucumbers and bok choy.. been growing in (10) ... Practice Test Part 1 For questions 1-12. C or D) best fits each gap.... Instead. an essential of Vietnamese food are sweet. C... why their cuisine is famous for its use of thus very light and..... .. such as bean sprouts... from wheat. c:::::J • VIETNAMESE CUISINE Shaped like an elongated 'S'.

. Recently scientists (18) have discovered thermal springs... read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap.... the largest (15) one being Olkhon Island. It has 30 islands. Not (13) only is it the world's largest freshwater lake holding almost 20% of all the fresh water on earth. Lake Baikal's isolation has produced one of the (19) most varied and unusual collections of wildlife. Many of these consist of more (22) than 50% fat. known (O) . but the beginnings of what wil l one day be an ocean.... (14) it is also the world's deepest and oldest lake... is located in south-east Siberia near the Mongolian border. which may explain why the water is so full of oxygen.. Many of these species are unique to the lake and found nowhere (20) else on earth. the 'Blue Eye of Siberia'.. Lake Baikal is famous for its crystal clear waters (16) which are rich with aquatic life. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. 1194 . Lake Baikal is home to some interesting (21) but inedible fish.... The average temperature of the water is +4°C (17) but varies depending on location and season.... The fact t hat Lake Baikal is millions (23) of years old leads some scientists to believe that it (24) may not just be a lake.. Example: ~ IA ISI I I I I I I I I I I I I I Lake Baikal. There is an example at the beginning (0) ... Use only one word in each gap.Practice Test rnJ Part 2 For questions 13-24.

Kiev has suffered (26) terribly under invaders but it has TERRIBLE also experienced periods of great glory and (27) prominence. In fact. .... cultural and (28) commercial centres of Europe.. Kiev (or Kyiv I is the (0) ... Kiev is a bustling city of three million (29) inhabitants. its CREDIBLE charm being in part due to its many trees and parks.Part 3 For questions 25-34.... Indeed.... read the text below. vibrant nightlife and much more. with the theatre and music scene being (32) particularly PARTICULAR strong... museums.. Kiev was founded in the 5th century AD... Wandering about Kiev.. But you will also PROUD see a modern city that is (34) firmly FIRM establishing itself in the 21st century. Kiev is one of the greenest cities in the world with about 20 square metres of green per (31) resident! Cultural life in Kiev is both RESIDENCE rich and varied.. It is one of Eastern Europe's oldest cities and has a truly (25) remarkable history. LARGE city in Ukraine and also its capital.. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. It is an (30) incredibly beautiful city... Kiev was PROMINENT at several points throughout its history. There is an example at the beginning (0)... you will see a city with a strong sense of (33) pride in its past... REMARK Over the centuries. It is full of INHABIT magnificent architecture. COMMERCE Today. one of the greatest political.. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided...

.... Do not change the word given..... 42 That's the house where I was raised....... 37 She won't tell us her reasons for quitting.. 38 They say that the treasure was discovered by a young diver.. SAID The treasure was said to have been discovered by a young diver........... WHICH That's the house in which I grew up. ............. SEEN They ....... 40 Leslie would rather read books than watch television........ EVEN She won't tell us why she quit.. WHETHER He wondered whether he should call them later............. I196 . GROWN John has grown out of the shoes we bought him...Practice Test rnJ Part 4 For questions 35-42. You must use between two and five words.......... including the word given... ONLY The only one who did not do the exercise was Ann. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided ... VIEW They bought a large house with a view to starting a family....... two months ago. 35 "Shall I call them later?" he asked himself...... 36 The shoes we bought John no longer fit him........ despite our insisting.... Example: o The last time anyone saw them was two months ago... even though we insisted. PREFERS Leslie prefers reading books to watching television.. There is an example at the beginning (0)....... using the word given. 41 Everyone did the exercise except Ann............. 39 They bought a large house because they planned to start a family.. complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence...

. What size?. What colour . .. etc) before the subject.. . "Who is the author of this book?" • Whose is used to express possession. . ..~·~·i~~i~···r····pi~~~·········r···· ·t1~~······ ········1······q~~~·111v·········r···~·~~~~. for?. 1 (you/pick up children from school?) . • Can she do it? With all other verbs preposition .the Mercedes or the Volvo?" (there are only two cars we are talking about . . then identify the speech situation for each question .. Do you know what time the train leaves? (information). Could you show me how to fix the tap? (request).:... In formal English it can be put before Simple) or Did (Past Simple) He works hard. Which bag is yours? Which of these books do you want? Which is normally used when there is a limited choice. Who did she get married to? Does he work hard? Yes/No questions are asked (more usual) To whom did she get married? (formal with a rising intonation. .~~. English) We use questions to ask for information or permission.~~:~~.. one/ones or of. . "Which is faster. . Could you pick up the children from school? (request) .. . . .limited choice. a Ferrari or a Porsche?" "Which is the tallest building in America?" • What is used alone or before a noun to ask about things.i. • the question word.~~. 1.l. ..~~?. .) It can also be used with the comparative and superlative. . . . What kind/sort?.. when. Would you like me to do the ironing? (offer) . "What kind of food do you enjoy eating? " (there are many kinds of food to choose from . What time?. l • Who is used to ask about people. have." • What and which are sometimes both possible. . . look like? (asking for a description of physical appearance).. ?. 2 (I/use the car today?) May I use the car today? (permission) 3 (you/like/come over to my house?) Would you like to come over to my house? (invitation) 4 (you/do my shopping tomorrow?) Could you do my shopping tomorrow? (request) 5 (what time/shops close today?) What time do the shops close today? (information) 6 (we go/concert this evening?) Shall we go to the concert this evening? (suggestion) 7 (I borrow/some money?) Could I borrow some money? (request) 8 (we/go/the cinema tonight?) Shall we go to the cinema tonight? (suggestion) 9 (you like/go to the beach tomorrow?) Would you like to go to the beach tomorrow? (suggestion) 10 (I use/your pen for a minute?) May I use your pen for a minute? (permission) We normally use the following question words to ask about: . 1. . . . Do you enjoy cartoons? _." "What does Jack look like?" "He's very tall and thin. What is he like? (asking for a description of character) . . . . . . alone or before nouns. What/Which fruit shall we have for dessert? . .······l···~~~-~~~ ··: <-···············································->·······································"-·························<·································>·································<···························i··· ·················i : What ! What : Where : How long : How many : How : Why : ! Which (of) j Which (of) j ! How often ! How much ! ' : : Who : : : What time : : : !.. May I see the manager? (permission). . . Would you like to have dinner with me? (invitation) Form questions. "What can I say?" "What books do you enjoy reading?" What is used when there is an unlimited choice. etc) modal verb (be. "Which is your car . Shall we go to the opera? (suggestion) . !···p·~~pi·~······· ··············· ········1··th·1~9~.... . requests. . .. .. etc "What is your brother like?" "He's very nice.~~. . . . l. . We can also use them to make offers. the preposition usually goes at the end we form Yes/No questions with Do/Does (Present of the question. . animals or things. . in the answer) are formed by putting the auxiliary or which. .?. .. . ... . What .. ..unlimited choice) What can also be used in the following expressions: What . . . "Whose is this car?" "It's Paul's. ." • Which is used for people. how.l. . .. suggestions or invitations. "Who is he?" When there is a verb followed by a She can do it. . . .. why. . . . who. . where.." "What colour is his hair?" "Dark brown. can. . .~P. . . . . .. . . .~~. whose. . Questions I Short Answers Questions I Short Answers Yes/No questions (questions which require Yes/No Wh-questions begin with a question word (what. What is it used for? ..?..

.. Who cooked the food? belong to?!To whom does the car belong? 3 She likes ice-skating. " 14 "Why don't you come with us to the theatre?" "I'd love to. how often.. does she do for a living?" "She's a florist.••• j ~ Ian : met ! Sally..." 2 " Whose bag is this?" "It's Mary's. " 7 "How much does a ticket to Edinburgh cost?" "£50. which or who are the subject of the question.. Who did Paul give parcel to?!To whom did Paul give the parcel? the parcel to?!To whom did Paul give the parcel? 13 Anita opened the window... 1 " ..." 10 "Which is the cheapest way to get to Liverpool. The words in bold should be the answer.. ! +···········' '·······i ··············'························. whose. how or why.. How much did the ticket cost? school? 17 Nick lives in London .... l··~~bj~~t····!························:·····~bj~~..-··! l····~~bi"~·~1···:························r···~·b1~~·· ···! (•••••••••••••. Who did Daniel shout at? 20 Dennis was born in 1970.. 14 The car belongs to Barbara.What.... the word order is the same as in statements (subject questions). Whose fault was it? 18 My favourite food is pizza.. When was Dennis born? 9 Sheila didn't talk to Diane.." 17 "How many times have you been to France? " 'Three.." 15 " How do you get to work?" "By bus........ where." 20 "Whose car is that parked outside?" "John's... Who didn't talk to Diane? 21 My favourite pet is the cat..••••••••• j (•••••••••••••••• ••• ••••• : ••••• ••••••• ..." 8 " How long have you been living in London? " "Three years.... " 13 " What time does the plane arrive at Heathrow? " "Twelve o'clock. What is your favou rite 6 He bought a new tie. [fl ... Who is Tom getting 11 My sister had a baby. ••••••••• f•••••••••••••••••••••••• : ••••••••••••.." 19 " Where were you born?" "In Brighton. Who did Paul give the 23 Paul gave the parcel to Barbara... which. Where does Nick live? 5 It was Ann's fault. : Who met Sally? (NOT: W/:le fife meet Sa#y?) J ho did Sally meet? Write questions for the sentences below." Subject/Object Questions If what.. How many brothers do you have? 4 My father drove me to school. met !:. how many.. If they are the object of the question..... What does she like? 15 I have five brothers. Who wrote that play? 19 Simon likes Julie. Who opened the window? 24 The film lasted three hours. : !:..." 11 " What kind of films do you like?" "Adventure stories.•.. Who had a baby? married to?!To whom is To m getting married? 12 Paul gave the parcel to Mary. how long. What time did Henry favourite pet? arrive? 22 Tom is getting married to Lisa... Sally !:.... the verb is in question form (object questions).. how much. .." 16 "Who is that tall man over there? " "My uncle.." 9 " How many times a week do you go to the gym?"" Four..." 3 "Which skirt do you prefer..." 5 " When is your mother coming back?" "Next week.... Who likes Julie? 8 Daniel shouted at Sarah .David." 4 " How many people work in this office?" "Thirty..•• ••••••••• : ••••••••••••••••.. .." 12 " Which bus goes to the airport?" " The number 24. Who drove you to 16 The ticket cost £5. what time. by bus or by train?" "By bus.... How long did the film last? 1198 ...." 18 " How often do you see your parents?" "Every month. the black one or the green one?" "The green one. when.." 6 " Why didn't you tell me that you were leaving?" "I forgot..... Who does the car 2 Tina cooked the food. What did he buy? food? 7 Shakespeare wrote that play.. 1 James arrived late . Which/What is your 10 Henry arrived at ten o'clock. what. Questions I Short Answers Fill in: who.. Who arrived late?.

(not sure) He bought a new car. doesn 't she? He won't tell.. Weren't you feeling well . "I have" (idiomatic use) "don't I?" We had a great time. I wasn 't. hasn 't he? . or agreement with. 5 A: You look very tired. did she? • Questions tags can be said with a rising intonation when we are not sure and expect an answer. will you? .. "There is/are" "isn't/aren't there?" There is room for me. will he? Note that everyone/someone/anyone/no one form their question tags with an auxiliary verb + they. . they didn't. the statement. aren 't I? . She sings well. I'm afraid not. isn't it? .. I was too tired. She is lying. 2 A: There was a good film on TV last night. 1 A: Why didn't you come to school yesterday? . 7 A: Why weren't you at the party last night? Weren't you invited? (you/be invited) B: Yes. surprise (Don't you know she was fired?) .. will you/won't you? . and a negative statement is followed by a positive question tag. "I have" (= possess) " haven't I?" He has a nice house. Questions I Short Answers Negative Questions • Negative questions are formed with not. otherwise they take do/does (Present S.. 4 A: It's getting late. Question Tags • Question tags are short questions added to the end of a statement to ask for confirmation of. Everyone attended the meeting.. didn't they? • Study the following question tags. "I used to" "didn't I?" He used to be your best friend. Mr Bright.). he has the day off. didn't he? ' (sure) • A positive statement is followed by a negative question tag. Didn't you sleep well last night? (you/sleep well last night) B: No. Didn't anyone tell you? (anyone/tell you) B: No. Imperative "will you/won't you?" Write to me. "lam" "aren 't I?" I am shorter than you. or a falling intonation when we are sure and don't really expect an answer. 6 A: Why is John at home today? Shouldn't he be working? (he/ should be working) B: No. Didn't you watch it? (you/ watch it) B: No. but I didn't feel like going. a wish to persuade someone (Won 't you help me do the exercises?) and expectation of a "Yes"· answer (Don't you know they got engaged?) Use the prompts below to make a negative question. They are formed with an auxiliary verb and the appropriate personal pronoun. Shouldn't he be here by now? (he/should be here by now) B: Yes. "Don't" (negative imperative) "will you?" Don't forget to call me.. No. "Let's" "shall we?" Let's go for a walk. "Let me/him " etc "will you/won 't you?" Let her come with us. isn't he? She didn't come.. He is in hospital. didn 't he? . didn 't we? .? (you/feeling well) B: . then give a suitable reply. isn't she? . (short form) auxiliary + n't + subject+ verb Haven 't they reached Hawaii yet? (everyday speech) (full form) auxiliary + subject + not +verb Have they not reached Hawaii yet? (emphatic) • Negative questions are used to express: annoyance/sarcasm (Hasn 't stie come back yet?) . 3 A: The meeting's been cancelled. he should. isn't there? . They take the same auxiliary verb as in the statement if there is one. "This/That is" "isn't it?" This is your pen. shall we? . will you?/won 't you?/ "can you/could you?" can you?/cou/d you? .. but there is a difference in word order for the short and full form..) or did (Past S.

haven't you. hasn't she?" "Yes. etc) "Did he do it?" "Yes." 6 "You're coming to the party tonight. will . etc. I won 't." "Is she?" (surprise) 6 "He missed the bus. confirmation." "He is. did he?" (disappointment) 7 "Jack's her cousin. he doesn't.. " "She didn't. will you/won't you? 7 That's your car. didn't you .. is she? If said with a falling intonation.He didn't? (surprise) Add an appropriate response expressing disappointment.He did?/Did he? (surprise) Negative: He didn't come." "Haven't you?" (surprise) 9 "He's a very quiet child. doesn't he?" "No. " 7 "They had been told about it. didn't she? 4 She used to fight with her brother. shall we? 19 She has a brother.--. He is ." "He didn't." 5 "You've been to Japan . haven't you? 2 He will be on time. isn't there? 13 She left an hou r ago.Questions I Short Answers \ml . She is always late. she has. will you/won 't you? 8 You will pick me up... I won't. ... ?" (surprise) 2 "It is very cold today. haven't you?" "Yes. isn't he?" (confirmation) 8 "I haven't read that book." "Have they?" (surprise) Short Answers Short answers are used to avoid repetition of the question asked before. wasn't it? 6 I am dressed smartly enough. "Did she see you?" "No. will he? • Echo tags are a response to an affirmative or negative sentence.. If said with a rising intonation . can she? 9 Let's eat dinner now. Positive short answers are formed with Yes + personal pronoun + auxiliary verb (the verb that is found at the beginning of the question do. didn 't she? 14 He hates pizza. have." 3 "Walk a bit slower. He'll be angry. I have.. we express negative feelings such as disappointment or disapproval. isn't it? 17 Let me know... isn't he?" (confirmation) 10 ''They have seven children. ." 4 "He works for Laura. did he? (confirmation) He didn't come.-. can ." 8 "Don't repeat what I told you.." "Is it?" (surprise) 4 "She failed the exam. . 1 You have got enough money. Fill in the appropriate question tag. did she?" (disappointment) 5 "Mary's ill." "It is. interest. didn 't he? (confirmation) He left. Affirmative: He left. will you? 20 I am older than you. we ask for more information. doesn't he? 5 Everyone felt embarrassed.He did. /did. will you?" "No.He didn 't.. they had. aren't you?" "No. she didn't. won't you? 18 Ann can't speak French.. he did. aren't I? 16 Tell me. . surprise. . aren't there? 3 There is enough food for everyone.. . surprise or confirmation. didn't they? 15 That was your father. 1 "He is in India. won't he? 12 There are a lot of people here. 1 "You used to play the piano." 2 "She's got a loud voice. doesn't she? 10 Don't leave without me.. ? 11 You have been invited. . We don't expect an answer.." Negative short answers are formed with No + personal pronoun + negative auxiliary verb (auxiliary+ n't is always one word). They are used in everyday speech to ask for more information or to show anger. concern. will you?" "No." "He is.?" "Yes. aren't I? • Question tags can also be affirmative-affirmative. isn't it?" (confirmation) 3 "It's five o'clock already. hadn't they?" "Yes." Add question tags and short answers to the following." " . I'm not. ." 1200 ..

Tom doesn't like Thai food . 13 Paul has been informed. but I have. Neither/Nor can I. they did. He hasn't read that book. Questions I Short Answers 9 "They won't be very happy.But • So + auxiliary verb + personal pronoun/noun (positive addition to a positive sentence) She plays tennis. he does. SI: He seems to be working hard. but my friend didn't. .. isn't he?" "Yes. Simon plays football. I passed the exam. 4 Sally and Ann don't want to come.'. I can play the violin. 15 Charlie won't come and Dan won't either. So ... IIf·-----------------------------------------------------------· (See Suggested Answer section) Look at the pictures. neither/nor or but as in the example.. then make sentences using question tags and short answers. So has Louise.) • But + personal pronoun/noun + affirmative auxiliary verb (positive contrast to negative statement) Daniel hasn't seen that film. Peter is going to the concert. didn't they?" "Yes.. he is. James can 't swim. but she hasn't. : Rephrase the sentences using so. I've been to America. My friend didn't pass. It§. 6 Mark doesn't speak French and Tim doesn't either. Kate did too.. but David hasn't. My brother can't." . " 10 "You have an appointment this morning. So did Bill. Sally doesn't want to come. So is Sam. I don't approve of smoking . Peter can't drive. will they?" " No.--t·1tiI·1Jj§t.) Sarah went to university. His wife does.. 8 I don't like watching c ricket. Mary is at school. So does Joe. 12 I don't approve of smoking. doesn't he? S2: Yes.) • Neither/Nor+ auxiliary verb + personal pronoun/noun (negative addition to a negative sentence).}iFR. Louise has too. 14 Tom doesn't like Thai food. Neither/ Nor does Ann. Daniel does. Jane saw the play. • But + personal pronoun/noun + negative auxiliary verb (negative contrast to positive statement) Mike looks sad. He has been to Paris. 10 I passed the exam. but my brother can 't. 3 I've been to America. 9 Sean hasn't done his homework. Mark doesn't speak French. Neither/Nor do my friends. Charlie won't come. don't you?" "Yes." 12 "He's going to be surprised. So did Kate. (Bill went to university too. So do I. Neither/Nor can Jim. 5 Both Mary and Sam are at school. but Jim doesn't. (NOT: Se saR't . So am I. 11 Both Peter and I are going to the concert. but Daniel does. David hasn't. they won 't. 2 Peter can't drive and I can't either. but she has. I don't like watching cricket. (I play tennis too.Neither/Nor . Neither/Nor has Pam. Neither/Nor does Tim. My friends don't either. Pam hasn't either. but his wife does. 1 Both Simon and Joe play football. Neither/Nor will Dan. Paul has been informed. . 7 Jane saw the play. 16 I can play the violin. Sean hasn't done his homework." 11 "They bought that car last year. I do.

I'm afraid so . believe or imagine.It doesn't appear so/It appears not He says so/He said so . George: Mary looks upset. 1 That's Harry over there! (surprise) ." "Shouldn't he have been here by now?" "I don't think so. /don't think so . Questions I Short Answers When we wish to express surprise at what somebody has said we use so + subject + auxiliary verb. B: I expect so. (addition .. I'm afraid. I want to go on a picnic.He doesn't say so/He didn't say so I believe so . B: I imagine not/I don't imagine so. suppose. (addition . it seems. They don't 3 A: Will your grandmother have to go to hospital? seem to get on very well together. I haven't made any plans. 5 Rebecca doesn't like Caroline. He mentioned it before leaving..It doesn't seem so/It seems not I expect so . .He didn't tell me so I hope so .I guess not He told me so . 1 A: Will Bill come to the races? (think) 7 A: Will you be at home this evening? (expect) 8: .So It isl . There's no food in the house. (afraid) 9 A: Can you lend me some money? (afraid) B: I'm afraid so.I hope not I think so . I need a rest.. tell sb." • Fill in the blanks using the verb in brackets and so or not. .I don't suppose so/I suppose not I guess so . 1202 . 4 A: How do you know that John will be late? (tell) 10 A: Do you think it will rain tomorrow? (hope) B: He told me so. 2 She's found a job! (surprise) So she has! 3 George doesn 't like strawberries. hope. The hall is too small. 6 A: Is the whole family invited to the reception? 12 A: Will you be at the wedding? (afraid) (appear) B: I'm afraid not.I don't expect so/I expect not I suppose so . it appears. (addition .. B: I hope not. guess. 8: It appears not/It doesn't appear so. I'll be in Glasgow that weekend. 5 A: Are you going shopping tomorrow? (suppose) 11 A: Will he approve of the plan? (expect) B: I suppose so.Not So and not can be used in short answers after: think. 2 A: Will you go away for half-term? (hope) 8 A: Do you think Caroline likes Sophie? (imagine) B: I hope so.. He's accepted all our ideas so far. B: I expect so. She's very ill.I don't think so/I think not "Will she marry him?" "/ think so..I don't believe so/I believe not It seems so .Alice) So has Alice. Ann: So she doest • Add an appropriate response to the following sentences.I'm afraid not I imagine so .I) Neither/Nor do I. 4 Diana has gone on holiday.I don't imagine so/I imagine not It appears so . So . expect.I) Neither/Nor do I. He's not very well. say. 8 : I'm afraid not.. I haven't been paid yet.

. you may... LITERAL thousands and thousands of species of dinosa urs..............'. I've read it already. /l 'm afraid I ...l....... 8 A: Can I wear your blue jumper today? 4 A: Will you be able to drive me to work? B: I'd rather you didn't.. the (2) maJonty (about 65%) were actually MAJOR plant-eaters .... ... Dinosaurs were land animals that walked the Earth for over 160 million years (from 230 to 65 million years ago)......... /l'm afraid not• .ves:··yc........ please........ ............~~... 2 A: Would you like another glass of water? We've been invited to a party....~~··.......... Can I/we.~.........~........~~~~.. Why dinosaurs (3) suddenly became extinct 65 SUDDEN million years ago remains one of the most (4) fascinating questions in paleontology... ~~~.·cc. I'll do it later.......~~~......./ No....~~...... Making suggestions/invitations 1Answering suggestions/invitations ..............?...........~ ......~'Y~ . I' m going to wear it..... ~...·~i~.. 9 A: May I borrow this book? 5 A: Shall we go out for a meal tonight? B: Yes.·~ihi~9 ·i~ ~~i?·.............. This possibly caused (7) dramatic changes to t he Earth's climate and the DRAMA dinosaurs starved. The car's broken down. '>''"' "'"'""''" '""'"' ""'"""' "'"'"''"''"''""''"''""'"' ""' """'''""""""' ""''"" Shall I/we...~·~~:ries... Questions I Short Answers Asking for permission / Making requests j Giving/Refusing Permission/Answering requests ·c...... most paleontologists think that one group of dinosaurs did survive...... of course................~~~. Making offers !Answering offers .... ~.......~... . 7 A: Could you go and buy some fruit? I'm very thirsty..... May I/Might I borrow your eraser? 1can't.....~.....'...................... just think: you are looking at a dinosaur ! FEATHER ...... they are alive today! Most (8) sc1ent1sts believe that SCIENCE birds are the direct (9) descendants of dinosaurs............··c. They were an 1ncred1bly vaned group of animals· there w ere (O) .'.............~·c.........../Yes...~:......................... 1you may not........................... 10 A: Will you be coming tomorrow? B: I'm afraid I can't.. thanks....It'd love to......·~······ ............................... ~....literally........1~>:1No.... Will you/Would you/Would you like to go for a coffee? 1t'd like to...........~~'.....'....It'd rather you dldn't..... N]l Fill in short answers as in the example.·rc.........................~......~....... All dinosaurs were reptiles and most hatched from eggs.............. Who else Saturday night? is going? B: We'd love to but we can't...... FASCINATE Many scientists believe that an asteroid from (5) outer space hit the Earth 65 OUT million years ago and that the dust from the (6) coll1s1on blocked out the sun's COLLIDE light......... We haven't been out for ages...·~........?.i~9" .s0·(-yc..... Would you like me to come with you? ! Yes. ~~!... B: No..................... /No thanks..... ... ......... B: Yes...../Yes....... you may.....~........ ......... I can't..~·... ~. Nevertheless....:................. So next time you look out your DESCEND window and see a (10) feathered friend..../No.1. thank you....... please..1co~iCi'i''f1a~0·5c......................... ~.... 1 A: Shall w e go rafting this Sunday? 6 A: Would you and Bill like to c ome over on B: ...... Yes. all rlght.. of course (you may)...... B: I'd love to..... 3 A: Shall I w ash your shirt for you? I have nothing to do at the moment.......... I have to go to the dentist... B: Yes... ~?..?... · · ···· · · · · · ··· · ···· · ······~· · ··· .. B: I'm sorry.~~~~:'........... ~...... Whi le many dinosaurs were meat-eaters..... The largest were over 30 metres in (1) length and 15 metres tall and the LONG smallest were about the size of a chicken ...... Use the words in capitals to form a word that fits in the space in the same line........ I'd love to ....-:...........~........... Indeed.:....~~~.......

20 When we heard he had no place to stay. in for her. 10 I see their house is for sale . clients. they're very expensive. 13 He discovered.. we 11 Why don't you take some time off? You look offered to take him in. but that item is out of stock. "You are under arrest. side road and crashed into her car. personnel. stood up for him. no one 13 I was taken in by her. We have always fighting. 7 Simon is too young to take on such a big 17 Military nurses were told to stand by in case of an responsibility. 1 The miners are . but I was wrong. view of Hong Kong. that it was already 31 Visitors to the farm receive free food and ten o'clock. then fill in the correct particle(s). a lot of weight. accommodation in exchange for some light work. not in the centre. 23 We sat down in a field to have our picnic. 18 I don't know why she stands for that sort of 9 Everyone was taken aback when the manager behaviour. 30 I was late for work on account of the bus strike. They want 16 Suddenly. 25 I am not on good terms with my brother. strike again. There is no need to 22 It is against the law to let your dog run loose. so you might not take 5 You take after your father. we've taken on a lot of new company. I wouldn't tolerate it. panic. without warning. sold them all. it's a very relaxing pastime. 19 The police officer said. 2 Even though they knew he was innocent.. 15 I'm telling you this off the record. so go out and buy something. 26 I've heard this song so many times that I know it 9 Don't buy those shoes now .. " who was abroad. 4 Joanna really stands out with her red hair.. you'll have to 21 Strawberries are out of season at the moment. the answer is "yes". 7 The plate fell on the floor and smashed into little 24 We live on the outskirts of town. 6 Everything is under control. ###BOT_TEXT###0 Look at Appendix 3.wait till they're on sale. stood up and walked out of the meeting. Folder liiil m Look at Appendix 2. it collapsed last night. so you mustn't print it. 15 This is quite compl icated. that's not what we're 11 With regard to your question. 19 If washing powder doesn't take that spot out. 29 He started from scratch and built up an empire. 2 He hid the file on purpose so that no one would 17 The house is on fire! Call the fire brigade! find it. 5 The drinks machine is out of order. you whatever 12 One of my colleagues was ill yesterday so I stood problems you may have.. then fill in the correct preposition(s).. 14 She had to ·take her skirt in because she had lost 3 Tom's taken up fishing. 1 Don't worry. 8 RAC stands for Royal Automobile Club.. exhausted. in all the information the first time. on. 4 She accepted the prize on behalf of her father.they must be 27 The bridge is under repair. attack. I'll stand . 18 This information is off limits to all but authorised 3 When Tom is off duty he does a lot of sport to relax. 12 I was under the impression that you like football. planning to move away. you're a lot like him. a car pulled out from a better pay. she fooled me completely. 14 There are a lot of animals on our farm in Devon. 1204 . 6 Their business is being taken over by a bigger 16 Work is going well. 20 Welcome on board this flight to Rome. to his surprise. pieces.. by. 10 As the plane took off we had a wonderful maybe bleach will. by heart. talking about. we're 8 I'm sorry. 28 You're getting off the point.

Complete the sentences using the words in bold. (sorts) I kept my daughter at home yesterday because she was feeling out of sorts.. which was not necessary. stand Our parents will stand by us. 1 Jill and her husband are always quarrelling . this. he was under a cloud. (weather) Felicity asked to leave early because she felt under the weather.. . 8 He cooked too much food. no matter what happens. have Tony must have stolen the money. whatever happens. 5 I think David's version of what happened was a bit of an exaggeration. 13 I don't think it's worth learning a language if you are not going to speak it. 6 People considered Mozart to be a prodigy. left There was almost/virtually nothing left in their bank account. point I can't see the point in learning a language if you are not going to speak it. (top) I think David's version of what happened was a bit over the top. wrong Doctors say there's nothing wrong with eating chocolate occasionally. (cheesed) Gillian was cheesed off when she wasn't asked to speak at the conference. They never seem to agree about anything. 4 Peter heard from someone who has secret information about the factory's financial situation. (dark) Nobody has told me we are moving offices. he was thought poorly of at the office. They never seem to agree about anything.. 3 The minister has a reputation for understanding things and reacting quickly. better She has . regarded Mozart was regarded as a prodigy. if She looks as if she has lost weight since I last saw her. 3 If it weren't raining . 2 She seems to have lost weight since I last saw her. Use two to five words. never eaten better ~tew than . It isn't good enough. 10 Their bank account was virtually empty.. 12 Our parents will support us. we could go for a walk. (mark) This essay will have to be rewritten. off That cheese will go off if it's not put in the fridge. (ball) The minister has a reputation for being on the ball. 9 This essay will have to be rewritten. I was kept in the dark. like He said he didn't feel like staying out late. 2 I kept my daughter at home yesterday because she wasn't feeling very well. 7 Doctors say it's all right to eat chocolate occasionally. 11 He said he was not in the mood to stay out late. 8 Nobody has told me we are moving offices. 7 Gillian felt slightly annoyed when she wasn't asked to speak at the conference. Replace the underlined words in each sentence with a suitable idiom that includes the word in bold . (loggerheads) Jill and her husband are always at loggerheads. 9 I'm sure it was Tony who stole the money. (cloud) After Peter failed to meet the deadline. 1 This is the best stew she has ever eaten. 6 Felicity asked to leave early because she felt slightly unwell. 5 That cheese will spoil unless it's put in the fridge. have He needn't have cooked so much food . I was told nothing about it. 4 Don 't you think you should be getting ready for school? high It's high time you got ready for school. 10 After Peter failed to meet the deadline. It isn't up to the mark. (know) Peter heard from someone who is in the know about the factory's financial situation. stop I wish it would stop raining so that we could go for a walk.

. read the text below and decide which answer (A..Practice Test Part 1 rn For questions 1-12.. There is an example at the beginning (0). as (8) .. A. From the begin n ing .. . to previo us directors. director of the mu seum . in Am sterdam ... The French poet A ppo linaire (3) .. .. But the (6) .. ... the (7) .. on l 4 September...... was to di splay the best of new art w h ether it was acce pted by the esta blis hment o r n ot.. l 895 and it was controversia 1 from the s tart.... ... but he w ill also continue to (12) . it as "the onl y place in the world where you can see trul y m odern art ''.. a pro bl em wi th city authorities. . B. for m ore unus ual and da ring work to dis play at the Stedelijk.. as on e o f th e most inte resting mu seums of m odern art in the world. . as his work was 'little valued' at th e time ..... Back in 19 0 5... B considered © regarded D thought 1 A said 2 @ doors B hands c entrance D windows 3 A illustrated B defined c characterised @ described 4 A cause @ purpose c reason D view 5 A made B did c brought @ caused s @ real B true c apparent D virtual @ present C now D contemporary 7 A topical B contrasted © opposed D unlike 8 A different 9@ duty B charge c intention D aim 10 A long @ far c soon D well 11 A continual B constant c fixed @ permanent 12 A view @ search c investigate D explore 1206 . is (1) ....... ...... C or D) best fits each gap.. . w hi ch can be T (O) ...... he h as decided to dis play a (11) . including art dating back to the 19 th centu ry....... tro u ble started after the Wa r whe n they d ecided to exhibit even more experimental wo rk. Rudi Fuchs........ The museum first ope ned its (2) ... as the futu re is con cerned .. He believes it is his (9) . its main (4) .... collectio n of m od e rn classics.... t o care for the o ld collectio n of paintings as well as to continue en couraging new art..... I Example: A B C D 0 A found B discovered C traced D detected 0 . its decision to s how th e work of Ya n Gogh (5) ........ ...... h as decided to be a bit m ore cau t ious in his ch oice of exhibits. As (1 O) ... c::::::J c::::::J c::::::J h e Sted elijk Museum..... ......... .

Example: 0 IwlHIYI I I I I I I I I I I I I Keeping W. take action! . This is (18) due to the fact that the cold water increases blood sugs... has been studying the effects of cold water. the heart beat and breathing rate.. with extra clothing and heaters... For those people who find (22) the idea of such behaviour unthinkable. (24) So.. (14) who for the last 30 years. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.ir levels.. At a German health centre. Most people are brought (15) up to believe that it's important to keep warm during the cold weather.. Part 2 For questions 13-24.. New research at the medical centre of Hanover has shown that (19) those/people taking daily cold baths have 50% (20) fewer colds and breathing problems than those who don't.ar.. which results (17) in them feeling very energetic. not try a cold bath or shower? This unusual advice (13) comes from a natural health therapist in Germany. Use only one word in each gap.. don't sit and complain.... read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap......rn in Winter Do you feel the cold? If the answer is 'yes'. then (0) ... hundreds of visitors take their first cold bath at 6 am... (16) but research shows that the opposite is true. then regular exercise such (23) as running or cycling is a good alternative. next time you're suffering from the cold.. There is an example at the beginning (0). Studies in London have also proven that (21) such treatment will help protect against heart attacks.

How do they learn these skills? (32) Certainly not from their parents.do not PRESS fool octopuses. and in the CAPTIVE wild. and learning simple.. There is an example at the beginning (0). INTELLIGENT Octopuses in public aquariums have been caught sneaking out of their tanks at night to visit (27) neighbouring tanks to eat the fish in NEIGHBOUR them before returning to their own tanks.. REMARK e 1208 . (28) Employees at one sea. The inteHigent Odopus Octopuses are highly intelligent.those which require downward (31) pressure to open . EMPLOY life centre couldn't figure out why their crabs kept disappearing so they set up a video camera. using tools.. with CERTAIN whom they have very little contact. While biologists continue to debate about the exact extent of their learning (33) capability. they have been observed solving problems. read the text below. octopuses have CONTAIN found out how to unscrew them. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. What they found was quite (29) astonishing! ASTONISH People who keep octopuses as pets also have trouble keeping them in their tanks. Both in (0) . Even child- proof bottles .Practice Test m Part 3 For questions 25-34. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line. (25) uncomplicated tasks .. there is no doubt that the CAPABLE octopus is a truly (34) remarkable creature. captivity. no matter how secure they may seem to be.all behaviours which COMPLICATE e• indicate (26) intelligence. When presented with glass (30) containers with lids.

..... INTENTION I'm sure she had no intention of ruining my shirt. me waiting. we took the bus....... 39 Nina was unable to tolerate his horrible behaviour.. FEAR The actor disguised himself for fear of being recognised in public... TRAINED Rose is thinking of having her dog trained by a professional..... Example: O "I'm sorry I kept you waiting..... ON She didn't arrive on time because of the heavy traffic.. FOR She .... we took the bus.. You must use between two and five words. 41 The actor disguised himself so that no one would recognise him in public. APPROVED None of my teachers approved of the way I dressed.......... PUT Nina could not put up with his horrible behaviour. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided. 42 Rather than walk to work.... ......" she told me......... using the word given............... 38 She was late due to the heavy traffic. Do not change the word given.............. including the word given.... 40 I'm sure she didn't intend to ruin my shirt... SHAPE In my opinion . 35 My teachers disliked the way I dressed............ complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the fi rst sentence.. the best way to keep in shape is to go walking..... FOOT Instead of going on foot to work......... Part 4 Fo·r questions 35-42........ 37 I believe walking is the best way to stay slim........ 36 Rose might have a professional train her dog..... There is an example at the beginning (0)..........

8 Janet won 't get on a plane under any circumstances.. when. " (Neither/Nor are used to agree with a negative statement.. we'll turn on the heating.. 5 Mark works so hard that I'm sure he'll be promoted soon.) Complete the sentences using the words in bold. etc. In/Under no circumstances. does So hard does Mark work that I'm sure he'll be promoted soon . (If I were you . been Had you been there. Nowhere. Should you come early. Not since. not since. If there is no auxiliary verb." (So is used to agree with an affirmative sentence. will Under no circumstances will Janet get on a plane. 11 He didn't laugh once all evening . 1210 . Seldom do we see him these days. as to express agreement. you have a key can . • after adverbs of place. Rarely. such. when. do Scarcely do they talk to each other any more. than. 2 If the weather gets any colder. In the following structures we invert the subject and the main verb.) in the interrogative. 1 We can get into the house only if you have a key. "What awful weather! " said Mary. but also.. we get into the house.. So short is she that she can 't reach the shelf. as do his teachers.Type 1) Were I you. Hardly (ever) .) "She doesn't like fish. I would see a doctor. Only in this way.. Use two to five words. not till/until used at the beginning cause inversion of the subject and the auxiliary verb in the main clause. speak Only after I spoke to him did he speak to me. only when. did Not once did he laugh all evening . This happens: • after certain expressions when they are placed at the beginning of a sentence.) His schoolmates admire him.. 7 He spoke to me only after I spoke to him. neither/nor. to such a degree (in result clauses) placed at the beginning of a sentence. had (Past Perfect) are placed at the beginning of the sentence.. " "So does his wife.. Not even once.) (BUT "What awful weather!" she said... we'll turn on the heating. Only when they had left did he burst into tears. only if. (Mary said is also possible. - Type 3) • after so. 12 They scarcely talk to each other any more. . Under no circumstances should you open the door. Not till/until. 3 He had just entered when the telephone rang . Nor/Neither. • in conditionals when should... Scarcely (ever) . Inversion I Emphatic Structures Inversion We can invert the subject and the auxiliary verb in the sentence to give emphasis. "He likes trout. In no way. we use do/does (Present S.) or did (Past S. No sooner . you would have enjoyed it.. Only by. Only then. Only after. can Only if . we'll go to the theatre. Seldom. visit So rarely does he visit us that I can hardly remember what he looks like.. . . only by. Note that if is omitted. he would have helped. Here comes Ann! (BUT Here she comes!) Here is her bag! (BUT Here it isl) • in Direct Speech when the reporting verb comes after the quote and the subject is a noun. did Little did she know that her wish would come true." "Neither/Nor do I. • after so. realise Only after a few minutes did I realise who she was.Type 2) Had he been asked. Not only . you would have enjoyed it. 4 He visits us so rarely that I can hardly remember what he looks like. Never (before) . 6 If you had been there. On no occasion.. 10 She didn't know that her wish would come true. sooner No sooner had he entered than the telephone rang.. (If you should come. Little. were. On no account. These are: Barely. get Should the weather get any colder. (If he had been asked .. 9 I realised who she was only after a few minutes.

So big was the house that he almost got lost. notice Should he notice anything. " "So did I. Fill in so. fear Such was his fear that he could hardly breathe. Let's look in the recipe book.. Seldom does this restaurant get so crowded . 19 He was so scared that he could hardly breathe. " "Neither/Nor can I. So ." 4 "We didn't like the food they served yesterday. 18 Sarah forgot to take her purse and her handbag too. So bored was she by the play that she fell asleep.. Such was his surprise to see her that he could hardly speak. 3 He was so surprised to see her he could hardly speak. in Only in this way can we be sure that we are right. It was overcooked. I would try calling her again. she So happy was she that she decided to celebrate. we'll be in trouble.. It's one of the best I've ever seen. perform So well did she perform that she won an award. 20 She performed so well that she won an award. sooner No sooner had she left than the boss asked to see her. I've never been there. 15 She was so happy that she decided to celebrate. 2 The house was so big that he almost got lost. 25 She had just left when the boss asked to see her. 14 If he had left earlier." "Neither/Nor do I. 17 If he notices anything. he would have been on time. " 7 "I don't believe he's telling the truth. My purse is empty. he will never forgive you ." "." 5 "I feel like going to the beach today. I would try calling her again.. The facts don't add up. 27 If you don't apologise. 4 She was so bored by the play that she fell asleep. 23 The weather hasn't been this warm since last summer. 1 "I'd like to go to Belgium one day. it's cheaper too. 16 This is the only way that we can be sure we are right. no On no account must you miss the plane.. 1 The weather was so bad that they stayed at home. Rewrite the sentences using so or such at the beginning of the sentence." "So have I.. Such was his anger that he shouted at everyone. 22 If I were you. neither/nor and the appropriate verb." 2 "I really enjoyed that film last night. Let's go! " 6 "I can't remember how to make souffle." "So do I.. nor did she remember to take her handbag . get.. . he Had he left earlier. " 3 "I've used up all my money. 24 You must not miss the plane on any account. 5 He was so angry that he shouted at everyone. So would I.. he will never forgive you. we'll be in trouble.bad was the weather that they stayed at home. has Not since last summer has the weather been this warm ." "Neither/Nor did I. will Only if you speak French will he understand you ." . did Sarah didn't remember to take her purse. 26 He will only understand you if you speak French. only Not only is Thailand warmer than England. not Should you not apologise. he would have been on time. 21 Thailand is warmer and cheaper than England. you Were I you. Inversion I Emphatic Structures 13 This restaurant rarely gets so crowded.

It was his house that was burgled. concern etc we use question words with ever.. that It . It's David who is modelling for Fendi. Inversion I Emphatic Structures Emphatic Structures Emphatic structures are used to emphasise a particular part of a sentence. 3 Did they go to the Caribbean for their honeymoon? them Was it them who went to the Caribbean for their honeymoon? 4 The bus driver himself doesn't want to let any more passengers on board . 5 Julie doesn't want to invite Malcolm to her party. • is/was that + question word or question word + is/was it + that (used in questions) Was that why she was crying? Why was it that he got so angry? • question word + subject + verb + is/ was (used in statements) What I need is some time alone. . It was Mr Brown who called the police.... anger.. • is/was it + subject/object + who(m)/that (used in questions) Was it my fault that it happened? Was it her sister who got a first at university? e that is/was + question word (used in statements) That's why she left the party so early. • it is/was (not) + subject/object + who(m)/that (used in statements and negations) It wasn't John who/that called last night. who It is the bus driver who doesn't want to let any more passengers on board. 1 Mary sent this card .. 3 Did you lock the front door? Was it you who locked the front door? 4 You need a long rest. 15 How will I get there so early in the morning? However will I get there so early in the morning? Complete the sentences using the words in bold. is It is Mr Jones who is the manager of the supermarket. 2 Mr Jones is the manager of the supermarket. 6 Mary came round last night.. Past Simple or Imperative to give emphasis. What he did for her was to buy her a new ring. What Jane needs at the moment is a lot of support. he always makes mistakes.. Whatever shall I do? Whoever is that? Rewrite the sentences as in the example giving emphasis to the words in bold. • To express admiration.. he • always makes mistakes. is ' It is Malcolm who(m) Julie doesn't want to invite to her party. 1 You haven't paid last month's phone bill. 10 He bought a new ring for her. It was Judy who baked the cake. 1212 . ~~. who It was my father who didn't let me go out last night. He did tell me he was coming. It was Mary who sent this card. • 11 Are you angry with Jim? Is it Jim you are angry with? • 12 Mr Brown called the police.. I do hope he will be all right. 2 Judy baked the cake. paid last month's phone bill. 4 7 Where did you go on holiday last year? Where was it that you went on holiday last year? 4 8 Why are you always biting your nails? Why is it that you're always biting your nails? • 9 It doesn't matter what he does. It was Mary who came round last night. Do have another piece of pie. 6 My father didn 't let me go out last night. Use two to five words.. It wasn 't her bicycle that was stolen. is you that/who hasn't. 13 When are you moving house? When is it that you're moving house? . What Johnny needs is a new pair of shoes. • We can use do/does/did + bare infinitive in the Present Simple..!![1~1 14 Jane needs a lot of support at the moment. What you need is a long rest.. 5 Johnny needs a new pair of shoes.. Whatever he does.

say She did say that she might be late for dinner.000 to pay the ransom. Today. 5 I won't be at home before Monday. This book went on to become (7) one of the most popular guidebooks ever published. Inversion I Emphatic Structures 7 Mum. go Seldom does he go out at the weekends. who It was his father who cooked dinner on Thursday night.. .. The money from the sales of that book allowed them to take (6) another overland journey. It made people feel they could truly travel (9) anywhere.. The idea of the book began after a year-long overland journey (across Europe and Asia and onto Australia) taken by the Wheelers. The Lonely Planet series (0) .'Across Asia on the Cheap' . 3 Tom is the person who made all this possible. 6 Why were you late for work today? that Why was/is it that you were late for work today? 7 It is impossible for him to find £50. Think of the word which best fits each gap. Lonely Planet books (2) were the first travel guides aimed specifically at backpackers (3) and other low-budget travellers... press the red button on the telephone. can On no account can he find £50. that It was while he was on holiday in Italy that he met his wife. 4 He seldom goes out at the weekends. Lonely Planet opened up the world of independent adventure travel. . circumstances Under . and encourage travellers to explore new places. It is without question (8) one of the most influential travel guides ever published. 2 He didn't know that Jack had planned a surprise party. was It was you who wanted to come here. Today the books still give up-to-date advice. travel guide books is a publishing phenomenon. 9 His father cooked dinner on Thursday night..South-East Asia on a Shoestring. 10 He met his wife while on holiday in Italy. 9 You were the one who wanted to come here. 10 Did he fail his driving test? failed Was it him/he who failed his driving test? Complete the sentences using the words in bold. did Little did he know that Jack had planned a surprise party. That first book. of. 8 She said that she might be late for dinner. Use two to five words.000 to pay the ransom. Write only one word in each one. Founded (1) in the early seventies by Tony and Maureen Wheeler. 8 You'll only find a good job if you're lucky nowadays. did Mum. The books were unique because they gave information on travel spots (10) thaVwhich were not in other guidebooks. (4) So many travellers approached them asking them questions about (5) their trip that they decided to self-publish a book about it.giving tips and advice for independent adventure travellers became an instant local bestseller. invaluable tips. no circumstances should you . 1 You should never press the red button on the telephone.. It is still the book most backpackers turn to (12) when/before they go travelling. will Only if you are lucky will you find a good job nowadays. after Only after Monday will I be at home. you did promise to buy me a new pair of jeans. information (11) on/about must-see spots. Lonely Planet publishes over 650 titles in 118 countries and annual sales top six million titles. who It was Tom who made all this possible. This resulted in a second guidebook . you p rom ised to buy me a new pair of jeans.

been She . were The residents of the area were alarmed by the proposed changes.. 8 Marian is not usually so absent-minded . 5 He got his university degree when he was twenty-two years old . (invalid) 7 After a week in bed with flu Sandra is now up and about again. 12 Rita and Sam had an argument while they were on holiday in Paris. 3 I am sorry you didn't come to my graduation. hope. 1 We weren't expecting Bob to turn . 1 I have no doubt that she was lying about her intentions. age He got his university degree at the age of twenty-two. hard.. insisted John insisted that I read/on me/my reading the form carefully. (without too many details) 6 I'm afraid that since you've broken several terms of the contract. 2 The residents of the area found the proposed changes alarming . he's all skin and bone. 11 "You must read the form carefully.you're my last were very surprised when he did. fell Rita and Sam fell out during their holiday in Paris.must have been lying about. it was too good to 5 The new detergent is claimed to work on even the refuse. have He said he would have Jane book two tickets for them. I told you fair and square what the terms were. 10 I couldn't turn down his offer..." he told me. 9 I'm sure he didn't know what the consequences would be. IIQ Explain the meaning of the idioms in bold. 12 Please turn over to the next page and do the exercise. • Complete the sentences using the words in bold. worn He'll become worn out if he does not stop working the night shift. it is now null and void. (well and active) 2 They could come to an agreement only if there was a bit more give and take. (spirit of compromise) 3 She knew that her husband was a devoted man who would stay with her through thick and thin. (extremely thin) 1214 .Folder liEI : . 11 I felt sick yesterday morning but the feeling had 6 I'm sure you 'll be able to work out your problems worn off by lunchtime. her intentions.. Use two to five words . with each other. I have to get up early 9 You'll get worn out if you don't stop working so tomorrow. had I wish you had come to see me graduate. like It's not like Marian to be so absent-minded.. so try to keep your explanation short and sweet.. then fill in the correct particle. 3 I'm going to turn in now. 4 Please turn off the lights when you leave. up. (recovered and out of bed) 8 He can't be eating properly. most difficult stains. forward It was Peter who put forward that idea. 4 He'll become exhausted unless he stops working the night shift. 6 "I'll ask Jane to book us two tickets. (through good and bad times) 4 There was nothing dishonest about the deal. so we 7 There's no one else I can turn to . nor From what I know." John said to me. 1 Our grandmother is nearly 95 years old but she is still alive and kicking. Look at Appendix 2. Tina doesn 't eat meat and Shawn doesn 't either. 10 From what I know.. 2 He's turning out work of a very high standard 8 The lettering on the monument has been worn these days. neither Tina nor Shawn eats meat. away by acid rain. (honestly and without doubt) 5 I don't need to know all the details. 7 Peter suggested that idea. aware I'm sure he was not aware of the consequences.

IMPORTANT 9 Many old people have feelings of isolation and loneliness. try not to ask so many questions. I wasn't hurt in the accident. across.. IMPRESS 14 It is unlikely that I will live to one hundred. NATURE 22 I spent ages looking in the shops for the ideal present to give my mum for her birthday. into 1 . DANGEROUS 16 The mother spoke calmly to her son and told him everything would be all right. up.. we are all concerned about the future of the planet. along. out of. to. OCCASION 11 Polly spoke confidently when she delivered her presentation to the class. near. onto. CALM 17 Luckily for me. LIKE 15 Steve is still dangerously ill after developing pneumonia. outside. past. CURIOUS 5 He sold all his possessions to pay his debts.. POSSESS 6 She usually faints at the sight of blood. over. down. TRUE 2 When I understood the enormity of the problem I was facing I wanted to cry. SEE 7 I don't remember much about my early childhood but it must have been a happy one. DELIVER 13 I got the impression that you didn't really enjoy your trip to France. INHABIT 4 There is a saying that 'curiosity killed the cat'. through . So.. behind . on top of. from . 2 on 3 under 4 near 5 under 6 above 7 on top of 8 below 9 (a)round 10 through 11 among 12 between 13 behind 14 in front of 15 up 16 down 17 opposite 18 next to/by/ 19 against 20 off 21 out of 22 onto before 23 into 24 over /~r. at. among . GRADUATE 20 New Year's Day is an international celebration. under. below.. to 28 past 29 to/towards/in the direction of Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold. 1 Not all students truly understand the need for rules and discipline. above. CONFIDENCE 12 When you order things on line you don't always have to pay for delivery.. NATION 21 Naturally. in front of. ISOLATE 10 Occasionally I like to go fishing with my uncle Tony. LUCK 18 Children first learn spoken language and later learn how to write it. in/inside. in/inside . ENORMOUS 3 Many of the town 's inhabitants protested against the building of a nuclear plant in their area.. to/towards/in the direction of. on. next to/by/beside. IDEA . round/around. opposite./ 25 along 26 across 27 from .. against. Fill in the correct prepositions of place or movement. between. SPEAK 19 On the day of my graduation I felt both nervous and excited about finally getting my degree. CHILD 8 People should understand and value the importance of a clean environment.

. on the ideas of no n- vio le nce and peace. . Gand hi believed that the best (6) ... with improving the life of India ·s lower classes.. Gandhi soon became the leade r in the movement to free Ind ia from the rule o f the British..The people of Ind ia (11) . in South Africa. Gandhi saw how bad life was for people in Ind ia so he began to fight for improved rights the re too. Gand hi evenrually returned to India after 21 years in South Africa.. He always re mained true to the ideas of no n-violence.......... C... B... In I947.......o r 'Great Soul - l VL andhi) was one of the (0) .. holiday in India........ six months afte r India gained inde pendence. freedom for his country thro ugh actio ns w hich were always (3) .. Gandhi got a o ne-year conrract to do legal (5) .. Gand hi was born in India o n 2 October 1869... the British gra nted Ind ia its independe nce... c::::::::::J 1\ Jf'ohandas Gandhi (known as Mahatma .. . ... 1 ® led B managed c ran D directed 2 A won ® gained c earned D found 3 A put ® based c found D supported 4 A took B held © spent D finished 5 A vocation B employment c job @ work 6 @ way B manner C direction D aspect 7 A main ® most C large D very 8 A interested B worried © concerned D eager 9 A gained B achieved C managed @ succeeded 10 ® throughout B through C during D cross 11 A observe B look © regard D think 12 A international @ national C local D internal 1216 ..... .. Tragically.. He was 78 years old ... figu res of the 20th century. He (2) .. Today.. When he got back home. read the text below and decide which answer (A. India o n the pat h to independence fro m British rule. There is an example at the beginning (0)............ Ga ndhi was s hocked to see how badly Ind ian people were treated ..... Example: A B C D O A biggest B largest C greatest D grandest 0 c::::::::::J c::::::::::J . and he (9) . Gandhi is loved and admired by mill ions o f people (10) .... extreme situatio ns.. him as the father of the ir natio n and his birthday is a( n) (12) . He was especially (8) ... . At the age of 23....... In South Africa. C or D) best fits each gap... Gandhi was assassinated . even in the (7) ..... to achieve po litical and social change was peaceful pro test.. ........... his child hood in India and at 19 he went to study law in England ... Gandhi was the man w ho (1) ....... Practice Test Part 1 For questions 1-12.. the world. He (4) .. .

They (23) have a saying: When a guest is in the home.. beautiful cities. The Polish people are very hospitable. This saying reflects the importance Poles (24) place on providing guests with a very warm welcome... They come to see Poland's picturesque landscape. Slovakia and the Czech Republic. a population of approximately 38. The capital of Poland is Warsaw.. forests and (21) even more.. Ukraine. Poland is even home (22) to the last remaining bison in Europe. You can see wolves and bears wandering in the wild . Lithuania. and numerous historic sights. It is the principal business centre of the country and has many cultural attractions (19) such as the National Opera and National Theatre.. There are mountains. Each year. vibrant and progressive country. (15) yet it still retains its traditional values and charm. There is an example at the beginning (0). . It is a modern.5 million. God is in the home'. lakes..... Use only one word in each gap. Many nature tourists (20) are attracted to Poland because the Polish landscape is spectacular and varied. Part 2 For questions 13-24.. Poland bridges western and eastern Europe and in many (14) ways this is reflected in its culture. It is bordered (13) by seven countries: Russia.. Example: 0 IHIA ISI I III II I I I I I I Poland is the eighth largest country in Europe and (O) .... Germany. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided..... Belarus. lagoons. Poland's (17) most popular city for tourists is Krakow... Krakow's magnificent architecture makes it (18) one of the top tourist attractions in Europe.. (16) more than sixty million tourists visit Poland. beaches. read the text below and think of the word which best fits each gap...

they can remain C31> motionless waiting for their prey to come close enough before MOTION they attack. read the text below. cheetahs eat very quickly. They mainly rely on C30> sight to SEE catch their prey.... They eat a C32> variety of small animals such as small VARY antelope. Still. C33) Interestingly. Once they have made a kill. cheetahs chase their prey HAZARD over very long C27l distances. they always leave the skin...... up to 3 km.... A full sprint lasts about twenty seconds and never RUN more than one minute... This is C28l unlike other big DISTANT cats which chase their prey for only a few hundred metres... the cheetah's body temperature gets raised to such a high level it would be too C26> hazardous to continue for long. This is because at full speed. It has the CO> . Also. Write your answers IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided.. Use the word given in capitals at the end of some of the lines to form a word that fits in the gap in the same line.... 1218 . When hunting alone. There is an example at the beginning (0). Example: ~ IA IB I / IL I / ITI y I I I I I I I I I I I I I I c The fastest land mammal on earth is the cheetah...Practice Test fE Part 3 For questions 25·34... Cheetahs never USUALLY return to a kill nor do they eat other animals' kills. ABLE Every part of the cheetah's body is in some way adapted for C2S> running . DARK cheetahs hunt during the daytime. the bones and the insides of their prey. game birds and rabbits. to run at speeds of up to 114 km an hour... . the cheetah is an animal INTEREST which has C34l unusually 'delicate' eating habits. LIKE While most of the big cats like to hunt under cover of C29> darkness.

. Example: 0 You must not ride a bike without a helmet..... 37 He has been fired because he was late for work too often....... WORTH It's not worth arguing with her.. THOUGH Sandra is not angry with Tom ...... complete the second sentence so that It has a similar meaning to the first sentence....................... a bike without a helmet. 38 I don't find Maths at all interesting................. Write the missing words IN CAPITAL LETTERS in the answer boxes provided..... DIFFICULTY He had difficulty {in) focusing on his work because of the noise outside..... Part 4 For questions 35·42.... Do not change the word given. IN I have no interest in Maths at all... There is an example at the beginning (0).. UNABLE We were unable to get the holiday we wanted because we booked late.... despite his revealing her secret.. even though he gave away her secret... using the word given... 36 We couldn't get the holiday we wanted because we booked late.... PROHIBITED It ............. ABACK We were taken aback by his aggressive behaviour. SACK He got the sack for being late for work too often.... 40 The noise outside made it difficult for him to focus on his work........... 41 Is it OK for me to borrow your car? OBJECT Would you object to·me/my borrowing your car? 42 Sandra is not angry with Tom. 39 His aggression surprised us.... including the word given........ You must use between two and five words..... . 35 It's pointless to argue with her.

..... time left......... shall we do this evening ? . . A before © ago @ little C several B until D yet B few D many 12 Tommy is very spoilt and is used .... A all C each A as C similar ® whole D every ® like D same 3 There was hardly . cooking at home...? 13 My father ..... A will we e shall we ® has been to B has gone in C has been at D has gone at B do we D may we 2 He spent the ........ do I... B has he closed D does he close A both C neither B either @ none 7 My house ... China but I haven 't....I met him a long time 24 Hurry... ............ his own way... 15 ... ....... seem to be a lot of people here today.... A an © the A than © to Ba D . A had they C didn't they A They C It B hadn't they @ did they ® There D These 10 She liked . A getting C to get B get @ to getting 1220 .. 21 I prefer eating out .... B do you B a D the 17 .. .? 22 ...... a fish and is only five years old ...... Houses of Parliament............ ...... of the two presents I gave her.. his umbrella than it began to ® Neither D So rain again.... ...... Harrods is one of the best 16 Don't forget to call Jenny....." B Which @ Whose A But C Either 6 No sooner ..... ......... @ will you A an ©.. money on clothes . at the moment.. B from D of 9 No one enjoyed the show very much..... ......" " . .... There is very ........... 14 He swims ... of these two records do you like best? C some @ Which C What A every B no @ any B Who D Whose 4 It is said that ... evening studying...... 23 Her condition is ..? A shall you C don't you shops in the world.... ....... 1 Let's go round to Duncan 's house. ® both D none A many © far B very D any 11 Peter is my oldest friend .. food left.... ... 19 We all failed the exam because .... .. A will be painted C was painted 20 She spends .. . ® is being painted D has been painted ® a large amount of C a great number of B a couple of D several 8 The tourists were given a guided tour of .... of us had ® had he closed C will he close studied for it.........~ Choose the correct item.... A What C Who 18 "I don't like chocolate ice-cream..... better than it was A either C all yesterday..... purse is this? I must have picked it up by A Who © What 5 B Where D Which mistake .......

before Never before had she been so offended . though Easy though this crossword is. 5 There wasn't anything we could do to improve the situation. confused I was very confused by his account of the accident. He should deal with it himself. nothing There was nothing we could do to improve the situation." said Angela. case I'll take a towel in case we go for a swim. done I have my nails done every week. 2 The holiday was too expensive for me to book. Use two to five words. had I had the leaking tap fixed by John yesterday. Ann?" said Martin. 17 This is Paul's problem . 7 I haven't seen her for two months. he didn 't have anything to eat. Cathy. 24 It is likely that she'll be home late tonight. 16 She had never been so offended. should deal with it himself. whose problem this is. Revision 3 &I . 21 It would be better for you to come with me tomorrow. disagreed None of the members disagreed with the changes. broken Mary denied having broken the vase. 22 Michael is so unreliable that he can't be trusted to deliver important messages. 25 I don't like rock music so I'm not going to the Rolling Stones' concert. 11 It wasn't necessary for her to ask my permission to do that. 6 This is her landlady. liked If I liked rock music. it is difficult for me to complete. too Michael is too unreliable to be trusted to deliver important messages. I would go to the Rolling Stones' concert. 18 This crossword is very easy. 1 She started taking French lessons two weeks ago. Complete the sentences using the words in bold. She returned from Mexico last week. 19 "Don't forget to buy some milk. asked She needn 't have asked my permission to do that. 23 "It wasn 't me who broke the vase. 3 I found his account of the accident very confusing. 15 "Why don't you stay for dinner. 20 Bella is saving up her money because she wants to buy a car. 12 I' ll take a towel because we might go for a swim . 8 Despite being hungry. . to She is likely to be home late tonight. 14 A girl from the beauty salon does my nails every week. 4 She regrets inviting him to her party. as Jim went to the same school as Brian. 9 John fixed the leaking tap for me yesterday. suggested Martin suggested (that) Ann (should) stay for dinner. was He didn 't have anything to eat although/even though he was hungry. been She has been taking French lessons for two weeks. that The holiday was so expensive that I didn't book it. 10 Jim and Brian went to the same school. view Bella is saving up her money with a view to buying a car. whose Paul. rather I would rather you came with me tomorrow. came This is her landlady. but I can't complete it. who came back from Mexico last week. wishes She wishes she hadn't invited him to her party. reminded Angela reminded Cathy to buy some milk. time The last time I saw her was two months ago. 13 All the members agreed with the changes." said Mary.

3 There's a house for sale near here. 8 Last night I broke a vase by mistake. which is why people drink so much coffee. ADDICT 11 The police responded quickly to the emergency call. 4 He's under the impression that you like him. 6 The house is still on fire. 2 She didn't turn up at work until lunchtime.I couldn't find a seat anywhere. been He discovered that his files had been looked through while he was out. BEAUTY 5 Buses run (in)frequently between Little Compton and Newholt. 4 Mary is always running people down. 6 Meg stood by Billy throughout the trial. 1 Last night I saw my friend off at the airport. CONSUME 3 The Eiffel Tower is a famous landmark in Paris. 1 He was sacked on account of stealing.Sandra's getting better! TREAT 7 Many scientists are working on finding a cure for cancer. 7 The firemen quickly put out the fire. HISTORY 1222 . Revision 3 26 He discovered that someone had looked through his files while he was out. FAME 4 Thailand is a beautiful country which is well worth visiting. CROWD 9 Motorists should reduce their speed when driving in fog. 3 I ran three miles and now I'm worn out. SCIENCE 8 The bus was very crowded . 27 He prefers relaxing to going out at the weekends. MOTOR 10 Caffeine is very addictive. a Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition(s). Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold . FREQUENT 6 The treatment seems to be working . 8 UN stands for United Nations. 7 The policeman placed the suspect under arrest. he won first prize. TRUE 2 Mr Jones is at risk of having a heart attack and must reduce his consumption of fatty foods. 2 I'm afraid these jumpers are out of stock. QUICK 12 Many buildings in Rome are of great historical interest. 5 They set out/off at four o'clock. 1 He is truly sorry for everything he did and wants you to forgive him. to He prefers to relax rather than go out at the weekends. a Fill in the blanks with the correct particle(s). 5 To his surprise.

.. .. (8) remind C remember ® copy C image B retain D recall B print D reproduction 15 We would never have guessed who had ... ® crowded C congested 10 Please. 1 found a wonderful Persian rug in the 13 I heard a loud bang and the .... . onto the market this autumn. .. of ten two-hour lessons over six months....... with ® limited B fixed C bounded D set ~ople from all over the world..... ... a new line of cosmetics spices to designer clothes. on how A change @ become C develop D turn much a new shower would cost... A reason @ cause C manner D way @ afford B price C cost D budget 8 This shop has everything ... you! We went to school A mass B number © amount ·o bulk together. A composes C makes up basis. from exotic 20 The company will . once in your life...... @ committed C had A couples B sets twins © D pairs B done D caused 4 My son wants to .. A guess B number @ estimate D count 5 The computer course ............ to the amount of money he could ~end on holiday... A archaic © antique A future B following C after @ next B old D antiquated 14 Please ....... 17 The Smiths have their piano tuned on a . C or D best fits each blank. Further Practice Sections Section A . A stocking @ ranging C extending D varying A put © introduce B bring D commence 9 He was ... 7 Authorities are investigating the .... of money needed for this project is over one million pounds.. so he can't ......... the streets were ... ......Vocabulary & Grammar practice Words often Confused Read the sentences below and decide which answer A.... after she had time paying ... try not to be late B full D occupi~d tomorrow........ ..... police were everywhere.. end of winter........ .... @ attention C warning @ portions B parts C sizes D figures B notice D interest 19 Ben has just bought a house... @ consists D contains A right @ regular C normal D proper 6 The lecture was so boring that I had a very difficult 18 She cut the cake into eight ..... me to cancel my dentist's 2 Mr Jackson needs a ... of the fire... market the other day. of the report first thing ~pointment on Tuesday........ 11 Of course I ....... of looking at life that is very B see D hold refreshing .. of confidence resulted in him not getting the job... @ for B by C at D upon 22 The total ... and almost fell asleep......... thing I knew... 16 I called the plumber to get a(n) ... .. 21 During the festival....... A method B mean © way D plan 12 His .... didn 't we? A consider © recognise 23 He has a ..... 3 Helen and George are expecting at the the crime.. .... blown out the candles.. Monday morning.. a doctor when he's older.... B........ to go on holiday this year.... .. A losing B failure C missing @ lack .. .......

...... to be the only suitable 31 Even though my grandfather is 87 years old. though she was an experienced teacher..... A imagined C designed A healthy B happy © fit D slim B hoped @ considered 32 Don't ..... A did up © set up 48 Your work falls well .. that your purse 45 Frieda is always a very warm welcome was missing? whenever she visits her cousins...... take a shower.... he's candidate for the job.....Further Practice Sections 24 James has had an argument .. 38 One of the most . have a cup of coffee and go to work..... @ whenever C whichever A indeed B just © even D exactly B however D how 42 There are many ways ....... 47 The man was eventually ......... B formula D prescription @ provides B makes C assists D does 40 The only .. . that you were 46 The increase of traffic in cities has resulted ...... B made out D brought on A under B short @ below D lower 1224 ............ by the police to A throws B exploits I&) spends D buys come out of his hiding place.... @ miss C forget @ extremely c highly B omit D look over B ultra D intensely 33 How long was it before you .. late for Fine Arts when you're in town..... ... Tina and is 37 The only reason why he .. the chance to visit the Museum of 44 He walked slowly although he was . her own business when she was only B arranged D let 20 years old..... it will ............ @ prove B clear C say D find A of B towards © in D to 35 Alison ..... which you can make 30 Don't worry! The instructions are very .. A viewed C faced A saved C performed @ noticed D witnessed B reserved @ guaranteed 34 If you have an alibi ...... follow...... A over @ in C of D among A natural @ easy C ordinary D casual 43 Jim Perkins was ... nowhere near the scene of the crime......... . more people suffering from breathing problems.... because he was wearing his seatbelt. @ advantage C gain A directed B brought C guided @ led B asset D plus 29 Sally is so sensitive that she cries ....... the crash was not speaking to her... never changes ....... 27 The hotel . his appointment. @ persuaded C suggested 36 Mary . breathing disorders... .......... the shop will not be able to give you a refund .. of living in a flat is that it is 28 Air pollution has to an increase in cheaper than living in a house..................... ... to understand what she saw in B weighty D extreme him! A capable B possible C probable @ able 39 I'm sorry..... free accommodation for children A recipe © receipt under the age of ten ..I wake up. .. A in B by C of @ with A saved C lasted B endured @ survived 25 My morning . as a fiddle..... as .. @ basic C significant 26 I'll never be .. . rules of tennis is to always @ routine B practice C custom D time keep your eye on the ball........ most of her ~cket money on CDs...... the required standard... she 41 Mrs James had difficulty in controlling the class. watches a sad film. to food tasty and attractive to children ......... but without the .

.. ® forward B front C first D ahead 53 Everyone's attention was drawn .. B trust D feeling @ effective C energetic B adequate D able 57 The school sets a very high .. of day in 1980.. thing I 61 The accountant was asked to go the knew.... . to be amazed by the records athletes set each year.......... @ next C additional A of @ over C at D for B following D previous .. 65 Mary decided to consider the proposal that was A beyond B over @ above D under ~t ....... Further Practice Sections 49 Jane's ." my 63 These workshops are designed to ..... is John a good writer. ......... @ investigating C considering 54 Many species of fish are in danger of being . A agreed C accepted A morning B broad @ light D break B denied @ confessed 74 I started typing my paper and the ......... to her a few days ago..... ..... @ work out C do up @ to B of C for D at B polish off D wear off 73 This amazing collection of poems first saw the 60 The young boy ... . ......... of A well-heeled C well-off training their staff.. 69 The book discusses how we could be more @ confidence C belief . ...... .... the cause of the @ to B on C into D for explosion which damaged five cars...... in their ability........... . @ run-down D down-and-out A pattern @ means C type D design 59 Don 't you think it would be a good idea to try and 72 She did not want h im to j ump the ...... the noise in the street. 68 He decided to invest the ......... 70 His job ..... 71 Some companies offer courses as a . he has been .. .. ....... he is also a @ wiped out D wore off good singer.... Mount Everest..... they needed. for all its pupils. told her that something had 62 Their goal had always been to reach the .. ......... in managing our time... A remains @ rest C others D all 56 The manager told the workers that he had every .. my computer b roke down... A simply B just C even @ only 55 Many people never .. document v~ carefully... 64 Many patients complained that they didn't receive @ dogged C doomed the proper medical .... the law........ ... spend ing a lot of time travel ling...... by bad luck...... our problem? conclusion that it was all her fau lt.. B researching D exploring by increasing levels of sea pollution.. A finished off C dried up 67 Not ..... and speaking skills.. 66 The police are still .. A way @ standard C spirit D term @ involves C covers B implies D consists 58 This neighbourhood looks a little these days....... of his money in A stop @ cease C end D finish property.... of happened to her twin sister.... B bugged D haunted A behaviour C action B attitude @ treatment 52 As the policeman handed me a speeding ticket he said that nobody was . to taking the bicycle................. listening parents told me when I left home... A affinity @ intuition C aptitude D flair A crown B point © summit D head 50 "You can always be . A count @ sure C depend D rely A grow B create © develop D plant 51 For a long time. of our support..

.. open his own business..... a good dentist.. rang.. 77 Everybody... stadium....... to women of all A up B away @ without D off ages.. fatal.......... A ride B tour © fl ight D voyage A deserving C worthy B admirable @ invaluable 94 He asked his friends to . A opportunity C opening @ fact B certain C sure D truth @ chance D probability 100 We will . 83 Those old buildings are dangerous and should @ up B in C off D around be ...... our 79 The cost of airline tickets has gone . A fail @ miss C lose D forget A stored B made C kept @ held 93 My ... two people... by as father used to ..... @ knocked C brought 96 The police have been trying for months to ...... A legend B story © history D age 85 Eating a large breakfast allowed her to go .. of the television set goes back more A grows B turns C emerges @ proves than 50 years.... A stalk B detect @ trace D follow 84 It is a fact that this kind of snake bite rarely ........... much as 25% since Janua!)'................ .. opera 87 What she likes ... forward to the concert..... . ....... .... about travelling is meeting singers of her day.. ... 99 I know for a . A household © housework A also B involved @ included D too B homeland D homework 78 He works here temporarily but has plans to .......... lunch.. @ recommend C prescribe 82 It never ... volunteer in Africa.................. . with her husband. of shampoo do you use?" Martha 76 She was looking ......... A finally C soon A include B embrace C contain @ hold @ eventually D really 91 When my sister and I were young children ........ 98 This year's winter fashion ...... 97 The ...... B pushed D wrecked the whereabouts of the kidnapper.. that he will pass the exam... new people. the opportunity to see Hamlet at 80 All track events will be ... 90 It was such a small car that it could only . @ brand B label C mark D tag A towards ® through C up D on 89 Julia shares all the .. to amaze me how babies learn to B advise D counsel communicate...... down............. . the mail when the phone asked Jan.... ..... that Pam hates Chinese food......Further Practice Sections 75 Maria Callas became one of the best . had been looking including the cooking and the ironing... to London was delayed so I had to 81 He gained ..... A stops B finishes © ceases D ends 95 Becky mentioned something about setting .. ...... A understood C liked A great @ most C much D lot @ known D popular 88 "What ........ your order before sending the goods...... her own catering company... in the new Olympic the National Theatre. A attracts @ appeals C takes D calls 86 There is very little .. A operate @ process C measure D deal 1226 ....... myself .. us on his shou lders... experience working as a hang around the airport for three hours..... @ carry B take C bring D uphold A by B in @ up D under 92 Do not ... ...

.... It really ... She said yes immediately.... 116 When he proposed to her she didn't even ... 105 Bullying is regarded as a ... ....... with each other... . of time preparing @ get on B go on C turn out D get by dinner for her friends on her birthday.... but is extremely expensive.... 112 After retiring they decided to ... @ deal B quantity C degree D sum 102 After careful consideration they decided to ................. ..... astonishment....... 106 Dad was very ...... thought of taking a test makes my A provide B present ©offer D supply stomach flutter.. of fruit and vegetables as well as dairy A total B whole (£) complete D perfect products.. ...... 120 I would love to help you write the report but @ enter C apply unfortunately I am not .. .... his job and his family........ ............... of all the B educated D accustomed people who attended her art exhibition..... with technical B take D participate language..... @ between B among C from D amidst 117 He is always whining to get people's attention ..... for the fact that B statements D expressions it was only Qartially true... on my nerves...... of violence..... they are ....... ..... of life..... A argument C problem 124 Although rainforests cover only 2 per cent of the B fear @ doubt Earth's surface... @ forms C aspects A ideas © attention B states D formations B concentration D beliefs .............. a @ consists D composes living before I get a real job... 114 Tracy spent a great .... .............. for the job in time and so he missed the deadline....... A includes C contains 110 Delivering pizzas at homes is a way to .. to accommodate all . A win B gain C conquer @ earn 123 What was once a thick forest ended up being a vast dry area with hardly any trees in . either A is B g ives C sets @ gets psychological or physical. A keen B glad © pleased D joyful 119 The new treatment has a very high success .. @ apply B enter C enrol D register twice.. environmental issues......... 111 There is no ......... 115 The .. A little B hardly C just @ mere 103 He didn't .. a job to her as a translator..... 107 Frank decided to ...... . that global warming poses a @ sight B vision C scene D view threat to our planet and humanity.. A shape @ form C point D style 118 We are both very busy but we manage to see each other once in a . with my high school grades @ while B moment C period D term and treated me for being so hardworking... A aware © familiar 108 She received the favourable ... to nearly 60 per cent of animal species on Earth... a young writers' A degree B standard C ratio @ rate competition since he has an incredible talent for writing stories.. the experiment proved that young chimpanzees had a 122 He has adopted a healthy diet which mainly better memory than youn~umans... Further Practice Sections ~ 101 Mary and Matt don 't really ... A announcements © comments 121 His story was remarkable.. A besides@ except C apart D unless 109 To the scientists' ... A contemplate © think 104 He is now in the difficult position of having to B regard D wonder choose ........ on the Isle of A house C accommodation Man and enjoy a quiet life........ B shelter @ home A arrive B reach © settle D place 125 Scientists are looking for a planet that can 113 Scientists have recently turned their ..... ...

in snow... @ presence C attendance 145 The children were ecstatic when they woke up in B living D being the morning only to find out that the whole area was .... their safety of passengers..... to living on his own and he them the motivation to achieve their goals........ with all sorts of B familiar D known unique ornaments and second-hand furniture..Further Practice Sections 126 Thanksgiving is a celebration that ... to serious health 132 The ........ of Manchester.. 141 Before filling in the answer sheet.... back 137 We stayed in Edinburgh only for a day so we to the 17th century when Indians celebrated the tried to ...... of antique goods as well as music and clothing.................. unexpected incidents that came up along the ... Strasburg... is the Eiffel Tower... A blocked@ packed C squashed D full 148 The theatrical play ended with the two men ............. find ourselves in a very difficult position...... the most of it. until he 127 The Simpsons have just bought a house on the finished the examination.... A invent B insist C discover @ ensure 134 He is an excellent teacher who always expects higher ... ~~ff~~int~@u~:~~~~ C loss D harm .......... in his students' work while giving 147 He is not ..... @ make B use C get D do A comes @ goes C leads D takes 138 The doctor asked the old lady to sit ..... of the dangerous virus in humans problems if it is not treated at an early stage.... A place @ state C case D form 129 The most important attraction of Paris not to be .. A worn out C made over A travel B direction @ way D path B put out @ made up 144 Pneumonia can ........... .... A common @ accustomed 135 The small shop was ........... A in spite of © albeit 146 All vehicles are equipped with seatbelts and B however D despite airbags to ........ they will live in 142 During the last European conference in the same house for the ....... of shock........... has alerted the Institute of Medicine who are now A cause B develop C produce @ lead looking for new methods of killing the virus...... in her best clothes............ many politicians ... we will heart. B left D omitted A spend @ take C pass D give 130 Although they decided to split up. 133 Jane has her little way of forcing her will on her @ covered B sheltered C shaded D coated children.. the issue of A profit B gain @ benefit D favour global warming.. A fixed B restful C peaceful @ still A sides C limits @ outskirts D boundaries 139 Increased sugar consumption can cause 128 In Portobello Market you are sure to find a wide A......... 140 The news about the girl 's disappearance left her A amount @ range C choice D set family in a .............. ............................... beginning of the autumn harvest.. .. a A unnoticed @ missed moment to think about the answer carefully...... for the graduation ceremony at the 143 It was a smooth journey except for a few university hall........... A contesting C rewarding @ seriously C importantly B challenging @ competing B significantly D urgently 1228 .. of their children... A brought B referred © raised D put 131 Tina looked dazzling.... in a very loving way......... with each other for the young woman's 136 Unless we take the situation . feels terribly lonely now that he's moved away A rates B measures@ standards D levels from home.... .. .. ..

they were housework without a . before week....... on how they could be improved........... A lonely B solo C alone @ single @ concerned C attentive B aware D troubled 167 Many students find it difficult to survive financially as they have ... it is wise to equip yourself with extra A path B direction C road @ way clothing and a sleeping bag.. A considering C exploiting 163 Not many people keep in touch with friends B thinking @ intending they make during thei r college .. she ..... for still a teacher............... very different directions... date.......... visiting A happened C came Buckingham Palace and other places of interest.... It is a joy to work less energy and is environmentally friendly... offer of help from no longer .... A almost @ hardly C quite D nearly A saw C noticed B understood @ knew 168 My father is one of the UK's .. burglary..... worth booking your ticket in advance to avoid disappointment...... A price @ value C prize D cost 165 To be ...... to the cash desk to 151 If you are .............. brain surgeons.. · groups.. beach.. A producing @ working A manner @ behaviour C style D way B analysing D developing 161 . B Doubt D Conclusion A leave B arrive C reach @ head 162 The man made his .......... .... there... into space in the next few @ Silence C Quiet weeks. ... ........... I still ...... A huge 170 I have many wonderful memories of the time I discussion . spent in London. and strengthens your 169 My friend Sarah . .... 164 When I met my old friend Harry last week I @ well B much C good D very discovered that our lives had ..... as is the .. A terms @ days C times D dates 152 It's . with dolphins. @ started D arose A forget C remind @ remember D reflect 159 In order to ......... money since it allows you to go on as many rides ® taken B left C chosen D gone as you want. to us that he had a really good voice Joe stood up and sang a song.. any money to live on each 156 She placed her wallet on the table and...... the boss invited the staff to comment on working conditions... ....... © fair B true C just D real A truth B fact © case D need 166 Jenny felt tired because she had done all the 155 Once they had safety locks installed. . so I did. to spend the night on the pay for his shopping.. ... me to ask Alex out on a body muscles ... @ prove B claim C imagine D test ........... . about the possibility of a anyone.. ................ it had vanished.......... it... Suzie has had a lot of problems recently..... It's not surprising that she did so poorly 154 Sea lions are social animals that live in large in the exam. fell when the teacher asked who was 150 The world's most advanced spaceship is responsible for the mess in the classroom . Further Practice Sections 149 British scientists are currently ..... on the idea 160 Pupils at St John 's are known for their of·manufacturing a type of refrigerator that uses politeness and good .. A unique B desirable C suitable @ leading 157 Aerobic exercise is beneficial for your body as it increases the heart ... @ rate B race C speed D pace A demanded @ dared B threatened D made 158 During the meeting........ expected to . He had become an actor while I was 153 The Disneyland Day Pass is excellent .....

formerly known as Bombay. 54 Throughout life you meet people with all kinds of 27 Mr Johnson has become established as one of characters. she loves children. as possible. the good weather and went snorkelling . they were mean and sarcastic. a great threat to our world today. 17 Since there was no evidence of forced entry the 43 The inexperienced driver was involved in a serious police couldn't do anything about the event. we went out. child . 51 I phoned my parents as soon as I arrived in 24 Mumbai. 19 All children must be accompanied by an adult in 45 Even though it was extremely cold. 36 Sue came up with a fantastic idea. 55 I don't know what you were thinking of when you 28 Passengers should remain seated at all times. Jordan. gave Ben the job. make sure that to remember their names. yet/but it took us until midnight. 9 A balanced diet and regular exercise play an 37 A recent discovery has provided archaeologists important role in keeping people healthy and fit. for nearly 4. 52 When I meet people for the first time I find it hard 25 Whenever you use this product. 3 Three men were arrested in connection with the 31 The famous musician composed the symphony theft. 15 The doctor said that I will have to take my 41 Jack's guard dog is so well-trained that it will medication for at least three weeks. with interesting information about dinosaurs. 1 Brad is so lazy. road accident that left him disabled. 40 Wind power has been used as a source of energy 14 The story takes place in Egypt. 35 Computer software engineers are increasingly in 8 The man is considered to be responsible for a demand to design and test new software systems. the most densely populated cities in the world. you seal it tightly so that it doesn't leak. 47 We tried really hard to finish all the work before 21 Working out is good for one's health. 6 The first bionic car went on sale in Sweden. Brian still went jogging. 34 In spite of being told off repeatedly. time were quite tense. 38 There can be no doubt that global warming poses 11 If you study hard. please wait 22 His comments were not at all well-intentioned. nine o'clock. 48 If you arrive at the hotel before I do. there is a high chance of passing. is one of England to let them know I had arrived safely. 33 The young woman explained to her son that he 5 Plants need to be watered twice a week during the could not take the toy as it belonged to another summer.I was thinking of 26 Rather than celebrate their wedding anniversary somebody else for the starring role. 44 All scheduled flights from Glasgow were above all. 16 The effects of global warming are devastating but 42 The relations between the two countries at that it is up to us to help save the environment.Further Practice Sections ~ Sentence Completion Read the sentences below and think of the word which best fits each gap. no matter what. 1230 . the student 7 The aim of the game is to collect as many points continued to display improper behaviour. 13 As far as music is concerned . legislation. the experts on genetic engineering. I am 20 His lack of confidence is the primary reason he going to attend a course in Spanish this summer. 23 During our holiday in Bali we took advantage of 50 As an only child I always had a room of my own. 12 She is so ambitious that she is determined to 39 It is incredible to think that scientists have succeed. All he ever does is chat. series of burglaries in the small village of Usk. alone they organised a huge dinner party. 18 Our new nanny is hard-working and patient and . 29 Racing cars can reach speeds of up to 350 km/h. managed to create life with the method of cloning.000 years. 53 I wasn't thinking of you . I like pop. cancelled due to the snowstorm. 46 In spite of not being good at languages. On for me at reception . the contrary. failed to get the job. Use only one word in each gap. 49 Despite the snow. long before it became known to the public. order to take part in the competition. 2 The student thought she would get away with 30 The Minister of Education expects students with cheating but her luck came to an end when she learning difficulties to benefit from the new was caught copying the answers from the book. 4 Neither Emma nor Jack spoke Arabic so it was 32 The money raised by second-hand shopping will difficult to communicate during their holiday in be spent on the care of the elderly. it contributes to maintaining a fit and strong body. What's more. catch anything that might come his way. 10 Saber-toothed cats are smaller in size than lions.

Finding somewhere to stay in Gibraltar (4) can/ may be difficult so it's a good idea to book a hotel (5) before you go..world. The first (6) thing you should do when you arrive in Gibraltar (7) is to go on a tour of the rock.. the choice (0) . of. (8) where the view is absolutely beautiful. These people feel that their children do not receive satisfactory education at school... They can study what they are interested (9) in and learn to work on their own. (7) according to their own abilities. So.. However. as it is (10) full of them. Gibraltar is also perfectly located as it separates Europe (2) from Africa and the Atlantic Ocean from the Mediterranean Sea.. . They are not (8) held back by slower students or worried about being slow themselves. whether you are looking for a different (11) type/kind/sort of holiday or you want to go on a day trip (12) while/when you are in Spain. H-oV\lte . Children can work at their own pace. Some of the hotels have their own gardens and swimming pool(s). school is just a matter of choosing between a private (1) or a public one. Schooling For many people. It is not an island as many people think but actually a small country (1) that/which is connected to the Spanish mainland. . They (11) also have fewer behavioural problems and are less dependent and (12) more mature. school has nothing to do with classrooms. If you are interested in caves. (9) then Gibraltar is just the place for you. (10) which prepares them for further education. For them. There is an example at the beginning (0). there is simply no place (3) like home when it comes to education. and only a (3) few people live there. for a rapidly growing (2) number of parents and children. home schooling has many benefits. teachers or school uniforms. come to Gibraltar. It is not very big though. Use only one word in each space. Gibraltar is probably the most famous rock in the (0) . (6) Indeed . . There is a cable car which will take you to the top. As a (4) result.. they choose to teach their child in the comfort of their own home and at the same (5) time have some control over the teaching process. Further Practice Sections Open Cloze Read the texts below and think of the word which best fits each space.

enjoy a good home-made meal and discuss the day's events . four hours (7) later. On investigating the incident. many experts insist that time spent at the family dining table is essential to the well-being of the family unit... (5) both parents work and are simply (6) too tired to organise meals and other domestic matters. " The Iinportance of the Dinner Table Not too long ago. (9) none of the operators of the bungee jump had any safety or rescue training. like to try bungee jumping? Before starting. ten metres from the ground until firemen came to her rescue. the owner stated. (2) however. would. the family that eats together. I just want to (12) make money. the family dinner table has become a thing of the past. intellectual and spiritual nourishment. Experts also claim that children not (9) only get a nourishing meal but they also get emotional. So you think you (0) . (10) When asked to comment. Gatheri ng for meals gives children a sense of security (8) and helps them understand and appreciate family life. (12) After all.. so thought she would give bungee jumping a go. On January 8. the dinner table was the centre (0) . busy parents should (11) put aside a few hours of their time to organise a family meal and spend quality time with their children. family life. I don't know (11) anything/much about a bungee. a support wire had frozen and she couldn't (5) be brought down. Nowadays. "Frankly. Parents and children would (1) siVgather around the table. The problem was (4) that because of the cold. She jumped (3) from/off a 15-metre high platform and everything seemed normal. let me tell you (1) about an incident that might convince you otherwise... The reason for this is the (3) fact that parents don't spend as much time with their children as they once (4) used to. She had to hang upside (6) down. of. (7) Nevertheless. whether it is once a month or once a week.. Furthermore.. it was discovered that the owner of the platform (8) had ignored the cold weather conditions. (10) So. 1232 . 1999 a sixteen- year-old Korean girl decided she wanted (2) some/more excitement in her life.. In most households. stays together.

17 You should have come with us to the theatre.. having He suggested having our portrait painted by a professional artist. pity What a pity you did not come with us to the theatre. addition She cleaned the house for the party in addition to doing the shopping. changed He's changed his mind about asking her a favour. . place The graduation ceremony took place out of doors. Carol whether ehe wae going . 3 Why don't you turn the television down? sooner I would sooner you turned the television down. 12 If you don't ask somebody how to get there. succeeded Very few students succeeded in completing the task on time. 13 He spent ages looking for an ancient artifact before he finally found it. 8 "How about getting a professional artist to paint your portrait?" he told us. keen Les is keen on tennis although/even though he doesn 't have enough time to play.Key word Transformation sentences Read the sentences below and complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first one. Study the example (0). 11 Philip suggested that I take up a sport. aside If only I had put aside more money when I was younger. rather Les would rather ski than cycle. Further Practice Sections Section B .. 4 You ought to apologise to Bill for breaking his favourite mug. 23 Les prefers skating to cycling. to John's party that evening. cash Only in cash can you pay for goods at this shop. 14 John paid a lot of money to buy that car. whether He asked . 1 "Are you coming to John's party tonight?" he asked Carol. 20 I wish I had saved up more money when I was younger. 24 You cannot use your credit card or a cheque to pay for goods at this shop. better You had better apologise to Bill for breaking his favourite mug. 9 The graduation ceremony was held outside in the open air. You must use D between two and five words. way You'd better ask somebody the way so that you don 't get lost.. 21 Ian hasn't recovered from his illness yet so he won't be coming to school today. she could go on holiday alone. fortune John spent a fortune on that car. 19 She did the shopping and she also cleaned the house for the party. good Philip told me that it would be good for me to take up a sport. you might get lost. 2 Many children do not think documentaries are interesting. 5 Not many students managed to complete the task on time. took It took him ages to find the ancient artifact that he had been looking for. 16 He was going to ask her a favour but decided not to. believed The Earth was believed to be flat. 15 People believed the Earth was flat.. 18 They don't know that he's decided to get married. 10 I don't think that Garry will accept their offer. weather Ian is still under the weather so he won't be coming to school today. 7 Les enjoys tennis very much despite not having enough time to play. interested Many children are not interested in documentaries. Do not change the word given. ignorant They are ignorant of his decision to get married . enough She is not old enough to go on holiday alone. using the word given. likely Garry is likely to turn down their offer. 6 If she weren 't so young. 22 Vivian never goes to her appointments late. including the word given. time Vivian is always on time for her appointments.

65 Tony went to Oxford to take a summer course in English. 78 We didn't go to the cinema because Helen came home later than she had said she would . mistaken You must have mistaken Stella for someone else because she's still in Belgium. Jack can't speak a word of Spanish. 68 When Officer Keynes isn't working. asleep No sooner had they fallen asleep than the baby started crying. 60 Patrick needs to use your computer. taken Had it not been for his wife's encouragement he would not have taken up writing. 79 You should try to be friends again with Jack. 76 He only started writing because his wife kept encouraging him to do so. duty When Officer Keynes is off duty. 71 Don 't tell any more lies or you'll land yourself in trouble. we would have gone to the cinema. 69 What you did was both courageous and kind. 56 Tom said that it was Jack who had broken his window. used When I first came to England. spite In spite of having been in Spain for a year. he goes to bed quite late. 66 Can you take care of the baby for a while. 70 The scientists managed to complete their research even though they had very few funds. he turns in quite late. carried The students carried on with their exam after the interruption by the teacher. . accused Tom accused Jack of breaking/having broken his window. only What you did was not only courageous but also kind. display Many interesting objects are on display at the National Museum. under any circumstances. you'll land yourself in trouble. 54 He hardly ever participates in class discussions anymore. Further Practice Sections 53 They had just started sleeping when the baby started crying. already The clients had already arrived when I reached the office. given You shouldn't have given away my secret. Sandra? 67 The Smith family will offer their hospitality to two homeless children. few people will buy it. 57 Has Martin decided to move yet? made Has Martin made up his mind about moving yet? 58 I'm sure it wasn't Stella that you saw because she's still in Belgium. 77 Even though his book is funny. total She was in total agreement with me over the decision I made. under any circumstances. Sandra? keep Can you keep an eye on the baby for a while. give Unless you give up lying. cost John wanted to know the cost of her new fur coat. 55 Mrs Brown gave a detailed description of how those men robbed the bank. lack The scientists managed to complete their research in spite of the lack of funds. 80 John wanted to know how much she had paid for her new fur coat. Jack can 't speak a word of Spanish. up You should try to make up with Jack. 75 The clients arrived before I reached the office. 73 She completely agreed with the decision I made. time If Helen had come home on time. view Tony went to Oxford with a view to taking a summer course in English. I was not used to driving on the left. 63 Are you in the mood to go for a walk in the countryside? like Would you feel like going for a walk in the countryside? 64 When I first came to England I found it difficult to drive on the left. be Funny though his book may be. Is this OK with you? if Would you mind if Patrick used your computer? 61 The students continued their exam after the interruption by the teacher. allowed You are not allowed to take photographs inside the museum. 59 Taking photographs inside the museum is forbidden. 72 The National Museum exhibits many interesting objects. put Two homeless children will be put up by the Smith family. take Hardly ever does he take part in class discussions anymore. 62 Although he has been in Spain for a year. it will not sell well. 74 It was wrong of you to reveal my secret. robbery Mrs Brown described the robbery in detail.

rely Mr Collins thinks he can rely on his secretary to help him finish the project. 106 I missed the party because there was a lot of traffic. 91 Sally once worked for a multinational law firm. 102 "What's the height of the Eiffel Tower?" the teacher asked. off The airline has called off the flight once more. regret I regret not having told her the truth. costs It costs very little to buy second-hand clothes at the flea market. point There is no point (in) cooking dinner today as I've arranged for us to eat out. 93 They went to the protest to distribute leaflets against the government policy. suggested Mary suggested that they (should) go for a walk that night. 90 The detective hadn't been successful in his effort to trace the killer. 82 "What do people think about this doctor?" she asked. 86 I can't tell you what the hotel is like. 104 I wish I had told her the truth. 83 How long do you think this piece of cloth is? of What is the length of this piece of cloth. set Olympic Airlines was set up by Aristotle Onasis. 98 You shouldn't bother cooking dinner today as I've arranged for us to eat out. 107 Although the problem was difficult. turned If there hadn 't been a lot of traffic. it is rare to see lollipop ladies outside primary schools in Athens. came Although the problem was difficult. as I haven't been there yet. 95 Could you give me your opinion on the new outfit I got? know Could you let me know what you think about the new outfit I got? 96 Jane's mum stopped her from going to school until she had eaten her breakfast. lollipop ladies are rarely seen outside primary schools in Athens. 103 Mum said we had run out of milk and couldn't make pancakes. 101 I knew that I had to hand in my project by the end of the month. wrong My doctor thinks there's nothing wrong with my eating chocolate once in a while. I would have turned up at the party. rare Unfortunately. high The teacher wanted to know how high the Eiffel Tower is. having I can't tell you what the hotel is like not having been there yet. no The detective had had no success in his effort to trace the killer. he managed to solve it. let Jane's mum wouldn't let her go to school without eating her breakfast first. 92 Unfortunately. left Mum said there wasn't enough milk left to make pancakes. reputation "What kind of reputation does this doctor have?" she asked. he came up with the solution to it. 108 My doctor thinks it's all right that I eat chocolate once in a while. Jong She said she'd lend me her car as long as I promised to be back by ten. rise There has been a rise in the number of people who eat genetically modified food. 97 Mr Collins is sure that his secretary will help him finish the project. 99 Aristotle Onasis established Olympic Airlines. 100 The riumber of people who eat genetically modified food has risen. nobody missed my party." she said. 105 Jack didn't know why she decided to leave the country. 87 Only eco-friendly materials were used to build this house. job Sally used to have a job with a multinational law firm.Further Practice Sections 81 "I'll lend you my car if you promise to be back by ten. do you think? 84 "How about going for a walk tonight?" said Mary to her children. necessary I knew that it was necessary for me to hand in my project by the end of the month. 88 Apart from Jack. 94 You can get second-hand clothes at the flea market for next to nothing. given The leaflets against the government policy were given out at the protest. 1236 . 89 The airline has cancelled the flight once more. result Lots of buildings were destroyed as a result of the earthquake. one Jack was the only one to miss my party. made Jack didn't know what made her decide to leave the country. 85 The earthquake destroyed lots of buildings. using This house was built using only eco-friendly materials.

more It was more than five years since I had eaten Chinese food . 125 The suitcase was so heavy that I couldn't lift it. 124 Such wealth has not been achieved by many people around the world. 111 He failed the exam because he hadn't studied. under Jane found it difficult to keep her bike under control down the slippery slope. must Adam must have been lying about his school report. good I am not good at music. news She's had no news from her brother since he moved to Australia. the performance is about to start. such It was such a heavy suitcase that I couldn't lift it. 127 No one was able to explain how the fire started . 117 She hasn't heard from her brother since he moved to Australia. why Fiona's moodiness is the reason why I don't like her. 119 You must fill in this application form before you go in for the interview. 134 I don't like Fiona because she's so moody. 132 That's the restaurant where we dined last night. have He would have passed the exam if he had studied. expected Sue is expected to win the competition. made Diana made no effort to help us. in That's the restaurant in which we had dinner last night. to The story is believed to be true. soon I realised I had lost my ticket as soon as I arrived at the airport. 121 On arriving at the airport. prevented We were prevented from doing our shopping by the heavy rain. made We couldn't have made a better choice than this washing machine. Further Practice Sections 109 Everyone believes that Sue will win the competition. 131 They decided to postpone the wedding because the bride was ill. 128 Diana didn 't try to help us. 113 Nobody said anything for the first few moments after the earthquake. 133 It is believed that the story is true. unaware I was unaware of the new deal. they decided to postpone the wedding. 135 Last week Carla borrowed a CD from me and now she's lost it. 114 I didn't know anything about the new deal. 118 Adam can't have been telling the truth about his school report. I realised I had lost my ticket. become My grandma didn't become a professional musician until she was fifty-five. away Leslie was too far away for me to hear what she was saying. bride's Because of the bride's illness. not The cause of the fire has not been explained by anyone. . 123 Jane found it difficult to control her bike down the slippery slope. 110 This washing machine is the best one that we could have chosen. the performance will be starting in a moment. 126 You should have called them earlier. required You are required to fill in this application form before you go in for the interview. 129 How about going to the cinema to see the new Brad Pitt film? we Why don't we go to the cinema to see the new Brad Pitt film? 130 Hurry up. before It was a few moments before anybody spoke after the earthquake. 115 Leslie was not close enough for me to hear what she was saying. 116 I show no talent for music. 120 The heavy rain made it impossible for us to do our shopping. 122 I hadn't eaten Chinese food in over five years. about Hurry up. been It would have been better if you had called them earlier. 112 My grandma was fifty-five when she decided to take up music professionally. I Carla's lost the CD I lent her last week. few Only a few people have achieved such wealth around the world.

SCENE. 22 The country is going through one of the toughest periods in its recent history. ARRIVE 29 The level of air pollution is extremely high in industrial areas. RELATIVE 37 The film was a huge commercial success and earned the leading actor the Best Actor Award. EASY 40 The children had mixed feelings of excitement and fear as they were boarding on the FEEL plane for the first time.Further Practice Sections Section C . PEACE 7 We enjoyed the fantastic scenery as we drove along the west coast of the country.. CHOOSE 20 Jane's friends have offered to help with the final arrangements for Jane's birthday party.. SUCCEED 3 He is an extremely talented dancer and moves very skillfully and gracefully when he is SKILL on stage. CENTRE 17 You are not allowed to park your car in this area as it is reserved for residents only. requirement. 8 It was a horrible accident but they were lucky to escape with only a few injuries. 36 The machine is relatively easy to use and saves you a considerable amount of time. What is your height now? HIGH 14 Cyclists ought to be very careful when riding on roads with heavy traffic. 1 The minimum . 11 People who worry about their weight are more likely to develop an eating disorder. 27 A diet high in vitamins and protein is extremely important for healthy growth in children. INVENT 13 You are much taller this summer. FREE 32 Parents ought to be cautious about certain TV programmes as some are unsuitable for SUIT children. 1238 .. BREAK 10 He often suffers from backaches and has been advised to strengthen his back muscles STRONG in order to lessen the pain. in the next 100 years many coastal areas will flood due to sea COAST level rise. enjoying the warmth of the fire. INJURY 9 The footballer has a broken leg and will miss the rest of the football season. 33 I don't consider this type of testing to be a reliable way of measuring students' improvement. 16 Our offices are centrally located so there is no need for you to take the train. BEGIN 6 We spent our holidays in a peaceful little village situated a few miles outside Lion. 4 She gets great satisfaction from helping students with learning difficulties. SPEAK 39 James is an extremely sociable person and makes friends very easily.. INDUSTRY 30 The current economic and technological expansion has created new job opportunities.Word Formation Fill in the correct word derived from the words in bold. LIKE 25 The old man was reading his book while his wife was knitting by the fireplace. 35 Although salaries have remained unchanged for the last few years. COMMERCE 38 The job vacancy applies only to native speakers of German. ARRANGE 21 Their house has been on sale for nearly a year now but nobody seems to be interested SELL in buying it. RELY 34 One thing that really annoys me about Fred is the fact that he always calls at inconvenient CONVENIENT times. 2 The book was a great success and sold millions of copies throughout the world . TOUGH 23 There is no scientific evidence to prove that there is life on other planets. there has been a CHANGE significant increase in the cost of living. INHABIT 19 He missed his flight so he had no choice but to take the next plane. WARM 26 According to scientists. EXPAND 31 Democracy can only exist where there is freedom of speech. SATISFY 5 This yoga class is for advanced members only and is not recommended for beginners. CYCLE 15 Mrs Mac Kenneth is basically the person who makes all the important decisions in the BASIC company. to enter the competition is to have one year of cooking REQUIRE experience. WEIGH 12 Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was the inventor of the thermometer. GROW 28 We were informed that late arrivals would not be admitted to the theatre. SCIENCE 24 Unlike most children her age. Mel doesn't make a fuss about going to the doctor's. RESIDE 18 The planet Mars is uninhabitable because it is too cold for humans.

HARM 76 I am not speaking to Sam at the moment because we had a disagreement. CUSTOM 80 This school specialises in the education of children with learning difficulties. grilled swordfish . 65 You have to be good at writing if you want to be a journalist. PUZZLE 75 While on holiday in Australia my friend Dave went swimming with sharks but luckily escaped unharmed. SPECIAL 81 I spent an agreeable evening on board my friend's yacht. We will need to keep looki ng. ABLE 83 Indecisive people get on my nerves. many significant discoveries have been made about the way the human DISCOVER brain works. STRONG 42 Frank has just found a job as a librarian at Harper College. MAJOR 55 It is very important that teenagers get plenty of sleep as their bodies grow rapidly. It's far too narrow. 62 Trying to find a solution to even the simplest of problems can sometimes be difficult. but none of EXPLAIN them were satisfactory. EVIDENT 53 Apart from getting the flu occasionally. INFORM . COMFORT 64 Many people suffer from loneliness when they move to a new place because they don 't LONE have any friends nearby. SPECIAL 79 It is customary to take a small gift for your host when you visit someone in their home. ILL 54 The vast majority of people nowadays have a mobile phone. SOLVE 63 Some comforting words can often help you feel better when you are upset. SUIT 72 We refused my mother's help because we wanted to do it ourselves. 50 The plane landed at 4. Further Practice Sections ~ 41 She showed unbelievable emotional strength during that hard period in her life. ENTHUSIASM 61 Sarah apologised for her lateness to the meeting and explained that she had been stuck in LATE traffic. 78 A local speciality you must try when you are in the Canary Islands is. as scheduled. GOOD 85 There is a tendency for people to get ill more often in the winter months. JOURNAL 66 The best decision I ever made was to go to university. AGREE 77 It is best not to take valuables to school. TEND 86 Our visit to the Science Museum was highly informative.45 precisely. EUROPE 71 All of the people we interviewed are unsuitable for the job. DECIDE 67 The teacher said she was worried about John's inability to concentrate in class. ABLE 68 My dad received a letter today concerning Grandpa's will. TEENS 56 All future correspondence should be addressed to our new office at: 21 Hill Street. PRECISE 51 In recent years. APPROVE 70 One of my favourite European cities is Vienna. VALUE 45 The invention of paper allowed knowledge to be broadly spread throughout the world . LOSS 47 Several explanations have been offered as to how the monument was built. SELF 73 The government promised to take action to deal with the housing crisis. BROAD 58 The closure of the factory meant that many people became unemployed. LIBRARY 43 He needs to be examined by a cardiac specialist who will prescribe the appropriate SPECIAL medication. 48 The woman was asked to put her signature on the application form. AGREE 82 The accident left Peter severely disabled. 44 The article offered some valuable tips about how to organise a successful p resentation . If you have to. store them in your locker where they VALUE will be safe. INVENT 46 The police have been searching for the lost child for nearly a month now without any luck. the children have never had any serious illness. 7HE. SIGN 49 During his research the scientist discovered some very interesting facts about the origins of SEARCH the Solar System. London CORRESPOND WC2. They take forever to make a decision ! DECIDE 84 My sister is better at Maths than I am . CONCERN 69 John studied hard in order to gain his father's approval. CLOSE 59 I have every intention of staying on at school and getting the best possible education . 57 They really should broaden this road. ACT 74 Ben frowned in puzzlement because he didn't understand the teacher's explanation. INTEND 60 Harry cheered enthusiastically when his team scored another goal. 52 The old man was evidently in great pain and had to be taken to hospital.

always. Still goes before the verb and yet after it. at just. . irritation. or how long to put emphasis in exclamatory sentences She has been to the shop on duration She has been Here comes George! twice this morning. He has bought a house. . (annoyance) timetables/programmes fixed arrangements in emphasis on number Present Pert. I'm seeing Greg on Monday. always. so far.) He has just entered. in my bed. year. already. for(= over c: often. commentaries/ around the moment of changes which have annoyance. sometimes. Continuous Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative I cook I am cooking I have cooked I have been cooking You cook You are cooking You have cooked You have been cooking He cooks etc He is cooking etc He has cooked etc He has been cooking etc Negative Negative Negative Negative I don't cook I'm not cooking I haven't cooked I haven't been cooking You don't cook You aren't cooking You haven't cooked You haven't been cooking He doesn't cook etc He isn't cooking etc He hasn't cooked etc He hasn't been cooking etc Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative Do I cook? Am I cooking? Have I cooked? Have I been cooking? Do you cook? Are you cooking? Have you cooked? Have you been cooking? Does he cook? etc Is he cooking? etc Has he cooked? etc Has he been cooking? etc permanent situations temporary situations recently completed actions started in the past or states He lives in She is staying with Pam actions and continuing up to the a mansion. at the moment. connected to the present duration having visible frequency adverbs: continually expressing with stated or unstated results or effects in the often. etc Continuous to emphasise the duration of an action. That's why he's wet. etc period of time). digging in the garden for an laws of nature situations Dinner is now cooked. since (= from a starting point in the past). still (negations). hotels this week. hour. For and since are usually used with Present Perteet at night. recently. He has been walking in the on time. at the moment. d Appendix . tonight. long recently. Continuous is (future meaning) the near future He has checked three normally used with for. every day.) repeated/habitual frequently repeated actions complete past actions past actions of certain actions (especially with with always. Past & Future Forms Present Forms Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Present Perf.Present. Time expressions usually used with Present Forms Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect & Present Perfect Continuous every day/week/month/ now.) (stated time reference) reviews/sports actions happening at or personal experiences/ to express anger. today. on Mondays.) rain. He is getting fatter and fatter. annoyance or criticism time reference present always etc) He is always He's always biting his nails. today. in the morning/ still. nowadays. present. She has cooked dinner. how long. usually. never. constantly. (He started an hour Water boils at 100 °C. 00. never. (Here 'always' means constantly. usually. yet (negations & questions). this week/month evening/afternoon. always. (Here 'always' means (Now he has a house. the case of the murder. ever. explanation or dramatic narrative speaking happened criticism Ford acts brilliantly in The police are investigating She has grown her hair Someone has been sleeping this film. 1240 . rarely. since The match starts at 5. working since B o'clock. He has been permanent truths or changing or developing (The action is complete. evidence in the present) ago and he's still digging. present.

I was watching TV when the ("When?" "Last week" . took I was travelling this time last past time She had been trying to get her bag and left the house. for. she has drunk (Present Perfect: He's . since (how long) ago. past time Simple. He had finished the report hold of David for months by the end of the day. Appendix . (Coleridge is dead. connected to the present past actions of certain past equivalent of the is the past equivalent of with a stated or implied duration Present Perfect the Present Perfect time reference He was readi ng his paper There was no milk left. as.period of time now finished They were walking in the it all. year. The longer action is in the past results in the past complete action or event in the Past Continuous. etc . then. had been walking all day.. when. the He was desperate because Her feet hurt because she which happened at a stated shorter action is in the Past he had lost his dog. events in a story/description no milk left. already. when. by the time. last week. just. etc I was planning to spend the weekend alone. while. he or background description to (Present Perfect: There 's driving all day long. because he had been poems.. Past & Future Forms D Past Forms Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative Affirmative I cooked I was cooking I had cooked I had been cooking You cooked You were cooking You had cooked You had been cooking He cooked etc He was cooking etc He had cooked etc He had been cooking etc Negative Negative Negative Negative I didn't cook I wasn't cooking I hadn't cooked I hadn't been cooking You didn't cook You weren't cooking You hadn't cooked You hadn't been cooking He didn't cook etc He wasn't cooking etc He hadn't cooked etc He hadn't been cooking etc Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative Interrogative Did I cook? Was I cooking? Had I cooked? Had I been cooking? Did you cook? Were you cooking? Had you cooked? Had you been cooking? Did he cook? etc Was he cooking? etc Had he cooked? etc Had he been cooking? etc past actions which action in the middle of past action which action continuing over a happened one immediately happening at a stated past occurred before another period up to a specific after the other time action or before a stated time in the past She put on her clothes. been driving all day long. past habit or state past action in progress complete past action past action of certain He used to walk/walked to interrupted by another past which had visible results duration which had visible work every day. since. in 1992. lights went off. etc after. the moment that. plan. for.) for unfulfilled plans with verbs like hope. by. yet just now. stated past time} complete past actions not two or more simultaneous the Past Perfect is the the Past Perfect Cont. had drunk it all. ( = but friends came over) Time Expressions usually used with Past Forms Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perf.implied time reference} park . never. etc before.) exhausted today because he's . Continuous yesterday. before he called her. won't write poems any more. action. she He was exhausted that day Coleridge wrote lots of while she was doing her nails. etc.Present. She quit her job last week.

She will decisions taken at the actions intended to be actions in progress at a have finished it by next week. I'll open the week. It's hot in here. I'm spending the asking for advice NOTE: going to is also weekend with the Smiths. esp. fears. our routine) actions