PLH_Titel_KKK.qxd 25.05.

2007 10:21 Uhr Seite 2

Refrigeration,
air-conditioning and
cooling technology

Planning Guide

2007

PLH_KKK_U2_31.QXP 25.05.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 2

CONTENTS

Fundamentals of refrigeration, air-conditioning and cooling technology 5

Pump curves 6
Suction behaviour of the centrifugal pump 9
Pump efficiency 11
Power requirements of the pump 12
Pressure behaviour 14
Pumping of viscous media 15

Noises – Airborne sound – Structure-borne sound 19

Pumps as noise generators 19
Airborne sound 20
Structure-borne sound and waterborne sound 20
Measures against noises 21

Pump inlet 29

Pump sump 29
Suction lines and suction tanks 30
Suctioning 31

Pump performance control 33

Control mode ∆p-c 33
Control mode ∆p-v 34
Differential pressure – delivery-superimposed (∆p-q) 34
Control mode ∆p-T 35
Operating mode DDC 35

Generator circuits in the liquefier part 37

Cooling tower / emergency cooler 37
Heat recovery 38
Geothermal power in the condenser circuit 39

Generator circuits in the vaporiser part 41

Constant volume flow in the vaporiser circuit 41
Variable volume flow in the vaporiser circuit 42
Cold-water loads 43

Protection of pumps and refrigerating machines 47

Minimum run-time of refrigeration generators and buffer mode 47
Protection of the refrigerating machine in the vaporiser circuit 49
Protection of the refrigerating machine in the condenser circuit 49
Protection of circulating pumps 50

Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG

PLH_KKK_U2_31.QXP 25.05.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 3

CONTENTS

Examples for the pump selection in the condenser circuit 57

Well system 57
Open cooling tower system 59
Closed cooling tower system 61
Heat recovery via building heating and hot water production 63
Ground collector system 65
Ground spike system 67

Examples for the pump selection in the cold water circuit 68

Flow rate control with straight-through valves 68
Flow rate control with distributor valve 70
Admixing circuit for temperature control 72

Examples for the pump selection in the vaporiser circuit 74

Vaporiser circuit with constant volume flow 74
Hydraulic decoupler in vaporiser circuit 75
Vaporiser circuit with ice storage 76
Vaporiser circuit with variable volume flow 78

Economical consideration in the selection of fittings 83

Appendix 86

Seminars 98

Information material 99

Imprint 103

Wilo Planning Guide - Refrigeration, air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007

QXP 25.05.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 4 .PLH_KKK_U2_31.

Here you will find documents which you can read on your own and our seminar pro- gram with practical training.PLH_KKK_U2_31.Refrigeration. day. air-conditioning and cooling of the art must flow into system planning every technology should become daily routine. pose addi- or component failure. DIN. drawings and examples. Air-conditioners require fluids for heat transport and utilise the active force of circulating pumps for faster exchange and short regulation times. IEC) and directives training basic knowledge of system design. (VDI. Since tions. physical. The basic requirements are an adequate practical basis with simple explana. In cooling towers. The user should be given tional demands. which meet the various chemical. Fluid heat transfer media require pumps and systems for transport. Cold water is pumped for cooling work machines in indus- try and to the vaporiser in building engineering. VDMA) are to be complied Different designs and versions of systems with with and special aggregates and techniques liquid heat transfer media can bring about direct selected. etc. air-conditioning and cooling fluid plays an impor- tant role inside of buildings. Please observe the further option for increasing your knowledge based on this planning guide for refrigeration.QXP 25. addition- appropriate use of pumps with their accessories al information channels with the newest state in refrigeration. It is to be considered that various standards ple who are being trained or getting additional (EN. National building regulations and envi- ramifications due to irritating noise generation ronmental protection directives. ISO. air-conditioning and cooling technology The transportation of refrigeration. The selection and requirements are constantly changing. The contents of this brochure should give peo. DVGW. VDE. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 5 . Wilo Planning Guide . We have compiled an up-to-date overview. air-conditioning and cooling sys- tems by using our documentation and informa- tion materials. taken into consideration in this brochure. This cannot be achieved with the contents of this brochure. ATV.05. mechanical and financial requirements.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 5 Fundamentals of refrigeration. fluids are pumped with and without fluid processing for accomplishing tasks.

pa . While Hgeo (static) re- mains constant independent of the volume flow. as well as due to increased friction.ve2 ve Entry speed pa Exit pressure 2·g pe Entry pressure ρ Fluid density out of the entry and exit cross-section of the g Gravitational acceleration system.05. The dynamic components consist of the pump head loss HV.QXP 25. HGes Hgeo H [m] H2 Flow Q [m³/h] 80 70 Abbreviation Description 60 HA Required delivery head of the system 50 HVL Pressure losses in the pipelines 40 HVA Pressure losses in the fittings 30 H1 Hgeo Static head difference 20 Q1 Q2 (static head difference to be 10 overcome) 0 HGes Total head losses 0 1 2 3 4 Q [m3/h] Resistance changes quadradically with flow H1 Q1 2 1 2 System curve = The static components consist of the geodetic H2 Q2 part which is independent of flow Hgeo and the pressure head difference Delivery head HA of the system [m] pa .pe System curve HA ρ·g va2 . HVL + HVA due to temperature influences. which increases qua- Flow Q [m³/h] dratically with increasing flow. HV Pressure loss in the pipework 6 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . HVL and HVA.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 6 F U N D A M E N TA L S Pump curves System curve System curve The system curve indicates the delivery head HA Delivery head H [m] required by the system.pe Static part = Hgeo + This last component is omitted in the case of ρ·g open tanks. etc.PLH_KKK_U2_31. It consists of the com- ponents Hgeo. and the differ- ence in the velocity heads Abbreviation Description va Exit speed va2 . HVL and HVA (dynamic) increase quadratically due HA to the widely varying losses in the pipelines and System curve fittings.ve2 Dynamic part = HV + between the entry and exit cross-section of the 2·g system.

Open gate valve QH curve B = duty point Flow Q [m³/h] Wilo Planning Guide . Pump curve System curve 2 the geodetic delivery head fluctuates between System curve 1 the maximum and minimum values. for example. for ex- ample. in the case of a stationary pump station. B = duty points Max-Level Min-Level varying water level in the sump/tank. incrustation. Hgeo Hgeo A reason for a fluctuating duty point could be a A.low delivery head. closing or opening the throttling System curves HA B3 element. Duty point The duty point is the intersection of the system curve and the pump curve.) when there are solid-free fluids of normal vis. Although the installed pipeline system exclu- sively specifies which flow is pumped at the given pump capacity due to the internal resist- ances. High flow ^ - low flow ^ high delivery head. in m3/h and Delivery head H [m] the pump delivery head H in m.g.05. Delivery head H [m] Practically speaking. The duty point ad- justs itself independently in pumps with a fixed Fluctuating water level in the tank speed. the pump in question can always take on only one duty point on its curve. The gradient of the pump curve is determined by the pump design and also specifically by the Intersection point = construction form of the impeller. On the discharge side.Refrigeration. Every change duty point in the delivery head always results in a change in System curve The pump delivery head is flow. the system curve only Valve further changes by increasing or decreasing the resist. . the flow Q is plotted. H diagram. the delivered volume flow of the pump changes B since this can only take on duty points on the A pump curve. Delivery head H [m] A change in the duty point occurs when.PLH_KKK_U2_31. In this. this change can be due to incrustation of the pipeline or due Speed and duty point to the throttling of the valves or the load. the mutual dependence of the flow on the deliv- ery head. This duty point is the intersection of the pump curve with the respective system curve.QXP 25. throttled ances (e. B1 cosity in the system. Pump curve The pump curve is curvilinear and drops in the diagram with increasing flow from left to right.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 7 F U N D A M E N TA L S Pump curve The flow rate of a centrifugal pump is specified Pump curve by a pump curve in the Q vs. always as high as the flow resistance of the pipeline The characteristic property of the pump curve is Flow Q [m3/h] system. change in the pipeline diameter when B2 modifications are carried out. etc. since here the inlet pressure of the pump is changed by the Flow Q [m³/h] different level. Due to this. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 7 .

4 0.QXP 25.0 V˙/ V˙100 B = duty point n = speed Pump curve with valve authority Flow Q [m³/h] For the working characteristics.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 8 F U N D A M E N TA L S A change in the duty point can generally only Valve authority be achieved by changing the speed n or the im- peller diameter D of a pump in the case of radial impellers.05. Q2 Q1 Flow Q [m³/h] Q1 D1 Q2 < D2 < D1 Q2 D2 Q1 H1 D1 2 H2 H2 < 1 2 D2 D2 < D1 H1 8 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .PLH_KKK_U2_31.2 0. This ratio is called the "valve authority Pv": Delivery head H [m] Q1 n1 = ∆pv100 ∆pv100 ∆pv100 Q2 n2 PV = = = n1 H1 ∆pges ∆pv + ∆pr ∆pv0 H1 n1 2 1 2 n2 = H2 Abbreviation Description H2 n2 p0 Maximum pump pressure ∆pP Pressure loss in the pump P1 n1 2 P2 = 1 2 n2 Q2 Q1 ∆pv ∆pr pb Pressure drop at the valve Pressure drop in the rest of the system Reference pressure of the system Flow Q [m3/h] ∆pL Pressure loss in the system Change in the impeller diameter V˙ Flow V˙100 Flow with valve completely open PV Valve authority Delivery head H [m] The last expression is especially practical from ø D1 an instrumentation point of view because the H1 valve authority can be calculated from the pres- H2 ø D2 sure drop at the open (∆pv100) and at the closed D1 D2 valve (∆pvo). ∆pP p Pum ∆pP100 pc urv e Change in flow ∆pv100 Delivery head H [m] ∆pv p0 System curve HA e rv B3 k cu or ∆pL100 n3 tw B2 Ne B1 n2 n1 ∆pL QH curves p0 0 0.8 1.6 0. it is important how high the pressure drop at the valve is when Change in speed the valve is completely open with respect to the total pressure at the lines to be regulated.

p1 is 10.NPSH [m] average flowrate in the entry cross-section A1 ρ of the pump. fore often only overcome low suction heads or pendent vapour pressure pD N/m2 is reached. 10.5 m lower than the avail- HS geo = .2 · (pb + pl . the abbreviation for "net positive If the fluid level is above the pump. this is the atmos. the equation takes on the following generally valid form: with the previously given units for the pressure and density. but this at the cost of umn. the density ρ ρ 2·g in kg/dm3 and g = 9.33 m high at defined this way is also called NPSHR (NPSH 4 °C. The actually reachable geodetic centrifugal pumps having different specific suction head HS geo is considerably less. it is recom- mended that a pump be selected which has pb PD an NPSHR at least 0. If one compares about 10 m. one can see that the NPSH value grows ever.HS geo [m] With the pressure units in bar.PD) When the pump is installed above the suction NPSHA = .2 · (pb + pl . direction changes Available NPSH (NPSHA) and changes in cross-section HVS [m]. by measuring the pres- with gravitational acceleration g in m/s2 and sure p1 at the suction flange of the pump. whereby 10. v1 = Q/A1 with Q in m3/s and A1 in m2.PLH_KKK_U2_31. The suction then decreases.2 · (pb + pl . then the absolute pump head in the tank (pI + pb)/g · ρ appears for pb /g · ρ. Wilo Planning Guide .HVS .HVS + HS geo [m] water level. but strongly pump to be able to pump water from a depth of increases with increasing flow. delivery pheric air pressure. . Hs geo the geodetic inlet head Hz geo is plugged ously common term "maintained pressure head in and the equation becomes: HH". For an existing or planned system.PD) given a negative sign.NPSH [m] able NPSHA. and the shaft is horizontal and the ρ suction tank open.HVS .0132 bar) and is equivalent the pump curves in the catalogues. a lower operating speed. pI has a negative sign.HS geo [m] pressure head of the pumped fluid by a certain ρ amount. the NPSHA A further pump head loss is caused by friction available at the entry cross-section of the pump and speed changes when the fluid enters the can be determined by solving the equation for blade channels. Thus. normal air pressure must allow the required).2 · (pb + pl . The reasons for this are: with increasing specific speed. If this is an underpressure. In the case of underpressure in the suction tank. Pumps which run very fast can there- • Fluids evaporate when the temperature-de. given working conditions (speed. If the suction tank is NPSHA can be calculated from the equation closed. • Pump head losses occur in the suction line as a result of speed generation – vS2/2 g [m] –. and is identical with the previ. Its mean value at sea level is head.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 9 F U N D A M E N TA L S Suction behaviour of the centrifugal pump General Required NPSH (NPSHR) The cause of pump suction is the pressure ap. Improvement is possible by selecting the highest point of the suctioned fluid col. NPSHA = + . the head difference HS geo may not be greater than • When planning a pump system. The NPSH to the pressure of a water column 10.PD) pump must therefore be greater than the vapour NPSHA = . even only be operated at inlet head. It is not a constant value.Refrigeration. This energy difference is referred to as NPSH [m]. the NPSH: total head (static pump head plus the velocity head vS2/2g) in the entry cross-section of the 10.81 m/s2. The quantity v1 is the HS geo = . instead of suction head". even with The pressure can then only drop to this value at cold water. speeds.QXP 25. economic efficiency. To avoid vapour formation. as well as due to fluid friction. pumped fluid) can be determined from pb = 101320 N/m2 (= 1. pump can be continuously operated under the so in the case of an open tank. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 9 .05. the the density ρ in kg/m3.PD) v12 pI stands for the overpressure in the tank. flow. g·ρ g·ρ • For a pump in operation. how.HVS . The smallest value of the NPSH at which the plied to the liquid level in the suction tank.

With increasing water temperature.700 bar Influence of fluid temperature When hot water is pumped.HVS [m] Also for temperatures which lie under the boiling point. HS geo decreases and at a water temperature of tW ≈ 87 °C turns into an inlet head. and therefore also increasing vapour pressure. the air pressure de- creases with increasing altitude: Altitude above sea level 0 500 1000 2000 3000 m Average air pressure pb 1.899 0. suction is reduced so that even then an inlet head might be necessary. 10 Subject to change without prior notice 08/2006 WILO AG . Influence of the fluid temperature on the inlet head 4 m 3 HZ geo 2 1 0 -1 -2 HS geo -3 -4 -5 -6 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 TW °C It is assumed that a pump can overcome a geo- detic suction head of HS geo = 6 m at a water temperature of 20°C.013 0. Furthermore.QXP 25. pI + pb = pD and Hs geo becomes negative.955 0.PLH_KKK_U2_31. Apart from weather-related fluctuations of ± 5% of the customary mean value.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 10 F U N D A M E N TA L S Influence of air pressure The magnitude of the atmospheric air pressure has a considerable effect on the suction. If a fluid is boiling. the equation can be simplified to NPSHA = HZ geo .794 0.05. which has the constant minimum value HZ geo = 4 m once the boiling state has been reached. An inlet head Hz geo is therefore required. the vapour pressure head plays a major role.

or at the maxi- mum permitted flow. where Flow Q [m³/h] there is a differentiated consideration of the pump operation. air-conditioning and cooling technology 08/2006 11 . The power consumption of the pump is the crucial factor. For pumps where the drive motor is designed for the entire curve. 367 3600 sec divided by 9.PLH_KKK_U2_31. the g local gravitational acceleration m/s2 following modified equation can also be used. Pump dimensioning in the first or last third of the pump The cause for this differentiated form of repre- curve always means operation in the worse sentation is the different construction form of pump efficiency range and should be avoided.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 11 F U N D A M E N TA L S Pump efficiency The ratio of the delivered power – hydraulic Pump curve and efficiency curve pump capacity (flow x delivery head) – to the absorbed power (drive power) is given by the Delivery head H [m] pump efficiency. that the optimum duty point is shifted to the right of centre of the curve. The pump efficiency is defined: Abbreviation Description Unit Q·H·ρ·g ηP Pump efficiency ηP = Q flow m3/s P H delivery head m ρ mass density of the fluid g [m/s2] kg/m3 In the case of pumping in the customary tem- P power of the motor (shaft power) W perature range for building engineering. for example in process curve in the Q vs.05. another thing that must be considered is that electromotors have their best efficiencies only under full load.Refrigeration. this is often omitted from documentation. maximum efficiency should be selected with instead of the pump efficiency ηP customary regard to the operating costs. taking both factors into consideration. the pump efficiency is H only given indirect consideration when assessing the pump. This means. They are coupled via the motor In general. The efficiency changes along the pump curve. both pump types. Pump curve and efficiency Only in larger aggregates.H diagram engineering or in large plant construction. Wilo Planning Guide . the total efficiency ηPGes is specified. For this reason. these efficiency specifications are mandatory. for glanded pumps. is in the centre third of the pump curve.QXP 25.8665 = local gravitational acceleration Q·H ηP = 367 · P Since the efficiency and power consumption With pumps of the glandless series where the have a direct relationship. a duty point with pump and motor form one encapsulated unit. the range of the best pump efficiency efficiency ηM. η In building engineering.

etc. 60 – approx. since losses within the pump remain nearly con- spond. the drive motor can be selected smaller Efficiencies with standard glandless pumps (approximate values) according to the associated power requirement.0 kW approx. power consumption of the pump is therefore also shown in a diagram like the hydraulic flow In the case of glandless pumps. pump on flow is shown. 80 % * Variations depend on de. 75 % approx. 40 – approx. Thus. there is the danger of mo- tor overload when the actual duty point lies at Pumps with a greater flow than calculated (system curve is motor power P2 ηM ηPump* ηGesamt** flatter).QXP 25. of motors for glanded pumps. 75 % 7. the percentage heat loss is very low. stant. The required power or overall efficiency. 25 % 100 to 500 W approx. Glandless pumps are always furnished with mo- parison. Since.5 to 7. 12 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . 15 – approx. 30 – approx. for example. The drive motor of the pump is designed for The efficiency of motors for glandless pumps this point when the pump is operated over the can't be directly compared with the efficiencies entire curve. 40 % 500 to 2500 W approx. 40 – approx. 40 – approx. a multitude of To exactly design the pump drive and to calcu- drive motors (standard motors. the max. pump efficiencies. the number of types is reduced. 50 % Efficiencies for glanded pumps (approximate values) Pumps with motor power P2 ηM ηPump* ηGesamt** up to 1.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 12 F U N D A M E N TA L S Power requirements of the pump In the case of glanded pumps. 85 % of the motor heat to the The smaller value generally fluid. 65 % approx. special motors rate of the pump. 85 % approx. the overall effi. 70 % approx. however. 45 % approx. 20 – approx. gives off approx. 30 – approx. In this case. the metallic separation (can) between the rotor and winding result in an efficiency which is lower If the calculated duty point for a pump (glanded by a factor of 2 to 4 than in standard motors. required power of the pump is also reached. 70 % approx. 65 % approx. Encapsulated motors are specially tors which allow operation over the entire curve. ηPump don't have to corre.5 kW approx. flow. nominal diameter. 65 % 1. At max.5 to 45. however. knowledge are used which have very different efficiencies. 40 – approx. thus having a smaller effect compared to the increasing overall pump capacity. 40 – approx. up to 100 W approx. developed for use in building engineering. of the required power at the respective pump making it necessary to determine the individual duty point is necessary. It is not possible to separate the The dependency of the drive power of the units motor and pump.05. 45 – approx. the encapsulated motor also sign. are fundamentally used which are exactly tuned to the pump. 85 % approx. This way. 35 – approx. 85 % approx. 40 – approx. 85 % approx. 75 % approx. ciency for every pump is exactly fixed. mak- The water level in the rotor compartment and ing replacement parts easier to keep in stock. 5 – approx. special motors) late the operating costs/efficiency.PLH_KKK_U2_31. applies for pumps with ex- tremely low volume flow and The table above shows a general overview of relatively high delivery head. design) lies in the front range of the curve. 90 % approx. It can be seen that the effi- ** Limit values of ηGes or ciency improves with increasing pump capacity. The completely different designs and applications forbid com. 30 – approx.5 kW approx.

Refrigeration. 5 to 20% higher than the assumed requirement This practically means that pumps which are would be. reserve. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 13 .Higher power consumption Higher viscosity ^ P1 = ηM The change is not proportional and must be specially calculated. this correction isn't carried out. density ^ always be expected. For the temperatures and must be fundamentally distinguished between pump capacities which can be found in building the power requirement of the pump P2. and thus lower spec. For aggregates where the pump and motor are B coupled via a coupling or rigid shaft connection. cosity (by admixing to the fluid. it's even customary to put both Pump values P1 and P2 on the name plate. P2 . Flow Q [m³/h] . like with the so-called glandless Delivery head H [m] pumps.Lower power consump- Lower spec.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 13 F U N D A M E N TA L S Hydraulic flow rate of the pump The electric power consumption P1 is given when the pump and drive motor form an encap- sulated unit. this can also be used. but by simultane. the required shaft power P2 is given.QXP 25. like with the glanded pumps. the power of the drive tion P1 motor of a glanded pump must be set by approx. Abbreviation Description P1 Power consumption of the drive motor P2 Power requirement at the pump shaft ηM Motor efficiency Wilo Planning Guide . usually require To calculate the operating costs of a pump. The latter is the basis of the operating cost calculation. density ^ tion P1 Since in practice a shift in the duty point can . only viscosity ously taking the motor efficiency into account increase relevant). and Thus. Power requirement P [w] The power consumptions of the pumps given in the documentation of the pump manufacturer always refer to the water as the fluid in the area of building engineering with: B Specific density ρ = 1000 kg/m3 Kinematic viscosity ν = 1 mm2/s System curve When there is a deviation in the specific density. the power consumption changes proportionally to the same degree. it lower motor power. power consumption. This is required for these pump designs since the wide variety of motor designs – starting with the IEC standard motor Flow Q [m³/h] to the special motor – with their various power consumptions and efficiencies are installed on Flowrate v the pump. density of the fluid. often engineering.PLH_KKK_U2_31. there is also a change in the according to the following equation. If only the power requirement P2 is When there is a deviation in the kinematic vis- given. operated at high water temperatures.05. equated with the installed motor power. Here. on the drive side there is a certain motor the power consumption of the drive motor P1.Higher power consump- Higher spec.

The specifi- cations can be obtained from the manufacturer. Among these components are pipelines. the fluid mass inside it can only come to rest with a time delay due to its inertia.) as the maximum load. Especially endangered here are installations where lines are not laid continuously falling or rising. y Speed (Speed of sound for water ~ 1 400 m/s) m/s The pressure increase when there is a sudden ρ Density kg/m3 closing of a throughflow fitting is simplified as m Mass kg follows: F Force N ∆p = ρ · V˙ · y V˙ Volume flow m3/h 14 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . ∆pL3 Abbreviation Description E Generator p ∆pp V Load ∆pL1 p0 Maximum pump pressure ∆pL2 ∆pP Pressure loss in the pump ∆pL3 ∆pv Pressure drop at the valve ∆pL4 ∆pr Pressure drop in the rest ∆pL5 ∆pv p0 of the system pb Reference pressure of the system ∆pL Pressure loss in the system pb ∆pL6 Pressure surge If a pipeline with flowing fluid is suddenly closed at one spot. the forces applied to the pipe wall and shut-off device increase (F = m · a). aggre- gates and fittings. depending on ∆pL4 ∆pL2 the material and surface roughness.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 14 F U N D A M E N TA L S Pressure behaviour Pressure diagram Pressure curve in pipelines and fittings ∆pL5 ∆pv ∆pL6 p0-∆pp ∆pL1 Pressure losses are reductions in the pressure between the component inlet and outlet.05. Every pipeline and fitting E V has its own specific loss value. Due to this "negative" acceleration of the fluid mass. Such types of pres- sure surges must be observed in the dimension- ing of pipeline systems (telescope lines. The losses occur due to tur- bulence and friction. a Acceleration m/s2 pipes could burst. etc. L An overview of the standard losses used by Wilo can be found in the appendix.PLH_KKK_U2_31.QXP 25. Air chambers are installed for damping the pressure surge. Since the water columns can break off at the high points (vacuum formation) or increased Abbreviation Description Unit pressure is created when water columns meet. cooling water circuits.

The electric power con- sumption of the pump unit is influenced.0 manufacturer. H.0 2.0 precision and are subject to certain restrictions. The data correction which should be done even for hot water pumping to 1.0 5. which.0 4.Refrigeration. perature. The methods have limited 0.0 7. H diagram also usually refers to water adequate maintained system pressure value as the fluid.0 of existing systems calculated for water pump- 5. 3. such as 3.0 6. Required delivery head of the fluid Hvis [m]. Hereby.0 2. neering.0 6. to higher fluid viscosity The new system curve can be determined with 1.0 5. etc. into two sections for pumping fluids of higher 5.0 3. the pump.0 flow characteristics into account.0 6. Kinematic viscosity ν [cSt or mm2/s] of the glycol. Flow Q [m³/h] Wilo Planning Guide . The pump data changes for fluids of other vis.0 8.0 sional literature / information from the fittings Flow Q [m³/h] manufacturers. These correc. curve. there are strongly scattered results.0 Delivery head H [m] Change in the system curve 7.0 5.0 4.0 3.PLH_KKK_U2_31.0 2. is divided up 4.0 7.0 4.40 ηges [-] Similar to how it is in the system.0 the help of the relevant flow-related profes. as in the calculation of the system (NPSHA) available.0 ing for operation with fluids of other viscosities and densities must be done taking the changing 4.20 individual measurements of all pumps aren't 0.0 1.0 3.10 to cost reasons.0 fluids. influences on the frictional moments and inner flow conditions 0. can result in 0.15 feasible for many possible operating media due Change in the efficiency due 0.25 a deviating pump curve. mination of the pump data Q.QXP 25. various conversion methods to higher fluid viscosity have been developed (Hydraulic Institute.). Flow Q [m³/h] Notes 300 P1 [W] The described method is sufficiently accurate 250 for determining the flow rate for Wilo screwed- connection and flange-end pumps when the 200 following basic conditions are complied with: 150 • It may only be used for homogenous Newton 100 Change in the motor power fluids.30 fluid properties. it is to be observed that the fluid at the lowest specified operating tem- planning of pump systems. Sample curve for potential changes in a circulating pump 8. viscosity.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 15 F U N D A M E N TA L S Pumping of viscous media The representation of the pump capacity data in • It may only be used when there is a completely the Q vs. The values to be specified for determination are: cosities and densities. 0. with a kinematic viscosity of ν = 1 mm2/s. In the case of muddy.0 1. pump 0. Change in the pump characteristics 0.0 8.0 tion factors can not be specified by the pump Change in the flow rate due 2. P.0 7. added up. etc.0 1.0 A correction in the system curve / characteristics 6. Since 0. and thus the deter. in the water when additives are used.05 manufacturer. gelatine-like 50 due to higher fluid viscosity fibre-containing and other inhomogeneous 0. Required volume flow of the fluid Qvis [m2/h]. Density ρ [kg/m3] of the fluid at lowest speci- changes (more than 10% volume percentage) fied operating temperature. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 15 .35 arise in the pump as well due to the changed 0.05.0 8. There only has to be a check for serious 2. Operating temperature t [°C] of the fluid at be correct can be neglected in building engi.

05.0547 αB If B _ < 1.0 < B < 40: Cη = B-(0. and the delivery head (CH).69) For 1. When the desired flowrate and delivery head for the fluid. 0. Please observe that the results are less exact when you begin with the viscous con- ditions instead of with a known water perform- ance for determining the required water perfor- mance.0. Pvis = tion: 367 · ηvis 3. go to step 2. rate of flow and the viscosity conditions.0 and go directly to step 4. except when this is involves repetitions. Step 1 Step 4 Calculate parameter B with the specified metric Select a pump with a water performance of QW units Qvis in m3/h. calculate the rate of flow and the delivery head of water: Qvis QW = CQ Hvis HW = CH 16 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .25 · (Hvis)0.PLH_KKK_U2_31. use the following equation: fied rate of flow if they are derived from the working point of the flow with water.71)-0.0 < B < 40. QBEP-W Reference equa.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 16 F U N D A M E N TA L S Instructions for preliminary pump selection with the specifications of the delivery head. the help of equation: (Vvis)0. For the rate of flow in m3/h.125 (Cη) and the corresponding value for the pump efficiency with viscous liquids (ηvis). ηvis = Cη · ηW Step 6 Step 2 Calculate the approximate viscous input power Calculate the correction factors for the flow (CQ) of the pump shaft. Hvis in m and Vvis in cSt with and HW. the following equations are used to find out an approximately equivalent power with water and to estimate the drive power of the pump for vis- cous fluids.0 and CQ = 1.50 Step 5 B = 280 · Calculate the correction factor for the efficiency (Qvis)0. Equation: If 1. These two correction the total delivery head in m and the input power factors are approximately the same for a speci.165 · (log B) Step 3 For the approximate water performance. set CH = 1.15 CQ CH (2. optimised Qvis · Hvis-tot · s with respect to energy. of the shaft in kW. as well as the viscosity and relative density are given at a certain pump temperature.QXP 25.

QXP 25. When the flowrate at the inlet opening of the pump is high enough. based on a stan- dard delivery head drop of 3 % on the NPSHRvis value with the corresponding viscous liquid: 1 NPSHRBEP-W CNPSH = 1 + { (A· CH ) − 1 · 274 000 · [ (QBEP-W)0. the friction increases. small amounts of the entrained gas are not separated and usually have no or only a small effect on the NPSHR value. this has a major effect on the pump suction.5 for lateral suction port A = 0. to an increase in the NPSHR value.Refrigeration. The equations here are used for calculating the correction factor for adjusting the NPSHR value for the pump water performance. given to the pump manufacturer. or in other words: The NPSHR value increases. there are larger gas build-ups. Gas dissolved in the fluid and gas entrained by the fluid in the form of dispersed bubbles impair the NPSHR value in a manner different from that of large gas bubbles.1 for axial inlet Wilo Planning Guide . As a general rule: Pumps with larger dimensions and consistent and wide impeller inlet openings are less susceptible when there are changes in the viscosity of the fluid. which volve a tolerance. this effect cannot be expressed using a single relationship for all the different pump designs and models. At the same A relatively exact calculation is made with the time. it must be observed that sion of air and vapour particles in the fluid. be determined by individually testing the pumps with the actual fluid at concrete operating con- The effect of viscosity on the NPSHR value is ditions. a special job order must be basically a function of the Reynolds number. With increasing vis.667 · N1. bubble formation is slowed down and ISO/TR 17766 and the Hydraulic Institute etc.PLH_KKK_U2_31. which in turn leads for converting from water to other viscosities.33 ]} A = 0.2007 11:01 Uhr Seite 17 F U N D A M E N TA L S Required NPSHRvis Conversion to new delivery data by means of EDP support The viscosity of the fluid has a two-fold influ- ence on the NPSHR value. However. To do this. This increases the point of the delivery head loss of 3 %. Then the NPSHR curves of the total delivery head change their shape from a well- defined "knee" to a step-like incline of the delivery head. stored data. the known calculation method according to Thus. However. The Wilo Select program is very recommendable cosity. a higher viscosity leads to reduced diffu. If.05. Exact specifications can only leads to a slight reduction in the NPSHR value. however. in- there is also a thermodynamic effect. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 17 .

PLH_KKK_U2_31.QXP 25.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 18 .05.

seals. These irregularities the mains frequency (100 Hz) and. especially during the night hours. The noise which comes formation. from the electromotor only belongs to the pump ates a more or less pronounced single sound. produc- cally be divided into the following main groups: tion imprecisions or material wear or accretion. sounds are Furthermore. the following regulations are to be ob- demands. The flow noises have various causes. centrifugal pumps modern balancing technology. the pump opera- tion in residential building systems requires special attention in the selection of suitable pumps / in the planning and execution of the installation. are not that impor- tant when the pumps are working properly.05. Cavitation noise Other noises The cavitation noises in a pump are caused by Furthermore. which lead to noise. is caused by the turbulence and places. Noises in pipelines • VDI 3743. Despite the most In residential building systems. Electromotor noise sult in alternating movements of the water flow Pumps are usually driven by electromotors in resi- off the pipe wall causing subsequent turbulence dential building systems. similar to the ber of blades.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 19 Noises – Airborne sound – Structure-borne sound To prevent or reduce potential bothersome noise. which lead to which are as quiet as possible. 1200 Hz. Noise with a high frequency range is pend on the pump rotation speed and the num. In the electromotor.). rolling noises from the ball bear- the formation and the sudden collapse of vapour ings as well as whistling noises on the dry-run- bubbles in flowing water. excited by mass forces. Emission characteristics of pumps Pumps as noise generators It is unavoidable that pumps make noise. the problem For the permitted noise level value in common of noise reduction plays a major role in comfort areas. Noise reduction in warm and hot- water heater systems • VDI 3733.QXP 25. A noise having a large frequency range. friction of the water particles on the surface of Vibrations caused by friction on bearings and the parts being flowed through. Especially in residential buildings. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 19 . Vibration insulation • VDI 2715. This periodical vortex shedding cre. produced by the fan of the motor. mostly between 600 and pipes. which sounds Noise due to friction on bearings and sealed like hissing. Noise protection in building con- struction • VDI 2062. Wilo Planning Guide . which is superimposed with the blade fre- of the pump. The frequency of imbalance vibrations is always the same as the rotational frequency of the ro- Flow noise tating parts. depending on lead to noise being generated in the connected the number of poles. shaft.Refrigeration. ning packing glands and mechanical seals can occur. coupling. noises. which can re. Frictional processes also cause an irregular speed distribution in the boundary layer. comes from alternating bearing forces.PLH_KKK_U2_31. Wilo as Noise due to mass forces a manufacturer is doing its best to deliver pumps Vibrations. The noise they make can basi. quency of the fan as a single sound. one refers to the blade frequency pump. served: • DIN 4109. are caused by imbalances in rotating parts (impeller. the speed of the flow fluctuates caused by electromagnetic processes at double after it leaves the impeller. etc. the imbalance are mostly used. Since the frequency of these noises de. noise when the pump and electromotor are de- signed in a block.

it be- and waterborne sound. causing In the case of disturbances in the residential the surrounding air to vibrate. this can be made to vibrate. structure. and therefore make up an ideal transmission system for noises.and waterborne sound are not directly the complex relationships. there is an audible area. which depend on various factors. Therefore. Practice shows that Thus. vibrations due to their elasticity. Here. then 50 the airborne noise of the transmitted noise also 40 remains under 30 dB in the lounge areas. At the usual sound-damping dimension. it is energy is enough to make the pipeline strongly very probable that this is the transmission of vibrate. noise. Pipelines are well suited for transmitting valuable tips here.and/or waterborne sound via the noise development. Structure-borne noise via the building structure In the case of resonance. Further- even pipelines have so-called resonance fre. Along the that resonance frequencies can occur in high pipeline. pipe wall in the pipework. is far out. If pump noises can be gins to resonate. always there. noise via the pipe system. the figure to the 80 Limit c right can be referred to for assessing permitted 70 urve airborne noise levels. the possibility of resonance occurring is they usually occur together.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 20 NOISES – AIRBORNE SOUND – STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND Airborne noise The airborne noise which comes directly from the pump can be heard in the boiler room. This also means that there is strong structure. which are caused by noises in residential airborne noise.QXP 25. Only when water- borne noise makes the pipe wall vibrate. have to be taken to prevent the unhindered weighed by the unfavourable property of the transmission of structure-borne and waterborne nearly lossless conduction via the pipeline sys. 60 If the octave spectrum of the circulating pump doesn't go over the limit at any frequency. a very low excitement noticed outside of the installation room. more. Like all elastic bodies. The VDI directive 2715 provides a few tem. discernible by the human ear.05. the main difficulty is the transmission of structure-borne and waterborne This property of not being directly discernible. however. ceilings via pipe fixtures. If this pipeline resonance frequency should 20 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . It is not possible to do a precalcu- lation of pipeline resonance frequencies due to Structure. vibrations can be introduced to walls and quencies. the noise is not only If a pump is directly connected with the building relayed. Vibration tests have shown building structure along the pipeline. measures which is to be considered favourable. but even amplified. building systems. waterborne noise spreads out via the numbers in systems designed in the frequency water column and structure-borne sound via the range of interest (between 50 and 1000 Hz). 125 250 500 1000 2000 4000 Hz Structure-borne sound and waterborne sound Completely different conditions may arise happen to be identical with the excitement fre- through the transmission of structure-borne quency coming from the circulating pump. it can hard- ly be heard when ceilings and walls of the boiler 90 dB room are built according to DIN 4109.PLH_KKK_U2_31. In the Limit for the octave spectrum neighbouring lounge areas.

2 to go without additional noise-reducing meas.8 automation systems. it is often possible Up to 1 1/4 or DN 32 up to 1. should be placed as far as possible from the living areas. • Pumps should be operated at the point of the best efficiency. if possible.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 21 NOISES – AIRBORNE SOUND – STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND Measures against noises A major precondition for the effective and sen. The pipeline on the pump inlet side should run • This demand can be best met by not making straight over a length of at least 5 · d in order to any exaggerated safety allowances in the pres. this also has an effect on the noise transmission. the pipeline the task to select floor plans so that favourable conduction and rate of flow play significant acoustic conditions can be created. Measures for avoiding flow noises due to sible protection against noise from pumps which pipeline conduction are installed in residential building systems is the cooperation of all parties involved in creating In the development of flow noises in a system the building. DN 40 and DN 50 up to 1.Refrigeration. 5d min r d s Wilo Planning Guide .QXP 25. Architects and planners are given made up of a pump and pipeline. Often. tem parts. nominal connection width of the pump.05. it is important to know that pumps with low r < 2. 3. in the designing of pumps for home DN 65 and DN 80 up to 1. economic efficiency. rooms roles. Long-distance lines 2.0 made much too high for the system resistance. Required cross-sectional modifications are to be so that no simple rules can be established. but In building installations also in noise behaviour. impeller inlet. which is then not operated at the point of optimum efficiency.5 ures. where one can say with certainty that noises can be completely ruled out. the safety allowances are DN 100 and greater up to 2. diameter is usually equal to or greater than the enced by the connected pipelines and other sys.5 to max. In selecting a suitable pump. or components with noise-generating appara- tuses. Flowrate It is to be observed that the nominal pipeline The operating behaviour of the pump is influ. Aspects for determining and selecting pumps Nominal connection widths DN Flowrate v Ø mm m/s Pumps should be operated at the point of opti- mum efficiency since then the optimum is not only reached in max. a large percentage of noise complaints are a result of this error.5 · (d · 2s) speeds generally demonstrate more favourable noise behaviour. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 21 . The table below contains nominal width-related recommendations for flow rates in the connec- The following items should always be observed tion of the pump. The relationships are so manifold. Then. designed favourable to flow and centrically.PLH_KKK_U2_31. Thus. Based on experience. which should not be exceeded when selecting a pump: in order to avoid noise. such as home technical systems. provide favourable hydraulic conditions at the sure loss calculation.5 This leads to an unnecessarily large pump being selected.

noise in pipelines can be prevented by special damping measures on the pump to the pipelines. ec. sudden Measures against waterborne and structure- cross-section changes are to be avoided. If the formation of air pockets can be expected. Here. Pipe support 22 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . it is to be made sure that the operating safety of the pump isn't impaired. flanges mum distance of 5 · d also has a favourable ef. A remarkable noise-reflecting effect from pipe- line direction changes is not expected with the wavelengths of the water-borne sound in home Pipe support.PLH_KKK_U2_31. • Expansion joints without length limitations fect on noise creation. Practically speaking. With these. The pipeline forces can theoretically reach 16 000 N for a pump with a nominal diameter of 100 and nominal pressure of 10. no additional pipeline forces act on the pump connection. especially elastic elements as well as rubber metal not on the entry side of the pump. due to the limited elasticity of the ex- pansion joints. Eccentric. Introducing waterborne and structure-borne centric adapters are preferable. For expansion joints with length limitation with- out elastic elements. No generally valid statements can be made at this time with regard to what 5d min connection forces are permissible. however. 5d min 5d min however. i. on the inlet connection adapter When sound-absorbing measures are taken.QXP 25. Avoid pipeline forces conical systems and the dimensions of the pipelines. these expansion joints have only a slight absorbing effect. But on the other hand. the largest addi- Gate valve tional pipeline forces act at the same time. functionally reliable damping elements must be selected. Expansion joints without length limitations have the greatest absorbing effect. borne sound propagation via pipelines This is possible using conical adapters. The fol- lowing expansion joints come into question as Large curvature radius absorbing elements: • Expansion joints with length limitation without elastic elements (lateral expansion joints) Fittings should not be installed in the pipeline • Expansion joints with length limitation with directly after the pump connection.e.05. only pipeline forces up to half this value can act.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 22 NOISES – AIRBORNE SOUND – STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND When the pipe diameter is reduced. a mini.

impeller with six blades) or the elec- tromagnetic frequency of 600 Hz. When absorbing elements are used.Refrigeration. i. Length limiters Expansion joint with length limitation without elastic ele- ments (lateral expansion joint) Elastic elements Expansion joint with length limitation with elastic elements The effectiveness of the absorbing measures can be seen in the figures on page 24. the high-frequency portions are considerably re- duced. Expansion joint without length their limited service life and sensitivity to hot limitation water are to be observed. both the high-frequency and low- frequency portions are greatly reduced. As can be seen. which include the unfiltered measuring signal and the filtered-out low. the state is shown with the pipeline connected with the pump.PLH_KKK_U2_31.QXP 25. In the sec- ond case. The absorbing measures described using the ex- ample of pumps having in-line construction can be also applied sensibly for pumps set up on the floor. their blade frequency of 150 Hz (4-pole elec- tromotor. Depicted are three different cases of structure-borne noise. In the first case.05. the state is shown after the installa- tion of rubber/metal pipe connectors on the in- let and outlet sides. Whether the absorbing measures in cases 2 and 3 are appropriate for the individual case depends on the frequency of the dominant system noise. By installing rubber expansion joints (third case).e. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 23 .and high-frequency portions. Wilo Planning Guide . which show oscillograms of structure-borne noise measurements on a pipeline made to vibrate by a heating circulation pump.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 23 NOISES – AIRBORNE SOUND – STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND The expansion joint with elastic length limitation Expansion joints is the "reasonable" compromise between noise absorption and connection forces in many appli- cations.

QXP 25.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 24 NOISES – AIRBORNE SOUND – STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND Expansion joints Structure-borne noise Case 1 measuring point Rigid installation.05. no absorbing effect Case 2 Structure-borne noise Only the high-frequency measuring point noise (600 Hz) is reduced with rubber/metal pipe connectors.PLH_KKK_U2_31. Structure-borne noise Case 3 measuring point The high-frequency noise (600 Hz) as well as the low- Support fixture with frequency noise (150 Hz) is rubber/metal element reduced by rubber expansion joints. Key: top: Overall measuring signal centre: low-frequency noise (150 Hz) bottom: high-frequency noise (600 Hz) 24 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .

QXP 25. Special care must be taken with pumps having varying speed.05. often plates made of natural cork. the pump ferr. 100 ∆l mm 80 The elastic elements are to be selected accord. the reso- base. the elastic support is absolutely rec- 120 f0 [Hz] ommendable. and for a speed under 1000 rpm. determined from the weight of the pump unit and the spring stiffness of the elastic elements. If pumps are set up on 140 16 floor slabs. This way.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 25 NOISES – AIRBORNE SOUND – STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND Measures against structure-borne noise trans- mission to the structure When pumps are set up on the floor. is also often required to support them with elas- tic elements between the baseplate and floor in 200 Damper compression under static load ∆l [mm] addition to vibration insulation from the pipe. In general.PLH_KKK_U2_31. mineral wool or rubber can be used as an elastic In order to achieve good absorption. Pipeline fixed point Pipeline fixed Concrete foundation as stabilising mass point Spring elements with dowels fastened or glued on Wilo Planning Guide . in order to The resonance frequency of the system fO can be suppress structure-borne noise transmission. When pumps are set up on the base- ment floor. the resonance frequency is reduced by increasing the foundation mass. nance frequency of the system f0 must lie consi- derably below the excitement frequency from In the figure it is shown how the vibration dam. The spring stiffness must decrease with decreasing speed.Refrigeration. ping of a pump unit is to be designed. the oscillation amplitude can be unit. for a speed between 1000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Resonance frequency f0 [Hz] and 3000 rpm rubber/metal elements can be used. 180 lines. Put simply. it seen in the diagram below. vibration transmission to the 160 structure is prevented. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 25 . 20 natural cork plates can be used for a speed of 0 3000 rpm and more. The absorption effect depends on the resonance In the case of pumps which don't have balanced frequency of the elastically supported pump mass forces. 60 ing to the lowest excitement frequency (this is 40 usually the speed). spiral springs.

When laying the pipe it is to be made sure that there is never a fixed. rigid connection with the building structure. There are also prefabricated collars available in special stores which meet all requirements for good in- sulation against structure-borne noise. Suitable prefabricated fixing elements are available in special stores.05. Every impairment in the freedom of movement of the pump unit ruins the absorption effect or at least reduces it con- siderably.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 26 NOISES – AIRBORNE SOUND – STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND Pipe suspension When designing the elastic support. bypassing the elastic support with plaster or tile is to be avoided. There- fore. Structure-borne noise-absorbing pipe feed-through The pipe insulation against structure-borne noise with respect to the building structure must be executed with great care since every mistake. can ruin the entire insu- lation effort. make sure that no acoustical bridges are created. S = vibration damping Special attention is to be given to pipe feed- throughs through walls and ceilings.PLH_KKK_U2_31.QXP 25. 26 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . This is es- pecially to be made sure when installing pipes in the wall. even at only one place. The pipe fixtures should be insulated from structure-borne noise.

Water temperature °C 3 140 For installation altitudes higher than 100 m. which depends on the NPSH on the suction side of the pump value of the pump and the water temperature. 100 0 0. Each pump size has its own NPSH curve at a given speed. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 27 . the "minimum required net head" at the inlet of the pump is required (see pump cata- logue). The following applies: 130 P* = PE + X · 0. which is equal to or greater than the NPSH value of the pump at the most unfavourable duty point.QXP 25. Required inlet pressure depending on temperature the NPSH value of the pump. The figure shows the value of the overpressure compared to the atmospheric pressure which must at least be available at the pump suction side. noise behaviour and smooth pump operation are negatively influenced and can even lead to ma- terial damage. the read-off value PE. which was determined by the pump manufacturer by means of meas- urement. Cavitation is the formation and sudden collapse of vapour bubbles. measured above sea level. 2 is to be corrected. shown vs. 110 stallation site. overpressure against the atmospheric pressure flow rate of 2 m/s and for an installation altitude of 100 m above sea level.5 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 NPSH in accordance with pump curve [m] Wilo Planning Guide . To keep these faults from occurring during oper- ation.PLH_KKK_U2_31. The curves apply for a maximum Req. Cavitation must be avoided since the flow rate. The vapour bubbles form in places where the pressure of the flowing fluid drops until the value of the vapour pressure reaches the value which the fluid has at the prevailing temperature.05. This NPSH value depends on the flow in every pump. 5 PE [bar] The figure indicates the minimum required over- pressure with respect to the atmospheric pres- sure which must be available at the suction port 4 of the pump. The planner must provide an "NPSH system" in the system.0001 120 1 The value X is the real altitude (in m) of the in.Refrigeration. The vapour bubbles are carried off with the flow and collapse when the pressure increases above the vapour pressure further along the flow path.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 27 NOISES – AIRBORNE SOUND – STRUCTURE-BORNE SOUND Pressure on the suction port of the pump Sufficient pressure on the suction port of the pump should prevent cavitation on the impeller.

QXP 25.05.PLH_KKK_U2_31.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 28 .

or better 60°. The useful volume of the pump sump is calculated with : Abbreviation Description Qe + Qa Z maximum permissible number of switches per hour Qm = Qzu Delivery in m3/h 2 Qe Flow at the switching-on point in m3/h Qa Flow at the switching-off point in m3/h Qm . it must be avoided that solid matter gets deposited on the floor. If contaminated fluids are used.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 29 Pump intake Pump sump A pump sump is required when there is irregular intake and pumping off of the delivered fluid.Qzu VN Useful volume of the pump sump in m3 VN = Qzu · Qm · Z Any backflow volume is to be added to this. an impact sur- face in the pump sump is recommendable. 45 to 60° 0.QXP 25. This can be avoided with inclined dE Suction pipe walls of at least 45°. Pump sump with impact surface Impact surface Wilo Planning Guide . Suction tank if necessary.Refrigeration. The size of the sump depends on the pump flow and the permissible switching frequency of the electromotor.5 dE To avoid turbulence and the formation of shear- ing forces due to irregular intake.PLH_KKK_U2_31. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 29 .05.

Feed line incorrect Also. Also.5 dE > dE Inlet diameter of the suction pipe B or the inlet nozzle in m If the minimum submergence can't be provided.5 dE S are to be provided to prevent turbulence caused dE _ dE > S by air suction.90 1. vE vE B B Suction tank and float The minimum submergence Smin for the recommended flow rates of Float 0.70 0.5 to 3 m/s are: Suction pipe DN 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 Smin m 0. an air hose forms from the sur- surface face to the suction line.81 m/s2 _ 6 dE > _ 5. When there is insufficient coverage.25 0.3 · vS · DN 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 150 200 g B in mm 40 40 65 65 80 80 100 100 150 Abbreviation Description Smin Minimum submergence in m Suction and minimum distances vS Rate of flow = Q/900 dE2 in m/s.65 0.35 0.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 30 P U M P I N TA K E Suction lines and suction tanks Suction tank with impact surface In order to prevent air or turbulence from enter- ing the suction line. turbulence caused by air suction can result. Suction tank For an exact calculation. Beginning with a funnel-shaped depression in Impact the fluid level.25 30 Subject to change without prior notice 08/2006 WILO AG . This results in turbulent flow and a drop in pump performance. it must be made sure that there is a suffi- ciently high fluid coverage over the suction opening. impact surfaces should be included.05. the distance between the Suction line suction and inlet lines must be sufficiently large.80 0. the following formula is to be used according to the Hydraulic Institute: The minimum distances of the suction line from walls and tank floor: dE Smin = dE + 2. floats or swirl-preventing conductor surfaces 0. The in- let pipe must always enter under the fluid level.QXP 25.75 0. recommended 1 to 2 m/s but not > 3 m/s dE _ dE > Q Flow in m3/h S g Gravitational acceleration 9.65 0.PLH_KKK_U2_31.

Air pocket formation caused by leaks are to be avoided under all circumstances (pump damage. fine filters must be kept away from the suction side. suction. a maximum of 7 to 8 m suction head can least the nominal diameter of the pump port. The line should be kept as short as possible. Especially the pump suction port. The suction line is to be installed so that it has a continuous incline to the pump and a foot valve (floating discharge) is to be installed which prevents the line from running empty. If the pump impeller is not under the fluid level. This tedious procedure can be avoided when the inlet of the suction pipe is equipped with a foot valve (non-return valve). operating faults). the pump and suction line must be filled with fluid. Suction operation Due to losses in the connection lines. The head difference is but if possible.PLH_KKK_U2_31. Venting is only required at the initial commissioning or when a fitting is leaky.and pressure-proof spiral hoses should be used. air-conditioning and cooling technology 08/2006 31 .05.2007 11:02 Uhr Seite 31 P U M P I N TA K E Suctioning The standard circulation pumps are not self. Suction line installation correct incorrect Wilo Planning Guide . When hose lines are installed. Foot valve priming. In long suc- tion lines. should be one nominal diameter measured from the surface of the water level to larger. increased friction resistances arise which strongly impair the suction head.Refrigeration. Reductions are to be avoided. pump and Suction lines are to be installed which have at fittings. be achieved in practice.QXP 25. This means that the suction line and the pump housing on the suction side have to be vented so that the pump can work.

QXP 25.05.2007 10:10 Uhr Seite 32 .PLH_KKK_32_85.

any reduction of flow volume (Q) due to throttling of the hydraulic regulating devices Control curve for remote signal transmitters will in turn decrease the pump performance to match actual system demand by reducing the Delivery head H [m] speed of the pump. The same result can be achieved with Wilo con- The circulating pump designed for maximum trol devices which aren't directly mounted on load status is adapted by means of a continuous the pump. etc. ing output requirement of the system being This can help avoid throttling and makes an supplied. setpoint/actual-value comparison to the rele- vant system operating state. An alterna- HS over the permitted volume flow range. able to control the mass flow automatically. • Influence of hydraulic control devices.2007 10:10 Uhr Seite 33 Pump performance control The volume flow conveyed through a circulating Electronically controlled pumps from Wilo are pump is dependent on the thermal output/cool. duty point able flow volume in the system. Operation with a remote signal transmitter will partly allow much larger speed re- ductions and thus pump performance reductions. throttling elements can also be • User behaviour done without. Wilo Planning Guide . the electronics cir. This way. on the following factors: In addition to the reduced power consumption • Climatic changes of the pump. If the capacity of the controlled System curve for the base-load pump becomes insufficient to cover measuring point the increasing load demand the second pump will automatically be started to operate in paral. will be effected automatically and load- sensitively. In parallel with speed alter.. e. Mea- suring points ranging from 2 to 4 can be com- HSetpoint-min pared on a continuous basis. additional installation • Extraneous heat influence and material costs can be noticeably reduced.QXP 25. e. the power consumption is reduced to be- Intersection low 50 % of the nominal power. The application point = of differential-pressure control requires a vari. Pump curve ation. Control mode ∆p-c In the ∆p-c control mode. tive would be to install the signal transmitter in the system – as a remote signal transmitter in the so-called index circuit of the system (control- ∆p-c control range extension). This requirement fluctuates depending adjustment to the system duty point possible. I. ferential-pressure directly at the pump and to ated by the pump constant at the setpoint value maintain it there at a constant level. optimisation by means of the HSetpoint ∆p-c Wilo DDG impulse selector is preferable. It is essential in this respect that the selected Delivery head H [m] nmax measuring point is valid for the consumption performance of all the system sections. Where this calculated measuring point in the index cir- nregel cuit may be subject to shifting to other parts of the pipe system. Flow Q [m³/h] lel to cover the risen demand.Refrigeration. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 33 . Only the lowest measured value forms the basis for the set- point/actual value comparison by the CR con- Flow Q [m³/h] troller. This automatic control serves to adapt the pump performance and thus also the power consumption continu- ously to the actual requirement/demand.g. It is generally recommended to pick off the dif- cuitry maintains the differential pressure gener. in conjunction with a twin-head pump.PLH_KKK_32_85. The variable speed pump will then be run down until reaching the preset differential-pressure setpoint value.05. Peak-load oper- ation.

stalling individual room controls.2007 10:10 Uhr Seite 34 PUMP PERFORMANCE CONTROL ∆p-v control mode When refurbishing or upgrading existing sys. amplifiers. kept by the pump linearly between HS and 1/2 ferential pressure. Original installations have HS. in addition to the differential pressure Delivery head H [%] sensor which is to be fitted directly on the pump system. long signal distances cannot be bridged. nregel HSetpoint ½ HSetpoint ∆p-c HSetpoint-min Flow Q [m³/h] Differential pressure – delivery-superimposed (∆p-q) In order to avoid the time and expenditure asso. A control-range exten- sion is nevertheless possible using the ∆p-v Delivery head H [m] nmax control mode (recommended for single-pump systems). The use of ∆p-q control is recommended for ciated with index-circuit evaluation (extensive such systems whose index circuit or system per- and expensive cable routing. (∆p-q) tial pressure sensor at the pump).05.QXP 25. ularly for such systems where volume-flow portional to delivery. after in. the electronics tems it is not always possible to evaluate the change the differential pressure setpoint to be point in the circuit which shows the lowest dif.). noise problems have developed. The index circuit of the system is not known or it is not possible to integrate ∆p-v control new sensor connections.PLH_KKK_32_85. the onsite provision by the customer of a volume-flow transmitter ∆p = constant (0/4– 20 mA) to be installed in the system's ∆p = delivery-super- imposed main feed pipe. formance is not known or in such cases where it is possible to superimpose the setpoint differ. possible even with multi-pump systems to achieve a control-range extension in spite Differential pressure – delivery-superimposed of central measured-value acquisition (differen. In the ∆p-v control mode. Flow volume Q [%] 34 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . The differential pressure setpoint H changes been completed years ago and now. it is transmitters are already available. partic- ential-pressure value directly with a signal pro. with the flow Q. This method requires. etc. the cooling-circuit output or the input of the consumer rail. Using this method.

This temperature- prompted differential-pressure control mode Hmax pos. floating circuitry.. The current speed is shown on the dis. When the signal transmitter DDG 40 is used. this applies for all other measuring ranges. Analogously. DDC operation always means that a signal from ment required for control is referred to a remote the higher-ordered controller must be registered controller. An analogue signal (0. tacts for switching on-/off.PLH_KKK_32_85.g. for example. Details can be found in the product catalogues. that the setpoint at 0 % is equal to zero meters and at 100 % is equal to 40 meters..5 3 10 U [V] 0/2 V 10 V 0/4 mA 20 mA Signal input When a Wilo control device is used. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 35 . Conversely. In addition. operation can be used in constant-volume (e.2007 10:10 Uhr Seite 35 PUMP PERFORMANCE CONTROL ∆p-T control mode In the ∆p-T control mode (programmable only ∆p-T control with the IR-Monitor) the electronics circuitry varies the setpoint differential pressure value to Delivery head H [m] be maintained by the pump as a function of the measured fluid temperature. operation mode supports heating pump technology. DDC pump operating mode with built-in electronic circuitry DDC operating mode with Wilo switchgear Setpoint n [1/min] nmax 100% nmin Off 0% 1 1. this means. signals or 0.10 V (0/4-20 mA) signals can be play. troller to the Wilo pumps with built-in electronic depending on the used product.10 V) is fed as by the Wilo products. the setpoint depends on the used signal transmitter. feed temperature..05. etc. used by the Wilo products for monitoring and tivated.Refrigeration. logging. floating con- a manipulated variable from the external con. Wilo Planning Guide . Tmin Tmax Tmed Qmin Qmax Flow Q [m³/h] DDC operating mode In this mode the actual/setpoint level assess.QXP 25.. Also. one-pipe systems) and variable-flow systems with varying Hvar. the ∆p-T control Hmin neg. and manual operation of the pump is deac. are required. pro- vided the pump is installed in the return pipe of the system.

2007 10:10 Uhr Seite 36 .05.PLH_KKK_32_85.QXP 25.

By means of heat recovery.Refrigeration. Thus. usually in- stalled on top of the building. Due to the Open cooling tower system constant oxygen supply. By using stainless steel and/or plastic material on the primary side of the exchanger. takes over heat dissipation out of the condenser. using a suction well and sinkhole.PLH_KKK_32_85. to protect Closed cooling tower system in the condenser circuit against deposits and corrosion. one distinguishes between the cooling circuit in open and closed systems. They are dimensioned from the delivery head for the total pressure losses in the condenser circuit Capacitors Vaporiser and the geodetic head difference between the well floor and the highest point in the heat ex- changer system. corrosion damage can be avoided. pumps made of red brass or plastic material should be selected. They are dimensioned from the delivery head for the total pressure losses in the condenser circuit and the geodetic head difference be. ground or river water can be utilised for the primary circuit. Or the hot side of the generator is cooled with the air. The refrigerating ma- chine can be made out of the usual materials. it is also possible to heat parts of buildings at the same time. The first filling is to be done with water according to VDI 2035 etc. 24°C Capacitors Vaporiser tween the well floor and the highest point in the nozzle fitting of the cooling tower.2007 10:10 Uhr Seite 37 Generator circuits in the liquefier part On the generator side. 28°C 24°C Condenser Vaporiser Wilo Planning Guide . The pumps Ground water for indirect utilisation in the condenser could also be installed in a river or a reservoir. Ground water for direct utilisation in the condenser rectly with well water. Cooling tower/emergency cooler Submersible pumps supply the condenser di. They are dimensioned from the delivery head for Condenser Vaporiser the total pressure losses in the condenser circuit and the geodetic head difference between the well floor and the highest point in the vaporiser system. If there is continuous water conditioning. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 37 . A cooling tower with collection tray. standard material can be selected. Submersible pumps supply the plate heat ex- changer directly with well water. The pumps could also be installed in a river or a reservoir.QXP 25. The submersible pumps must be resistant to water corrosion. Since this is a closed circuit.05. 28°C normal cast-iron designs can also be used.

the pump in the condenser circuit is only to be de- signed for the pressure losses in the condenser and pipeline up to the distributor/collector. It's better to supply the emergency cooler with its own pump circuit.gas boiler Direct heating with cooling water The cooling water warmed up in the condenser of the refrigerating machine is used directly for heating tasks. The material selection is to be adapted to the heat- ing circuit. If an emergency-cooler is added to M M the condenser circuit. the emer- gency cooling is only possible as a closed cool- ing tower. To protect against corro- sion.QXP 25. If an emergency-cooler is added to the condenser circuit. Due to the direct connection. the pump is to be determined M M based on its requirements and there must be hy- draulic balancing between the heat exchanger and emergency cooler.05. the emergency cooling only makes sense as a closed cooling tower.gas boiler 38 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . Due to galvanic insu- lation. The material selection is arbitrary due to the closed circuit.2007 10:10 Uhr Seite 38 G E N E R AT O R C I R C U I T S I N T H E L I Q U E F I E R PA R T Heat recovery Indirect heating with cooling water The cooling water warmed up in the condenser of the refrigerating machine is used for heating tasks via a heat exchanger. Capacitors Vaporiser Gross calorific value .PLH_KKK_32_85. Capacitors Vaporiser Gross calorific value . the pump in the condenser circuit is only to be designed for these pressure losses. To protect against corrosion. the pump is to be deter- mined based on its requirements and there must be hydraulic balancing between the heat ex- changer and emergency cooler.

air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 39 .QXP 25. The material properties are to be adapted to these requirements.PLH_KKK_32_85. Condenser Vaporiser Wilo Planning Guide . the pump is storage only to be designed based on these frictional re- sistances. the pump is only to be designed based on these frictional resistances. Condenser Vaporiser In the closed circuit between the condenser and Ground spikes for cooling and for heat storage ground spike.2007 10:10 Uhr Seite 39 G E N E R AT O R C I R C U I T S I N T H E L I Q U E F I E R PA R T Geothermal power in the condenser circuit In the closed circuit between the condenser and Ground collector for cooling and for heat heat exchanger line in the ground.05. For reasons of frost protection. For rea- sons of frost protection. it may make sense to use a mixture of glycol and water as the fluid. it may make sense to use a mixture of glycol and water as the fluid.Refrigeration. The material properties are to be adapted to these requirements.

QXP 25.05.PLH_KKK_32_85.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 40 .

It might be necessary to select a higher flow to ensure the minimum volume flow in the vaporiser circuit.QXP 25. The pump is to be dimensioned based on the pressure loss in the vaporiser and the resist- ances over the decoupler. There is also a danger of freezing when the To realise fault-free operation of cold-water throughput is too low. the water volume is to be throttled to the nominal power. The volume flow of the load is to be guaranteed. Despite this strict re- quirement for a constant water volume flow in the vaporiser. difficulties can be expected in the con- trol of refrigerating machines. Otherwise. in the recent past. Thus.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 41 Generator circuits in the vaporiser part Independent of the basic hydraulic concept. Capacitors Vaporiser An overflow from the feed to the return of the decoupler circuit ensures that the volume flow Vaporiser circuit with constant volume flow by means of hydraulic remains constant and that a malfunction in the decouplers control of the vaporiser performance is ruled out. Constant volume flow in the vaporiser circuit An overflow from the feed to the return of the Vaporiser circuit with constant volume flow by means of a valve circuit valve circuit ensures that the volume flow re- mains constant and that a malfunction in the control of the vaporiser performance is ruled M M M out. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 41 . energy-saving speed-con- trolled pumps can also be used in the primary circuit. The demand for a con. in most cooling sys- tems. The volume flow of the vaporiser is the required pump flow. divides the network into primary and secondary for all changes caused by the air-conditioning circuits. one stant vaporiser water flow must be met. refrigerating machines were developed which allow a variable volume flow. there is the requirement that the water mass flow through the vaporiser may only deviate from the nominal water mass flow by at most 10%. The pump is to be dimensioned with respect to the pressure loss on the load which lies in the hydraulically most unfavourable position. control in the load part. networks with several generators and loads. On the loads lying in front of it. Capacitors Vaporiser Wilo Planning Guide .PLH_KKK_32_85. then.Refrigeration.05.

the M pump capacity can be adapted to the require- M ments of the load via temperature regulation.PLH_KKK_32_85. The complete volume flow Vaporiser circuit with variable volume flow by means of a valve circuit for the load and the overflow part for the pump capacity must be taken into account. On the one hand. the pipeline for connection to the decoupler might have to be designed larger than what the vaporiser capacity requires.05. M In some modern refrigerating machines. M To ensure the load capacity. and on the other hand. M cooling generators are not necessarily suitable for this. circulation pumps require a minimum volume flow for self- cooling and self-lubrication. If the connection is near the distribution line. Three-way valves in front of the loads are only required when a longer connection line is necessary. the pump capacity can be adapted to the require- ments of the load via differential pressure regu- lation. The minimum volume flow for the vapor- iser and/or the pump can be ensured by the Capacitors Vaporiser overflow part. The pump is to be dimensioned based on the pressure loss in the vaporiser and the resist- ances over the decoupler. The minimum volume flow for the vaporiser is guaranteed by the speed limitation of the pump drive. Capacitors Vaporiser Vaporiser circuit with variable volume flow over the load M M Capacitors Vaporiser 42 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .QXP 25. The volume flow for the vaporiser capacity is the required pump flow. the time until cold fluid is there is usually ac- M ceptable. In modern refrigerating machines. More details can M be found in the respective catalogues. The overflow volume must be so large that it is guaranteed that the supply line to the load is kept cold.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 42 G E N E R AT O R C I R C U I T S I N T H E VA P O R I S E R PA R T Variable volume flow in the vaporiser circuit Vaporiser circuit with variable volume flow via a hydraulic decoupler An overflow from the feed to the return of the decoupler circuit ensures that the volume flow remains constant and that a malfunction in the control of the vaporiser performance is ruled out. Right now there are only a few possible applica- tions for regulating the pump capacity between zero and the nominal volume.

the temperature of the air (convection). there are always only pumps can work without flow. Flow rate control with straight-through valve at constant feed temperature M Flow rate control with distributor valve at constant feed temperature M Wilo Planning Guide . heating and flow. a balancing valve is installed in the bypass. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 43 . by a fixed. Volume flow control ing systems for room temperature adjustment. In the three-pipe installation.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 43 G E N E R AT O R C I R C U I T S I N T H E VA P O R I S E R PA R T Cold-water load There are two main differences in air-condition. throttled bypass or a bypass con- nection means that the cooling and heating part troller. To avoid damage two pipes. the cooling the room temperature is controlled via radiant capacity is adjusted by means of changing flow.PLH_KKK_32_85. all loads may not be connected this way. secondly. It's possible to control the overflow volume cooling have a common return. distribution line is not far away from the load. an over- a common conductor or by one each for heating flow section compensates.05. three. is adjusted. In order that only shown with a feed and return. only the cooling part is changing the flow in the load. the rerouting or heating part so that the temperature in the room distribution circuit is to be selected. The capacity is adjusted to the room load by In the following figures. pipe connection. For hydraulic structures. both systems can have a two-. Transmission into the room can only occur via when a volume limit is fallen short of.or four. position of all control valves is monitored. end of the network there is a controlled over- tures. such as cooling ceilings or via This circuit is only recommendable when the component tempering. or at the can be maintained for lower outdoor tempera. and this is also the case for fresh air. heat exchangers. A bypass controller is optimal when the are installed separately up to the heat exchang. The third and fourth pipes are for the from freezing or dry running. Four-pipe con. Not all refrigerating machines or circulating For cold-water transport. Because the room load is constantly changing which is fed to the room.Refrigeration. so much flows through the bypass as is needed for temperature maintenance or for maintaining the required minimum volume for the refrigerat- ing machine and/or the pump. and er.QXP 25. or cooling. Firstly. Usually.

This means that in the feed with an admix valve. depending on the change in the fluid temperature by extrane- ous influences. In order to retain good load circuit controllability and to protect the pump from Temperature control with admix valve damaging thrust forces. If zero cooling capacity is set by the valve setting in the load circuit. The volume flow in the load ferential pressure controller is to be put in the circuit remains constant.QXP 25. For this reason. after it. The pump is to be designed according to the ca- The admix circuit can be used for controlled pacity and frictional resistances in the load cir- dehumidification and to prevent falling under cuit. There should be a differential pressure of the dew point. The differential pressure controller must always be installed in the same line.05. The feed temperature can be zero on the input side of the control loop. a differential pressure of < _ 0. The reason for this installation is the pressurising system in the load circuit – simultaneously closed fittings in the feed and return interrupt these. there is a pressure drop or rise. 44 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .WAT E R L O A D Temperature control Flow rate control is not always favourable.PLH_KKK_32_85. Therefore. connection line of the load circuit without auxil- iary power. a dif- point of the system. even with kept by measuring the actual value at the critical controlled feeder pumps. This adjusted to the room load and the limits can be cannot always be achieved in practice. it is to be installed before the valve. and in the return with a distrib- utor valve. every circulating pump transfers its energy to the fluid and a pressure rise in the load circuit results with a closed connection to the distributor circuit. where the pressure protection is.3 bar is to be maintained.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 44 C O L D . M A distributor valve in the return fulfils the same control function as the admix valve in the feed.

2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 45 Wilo Planning Guide .05.QXP 25. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 45 .Refrigeration.PLH_KKK_32_85.

PLH_KKK_32_85.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 46 .05.QXP 25.

When there's a change in the specific heat ca- draulic decoupler. the specific factor is also to be redeter- mined.PLH_KKK_32_85. This KJ S means that the circulated volume must have Qw [kW] · 3600 such a high storage capacity that the minimum s h running time of the cooling generator is exceed.34 = cles. pacity. The refrigerating machines require a volume throughput to prevent icing.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 47 Observation of constraints for pumps and refrigerating machines There are physical limits for all technical devices. Factor = = = 14. The size of the hy- draulic decoupler as a buffer is to be determined as follows: Hydraulic decoupler circuit as buffer kW · Ftl · 14.2 KJ · h · K h h The objective is to guarantee economic efficien. If the water volume which is required for the smallest control level of the vapor- iser doesn't flow.QXP 25. mechanical damage will result without a safety shutdown.34 operation is possible when the switch-on/off cycles alternate as seldom as possible. Minimum run-time of refrigeration generators and buffer mode When operating with constant water flow.34 · min Si = ∆tw Capacitors Vaporiser The minimum system content (Si) depends on kW Nominal cooling capacity Ftl Partial load factor for multistage cooling generators min Minimum running time ∆tw Temperature difference Cpw Spec. · = m w ed. From experience. safe Derivation of the specific factor 14. long switch-on/off cy. and therefore to get long running/idle times min h · 60 min min min for the cold-water generator and the hydraulic decoupling from the cold-water generator and consumer system. kg · k KJ · kg · K · 3600 s kg kg · = mw = 857 860 Buffer s · 4.05. one knows that 90 % of KJ systems aren't suitable for this without taking Cpw 4.Refrigeration. heat capacity Wilo Planning Guide . L 860 kg h kg L cy and operating safety.2 · K [∆tw] additional measures. This is possible with a hy. This efficiency is enhanced by nozzle pipes and layering sheets in the tank. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 47 .

the ice storage pump must overcome resistances of valves 3 and 4 as well as that of the ice storage. past several years. including the recooling Three different load statuses are given for the capacity. 48 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . a control of the vaporiser pump over spective load statuses are shown in the table the volume or temperature is recommended at above. Only valve 2 is present as are covered by the stored ice.PLH_KKK_32_85. 5. The refrigerating machine and its connected load. vaporiser pump. 50 % of the peak load is alone in the network. Based on these re- The switching states of the valves for the re. If peak load operation is required. If the ice stor- made via a hydraulic decoupler. the vaporiser outlet. another resistance of the ice storage pump is only necessary with large volume flow. Depending on the system structure.Valve 1 Valve 2 Valve 3 Valve 4 Valve 4 Valve 4 Valve 5 Operating mode ing machine pump age pump Gate 1 Gate 2 Gate 3 Discharge ice storage Off Off On Closed Open Open Regulating Regulating Regulating Closed Refrigerating machine on network On On Off Closed Open Open / / / Closed Discharge ice storage Refrigerating machine On On On Open Closed Open Regulating Regulating Regulating Closed on network Charge ice storage Off On Off Open Closed Closed Closed Open Open Open Ice storage Air-conditioning systems with maintenance. as well as for the ice storage.05. the power losses for valves 1 and insulator (heat exchanger).ice storage operation Refrigerat. since additional flow is forced by the vaporiser free ice storage systems have been built for the circuit. When the ice storage is discharged. the resistances from valves 1. First the refrigerating machine Load peaks over approx. heat carrier. is only dimensioned for the basic load. quirements. Various flow resistances result from the control with effects on the circulating pumps. In peak load op- eration. 3 and 4 as well as the connection to the house system might be that of the ice storage are there.Vaporiser Ice stor. or by a system age is charged.QXP 25. Brine serves as a a resistance. depending on the position of valve 1. are to be over- come by the vaporiser pump.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 48 P R O T E C T I O N O F P U M P S A N D R E F R I G E R AT I N G M A C H I N E S Hydraulic connection of ice storage Valve 2 M Valve 3 M M Valve 4 Ice bank 1 Ice bank 2 M M Valve 5 Valve 1 Ice bank pump Vaporiser pump Capacitors Vaporiser Function table .

to protect the refrigerating machine. differential pressure or volume flow switch- es can be used for flow control. Flow controller dle. i. The cooling water outlet temperature depends on the circu- lated volume and the inlet temperature. protection Hot gas sensor In the event of a shutdown. and because the Vaporiser flow volume can be throttled by the system or Frost-protection sensor compressor capacities can be incorrectly con.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 49 F U S E P R O T E C T I O N O F P U M P S A N D R E F R I G E R AT I N G M A C H I N E S Protection of the refrigerating machine in the vaporiser circuit The vaporiser circuit is influenced by its circu. ted from faulty static and dynamic pressures by ing system. function state. 5 bar/4 °C its nominal power without a motor protection Thermal protection relay releasing. decouplers are recommendable. In addition. temperature in sinkholes or floor heating may In order for the flow volume to be guaranteed not exceed a maximum permissible value. In the usual case. The circulating pump runs under approx. the drive can be operated Expansion valve with slippage.05. pipework cally without current might be necessary for in accordance with Tichelmann or with hydraulic this.e. In order for the flow volume to be guaranteed during the parallel Protection of the refrigerating machine in the condenser circuit The setback of the condenser temperature has Condenser circuit with minimum protection operational limits. "Off". The temperatures in the con- denser depend on the compressor capacity and the inlet and outlet temperatures. to avoid damage. Thus. Minimum values are required for the function of the refrigerating machine. Circu. Safety requirements for operating cooling generators lating pumps require between 2 seconds and a minute to reach the nominal power. the standard circu- lating pump stops in less than 2 seconds. the inlet a pressurising system and a safety relief valve.QXP 25. ers with their own circulating pumps. the condenser circuit is to be protec- measures are required for protecting the recool. or if approx. temperature monitoring at the output of the Capacitors Vaporiser condenser is sufficient. recommendable. Pad.PLH_KKK_32_85. during the parallel operation of several vaporis- Quick-acting valves which can close automati. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 49 . Before the compressor is switched on. If a Condenser ND pressure control phase is missing in three-phase operation. 15 bar/45 °C there is undervoltage. Phase sequence relay 12 °C 6 °C trolled. the vaporiser pump must be switched on and have a follow-up time. pipework in accordance with the frost protection and/or /flow controller Tichelmann or with hydraulic decouplers are switch the refrigerating machine to the mal. Wilo Planning Guide . circulating pumps. the vaporiser circuit must be equipped with frost protection and flow controllers.Refrigeration. depending HD pressure control Thermal on the ignition/start circuit. and are to be gotten from the documentation of the respec- tive manufacturer. If the pump capacity is too low. Under certain circumstances. Due to this. further safety In addition. the vaporiser circuit is to be protected from faulty static and dynamic pressures by a pressurising system and a safety relief valve. especially of the expansion valves. operation of several vaporisers with their own lating pump.

The lubrication films on the rotating parts which come in contact with the fluid are destroyed. Fluid lating pump. water treated in accordance with VDI 2035 or VDTÜV approved An excessively high static pressure can cause the fluids should be filled. see the cata- housing to burst or seals to become ineffective. forces. lubrication stops and in the case of glanded a density and viscosity of 1 is assumed. the bearing flow rate for water in their catalogues. This state can be avoided by means of differen- tial pressure control or volume limiters at the pump. which leads to premature wear in the bearings and seals. fluids. and energy transport will not be consistent.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 50 F U S E P R O T E C T I O N O F P U M P S A N D R E F R I G E R AT I N G M A C H I N E S Protection of circulating pumps If the constraints are not observed. temperatures. Also. for whatever rea- or air suctioning. the delivery data of the pump becomes apparent after a while. circulating If. For this reason. brine is filled. the fluid Excessively high differential pressures between is to be subjected to continuously monitored the suction and pressure side of the pump lead treatment and suitable materials are to be se- to overheating in the pump compartment due to lected. mechanical seal is missing. and pressure side of the pump. All manufacturers specify the the conditions. Any de- pumps. Efficient operation is If water mixtures are used. depending on no longer applies. lines and will cause premature wear in the rotat- ing parts of the pump. or a pressure reducer can be hibitors of the brine will dissolve the rust in the installed in front of the pump. An excessively high contact pressure in mechan- ical seals can lead to elevated temperatures and If. power supplies. ed after it. pump free lead to a sufficient concentration everywhere wheeling valves or with overflow controllers. In open systems. for example. for example. For details. locations and of a partial load. a system was pressurised with premature wear in the seal. a differ- Fluid pressures ential pressure controller in front of the second- ary pump is the solution. draulic decoupler as a feeder for a load connect- rect pressures. Adding admixtures later will not by differential pressure control. This can be managed mixing ratio. The load pumps are then started up and too many run. This can be avoided by monitoring the inlet pressure with pressure Abrasive substances in the fluid lead to prema- gauges-/or vacuum meters. the cooling film on the surface of the viation from this means another flow rate. it must be made sure that in the case cuits.QXP 25. logues or offers for the respective types. 50 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . If such an operational situation is to be expected. Overall. sure of this pump isn't too high.05. but son. a pump is installed after a hy- pumps can be damaged or destroyed by incor. In glandless pumps. The housing and impeller can be damaged or destroyed by cavitation due to excessively low static pressure on the suction side of the circu. the in- pressure controller. The pump can be water. vibrations. the residual differential pres- control-/operating modes. The suction connection is also me- chanically destroyed if oscillations are also If the planning of the system was done with wa- formed in the suction line due to gas formation ter as the heat carrier and if. the system is to be not reachable since the performance in such an filled from a premixing tank with the correct operating situation is low. emptied and after six weeks was filled switched off just to make sure with a maximum up with a commercially available brine. there is usually an increased danger of The differential pressure between the suction corrosion. ture pump failure. which lies to the right outside of the documented manufacturer characteristic curve. the drive energy. leads to an overload of the drive and to impermissible forces on the bearing. cir. This won't happen directly.PLH_KKK_32_85.

The mains is to be connected appropriately for tem without tension in and loads on the con. cavitation or excessive tures above 110°C. The pump when its pressure capacity has been electrodrive can't be operated under 0°C or over reached. valves or admixing valves of the loads are closed. fluid is lower than planned. Thermal in- cially in the case of high flow rates. due to the direction changes caused by bends As long as there is a flow. or there must be a control unit in the pump circuit which limits the flow. In a closed system. sulation and insulation in accordance with ener- gy-saving regulations act like a thermos flask and the pump compartment heats up. flow signal transmitter. the drive (see catalogues). the conduction of heat is prevented. For safety reasons. 230-volt or vibrations. in order to register the opening of the con- recommended to monitor the temperatures with trol valves.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 51 F U S E P R O T E C T I O N O F P U M P S A N D R E F R I G E R AT I N G M A C H I N E S Forces Circuits Pumps are installed in pipeline systems which Motors for star-/delta start-up may not run per- produce forces due to temperature expansions manently in the star configuration. too low can also lead to electromotor damage. espe. pumps operating at zero flow. All pumps supply the fluid with energy. Machine installation rooms are therefore to be well-ven. Direct radiated heat on elec. intermittently started again with a forced start- nel constantly there due to cost reasons.and undertemperatures. As a result. The fixed points for the pipes are to be provided according to the known technical rules. the Failing control units make the fluid deviate from pressurising system is not designed for tempera- the design. pumps are to be integrated in the pipeline sys. When straight-through installed in stabilising sections. Series pump operation in a hydraulic system only tilated or cooled. Voltages which are tion by the flowing fluid. the heat from the and fittings. Since systems to. the drive can be overloa. nection. This ki- netic energy is converted to heat due to the Fluids in their flowing state exert dynamic forces conservation of energy law (nothing is lost).QXP 25. it is up. Wilo Planning Guide .Refrigeration. especially in the cooling sector. For this reason. Temperatures In practice. The housings can usually less a differential pressure controller checks the accommodate over. Overflow equip- peratures. If this isn't possible due to installation reasons. working point and only enables the smaller but only when they don't occur suddenly. In both cases.05. which act directly on the connec. the pressurising system must always be on the suction side of the pump. the volume flow It makes more sense to switch off the pump by drops. drives can't handle 400 volts.PLH_KKK_32_85. the configured pressure of the pressurising sys- tem must be increased by the maximum delivery head of the pump at zero volume. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 51 . a pump can convert its com- plete delivery head into suction. but these can be exceeded in volume flows result from excessive fluid tem. Parallel pump operation in a hydraulic system Ambient pump temperatures act directly on the only works with the same pump capacities un- drive and the housing. diffusers or rec. tifiers on the suction and pressure side. volume controller checks the working point and only enables the smaller pump when its volume capacity has been reached. the pump can be day are operated without maintenance person. works with the same pump capacities unless a tromotors is to be prevented. Here. monitoring the closing positions of all control ded and the motor protection switches the valves. alarm equipment. It is possible to shut down by means of a pump off for safety reasons. 40°C without having a special design. pumps should be pump is transported. If the operating temperature of the ment which allows the fluid to cool can help. and therefore reduces the inlet pressure. For this reason.

The The maximum permissible cable/wire cross-sec- same may happen for operation with more than tion is to be taken from the catalogues. stallations with pumping media temperatures above 90°C. installed devices in accordance with DIN/VDE. If gland- less pumps are operated on a frequency conver- ter. • provided with full motor protection through thermal winding contact and separate relay If self-powered systems. it is essential to adhere tact or a PTC thermistor detector is additionally to the electrical operating conditions as set out monitored. and prevent harmful voltage peaks and to ad- here to the following limit values: The protective measure of protective grounding • Glandless pumps with P2 and glanded is to be used for frequency converter controllers pumps with P2 _ < 1. such as water-pressure tightness or tively. Surge arresters and mains monitoring • provided with internal protection against relays with all-pole insulation of the power sup. etc. Maximum back-up fuses are to be provided Installations with large cable lengths (l > 10 m) according to the onsite installation and the between converter and motor may cause increa. When operating glandless and glanded pumps in conjunction with frequency. Exception: it is recommended that sine filters (LC filters) Selective universal-current-sensitive residual be used rather than du/dt filters (RC filters). respec. • provided with full motor protection and built- eration or converter operation are planned. Full motor protection is only When operating Wilo pumps with control units achieved. it is equipped essary to use output filters to reduce motor noise with full motor protection from the manufacturer. Special converter manufacturer or filter supplier. If the glanded pump is equipped with a control converter models not supplied by Wilo.1 kW rate of voltage rise with three-phase current connections. might be required. The am- 4 motor units at one voltage source. Systems are to be correspondingly different fuse protection. They have blocking current-proof motors and motors been marked with the CE marking in accor. When pumps are utilised in in.05.g. current protective equipment in accordance • For noise reduction on glandless pump motors.QXP 25. see catalogue following conditions must be met: data). Voltage drops can occur due vice. in VDE 0160. however. with DIN VDE 0664 is not permitted. rise du/dt < 500 V/µs. voltage peaks û < 850 V. Motor protection switches are unsuitable to lines being too long or too thin. current circuit breaker (recommended nominal • Glanded pumps with P2 > 1. Residual du/dt < 500 V/µs. the in trip mechanism (for series. ply company. mounted to the motor housing. voltage peaks û < 650 V. ses of the du/dt and û levels (resonance). The output bient operating conditions are to be taken into filters must be selected as recommended by the consideration in selecting the cables. a corresponding heat-resistant Standard glanded pumps are to be protected by connection line must be used.1 kW rate of voltage residual current ∆ = 300 mA). which can for utilisation in conjunction with multi-speed lead to output deficits and overheating. protected against overvoltage (e. with internal protection against unacceptably dance with the EU machine directive since high winding temperatures by the energy sup- January 1. The pumps must be operated at a maxi. it is nec. mum of 95 % of their rated motor speed if the frequency converter causes motor losses. lightning) All glandless circulating pumps are either and to be switched off in the event of under. 1995.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 52 F U S E P R O T E C T I O N O F P U M P S A N D R E F R I G E R AT I N G M A C H I N E S Power supply Power supplies from the public mains power The service life and operational reliability of a supply are subject to certain constraints which circulating pump depend to a great extent on are taken into account in the design of drives the choice of the correct motor protection de- and control units. conditions. mains replacement op. • All Wilo pumps are designed to run on Euro. onsite motor protection switches with a nominal current setting. • No further motor protection by the customer pean standard voltage 230/400 V (±10 %) in is required except where this is stipulated for accordance with DIN IEC 60038. unacceptably high winding temperatures ply provide solutions.PLH_KKK_32_85. when a thermal winding con- or module accessories. fmin = 30 Hz 52 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . Control pumps due to their different nominal current lines and power lines are to be laid separately ratings at different speed settings which require due to induction processes. • blocking-current proof voltage. shields. the following limits may not be fallen short of at the connection terminals of the pumps: Umin = 150 V.

Monobloc or standard pumps influences caused by pipe lines. Planners/and installation companies must take care to ensure that the pipe connections to the pump are completely stress-free in their design and unable to exercise any gravitational or vi- brational influences on the pump housing what- soever. The pipelines must be gravitational forces.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 53 F U S E P R O T E C T I O N O F P U M P S A N D R E F R I G E R AT I N G M A C H I N E S Vibrations Every circulating machine and every flowing Correct selection of the pump base version is fluid generates vibrations.05. installation on a base is design (architect) and the development of other recommended. base block is recommended for the purpose of increasing the mass capable of absorbing vibra- Pipelines and pumps should be installed in a tion and for compensating of uncompensated stress-free condition. constructional vibration amplification. A direct and resonance can occur. Fixed points with no connection to the base are Please also observe the recommended for the pipe connections on the chapter "Pump as a noise suction and pressure sides of the pump. generator". low-noise operation of the pumps. rigid connection between the pump unit and the For this reason.taking into account all structurally and acoustically relevant criteria - that a qualified building acoustics specialist be given the task of configuration and design where necessary. please observe the following. Vibration-isolated installa- fixed in such a way that the pump is not sup.QXP 25. aggre- be supported on the pump feet.5 kW it is not permissible to install The type and the material of the intermediate the pump with the pump shaft in a horizontal layer to be selected depends on a variety of attitude. All Wilo pumps are one of the factors of decisive importance for low-vibration versions. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 53 . From a motor power of 18. In-line elastic intermediate layer for separating the pumps are designed for direct horizontal and fundament block itself from the solidium. As a result of the system.PLH_KKK_32_85. tile or auxiliary constructions that would nullify or sharply re- duce the sound insulation effect. To suppress gate mass and centre of gravity. The external dimensions of the base block should be about 15 to 20 cm longer in the length and width than the external dimensions of the pump unit. Wilo Planning Guide . etc.Refrigeration. On a vertically mounted pump the different factors (and areas or responsibility). It is recommended . mounting brackets. pipeline must be stress-free and the pump must including among others rotational speed. vertical installation in a pipeline. tion does however require at the same time an porting the weight of the pipeline. (planners/ are to be mounted on concrete foundations or installation company). and vibrations are amplified. Care should be taken to ensure that the design of the base pedestal that no acoustic bridges are formed by plaster.

special mo. There should always be sufficient room for lowering and pulling up the pumps and their pipework. Borehole and submersible pumps are to have a permanent minimum and maximum water cov- erage. an inlet and outlet section is to be provided in front of and behind the pump during pipe installation.QXP 25. of 230 /400 V to 3 kW or 400/ 690 V starting at tor and terminal box facing downwards is not 4 kW. sides) is to be provided for dismounting the mo. there should be onsite working platforms which are permanently in- stalled or which can be set-up any time in mo- bile form. For a nominal motor rating reduction must be applied or a larger mo- power greater than 4 kW.5.2 m temperature) of max. Free space (at least about 1. tor or a higher insulation class must be selected. intermediate platforms for installation and maintenance work must always be available according to the valid accident prevention regulations.05. port for installation and maintenance work is recommended.air permissible. For cases outside of these parameters a power tor. to install pressure gauges with a test cock. a rated voltage The installation of standard pumps with the mo. tors and special corrosion protection are re- quired. In the case of sump installations. All rated power data and operating values apply at a rated frequency of 50 Hz. It is recommended In the case of outdoor installations. for Us 5+Nq/53 and for Ud 2. well-ventilated and non-explosive atmosphere. lantern and impeller.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 54 F U S E P R O T E C T I O N O F P U M P S A N D R E F R I G E R AT I N G M A C H I N E S Sites The standard pumps must be protected from the The minimum dimension for the measuring weather and installed in a dry frost -/dust-free. a maximum coolant temperature (KT . If the pumps are installed higher than 1. To test the pump capacity. 40°C and an installation without space requirement for material on two altitude of up to 1000 m above mean sea level. according to their specifications. a suitable tackle sup.8 m off the ground. point Ad and As is 2 times the pipe diameter. Minimum distances of the measuring points for checking the pump pressure Ud D Ad D As Us 54 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .PLH_KKK_32_85.

stepless speed control. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 55 . When several admission pressure pumps are operating in parallel.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 55 F U S E P R O T E C T I O N O F P U M P S A N D R E F R I G E R AT I N G M A C H I N E S Type of control Pumps which serve as admission pressure pumps are only to be switched on/off when the volume decrease through the secondary pump circuit lies at the required minimum/ maximum flow volume. Because of the constantly changing pressures in controlled pump circuits. In order to avoid malfunctions and damage. the minimum and maximum speed are to be lim- ited so that there is no overloading and the mo- tor self-cooling function is guaranteed. They are to be switched off when the admission pres- sure pump provides so much pressure that the volume flow is too high. Wilo Planning Guide . several or all pumps is only possible with a load-sensitive. Circulating pumps in secondary circuits are only to be switched on when the primary circuit is delivering the required minimum volume. If there is an on-site. an automatic switch- on/off of the individual pumps within their per- mitted working ranges is required. a different feed flow is always possible.Refrigeration.QXP 25. The parallel operation of pumps and the simul- taneous stepless control of one. the admission pressure/pressurising system is to be monitored.05. It makes sense to monitor the fluid tem- perature with an automatic limit shut-down function on the pump. automatic switch-on/off or cut-in function within the permissible limits of the flow and delivery head of the individual aggregates.PLH_KKK_32_85. Throttle and bypass controllers in the pump circuit are to be configured so that the maximum and mini- mum permitted volume flows are always guar- anteed.

2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 56 .PLH_KKK_32_85.05.QXP 25.

13 · Pa 1. bends and the condenser resistance.PLH_KKK_32_85. The R value is 100 Pa/m at a [K] 10-20 K for standard systems flow rate of about 1 m/s.16 · 6 HGes = 120 000 Pa + 7 500 Pa + 57 127 Pa V· PU = 28.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 57 Examples for the pump selection in the condenser circuit Well system To conduct heat away from the condenser.13.05. The pipeline material is PVC in a nominal ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference diameter of 100. Based on the installed QN Heat demand [kW] fittings. HGes = Hgeo + HA HA = HVL + HVA tion room for the refrigerating machine. HVL = R · I HVA = Z ence of 6 K. the HA Pressure loss of the system in Pa addition of 8 bends. The total altitude difference is 1. a well Formula for the pressure / the delivery head H system has been selected. The circulated volume is determined as follows: HVL = 100 · 75 ρ · w2 Z = Σζ Pa Formula for volume flow V˙PU HVL = 7 500 Pa 2 Q· N 999.QXP 25. a suction valve and 2 shut- Hgeo Geodetic pressure head difference in Pa (1 m WS ˜ 10 000 Pa) off valves results in a value of 114.Refrigeration.16 Spec.16 · ∆ϑ 2 Z = 57 127 Pa Calculation Result 200 V· PU = m3/h HGes = Hgeo + HVL + HVA 1. Due to the geodetic head difference.74 m3/h HGes = 184 627 Pa The desired pump head results from the pipeline Abbreviation Description requirements. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] 12 m. A pipeline length of 30 m results between the submersible pump and Calculation the connection to the refrigerating machine. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 57 . The heat ca- pacity is 200 kW and should be conducted away into the well system with a temperature differ. The brine for the suc- tion well lies 10 m under the floor of the installa. a submersible pump system was selected. The suction side of the condenser lies 2 m under HGes = Hgeo + HVL + HVA the highest point of the pipeline to the sinkhole and has a total pipe length of 45 m.6 · 12 V· PU = m3/h Z = 114. HGes Total pressure loss in Pa HVL Pipeline pressure loss in Pa HVA Fitting pressure loss in Pa R Pipe friction resistance in Pa/m L Pipe length ζ Resistance values in Pa ρ Density of fluid in kg/m3 w2 Flow rate in m/s2 Z Pressure loss in fittings in Pa Σ Total losses Wilo Planning Guide .

5 m is to be selected.QXP 25.74 m3/h 30 Delivery head 18.PLH_KKK_32_85.74 m3/h and H = 18.5 m Pumped fluid Water 25 Fluid temperature 10 °C 20 3 Density 0.9996 kg/dm3 1 15 Kinematic viscosity 1. 40 Delivery head H [m] Operating data specifications 35 Flow 28.1 bar 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow Q [m³/h] Flow 31.05.3 m3/h Delivery head 20.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 58 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT A submersible pump with a flow rate of Q = 28.3 m 58 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .31 mm2/s 10 Vapor pressure 0. The selected pump is the Wilo-Sub TWU 6-2403 with cooling jacket.

The result is: Result HGes = Hgeo + HVL + HVA HGes = 22 000 Pa + 35 200 Pa + 107 230 Pa HGes = 164 430 Pa A monobloc pump with a flow rate of Q = 34. HGes = Hgeo + HA HA = HVL + HVA ing volume flow results: Formula for volume flow V PU Calculation Q· N V· PU = m3/h HGes = Hgeo + HVL + HVA 1.6 · 1.48 m3/h and H = 16.48 m3/h HVL = 35 200 Pa 2 999. a pipe length of Z = 59.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 59 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT Open cooling tower system The condenser circuit is cooled via an open Formula for the pressure / the delivery head H cooling tower.PLH_KKK_32_85. 4 stop valves and an 2 altitude difference of 2.2 m between the minimum water level and nozzle fitting. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference [K] 10-20 K for standard systems QN Heat demand [kW] HA Pressure loss of the system in Pa Hgeo Geodetic pressure head difference in Pa (1 m WS ˜ 10 000 Pa) HGes Total pressure loss in Pa HVL Pipeline pressure loss in Pa HVA Fitting pressure loss in Pa R Pipe friction resistance in Pa/m L Pipe length ζ Resistance values in Pa ρ Density of fluid in kg/m3 w2 Flow rate in m/s2 Z Pressure loss in fittings in Pa Σ Total losses Wilo Planning Guide .5 m is to be selected. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 59 .QXP 25.7. the follow.16 · ∆ϑ 200 HVL = R · I HVA = Z V· PU = m3/h 1. This re- sults in a resistance coefficient of ζ = 59. PVC pipework is Z = 107 230 Pa selected with a nominal diameter of 80.92 For the pressure loss calculation.7 · Pa 88 m is given with 14 bends. Abbreviation Description 1.16 Spec.05.16 · 5 HVL = 400 · 88 ρ · w2 Z = Σζ Pa V· PU = 34. At the same capacity of 200 kW and a temperature difference of 5 K.Refrigeration.

PLH_KKK_32_85.1 bar 8 4 2 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow Q [m³/h] Flow 37.43 m Flow Q [m³/h] Impeller diameter 125 mm 80 Efficiency [%] 60 ø 126 40 20 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 Flow Q [m³/h] 4 Shaft power P2 [kW] 3 ø 126 2 1 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 Flow Q [m³/h] 60 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .5 m 18 Pumped fluid Water 16 Fluid temperature 32 °C 14 ø 126 Density 0. Cavitation can be ruled out since the water level in the cooling tower is about 12 m above the pump inlet.9951 kg/dm3 12 Kinematic viscosity 0.3 m3/h 10 Delivery head 19 m NPSH [m] 8 ø 126 Shaft power P2 2.7605 mm2/s 10 1 Vapor pressure 0.QXP 25. 26 Delivery head H [m] Operating data specifications 24 22 Flow 34.51 kW 4 2 Speed 2000 rpm 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 NPSH 3.48 m3/h 20 Delivery head 16. The fluid must constantly be salted and treated due to the corrosion and legionella problem.05.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 60 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT The selected pump is the Wilo-CronoBloc- BL 40/130-3/2 with red brass impeller.

Refrigeration.05. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 61 . with 14 bends and 4 stop valves.92 V· PU = 38.46 m3/h Z = 59. the capacity Formula for the pressure / the delivery head H of 200 kW is recooled via a closed cooling tower.7 · Pa 2 A pipe length of 88 m is given for calculating the Z = 111 422 Pa pressure loss.PLH_KKK_32_85. Wilo Planning Guide .36 HGes = 199 406 Pa A monobloc pump with a flow rate of Q = 38. PVC pipework is selected with a nominal diame- ter of 80.7. Formula for volume flow V PU Calculation Q· N V· PU = m3/h HGes = (Hgeo + HVL + HVA) · fp 1.46 m3/h and H = 19.04 · 5 1 034 · 1. This results in a resistance coefficient Result of = 59. Antifrogen L having a concentration of 40 % HGes = (Hgeo + HA) · fp HA = HVL + HVA to 60 % water is filled for frost protection.04 · ∆ϑ Calculation HVL = R · I HVA = Z HVL = 400 · 88 ρ · w2 200 Z = Σζ · Pa V· PU = m3/h HVL = 35 200 Pa 2 1.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 61 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT Closed cooling tower system Based on its being winter-proof.QXP 25. The result is: HGes = (Hgeo + HVL + HVA) · fp HGes = (0 + 35 200 Pa + 111 422 Pa) · 1.9 m is selected.

2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 62 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT The selected pump is the Wilo-CronoBloc- BL 40/140-4/2.039 kg/dm3 ø 138 12 Kinematic viscosity 5.963 mm2/s 10 8 Vapor pressure 0.1 m NPSH [m] 10 8 Shaft power P2 2.PLH_KKK_32_85.46 m3/h 24 Delivery head 19.05. Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed circuit. 30 Operating data specifications Delivery head H [m] 28 26 Flow 38.9 m 22 20 Pumped fluid Antifrogen L (40 %) 18 Fluid temperature 27 °C 16 14 Density 1.1 bar 1 6 4 2 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow Q [m³/h] Flow 41.67 m 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 Impeller diameter 138 mm Flow Q [m³/h] 100 Efficiency [%] 80 60 ø 138 40 20 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 Flow Q [m³/h] Shaft power P2 [kW] 5 4 ø 138 3 2 1 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 Flow Q [m³/h] 62 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2006 WILO AG .QXP 25. The diaphragm extension vessel is to be determined for a volume expansion of 2 to 5 %.57 kW 6 Speed 2000 rpm 4 ø 138 2 NPSH 3.3 m3/h Delivery head 23.

with 8 bends and 4 flat slide valves. A difference of 20 K is reasonable.05.PLH_KKK_32_85.7 · 0. Abbreviation Description 1. the following volume flow results: Formula for volume flow V PU Calculation HGes = Hgeo + HVL + HVA Q· N V· PU = m3/h 1.09 m is selected. the flow rate can be Formula for the pressure / the delivery head H determined with a larger temperature difference.16 Spec.16 · 20 977.62 m3/h and H = 4.QXP 25. a glandless pump with a flow rate of Q = 8. The result is: HGes = Hgeo + HVL + HVA HGes = 0 + 5 760 Pa + 35 165 Pa HGes = 40 925 Pa To minimise maintenance costs.Refrigeration.9. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 63 .9 · Pa V· PU = 8.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 63 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT Heat recovery via building heating and hot water production In the case of heat recovery.62 m3/h 2 Z = 35 165 Pa Steel pipework is selected with a pipe length of 36 m with a nominal diameter of 50.16 · ∆ϑ HVL = R · I HVA = Z Calculation HVL = 160 · 36 ρ · w2 Z = Σζ · Pa 200 HVL = 5 760 Pa 2 V· PU = m3/h 1.982 Z = 74. At the same HGes = Hgeo + HA HA = HVL + HVA capacity of 200 kW and a temperature difference of 20 K. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference [K] 10-20 K for standard systems QN Heat demand [kW] HA Pressure loss of the system in Pa Hgeo Geodetic pressure head difference in Pa (1 m WS ˜ 10 000 Pa) HGes Total pressure loss in Pa HVL Pipeline pressure loss in Pa HVA Fitting pressure loss in Pa R Pipe friction resistance in Pa/m L Pipe length ζ Resistance values in Pa ρ Density of fluid in kg/m3 w2 Flow rate in m/s2 Z Pressure loss in fittings in Pa Σ Total losses Wilo Planning Guide . This results in a resistance Result coefficient of = 74.

2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 64 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT The selected pump is the Wilo-TOP-S 50/4 3-PN 6/10. The necessary cooling towers are to be designed with their own pump.0 2 min 0.5 Density 0.9777 kg/dm3 2. When antifreeze is added. 5. Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed circuit. system separation with heat exchangers is recommended.88 m3/h Delivery head 4. For protection.62 m3/h 4.09 m 3.4084 mm2/s 1.0 Kinematic viscosity 0. This is to be ensured by a hydraulic switch.0 Fluid temperature 70 °C 2.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow Q [m³/h] Flow 8.3121 bar 1 max 1.5 Flow 8.3 m Power consumption P1 0.0 Operating data specifications Delivery head H [m] 4. as described before.PLH_KKK_32_85.295 kW Note! Speed 2600 rpm The pump must constantly circulate the required water volume when the refrigerating machine is in operation.QXP 25. differential pressure valves or bypasses.0 Delivery head 4. 64 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . the condenser circuit should have its own safety valve and be equipped with its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume expansion of 2 to 5 %.5 Pumped fluid Water 3.05. heat exchanger.5 Vapor pressure 0.

0 m is to be selected.63.8 m/s.82 Z = 109.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 65 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT Ground collector system To protect against freezing.05. Another 20 kPa are to be included in the calcula. The circulated volume is determined as HGes = (Hgeo + HA) · fp HA = HVL + HVA follows: Formula for volume flow V PU Calculation Q· N V· PU = m3/h HGes = (Hgeo + HVL + HVA) · fp 0.63 · Pa 2 The desired pump head results from the pipeline Z = 37 537 Pa requirements.Refrigeration.97 · 6 HVL = 3 750 Pa 2 V· PU = 34. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference [K] 10-20 K for standard systems QN Heat demand [kW] HA Pressure loss of the system in Pa Hgeo Geodetic pressure head difference in Pa (1 m WS ˜ 10 000 Pa) HGes Total pressure loss in Pa HVL Pipeline pressure loss in Pa HVA Fitting pressure loss in Pa R Pipe friction resistance in Pa/m L Pipe length ζ Resistance values in Pa ρ Density of fluid in kg/m3 w2 Flow rate in m/s2 Z Pressure loss in fittings in Pa Σ Total losses Wilo Planning Guide . the system is filled Formula for the pressure / the delivery head H with a glycol mixture (40% Antifrogen N + 60% water).29 m3/h 1 070 · 0.PLH_KKK_32_85. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 65 . the addition of 8 bends and HGes = (Hgeo + HVL + HVA) · fp 2 shut-off valves results in a value of 109.97 · ∆ϑ Calculation HVL = R · I HVA = Z + collector resistance 200 HVL = 50 · 75 ρ · w2 V· PU = m3/h Z = Σζ · Pa 0.29 m3/h and H = 9.QXP 25. HGes = 90 092 Pa A pump with a flow rate of Q = 34.16 Spec. PVC pipeline material is selected with a nominal diameter of 125. bends and the conden- ser resistance.47 tion for the collector and the pipe length to be considered is 75 m. Based Result on the installed fittings. The R value is 50 Pa/m at a flow rate of about 0. Abbreviation Description 1. HGes = (0 + 3 750 Pa + 57 537 Pa) · 1.

5/4. Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed circuit.7 m3/h Delivery head 9.39 m Impeller diameter 173 mm 66 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . For protection.PLH_KKK_32_85.31 kW Speed 1450 rpm NPSH 2.073 kg/dm3 5 Kinematic viscosity 4. 12 Operating data specifications Delivery head H [m] 11 Flow 34. the condenser circuit should have its own safety valve and be equip- ped with its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume expansion of 5 to 7 %.507 mm2/s 4 Vapor pressure 0.05.22 m Shaft power P2 1.1 bar 3 1 2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow Q [m³/h] Flow 34.QXP 25.29 m3/h 10 Delivery head 9m 9 8 Pumped fluid Antifrogen N (40%) 7 Fluid temperature 10 °C 6 Ø 173 Density 1.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 66 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT The selected pump is the Wilo-CronoLine- IL 65/170-1.

5 Ø 144 3 1.41 kW Speed 1450 rpm NPSH 2.5 Calculation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 Flow Q [m³/h] 200 V· PU = m3/h 1. the system is filled ped with its own diaphragm extension vessel with a glycol mixture (40 % Tyfocor L and 60 % for a volume expansion of 5 to 7 %.05.5 2 1.5 1 1 0.32 m3/h and Density 1.1 bar Abbreviation Description 0. the condenser circuit should have its own safety valve and be equip- To protect against freezing.QXP 25. The pres. sure for the condenser (2 m) is to be added.5 6 Formula for volume flow V PU 5.32 m3/h Delivery head 5. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference Hydraulic data (duty point) [K] 2-6 K for standard systems Flow 52. Kinematic viscosity 6.1 m is to be selected.97 Spec. circuit. For protection.Refrigeration.01 · ∆ϑ 2.5 5 4.604 mm2/s Vapor pressure 0.32 m3/h V· PU = 49.1 m.045 kg/dm3 H = 5. The pump must achieve a delivery head of at Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed least 5.1 m Pumped fluid Tyfocor L (40%) Fluid temperature 10 °C A pump with a flow rate of Q = 49.78 m Shaft power P2 1.5/4.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 67 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE CONDENSER CIRCUIT Ground spike system The closed circuit of a ground spike system is The selected pump is the Wilo-CronoBloc- specified with a pressure loss of 3. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 67 . BL 80/150-1.01 · 4 Operating data specifications Flow 49.1 m. water). The circulated volume is determined as follows: 7 Delivery head H [m] 6.6 m3/h QN Heat demand [kW] Delivery head 5.54 m Impeller diameter 144 mm Wilo Planning Guide .PLH_KKK_32_85.5 Q· N 4 V· PU = m3/h 3.

6 The flow is determined as follows: 8m 0.3 0.6 m3/h V· PU = 32.65 m) is taken Flow rate control with straight-through as the maximum pump head from a pipework valves and pump performance adjustment calculation.2 Q· N 2m min 0.PLH_KKK_32_85.699 kW 68 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .1 V· PU = m3/h 1.16 Spec.QXP 25.65 m Power consumption P1 0.4 4m 0. Due to the main pressure loss of 3 m in the individual load circuit.61 m3/h QN Heat demand [kW] Delivery head 4.474 mm2/s Calculation Vapor pressure 0.65 m Pumped fluid Water Fluid temperature 6 °C Density 0.9999 kg/dm3 Kinematic viscosity 1.5 6m Formula for volume flow V˙PU 0.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 68 Examples for the pump selection in the cold water circuit Flow rate control with straight-through valves The pressure loss of the system (4. 65 kW M 14 Delivery head H [m] 6 °C 13 12 11 10 m 37 kW 10 max M 9 8m M 8 7 6m 6 5 4m 125 kW 4 M 3 2m min 2 1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 12 °C Flow Q [m³/h] 0.16 · ∆ϑ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Flow Q [m³/h] Abbreviation Description 1.16 · 6 Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow 32.05.1 bar 227 V· PU = m3/h 1.9 Power consumption P1 [kW] 0. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference Operating data specifications [K] 10-20 K for standard systems Flow 32.61 m3/h Delivery head 4.8 max 0. a pump which has constant pressure regulation is to be selected.7 10 m 0.

PLH_KKK_32_85.QXP 25.05.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 69

E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E C O L D WAT E R C I R C U I T

n

Wilo-Stratos 65/1-12 PN 6/10 is the choice.
This pump is low-maintenance and works with
little energy. To protect against corrosion by
condensation water, the pump is equipped with
a Wilo-ClimaForm.

By monitoring the open position of the control
valves, the pump is to be switched off when the
valves are closed to protect against running dry.
If this isn't possible, for example because the
distances of the distributor line are too long, an
overflow of 10% is to be permanently ensured
at the ends of the distributor line (see short sec-
tion in the schematic diagram). Note: It may be
necessary to dimension the pump larger!

Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed
circuit. For protection, the vaporiser circuit should
have its own safety valve and be equipped with
its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume
expansion of 5 to 7 %.

Wilo Planning Guide - Refrigeration, air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 69

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E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E C O L D WAT E R C I R C U I T

Flow rate control with distributor valve

Since a long pipe section is to be overcome up
Flow rate control with distributor valves and to the loads, a ∆p-v controlled pump can be se-
pump performance adjustment lected. In the load circuit, only 4 m is required
from the 8.2 m delivery head of the pump.

14

Delivery head H [m]
13
55 kW 12
M 11 12 m
18 °C 10
9 max
10 m
8
7 8m
45 kW
6
M
5 6m
M
4 4m
3 min
2
125 kW 1
M 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Flow Q [m³/h]

1,8

Power consumption P1 [kW]
23 °C
1,6 max
1,4

1,2

1 12 m
10 m
For maintaining the temperature in the con- 0,8
8m
trolled system of the load, a flow rate control 0,6 6m
with distributor valves is selected. The pump 4m
0,4
requires a flow of 10% at the duty point for min
0,2
the smallest load, which is ensured via throttle
valves or volume limiters in the admix line. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Flow Q [m³/h]
The flow is determined as follows:

Formula for volume flow V˙PU Operating data specifications
Flow 38.79 m3/h
Delivery head 8.2 m
Q· N Pumped fluid Water
V· PU = m3/h
Fluid temperature 18 °C
1.16 · ∆ϑ
Density 0.9966 kg/dm3
Kinematic viscosity 1.053 mm2/s
Abbreviation Description Vapor pressure 0.1 bar
1.16 Spec. heat capacity [Wh/kgK]
∆q Dimensioned temperature difference
[K] 10-20 K for standard systems Hydraulic data (duty point)
QN Heat demand [kW] Flow 38.8 m3/h
Delivery head 8.2 m
Power consumption P1 1.34 kW

Calculation
227
V· PU = m3/h
1.16 · 5

V· PU = 38.79 m3/h

70 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG

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E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E C O L D WAT E R C I R C U I T

Only the Wilo-Stratos 80/1-12 is a good choice
considering the low maintenance and operating
costs. The setpoint curve to be adjusted in the
controlled state runs between 8.6 m (max. speed)
and 4.3 m (min. control speed). This guarantees
that only a maximum of 10% of the dimensioned
volume flows for maintaining the temperature in
the distributor circuit when the bypass section is
correctly configured.

Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed
circuit. For protection, the vaporiser circuit should
have its own safety valve and be equipped with
its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume
expansion of 5 to 7 %.

Wilo Planning Guide - Refrigeration, air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 71

5 m Pumped fluid Tyfocor L (40%) Fluid temperature 18 °C Calculation Density 1. a constant differential pressure is demanded at the pump. 6 4 mined as follows: 2 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Formula for volume flow V˙PU Flow Q [m³/h] 28 Shaft power P2 [kW] 24 Q· N 20 V· PU = m3/h 16 12 1.1 kW NPSH 6. The required volume flow is deter.QXP 25. Instead of a differential pressure valve or a dif- 250 kW ferential pressure controller without auxiliary power.58 m Impeller diameter 0 mm Minimum volume flow 20 m3/h at ∆p=16.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 72 E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E C O L D WAT E R C I R C U I T Admixing circuit for temperature control Admixing circuit with three-way valves and The pumping pressure of 16. To protect from frost.5 m 72 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . only a controlled pump for energetically 18 °C M favourable operation is taken into consideration. the system is operated with a Tyfocor/water M mixture (40 % to 60 %). an admixing 12 NPSH [m] circuit directly on the load was selected. 75 kW 36 Delivery head H [m] M M 32 32 m 28 24 m 450 kW 24 M 20 16 m 16 12 22 °C 8m 8 1 4 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Flow Q [m³/h] For optimum power adjustment.PLH_KKK_32_85. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference [K] 10-20 K for standard systems Operating data specifications QN Heat demand [kW] Flow 188.1 m3/h Delivery head 16. Tem.11 m3/h Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow 188 m3/h Delivery head 16.03 · 4 V· PU = 188.5 m is taken from pump performance adjustment the pipework calculation.03 · ∆ϑ 8 4 0 40 80 120 160 200 240 280 320 Abbreviation Description Flow Q [m³/h] 1. 10 perature maintenance is not required for the 8 load circuit. To stabilise the valve M authority at the load controllers.14 mm2/s V· PU = m3/h Vapor pressure 1 bar 1.03 Spec.061 kg/dm3 775 Kinematic viscosity 4.05.5 m Power consumption P1 13.

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E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E C O L D WAT E R C I R C U I T

The selected Wilo-CronoLine-IL-E 100/8-33
BF R1 requires a minimum circulation of 20 m3/h,
which is to be ensured with overflow sections.
If the opening positions of the load controllers
are set above 90% to admixing, differential
pressure valves are opened by electromotors to
protect the pump.

Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed
circuit. For protection, the vaporiser circuit should
have its own safety valve and be equipped with
its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume
expansion of 5 to 7 %.

Wilo Planning Guide - Refrigeration, air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 73

PLH_KKK_32_85.QXP 25.05.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 74

Examples for the pump selection
in the vaporiser circuit
Vaporiser circuit with constant volume flow

The circuit of a load system is specified with The selected pump is the Wilo-CronoLine-
a pressure loss of 13.1 m. The pressure for the IL 50/260-3/4.
vaporiser (5 m) is to be added. The pump must
achieve a delivery head of at least 18.1 m. Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed
circuit. For protection, the vaporiser circuit should
have its own safety valve and be equipped with
its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume
Distribution connection in the vaporiser circuit expansion of 5 to 7 %.
in front of the loads

30

Delivery head H [m]
M M M
25

20

15
Capacitors Vaporiser Ø 255
10
The circulated volume is determined as follows: 1
5
Formula for volume flow V˙PU
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
Flow Q [m³/h]
Q· N
V· PU = m3/h
1.16 · ∆ϑ
Operating data specifications
Flow 28.74 m3/h
Abbreviation Description Delivery head 18.1 m
1.16 Spec. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] Pumped fluid Water
∆q Dimensioned temperature difference Fluid temperature 16 °C
[K] 2-12 K for standard systems Density 0.9989 kg/dm3
QN Heat demand [kW] Kinematic viscosity 1.11 mm2/s
Vapor pressure 0.1 bar

Calculation
Hydraulic data (duty point)
200 Flow 29 m3/h
V· PU = m3/h Delivery head 18.4 m
1.16 · 6 Shaft power P2 2.66 kW
Speed 1450 rpm
V· PU = 28.74 m3/h
NPSH 2.56 m
Impeller diameter 255 mm
A pump with a flow rate of Q = 28.74 m3/h and
H = 18.1 m is to be selected.

74 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG

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E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E VA P O R I S E R C I R C U I T

Hydraulic decoupler in vaporiser circuit

The circuit of a vaporiser system, including the Hydraulic decoupler in vaporiser circuit
hydraulic decoupler, is specified with a pressure
loss of 5.85 m. The pump must achieve a delivery
head of at least 5.85 m. The circulated volume is
determined as follows:

Formula for volume flow V˙PU

Q· N
V· PU = m3/h
1.16 · ∆ϑ
Capacitors Vaporiser

Abbreviation Description To minimise the operating and maintenance
1.16 Spec. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] costs, a glandless pump, Wilo-Stratos 80/1-12,
∆q Dimensioned temperature difference is selected. It is advantageous that this pump
[K] 2-12 K for standard systems circuit does not have to be equipped with a reg-
QN Heat demand [kW]
ulation valve for the concrete duty point setting.
This is set using the reference value control of
the pump.

Calculation Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed
circuit. For protection, the vaporiser circuit should
223 have its own safety valve and be equipped with
V· PU = m3/h its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume
1.16 · 4 expansion of 5 to 7 %.

V· PU = 48.1 m3/h
14
Delivery head H [m]

13
12 12 m max
A pump with a flow rate of Q = 43.1 m3/h and 11
H = 5.85 m is to be selected. 10 10 m
9
8 8m
7
6 6m
5
4 4m
3 min
2 2m
1
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Flow Q [m³/h]

Operating data specifications
Flow 48.1 m3/h
Delivery head 5.85 m
Pumped fluid Water
Fluid temperature 16 °C
Density 0.9989 kg/dm3
Kinematic viscosity 1.11 mm2/s
Vapor pressure 0.1 bar

Hydraulic data (duty point)
Flow 48.1 m3/h
Delivery head 5.85 m
Power consumption P1 1.37 kW

Wilo Planning Guide - Refrigeration, air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 75

25 · (9)0.QXP 25. Ice storage operation with 100 kW and a fluid temperature of -4° C Valve 2 M Valve 3 M M Valve 4 Ice bank 1 Ice bank 2 M M Valve 5 Valve 1 Ice bank pump Vaporiser pump Capacitors Vaporiser 76 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .98 1.976 QN Heat demand [kW] 9 HW = = 9.15 ≈ 0.02 · ∆ϑ Step 3 Abbreviation Description 1.80 · 3. an Step 1 Antifrogen L / water mixture (40 % to 60 %) is selected as the fluid to be pumped.49) 3.02 Spec. The preliminary pump data is to be determined with the follo- wing steps.05.68 m3/h The system pressure losses are assumed to be 9 m from the calculation model.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 76 E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E VA P O R I S E R C I R C U I T Vaporiser circuit with ice storage To ensure the functional sequence.41)0.PLH_KKK_32_85.125 Formula for volume flow V˙PU Step 2 Q· N V· PU = m3/h CQ ≈ CH ≈ (2.68)0. (15.02 · 3 V· PU = 32.48 m3/h [K] 10-20 K for standard systems 0.165 · (log 3.50 The volume flow is determined as follows: B = 2.71)-0.49 (32.22 m Calculation 0. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] 32.98 100 V· PU = m3/h 1.68 ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference QW = = 33.

48 · 9. 0.22 · 1.48 m3/h Delivery head 9.85 at 100 kW ηvis = 0.69) Wilo-Stratos 80/1-12 in ice storage mode Cη = 3.3 kW Power consumption P1 1. For protection. Oper- Flow Q [m³/h] ation at -3°C at otherwise the same original data is better. 1. the vaporiser circuit should 1. 50 Hz Max. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 77 . current consumption 6.58 kW 6 6m 367 · 0.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 77 E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E VA P O R I S E R C I R C U I T Step 4 Step 5 0.22 m Pumped fluid Water Fluid temperature 20 °C Density 0.8 Power consumption P1 [kW] 1.9982 kg/dm3 Kinematic viscosity 1.34 kW Vapor pressure 0.56 14 Delivery head H [m] 13 12 12 m max 11 Step 6 10 10 m 9 33.1 bar Motor Data Nominal power P2 1.34 kW~230 V.56 5 4 4m 3 min 2 2m The selected Wilo-Stratos 80/1-12 is dimensioned 1 at its capacity limit.4 2m min 0.2 12 m have its own safety valve and be equipped with 10 m its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume 1 8m expansion of 5 to 7 %.6 4m 0.5 m3/h Delivery head 9.001 mm2/s Vapor pressure 0.66 = 0.8 6m 0.6 max Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed 1.49-(0.2 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Flow Q [m³/h] Operating data specifications Flow 33.85 · 0.1 bar Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow 33.QXP 25.49 = 0.4 circuit.05.Refrigeration.57 kW Rated motor speed 3300 rpm Nominal voltage 11.8 A Protection class IP 44 Permitted voltage tolerance +/.PLH_KKK_32_85.22 m Power consumption P1 1.10 Wilo Planning Guide .0547 · 3.053 8 8m 7 Pvis = = 1. It isn't possible to reduce 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 the operating temperature to under -4°C.

QXP 25.9989 kg/dm3 Kinematic viscosity 1. is selected. a Wilo-Stratos 80/1-12 Abbreviation Description with a LON module. pump 14 Delivery head H [m] The circuit of a vaporiser system. Adjustment is done QN Heat demand [kW] with a machine controller.85 m.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 78 E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E VA P O R I S E R C I R C U I T Vaporiser circuit with variable volume flow Hydraulic decoupler in the vaporiser circuit A pump with a flow rate of Q = 43.85 m is to be selected.16 · ∆ϑ To minimise the operating and maintenance costs. the vaporiser circuit should have its own safety valve and be equipped with V· PU = 43. 78 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .1 m3/h can be set by concretely specifying a speed. its flow capacity 8 8m 7 can be changed between 30 % and 100 %.05. 6 6m 5 4 4m 3 min 2 2m Hydraulic decoupler in the vaporiser circuit with temperature regulation 1 for the circulating pump 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Flow Q [m³/h] Operating data specifications Flow 43. heat capacity [Wh/kgK] geous that this pump circuit doesn't have to be ∆q Dimensioned temperature difference equipped with a regulation valve for the con- [K] 2-12 K for standard systems crete duty point setting.37 kW V· PU = m3/h 1.16 Spec.85 m.11 mm2/s Capacitors Vaporiser Vapor pressure 0. Every Calculation desired flow between 20 m3/h and 48. It is advanta- 1.1 m3/h Delivery head 5. 200 V· PU = m3/h Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed 1.PLH_KKK_32_85.85 m Q· N Power consumption P1 1. including the 13 hydraulic decoupler. For protection.16 · 4 circuit.85 m Pumped fluid Water Fluid temperature 16 °C Density 0.1 m3/h and with temperature regulation for the circulating H = 5.1 m3/h its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume expansion of 5 to 7 %. The pump is specified appropriately for the cooling capacity and fluid temperature of the required setpoint.1 bar The circulated volume is determined as follows: Formula for volume flow V˙PU Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow 48. a glandless pump.1 m3/h Delivery head 5. The pump must achieve a delivery 10 10 m head of at least 5. A manual control mode of the pump is also possible. Due to the stepped power 9 adjustment of the vaporiser. is specified with a pressure 12 12 m max 11 loss of 5.

5 m3/h and 43.0 m are required at full capacity for the connection of the ascending pipes. amount to 9. For protection.99 m Impeller diameter 115 mm Wilo Planning Guide .1 m3/h. 6 4m The control curve is shown in red in the figure 4 to the right. Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed Operating data specifications circuit. a delivery head of 4. the flow volume can be variably adapted to the demands. The vaporiser may be operated be- tween 17.11 mm2/s Vapor pressure 0.48 m is re- quired at a flow rate of 17.3 m3/h. 3. M Capacitors Vaporiser 18 Delivery head H [m] A Wilo-VeroLine-IP-E 80/115-2. M Based on the declining pressure demand in the generator part. including the vaporiser. the ascend- 10 ing pipe – with the greatest pressure demand 8m in the generator part and feeder pipe – can be 8 equipped with a differential pressure sensor. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 79 .QXP 25. Pumped fluid Water sel for a volume expansion of 5 to 7 %. the pump can 14 be specified to the operating requirements of 12 12 m the adapted setpoint.2/2 was selected. Alternatively. The resistances in the distributor line up to the first outlet of an M ascending pipe. the vaporiser circuit Flow 43.1 m3/h should have its own safety valve and be Delivery head 12 m equipped with its own diaphragm extension ves.Refrigeration.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 79 E X A M P L E S F O R T H E P U M P S E L E C T I O N I N T H E VA P O R I S E R C I R C U I T Distributor circuit and variable volume flow in Distributor circuit and variable volume flow in the vaporiser circuit the vaporiser circuit In the common circuit of the vaporiser and loads.5 m3/h 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 is guaranteed by presetting the distributor and Flow Q [m³/h] bypass volumes. Fluid temperature 16 °C Density 0. including loads.0 m.PLH_KKK_32_85. 16 By means of an onsite controller.1 m3/h Delivery head 12 m Shaft power P2 kW Speed 2880 rpm NPSH 1.1 bar Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow 43.9989 kg/dm3 Kinematic viscosity 1.05. 2 The demanded minimum volume flow of 17.

8 m 16°C Power consumption P1 1. Operating data specifications ferential pressure of 3 m is created.45 kW 18°C M M M M M M ∆p The selected Wilo-Stratos 100/1-12 keeps the 6°C volume flow constant (within the regulation dif- ference of the PID controller) in connection with a Wilo CRn system. a pressure drop is created in the feed and a pres- sure rise in the return. Flow Q [m³/h] ondary circuits are closed. By means of a measuring orifice and a 5 4 4m pressure transducer. this volume flows via the short circuit. an additional dif. 6 6m tions.1 bar Vaporiser circuit with measuring orifice Hydraulic data (duty point) Flow 50 m3/h Secondary circuit M Delivery head 5. In order to maintain 8 8m good controllability of the circuit.8 m. If all sec. This means Flow 50 m3/h that the primary circuit pump no longer has to Delivery head 5. Fluid temperature 6 °C Density 0.QXP 25. a con- Vaporiser stant volume flow is automatically set.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 80 EXAMPLES FOR THE PUMP SELECTION IN THE V.PLH_KKK_32_85. As a result. but only Pumped fluid Water of 2. The valve Primary circuit in the bypass is to be set so that only 50 m3/h flow through this at full speed. the flow via the bypass valve will approach zero.05. Cavitation can be ruled out since this is a closed circuit. the pump can keep the min 3 flow constant within its duty chart. If all secondary circuits pull wa- ter out of the primary circuit.474 mm2/s Vapor pressure 0. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 a volume flow of 50 m3/h is required. a constant 7 volume flow is required under certain precondi. The differential pressure is 12 °C kept constant via the measuring orifice.8 m build up a differential pressure of 5. In the control range of the reduction in the secondary circuits. 80 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . For protection. 2 2m 1 At a power reduction of 350 kW cooling capacity.CIRCUIT Flow rate control in the vaporiser circuit 14 Delivery head H [m] 13 12 12 m max Vaporisers which have a distributor pump and 11 mixing circuit pumps in their hydraulic system 10 10 m 9 can have different flows.9989 kg/dm3 Kinematic viscosity 1. the vaporiser circuit should have its own safety valve and be equipped with its own diaphragm extension vessel for a volume expansion of 5 to 7 %.8 m.

Refrigeration.05. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 81 .PLH_KKK_32_85.QXP 25.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 81 Wilo Planning Guide .

PLH_KKK_32_85.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 82 .05.QXP 25.

Refrigeration. A basis for planning small pump connections. the cold water is to be distributed accord. cooling water distributor systems will be pre- brings about high pressure losses in the water sented which will guarantee functionally safe supply network.each sep- arately. it will be shown that. Here. administration or vestment costs often involve small cross-sec. when dimensioning. cool. all these costs make Germany a very highly mum dimensioning value result. a negative effect on the energy demands and Capacitors Vaporiser the operating costs. Low in. Refrigerating The engineer must also consider the economic machine M M constraints at an early point in time. cooler and the load points.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 83 Economical consideration in the selection of fittings Different components always belong to a cold. in practice. however. The example can be on the investment and operating costs. this of- ing fans. The physical and economical tions in the pipes and fittings with relatively preconditions are identical. The transport of the cooling water from the water cooler to the This often occurs due to ignorance and incor- "users". is done by circulating pumps. and the resulting high operating and economic systems in the future. such as the RLT devices. the respective efficiencies of the components and of the over- all system play a decisive role: Because. costs. under control.QXP 25. the efficiencies can vary. This is that much more important since tally. This solution. etc. however. which depends priced place to do business. Primary circuit Secondary circuit (Generator part) (Load part) water installation which must be planned and dimensioned specifically for fulfilling the posed air-conditioning or cooling tasks . Also. which has n=konst. higher investment costs don't automatically mean lower operating costs! Wilo Planning Guide . and on the other hand. especially in interconnected systems. fan coils. On the one 6°C hand.PLH_KKK_32_85. Fundamen. both in planning and operation? components are often planned for the hydraulic Let's consider the circuit between the water network which aren't absolutely necessary.05. involve. What options are there for optimisation? How Based on the specific demands of the specified can one manage such problems and keep them model system. The main task is to consider all Here. applied to every production. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 83 . the investment costs. rectly understood safety thinking. ten results in considerable and "avoidable" oper- ating costs. residential area. depend- ing on the load status (full load / partial load) of 12 °C the system. also the later operating costs and meas- ures which minimise these. Conversely. components with regard to their behaviour in ing to utilisation by dimensioning the pipelines normal operating situations and the costs they (cross-sections) and control valves. a minimum and maxi.

When tightly closing diameter control valves are used.00 in annual operating costs. This alternative over a time span of 12 years means that € 1764.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 84 E C O N O M I C A L C O N S I D E R AT I O N I N T H E S E L E C T I O N O F F I T T I N G S Separate machine cooling and room air cooling systems were selected for economic reasons. For approx. there is a savings of € 147. The annual operating costs are then only € 457. The pipeline is chosen to M have a size of DN 100. In order to keep the build- Shut-off valve 50 80 ing costs down. this makes € 604.PLH_KKK_32_85. The required delivery pressure of the pump is then only 71 kPa. the sensi- Three-way valve 100 50 ble pipe dimensioning should be given special Non-return valve – – attention. € 300. The other hydraulic circuits are to be considered under the same aspects. the isolating valves required be- Three-way valve 40 50 fore and after the pump for maintenance reasons Non-return valve 45 50 could be selected to be size DN 50. For operation of approx.00 can be saved as- suming energy costs stay the same.00 kg/h of a water/ glycol mixture are to be moved by the circulating pump. Usually. with a control valve with a kV value of 50 and a valve authority of ap- prox. 3800 hours per year and an electricity rate of € 0.QXP 25. the installation of shut-off valves in size DN 100 is possible. If a tightly closing valve is selected.00 for every year after that.05. Alternatively. Fittings Nominal kV value The non-return valve is installed so that there is no incorrect circulation. 70 % for a very good control. This requires a pump with a delivery pressure of 91 kPa.15. 84 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . For the machine part. The temperature is controlled by an ad- mixing valve and the loads adapted. higher kV val- ues can be selected for control valves and shut- off valves at high control quality with the big advantage of lowered operating costs and amor- tisation in less than 2 years. 20200. this can be omitted. M In order to prevent undesired circulation within Shut-off valve 100 800 the pipe due to gravitational effects. the shut-off valve can be omitted. which pays for itself in less than 2 years in saved operating costs. a pump with a connection size of diameter DN 50 is sufficient. Due to the Fittings Nominal kV value flow volume. 44 %.00 more in investment costs.00. A kV value of 40 for the control valve is to be assumed for a valve authority of approx.

00 per year depending on the efficiency of the pump at a flow rate of 1 to 70 m3/h. € 130.05. then. In this example. For the full-load state. In two-pipe ---- systems with variable volume flows. Additional operating costs are +10 +35 created which can add up to approx. a shut-off valve or a ball valve with an actuator is recommended for the cooling water side of the air-conditioning system for blocking the two network pumps which automatically close when the operation of the line isn't re- quired. the smallest Required pump capacity for flow is to be determined for stable operation. ------- Hours of operation Σ [h/y] Pump capacity [kW] ated with a differential pressure of over 10 kPa. a flap resistance of more than of throttling control 10 kPa is to be planned. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 85 . This results in approx. Germany 0% circulating pump. Wilo Planning Guide .QXP 25. regulated pumps and the use For this flow.00 to Outdoor air temperature* [°C] 3643.Refrigeration.PLH_KKK_32_85. which results in Savings potential of the pump capacity noise and unstable operating states. differential pressures of more than 50 kPa *based on the city of Essen are only to be overcome for the flap trap of the (NRW). Pump capacity for unregu- 100 % ated pumps and direction- Lower differential pressures mean that the flaps changing circuit work at an unstable duty point.2007 10:11 Uhr Seite 85 E C O N O M I C A L C O N S I D E R AT I O N I N T H E S E L E C T I O N O F F I T T I N G S Commercially available flap traps must be oper. € 656.00 less in operating costs per year.

sizes. 2007-02 Technical documentation – Terms. 2006-12 Energetic assessment of heating and air-condi- tioning systems – Part 10: Heating. ventilation.) Expansion tanks with built-in membrane DIN EN 1151-1 for installation in water systems.05. ventilation. 2006-11 German version prEN 13831:2007 Pumps – Centrifugal pumps – Circulating pumps with electric power consumption up to 200 W ISO/TR17766 for heating systems and process water heating systems for domestic use – Part 1: Non-auto. Standard.PLH_KKK_86_103. formula characters and units. scope of delivery. German version EN 809:1998 with electric power consumption up to 200 W for heating systems and process water heating systems for domestic use – Part 2: Noise testing EN ISO 5198 regulation (vibro-acoustical) for measuring structure-borne noise and fluid-borne noise.QXP 25. German version EN 12262:1998 Energetic assessment of heating and air-condi- tioning systems – Part 10: Heating. 2006-11 Pumps and pump units for fluids – General safe- Pumps – Centrifugal pumps – Circulating pumps ty requirements. potable DIN 24250: Centrifugal pumps . (ISO 9906:1999). 2007-03 General terms for pumps and pump systems. Hydraulic acceptance test – Class I (ISO 9905:1994). Supplement 1: numbering of components – Collection DIN System Examples home technology DIN V 4701-10/A1 Preliminary standard. Rules for measuring the hydraulic operating German version EN 1151-2:2006 behaviour – Precision class (ISO 5198:1987). potable water heating. Mechanical vibrations – Assessment of machine German version EN 12723:2000 vibrations by means of measurements on non- rotating parts – Part 7: Centrifugal pumps for DIN 24901: Graphic symbols for technical draw- industrial use (including measurement of shaft ings – Fluid pumps vibrations). definitions. 2006-11 EN ISO 9906 Centrifugal pumps – Technical requirements – Centrifugal pumps. amendments to Classes 1 and 2. German version EN 5198:1998 DIN ISO 9905 Amendment 1 Standard. 86 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . German version EN 1151-1:2006 Corrections of performance features DIN EN 1151-2 DIN EN 809 Standard. the titles are free translations and not Standard draft. Centrifugal pumps for viscous fluids – designation.Naming and water heating. Technical report matic circulating pumps. testing. 2007-02 official titles. German version EN ISO 9906:1999 EN ISO 9905:1997/AC:2006 Fluid pumps DIN ISO 10816-7 Standard draft. German version DIN ISO 9905:1997-03. requirements.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 86 Appendix Standards (Translator's note: In this and the following two DIN EN 13831 sections. ISO/DIS 10816-7:2006 DINEN 22858: Centrifugal pumps with axial inlets DIN V 4701-10 Supplement 1 DINEN 12262: Centrifugal pumps – Preliminary standard. design.

Ventilation systems VOB (German construction operating and auxiliary materials contract procedures)/STLB . Technical requirements. Installation and operating instruc- Centrifugal pumps with housing armour tions for pumps and pump units.Part 5: tronic version of table B.Part 3: pipeline connection Cooling devices and systems for the purpose of cooling and heating 24278 2002-07 Replacement for Issue 2000-04 24186-5 2002-09 Centrifugal pumps – EDV size selection program – Range of products for maintaining technical Specification document (with associated elec- systems and equipment in buildings .building - VOB Part B: DIN 1961. Naming according to way it works and Fluid pumps. fluid pumps. Outline.Air-conditioning Technology ATV DIN 18379 VDI Handbook . DIN paperback book 171 Pipes.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 87 APPENDIX Handbooks 2007. VOB Part C: ATV DIN 18299. verifications. Terms.1 "Field definitions" Electrical devices and systems from Appendix B and an editor for making han- dling easier) 1988-10 CAD standard part file. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 87 . DIN paperback book 386 Refrigerating technology 1 – Safety and environ- mental protection – Cooling systems VDMA unit sheet 24186-3 2002-09 24277 2003-07 Range of products for maintaining technical Fluid pumps – Installation – Low-tension systems and equipment in buildings . DIN paperback book 35 2007. list. fans. single-stage. main dimensions 24292 1991-08 24253 1971-02 Fluid pumps. units 24252 1991-04 24284 1973-10 Centrifugal pumps with wear walls PN 10 Testing of displacement pumps. Pumps.Refrigeration. Rotating displacement pumps Wilo Planning Guide . Naming according to way it works and design features. calculation methods and building-related vehicle cooling acoustical tests 2007. rules Designation. Requirements for geom.PLH_KKK_86_103. General testing (wash-water pumps) with bearing brackets. Refrigerating technology 2 – Cooling devices.safety with axial inlet. 24279 1993-04 etry and features. Illustration in flow charts design features. single-stream.Heating Technology 2007. main dimensions 24901-5 1988-10 24261-1 1976-01 Graphical symbols for technical drawings. Performance. pipeline parts and pipe connections made of reaction resin moulding materials 2007.05.QXP 25. check- (armoured pumps). Centrifugal pumps 24261-3 1975-07 Pumps. DIN paperback book 85 Refrigerating technology 3 – Components. symbols. text block . DIN paperback book 388 2007. compressors. Centrifugal pumps. nominal power. vacuum pumps Magnetic coupling and canned motor pumps 24222 1998-05 Fluid pumps – Heating pumps – 24280 1980-11 Data items for fieldbus systems Displacement pumps. DIN paperback book 387 Noise protection – Requirements. Drawing symbols. VDI Handbook .

88 0.21 0.22 0.20 – Qa The ζ-value of the simple 90° elbow is not to be doubled when putting several elbows together as follows.4 0.51 – Qa ζa = 0.30 0.17 0.05.38 0 0. 1.17 0.72 0.70 1.12 0.07 0.03 – 0.95 1.19 0.4 1.25 – Qa/Q = 0. but is only to be multiplied by the re- spectively specified factor in order to get the loss of the multiple elbow.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 88 APPENDIX Tables and guide values Loss coefficient a 15° 30° 45° 60° 90° Surface Surface Surface Surface Surface d smooth rough smooth rough smooth rough smooth rough smooth rough R ζ for R = 0 0.07 0.8 88 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .06 – 0.15 1.06 – 0.14 0.41 0.28 Qd Q ζd = -0.03 – 0.0.6 0.20 – 0. – 0.16 0.37 Qd Q 45° ζd = 0.10 0.30 ζ for R = d 0.38 0.07 0.QXP 25.0.20 0.34 0.08 0.4 0.51 Bent elbows ζ for R = 2 d 0.68 0.20 0.19 0.26 0.6 1.0.30 ζ for R $5 d 0.06 -0.10 1.09 0.09 -0.14 0.14 0.37 0.03 – 0.48 Q Qd 45° ζd = -0.89 0.19 0.2 0.47 0.15 – 0.20 a Number of circumferential weld seams – – – – 2 – 3 – 3 – Welded knees ζ – – – – 0.21 – Qa ζa = -0.46 0.17 – Qa ζa = 0.05 0.35 0.08 0.88 -0.25 0.PLH_KKK_86_103.10 0.50 0.50 0.35 0.10 0.04 0.91 Qd Q ζd = .8 1 ζa = .

53 3 for ∆ =75° 60° 45° broken ζ= 0.9 Extensions 1 = 0.02 0.17 0.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 89 APPENDIX 45° Inlet edge sharp ζ= 0.03 0.QXP 25.7 0.8 0.41 0.05 ζ = 0.6 0.11 Form 1 4 for 20Γ.02 3 = 4.07 0.01 0.05 0.05 0.02 0.34 0.11 0.05 0.56 0.01 a = 20° = 0.15 0.26 0.8 Form d/D 0.6 0.80 2.20 0.PLH_KKK_86_103.Refrigeration.88 0.05.13 0.07 0.01 d D Form 2 Reducers D d Form 3 D d Form 4 Wilo Planning Guide .7 0. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 89 .01 d D d a = 15° = 0. a . 40Γ = 0.11 0.55 0.25 0.10 0.21 0.03 0.04 2 for a = 8° = 0.5 0.23 0.

5 0.8 bare pipe Expansion bend .5 4.2 6.65 0.6 Angle valve 3.6 0.2 0.6 Expansion bend .3 0.4 0.6 4.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 90 APPENDIX Loss value with DN Fittings [DN] 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 Flat slide valve 0.1 6. 1.7 5.5 3. 0.0 Foot valve 1.4 0.3 0. Speed difference dv -1 γ= = [s ] Layer thickness dy 90 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .3 7.8 4.3 5.3 0.6 folded pipe Expansion bend .3 6.9 3.9 9.0 Angle-seat valve 2.65 0.QXP 25.35 0.3 Cocks [dE = DN] 0.1 4.15 Shutters 1.2 0.PLH_KKK_86_103.3 Flat-seat valve 6.5 0. 4.3 0.3 0.2 5.0 5.6 Flap traps 3.6 0.2 0.6 Free-flow valve 1.3 compensator with conducting pipe Definition of viscosity Area Force Layer thickness Speed difference Force F N η= τ= Area = A [ ] m2 .1 3.3 6.3 6.5 0.05.3 0.0 6.6 5.1 3.1 3.8 4.2 4.5 0.3 4.3 0.3 0.45 0.4 4.4 4.55 0.3 0.3 6.1 3.4 3.3 0.0 corrugated pipe Corrugated pipe 0.7 6.2 6.

5 m/ s DN 0.2 0.3 s DN m/ 1.4 m s /s 2.2 s m/ 20 7 1.6 s DN m/ 50 2 s 0.0 1 m/ s 50 /4 11 1.3 0.6 s m/ 12 N 10 m/ 5 s D s 1.0 100 m/ 3/4 s 70 2.0 m/s DN 20 80 1.7 s 12 m/ s 0 DN 0.5 0.1 5m /s 1 0.9 s DN 0 0.2 m/ 0.Refrigeration.4 1.0 s m/ 40 2.4 3 m/ s 0.4 DN DN 15 0 10 m/ 15 0.0 s m/ s 4.QXP 25.1 0.6 15 7 m/ DN s 0 0.5 DN 65 1.2 0.0 s DN m/ 20 N DN 0 0.9 s D 25 5 m/ D 0 0.5 1 2 3 5 10 20 30 50 100 200 400 600 Flow rate Q [m³/h] Wilo Planning Guide .1 m/ 1 s 0.8 m/s 10 DN m/ 5 10 0.0 70 m/ 3. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 91 .3 0.2 m/s 2.8 s 25 4 30 N m/ D 0 m/ 32 s s 3 N DN50 3 0.68 m/ 30 2.PLH_KKK_86_103.0 DN 80 m/ 15 0.0 150 m/ 1/2 3.1 0.8 m/s 10 N 0 m/ D 15 0.2 DN 0.5 s m/ 50 3.7 DN m/ 0 40 40 0.5 20 5 m/ s DN 4 0.5 1 2 3 5 10 20 30 50 100 200 400 600 Flow rate Q [m³/h] Steel pipe 300 Pipe friction resistance R [mm/m] 200 3/8 5.3 2 s m/ s 1.05.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 91 APPENDIX Pipe frictional losses PVC pipe 300 Pipe friction resistance R [mm/m] 200 150 100 4. s 2.5 40 40 m/ DN s 50 30 DN 65 20 1.

396 1061 3.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 92 APPENDIX Ethylene glycol with 40% admixture Antifrogen N Tyfocor Fluid Density Kinematic Specific Relative Density Kinematic Specific Relative temperature viscosity heat capacity pressure viscosity heat capacity pressure loss loss [°C] ρ [kg/m3] ν [mm2/s] cP [kJ/kg·K] fP ρ [kg/m3] ν [mm2/s] cP [kJ/kg·K] fP -30 .62 3.553 1066 5.68 3.925 80 1032 0.868 1073 10.70 1.99 3.33 1.73 3.271 1056 2.60 1.62 1.438 10 1070 4.012 -20 1079 18.PLH_KKK_86_103.16 3.147 1077 17.45 1.76 3.63 0.49 1.38 3.71 0.175 35 1059 2.972 1034 0.57 1.43 1.330 1059 3.07 3.72 3.69 3.219 1054 2.67 0.375 15 1068 3.76 0.74 0.73 3.72 1.67 3.091 1046 1.6 3.64 1.129 1049 1.99 3.68 0. - -25 1080 26.46 1.93 3.66 0.927 1028 0.7 0.58 3.057 1043 1.6 1.09 3.66 1.49 1. .64 0.79 3.59 1.36 3.172 1051 1.45 3.998 65 1042 1.9 3.85 3.887 1022 0.78 0.225 30 1062 2.646 1068 6.05.00 3. .91 3.80 0.44 2.72 3.963 85 1029 0.138 40 1057 1.59 3.949 1031 0.42 3.72 3.869 1019 0.588 0 1074 6.51 1.57 1.48 1.999 1075 13.79 0.61 1.34 3.075 50 1051 1.52 1.47 1.875 95 1022 0.998 1037 1.470 1064 4.025 60 1045 1.33 3.751 1071 8.4 3.888 90 1025 0.850 100 1018 0.689 -5 1076 8.54 1.263 25 1064 2.80 0.75 0.63 3.834 1013 0.46 1.55 1.73 0.QXP 25. .53 1.75 3.907 1025 0.52 3.36 1.29 2.19 3.85 3.55 1.1 3.313 20 1066 3.82 3. .050 55 1048 1.49 3.31 3.57 3. .5 1.79 0.913 -15 1078 13.71 3.975 70 1039 1.14 3.100 45 1054 1.52 3.838 92 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .851 1016 0.56 1.950 75 1036 0.20 3.68 1.43 2.86 3. .77 0.40 1.73 0.19 3.313 1099 21.80 3.08 3.70 3.500 5 1072 5.026 1040 1.31 3.81 3.799 -10 1077 10.

150 50 1065 1.601 5 1089 7.41 1.00 3.738 0 1091 9.45 3.13 3.00 2.40 1.08 3.188 1058 2.52 1.733 1081 7.21 1.73 3.10 3.68 3.87 3.45 1094 26.080 1048 1.023 1042 1.23 2.17 2.42 3.13 3.20 3.20 2.463 15 1085 5.44 1.31 1.01 3.03 2.29 1.83 3.890 1020 0.25 1.110 1088 14.Refrigeration.975 80 1046 1.547 1075 4.886 1099 54.51 0.634 1078 5.17 3.37 1.54 0.875 Wilo Planning Guide .23 3.10 3.469 1072 4.12 3.26 1.11 3.175 45 1068 2.844 1083 8.07 1.750 60 1059 1.62 3.951 1031 0.62 0.07 3.60 0.84 3.56 0.34 1.37 1.42 1.93 3.27 3.350 25 1079 3.149 1055 1.550 10 1087 6.59 0.99 2.PLH_KKK_86_103.233 1061 2.250 -20 1099 29.282 1064 2.11 1.100 55 1062 1.000 75 1049 1.24 1.250 35 1074 2.53 0.963 85 1042 1.40 3.938 90 1038 0.300 30 1077 3.62 3.997 1038 1.32 1.27 1.95 2.88 3.81 3.71 3.30 3.38 3.42 1.94 3.21 2.58 0.61 0.63 3.47 1.973 1035 1.05.399 1070 3.88 3.34 1.20 3.050 1045 1.31 1.463 -25 1100 43.05 3.65 0.112 1052 1.50 1.54 1.20 3.14 1.02 3.938 -10 1095 15.52 3.28 1.969 1086 11.913 95 1035 0.020 70 1052 1.36 1.38 3.32 3.2007 10:24 Uhr Seite 93 APPENDIX Ethylene glycol with 50% admixture Antifrogen N Tyfocor Fluid Density Kinematic Specific Relative Density Kinematic Specific Relative temperature viscosity heat capacity pressure viscosity heat capacity pressure loss loss [°C] ρ [kg/m3] ν [mm2/s] cP [kJ/kg·K] fP ρ [kg/m3] ν [mm2/s] cP [kJ/kg·K] fP -30 1101 71.20 2.39 1.063 -15 1097 20.213 40 1071 2.56 1.18 1.03 3.32 3.58 0.QXP 25.66 3.930 1027 0.412 20 1082 4.85 3.654 1096 37.46 1.81 3.802 -5 1093 11.27 1091 19.49 1.500 65 1056 1.76 3.25 3.910 1024 0. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 93 .18 2.88 3.54 3.51 3.20 3.47 1.63 0.45 1.338 1067 3.888 100 1031 0.62 3.

78 1.885 1001 0.89 3.183 40 1027 2. .829 986 0.233 -10 1053 22.87 0.405 -15 1055 31. .76 1.09 3.64 1.32 3.36 3.06 3.72 3.64 2.81 1.849 994 0.92 0.95 3.28 3.83 1.85 0.QXP 25.867 100 983 0.385 1057 30. .84 3.68 3.061 1019 1.067 55 1017 1.86 3.52 3.4 3.386 1037 3.150 45 1024 2.61 1.883 95 987 0.4 3.89 0.53 2.838 990 0.615 1045 6.69 3.033 60 1013 1.85 0.42 3.17 3.977 1012 1.30 3.73 1.85 3. .79 1.65 2.10 3.51 3.75 1. .77 1.82 1. .833 94 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .837 1050 11.69 3.04 3.324 1037 2.70 1.05.109 1022 1.72 3. .PLH_KKK_86_103.53 3.163 1055 21. .72 1.11 1028 2.266 1031 2.98 0.87 0.805 5 1047 9.941 1008 1.159 1025 1.79 1.600 15 1042 6.63 3.70 1.017 1015 1.865 997 0.95 0.900 90 991 0.78 1.933 80 998 0. .59 2.91 0.910 1005 1.05 3.983 70 1006 1.917 85 994 0.66 1.716 1048 8.25 3.68 1.4 3.96 0.70 3.100 50 1020 1.18 3.94 0.69 1.350 25 1036 4. .233 35 1030 2.34 3.033 -5 1051 16.74 1.300 30 1033 3.43 3.017 65 1010 1.983 1052 15.89 0.68 1.7 3.96 3.62 2.63 1.39 3.82 3.467 20 1039 4.84 1.81 1.45 3.91 0.94 3.92 0.66 1. - -25 .96 3.88 0.950 75 1002 1.660 1059 44.24 3.4 3.57 2.170 0 1049 12.529 1042 5. . . - -20 1056 44.94 0.31 3.717 10 1044 7.77 3.454 1040 4.74 1.55 2.2007 10:28 Uhr Seite 94 APPENDIX Propylene glycol with 40% admixture Antifrogen L Tyfocor L Fluid Density Kinematic Specific Relative Density Kinematic Specific Relative temperature viscosity heat capacity pressure viscosity heat capacity pressure loss loss [°C] ρ [kg/m3] ν [mm2/s] cP [kJ/kg·K] fP ρ [kg/m3] ν [mm2/s] cP [kJ/kg·K] fP -30 .53 3.90 3.53 3.08 3.14 3.71 1.62 3.

60 1.883 Wilo Planning Guide .49 3.27 3.54 1.64 1.59 1.39 1.56 1.94 3.43 1.69 1.700 15 1051 9.78 0.44 2.011 1014 1.41 1.067 65 1016 1.62 1.94 3.201 1028 2.283 40 1035 3.88 3.748 1068 52.55 3.20 3.52 1.608 1048 6.35 2.58 3.81 0.33 2.94 3.77 0.098 1021 1.800 10 1054 11.67 1.94 3.42 3.533 -10 1065 37.800 -25 1070 128.473 1071 80.100 0 1060 19.526 1045 4.76 0.917 95 992 0.975 1010 1.600 20 1048 7.117 60 1020 1.46 2.919 1003 1.02 3.383 1038 3.37 3.98 3.932 1057 13.37 2.29 3.04 3.150 55 1024 2.81 3.62 1.85 0.57 1.933 5 1057 15.69 1.872 991 0.25 3.39 3.473 1074 128 3.62 3.73 1.52 1.55 1.13 3.79 0.5 3.017 75 1008 1.183 50 1027 2.50 1.48 2.64 3.78 3.53 1.QXP 25.64 1.6 3.43 2.85 3.37 3.983 80 1004 1.PLH_KKK_86_103.58 3.317 -5 1062 26.87 3.75 0. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 95 .50 1.233 45 1031 2.500 25 1045 6.800 -15 1067 54.80 3.147 1025 2.36 3.900 100 988 0.052 1018 1.82 0.258 1032 2.75 3.13 3.31 2.05.807 1054 9.081 1060 17.884 995 0.75 0.24 3.64 3.319 1035 2.958 1076 241 3.950 90 996 0.01 3.71 1.2007 10:28 Uhr Seite 95 APPENDIX Propylene glycol with 50% admixture Antifrogen L Tyfocor L Fluid Density Kinematic Specific Relative Density Kinematic Specific Relative temperature viscosity heat capacity pressure viscosity heat capacity pressure loss loss [°C] ρ [kg/m3] ν [mm2/s] cP [kJ/kg·K] fP ρ [kg/m3] ν [mm2/s] cP [kJ/kg·K] fP -30 1072 202.261 1063 24.2 3.39 3.90 999 1.12 3.944 1006 1.417 30 1042 5.66 1.10 3.2 3.70 1051 7.80 0.84 3.12 3.89 3.27 3.46 1.350 35 1038 4.60 1.45 3.200 -25 1070 128.58 1.480 1066 35.451 1042 4.3 3.48 1.96 3.43 3.Refrigeration.83 3.967 85 1000 0.08 3.80 3.10 3.73 0.033 70 1012 1.71 0.46 3.66 1.58 3.14 3.0 3.

7 19 292.2007 10:28 Uhr Seite 96 APPENDIX Vapor pressure and density of water at different temperatures This table shows the vapour pressure p [bar] and the density r [kg/m3] of water at different temperatures t [°C].478 813.632 820.8453 961.15 0.9430 359.15 0.01001 999.243 858.15 0.15 0.7849 963.5 210 483.700 690.02397 998.04004 996.1 205 478.15 6.4 73 346.15 0.15 3.15 0.1 145 418.6 83 356.7 240 513.QXP 25.4 290 563.7 71 344.03360 996.15 0.05.0 300 573.00872 1000.058 767.15 0.15 36. The table also shows the absolute temperatures T [K].7 96 369.077 852.8 138 411.15 0.03542 976.15 0.9 62 335.0 230 503.7281 964.9 61 334.6 225 498.15 46.3 36 309.15 0.7 38 311.186 741.1 35 308.15 0.5 155 428.0 76 349.04491 995.976 827.2615 979.8 17 290.02062 998.037 722.05318 994.2391 981.4 8 281.433 912..15 0.02982 997.6011 967.15 0.6495 966.3 80 353.3 31 304.15 0.027 886.9 29 302.461 732.1 10 283.3 88 361.920 897.6 72 345.1 315 588.501 833.4 235 508.15 7.02485 998.0 66 339.01497 999.15 55.15 0.05940 993.8 4 277.6 39 312.760 916.15 0.4 91 364.15 0.15 74.2 270 543.5 34 307.15 0.15 0.6 310 583.15 0.6 27 300.5 190 463.15 13.7561 963.5 260 533.15 0.15 0.15 0.7 93 366.3 165 438.01227 999.03116 977.15 0.2984 978.8 2 275.15 59.2501 980.15 0.3 20 293.15 0.15 5.0 13 286.01312 999.15 33.00611 999.15 27.8769 961.06274 993.15 1.1 5 278.8 265 538.15 0.15 21.PLH_KKK_86_103.5780 968.1 96 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .2 26 299.01704 999.15 0.01597 999.15 0.3 7 280.15 0.15 3.15 0.15 30.7 180 453.987 876.15 0.614 925.03855 974.15 0.15 10.01147 999.50 864.3 100 373.15 11.15 0.7 99 372.8146 962.7 70 343.9 30 303.8 255 528.04241 995.6 150 423.0 195 468.9 63 336.9094 960.15 0.9 215 488.5342 969.04019 974.15 0.2184 982.15 0.060 846.202 750.5 79 352.414 927.03778 996.7 90 363.198 840.15 0.8 16 289.9 21 294.3 200 473.07375 992.2 175 448.6249 967.15 0.6 40 313.927 712.01072 999.61 679.8 82 355.6 87 360.15 0.008 902.15 0.06991 992.15 0.7 185 458.15 4.7011 965.8 170 443.1 245 518.5 23 296.2 37 310.15 0.00657 999.15 0.00706 999.8 69 342.8 33 306.6 295 568.943 783.04547 972.15 43.15 15.15 64.04736 971.15 0.2086 982.03564 996.15 0.15 19.15 0.15 0.1 6 279.15 0.4 250 523.15 50.05622 994.5 12 285.00935 1000.0 64 337.15 92.4931 971.00758 999.15 39.15 0.15 85.15 25.04753 995.15 0.01401 999.15 0.15 4.5557 969.15 0.0 65 338.4 94 367.1 28 301.7 15 288.3 22 295.233 881.15 0.15 0.15 23.15 0.551 876.15 8.8 275 548.0 89 362.4 14 287.01936 998.4 280 553.15 69.02196 999.15 0.15 0.03253 977.9 11 284.15 0.1 81 354.7 78 351.496 759.5 32 305.01817 999.3 9 282.04365 972.0 98 371.2733 979.1 85 358.4 84 357.8 86 359.6749 965.9 160 433.03166 997.8 18 291.15 98.15 0.5133 970.2856 978.6 1 274.15 0.3 74 347.15 0.15 0.00813 1000.15 0.9 67 340.15 0.924 892.15 105.15 80.03696 975.15 0.15 0.15 0.6 24 297.15 17.15 0.15 0.15 0.746 791.15 0.877 775.15 0.2286 981.15 0.2 305 578.04189 973.3 97 370.5 25 298.15 7.776 799.15 0.06624 993.2 75 348.9776 958.15 0.0133 958.181 907.144 701.02642 997.15 12.0 285 558.05029 994.155 921.9 68 341.15 0.6 140 413.02808 997.1 92 365.15 0.4 3 276.8 77 350.523 806.03396 976.3 220 493.0 95 368.15 0. t [°C] T [K] p [bar] r [kg/m3] t [°C] T [K] p [bar] r [kg/m3] t [°C] T [K] p [bar] r [kg/m3] 0 273.

75 527.7 330 603.08639 991.8670 932.4 Further Reading Paperback book of Heating + Air-conditioning Technology (Recknagel/Sprenger/Schramek).15 1.15 1.15 2.0 370 643.5316 949.7 320 593. Heidelberg 2005 The cooling system engineer (Breidenbach).0 118 391. Müller-Verlag.9854 942.15 0.16511 985.2 315.8 350 623.15 2.15 0.2507 953.10612 989.0878 956.15 0. Springer-Verlag.15 186.12961 987.2504 939.15 2.15 1.15 0.7 128 401.15 210.1 60 333.1 360 633.8 59 332.Refrigeration.09198 991. Heidelberg 2003 Wilo Planning Guide .15 3.19016 983.15 2.1 106 379.6 54 327.).11162 988.15002 986.4 112 385.15 1.4 120 393.54 451.15 0.15 0.9 55 328.15 0.2 136 409.7 134 407.30 221.6 49 322.8 50 323.041 931.15 0.35 574.07777 991.15 1.12335 988.2 130 403.2 45 318.7465 946.2 126 399.6 58 331.15 1.4 116 389.9 114 387.15 120.89 666.19920 983.9 102 375.7 46 319.7013 934.3390 952.15 165.QXP 25.11736 988.14293 986.15 0.223 929.05 610.3933 937. Essen 2006 Centrifugal pump (Gülich).6362 947.F.2 132 405.15 128.3 47 320.1 122 395.15 0. Müller-Verlag.8628 944.9 51 324.09582 990.15 1.F. Oldenbourg-Industrieverlag.4 44 317.15 1.15 0.5 474.05. C.6 124 397. C.5435 936.56 646.09100 990.18147 984.2 325 598.1668 955.1145 941.15 0.7 108 381.15 2.PLH_KKK_86_103.15 2.15 0.15 1.1 43 316.15 0.15 0.6 52 325.4327 950.2 340 613.15 647.63 640.15 0.15 1.15 0.15 112. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 97 .9 42 315. Hrsg.10086 989.2007 10:28 Uhr Seite 97 APPENDIX t [°C] T [K] p [bar] r [kg/m3] t [°C] T [K] p [bar] r [kg/m3] t [°C] T [K] p [bar] r [kg/m3] 41 314.2 56 329.2 53 326. Heidelberg 2004 Paperback book of refrigerating technology (Pohlmann/Iket.2 110 383.17313 984.15 146.13613 987.5 104 377.15 0.15 0.6 57 330.15 3.5 48 321.15 0.15741 985.

cool- ing. The seminars are specifically tailored to the re- quirements of your daily work routine. The system training programs take place in Wilo Brain Centres. puts this in systematic context and offers brand new tips and tricks for installation and maintenance. industry-wide training centres for guilds.PLH_KKK_86_103. air conditioning. Whether a hy- draulic balancing of heating systems of hygiene protection in secondary hot water circulation: Wilo-Brain passes on expertise for noise-free.QXP 25.2007 10:34 Uhr Seite 98 Seminars Wilo seminars The Wilo seminars will help you always keep your professional expertise up-to-date: with many training programs in the areas of heating. Wilo seminars can be found at: www. Besides confer- ence and meeting rooms. You will get a Wilo certificate Current information and dates for after successfully participating in the seminar. Wilo-Brain utilis- es existing knowledge. Our train- ers have many years of experience in skilled craft firms and for this reason always teach seminars with a direct reference to daily practice.wilo. The training centres in Dortmund and Oschers- leben offer an optimal environment for modern learning at the highest level. The one-day events – including lunch – are free of charge for you. Wilo-Brain will help you to make your customers happier and to make your business more suc- cessful. they have practically equipped method rooms: ideal for the handling- oriented training on pumps and system models.05. water supply as well as sewage disposal. chambers and technical colleges all over Germany. 98 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG . smooth system operation and long-term energy efficiency. Hereby. this isn't a product training pro- gram.com Wilo-Brain 80 to 90 % of all customer complaints with regard to heating and secondary hot water circulation systems can be easily avoided: by designing/adjusting the system to be de- mand-oriented. but a general system training program spanning many manufacturers.

1. Version 3.2007 10:35 Uhr Seite 99 Information material Grundlagen der Pumpentechnik Pumpenfibel Basic knowledge 2005 Gesamtübersicht Pumpen und Systeme für Gebäudetechnik.und Regenwassernutzungs- Kühltechnik technik Planungssoftware für Pumpen.de 98/ ME / NT/ 2000 / XP Wilo-Select Classic Planungshandbuch Planungshandbuch Planning information 2007 2007 Optimierung von Heizungsanlagen Optimierung von Trinkwarmwasser-Zirkulationsanlagen Wilo-Brain Arbeitsmappe Wilo-Brain Arbeitsmappe Optimierung von Heizungsanlagen Optimierung von Trinkwarmwasser-Zirkulationsanlagen Wilo-Brain Tipps und Tricks Wilo-Brain Tipps und Tricks System knowledge This information material can be ordered with the order forms on the following pages or you can order online at www. Klima.wilo.05.3 DE Deutschland Pumpensysteme März 2005 und Komponenten www.QXP 25.Refrigeration.de Windows select@wilo. Industrie und kommunale Wasserversorgung und -entsorgung Product catalogues Lieferprogramm – 50 Hz – 2007 Kälte-.PLH_KKK_86_103.wilo. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 99 .de Wilo Planning Guide .

05. no. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 Subject to change without prior notice 02/2007 WILO AG .und Kühltechnik cooling technology Planungshandbuch copies Regenwassernutzungs- technik 2007 Planungshandbuch Rainwater utilisation technology 2007 copies *14 cents per minute from the German fixed line network Planning guide for refrigeration.2007 10:42 Uhr Seite 100 Fax/letter response 0 18 05 F•A•X•W•I•L•O* 0 18 05 3•2•9•9•4•5•6* (master copy) WILO AG Company address/Billing address Market Management Nortkirchenstraße 100 44263 Dortmund Germany Please send me: Basic knowledge Wilo Pump Manual Stamp/signature Grundlagen der Pumpentechnik Mailing address Pumpenfibel 2005 copies Company Product catalogues Name Wilo-Compact Skilled craftsmen catalogue with product and planning Street. Industrie und kommunale Wasserversorgung und -entsorgung disposal Lieferprogramm – 50 Hz – 2007 copies E-mail Planning Guides Internet Sewage Technology copies Cooling/air conditioning and Kälte-.QXP 25. Klima. information copies ZIP code/ Town or city Complete overview Telephone Pumps and systems for build- Gesamtübersicht ing engineering. industry and municipal water supply and Telefax Pumpen und Systeme für Gebäudetechnik.PLH_KKK_86_103.

00 plus tax. ZIP code/ Town or city Wilo-Brain Workbook Telephone Optimisation of hot drinking water circulation systems Order no.: 103936 Optimierung von Heizungsanlagen Wilo-Brain Arbeitsmappe per book € 45.00 plus tax. no. KG Company address/Billing address Technisches Institut für Aus- und Weiterbildung Hermann-Hesse-Weg 2 78464 Konstanz Stamp/signature System knowledge Mailing address Wilo-Brain Workbook Optimisation of heating systems Company Order no. Paul Christiani GmbH & Co.Refrigeration. Name copies Street.PLH_KKK_86_103.05.2007 10:42 Uhr Seite 101 Fax/letter response +49 7531 580185 (master copy) Dr. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 Wilo Planning Guide .-Ing.: 71329 Telefax Optimierung von Trinkwarmwasser-Zirkulationsanlagen Wilo-Brain Arbeitsmappe per book € 45. air-conditioning and cooling technology 02/2007 .QXP 25. E-mail copies Internet Planning guide for refrigeration.

QXP 25.2007 10:42 Uhr Seite 102 .PLH_KKK_86_103.05.

as well as for the storing and processing in electronic systems.QXP 25. Still. 1st Edition 2007 . other types of processing.2007 10:42 Uhr Seite 103 WILO AG has worked on the text in this document with great care. Publisher liability is excluded. Joachim Scheiner. Editorial staff members: Manfred Oraschewski. Dortmund This work. microfilms. This especial- ly applies for duplications. Any use outside the narrow limits of copyright law is illegal and liable to prosecution without the permission of WILO AG. This also applies for taking individual figures and using excerpts from text.PLH_KKK_86_103. including all its parts. translation. Stephan Thomas Schuster Copyright 2007 by WILO AG. is copyright protected. errors cannot be ruled out. regardless of the legal ground.05.

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