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TEST OF ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

TOEFL

TOEFL merupakan singkatan dari Test of English as a Foreign Language. TOEFL adalah
standardisasi kemampuan bahasa Inggris seseorang secara tertulis yang meliputi empat
aspek penguasaan: Listening, Writing, Reading, dan Speaking. Namun, untuk model Paper
Based Test hanya terdapat tiga aspek yang diujikan: Listening Comprehension, Structure
and Written Expression, dan Reading Comprehension.

Tujuan Test TOEFL

TOEFL memliki tujuan khusus yakni untuk tujuan pendidikan, penelitian atau yang
berhubungan dengan kegiatan akademis di luar negeri, ataupun di Indonesia. Untuk jenjang
pascasarjana (S2) biasanya memiliki syarat nilai minimal 500 sedangkan untuk jenjang
sarjana (S1) memiliki syarat nilai minimal 450.

Disamping itu, ada kalanya TOEFL dipakai dalam bidang umum seperti pekerjaan, kenaikan
pangkat atau tugas kerja. Banyak perusahaan yang memasang standar Bahasa Inggris
karyawannya dengan melihat nilai TOEFL. Umumnya, nilai TOEFL minimal adalah 450-500
untuk kenaikan pangkat standar.

Struktur TOEFL

Ada tiga bagian tes TOEFL yang harus dikerjakan oleh peserta. Bagian pertama adalah soal-
soal yang mengukur kemampuan Listening Comprehension (50 soal), Structure & Written
Expression (40 soal), dan Reading Comprehension (50 soal). Keseluruhan soal dibuat dalam
bentuk pilihan berganda. Keseluruhan tes berlangsung kurang lebih 120 menit, untuk Paper
Based Test (PBT), dan kurang lebih 240 menit untuk Internet Based Test (IBT).

Klasifikasi UMUM Nilai TOEFL

Secara umum kita mengenal tiga level penguasaan bahasa asing, yaitu Tingkat Dasar
(Elementary), Tingkat Menengah (Intermediate), dan Tingkat Mahir (Advanced). Untuk
skor TOEFL, para ahli bahasa biasanya mengelompokkan skor ini kedalam empat level
berikut (Carson, et al., 1990):

· Tingkat Dasar (Elementary) : 310 s.d. 420
· Tingkat Menengah Bawah (Low Intermediate) : 420 s.d. 480
· Tingkat Menengah Atas (High Intermediate) : 480 s.d. 520
· Tingkat Mahir (Advanced) : 525 s.d 677

Penilaian TOEFL

Sistem penilaian TOEFL menggunakan konversi dari setiap jawaban yang benar. Nilai
TOEFL tertinggi yang bisa dicapai seseorang adalah 677.

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UNIT I

LISTENING COMPREHENSION
Waktu = 35 menit (termasuk pembacaan petunjuk pelaksanaan
untuk setiap bagian) Tes ini memberikan kesempatan untuk
menunjukkan kemampuan memahami percakapan dan
pembicaraan dalam bahasa Inggris. Listening Comprehension
Test terdiri dari 3 (tiga) bagian:

Part A : SHORT DIALOGUE (DIALOG PENDEK)

Pada bagian ini, terdapat percakapan singkat antara dua orang.
Setelah percakapan, pertanyaan yang berhubungan dengan
percakapan tersebut akan diberikan. Baik percakapan dan pertanyaan tidak akan diulangi.

Part B : LONG CONVERSATION (PERCAKAPAN PANJANG)

Pada bagian ini, terdapat percakapan dengan topik santai antara beberapa orang dengan
durasi sekitar 60-90 detik. Setelah percakapan panjang selesai akan diikuti oleh sejumlah
pertanyaan pilihan ganda yang kesemuanya merujuk pada percakapan panjang tersebut.

Part C : TALKS (PEMBICARAAN)

Pada bagian ini, terdapat beberapa pembicaraan dengan durasi sekitar 60-90 detik tentang
kehidupan sekolah atau perkuliahan, masing-masing diikuti dengan pertanyaan pilihan
ganda.

1.1. DIALOG PENDEK

SKILL 1: FOCUS ON THE LAST LINE AND RESTATE
1
Seringkali jawaban yang benar untuk sebuah pertanyaan dalam bagian dialog pendek adalah
jawaban yang berisi penyajian kembali ide-ide dalam baris terakhir dari dialog. Jika anda
tidak sempat menangkap maksud speaker pertama, maka jangan khawatir karena biasanya
informasi terkait jawaban berada pada speaker kedua. Kemudian, cobalah untuk
menyatakannya kembali ke dalam sebuah kalimat lain yang memiliki kesamaan arti

Example:

On the recording, you hear:
(Woman) Steve, is something the matter? You don’t look very good
(Man) Oh, I’m feeling a little sick today
(Narrator) What does the man mean?
In your test book you read:

(A) He’s very good looking (C) He looks worse than he feels
(B) He’s a bit ill (D) His feet are a little thick

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Garis bawahi ide pokok dari dialog singkat dibawah.

1. (woman) What do you like about your 2. (man) Mark said some really nice
new house? things to me
(man) It’s very close to a park (woman) He’s very grateful for what
(woman)What does the man mean? you did
(narrator) What does the woman say
(A) The house is closed up now about Mark?
(B) He parks his car close to his house
(C) His home is near a park (A) He did a great job
(D) He doesn’t really like his new house (B) He bought a crate full of fruit
(C) He made a great fool of himself
(D) He’s thankful

TOEFL EXERCISE 1:
In this exercise, listen carefully to each short dialogue and
question on the recording, and then choose the best answer to the
question. You should look for synonyms for key words in the last
line.

Now begin the recording at TOEFL exercise 1.

1. (A) The final exam was harder than
the others. 4. (A) He did not look at the right
(B) There were two exams rather schedule.
than one. (B) The plane landed in the right
(C) He thought the exam would be place.
easier. (C) The plane arrived on time.
(D) The exam was not very difficult. (D) He had to wait for the plane to
2. (A) He’s not feeling very well. land.
(B) He’s rather sick of working. 5. (A) She’s rather go running.
(C) He’s feeling better today than (B) She doesn’t want to go into the
yesterday. pool.
(D) He’d really rather not answer (C) She’ll change clothes quickly
the question. and go swimming
3. (A) The company was founded (D) She needs a sweatsuit to go
about a year ago. running.
(B) It was just established that he
could go into business.
(C) The family is well-established.
(D) The business only lasted a year.

Skill 2: NEGATIVES (Pernyataan Negatif)
2
Pernyataan negatif seringkali digunakan dalam dialog singkat. Respon yang paling umum
respon untuk pernyataan negatif adalah pernyataan positif yang mengandung sebuah kata
dengan arti yang berlawanan.

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Example:

On the recording, you hear:

(woman) Did you get a lot of work done at the library today?
(man) I couldn’t. It wasn’t very quiet there
(narrator) What does the man mean?

In your test book, you read:

(A) The library was noisy
(B) He got a lot done
(C) He couldn’t quite get to the library today
(D) The library’s a good place to work because it‟s quite

Jawaban yang benar adalah jawaban (A). Jika tidak tenang di perpustakaan, berarti
berisik. Perhatikan bahwa jawaban yang benar menggunakan berisik, kebalikan dari
tenang.

Garisbawahi ungkapan negatif di baris terakhir dari setiap dialog singkat.
Ingat bahwa jawaban yang paling tepat adalah yang menggunakan makna
berlawanan.

1. (woman) You made so many mistakes 2. (Man)Is there a lot of soup? I’m kind of
in this homework hungry
(man) I wasn’t very careful (woman) Sorry, there’s not a lot
(narrator) What does the man mean? (narrator) What does the woman
mean?
(A) He was rather careless
(B) He does not care about mistakes (A) There’s not very much soap
(C) He took care of the work at home (B) She doesn’t like soap
(D) He did not carry the work home (C) There’s only a little soup
(D) The man should not be hungry

TOEFL EXERCISE 2: In this exercise, listen carefully to each
short dialogue and question on the recording, and then choose the
best answer to the question. You should be particularly careful
careful of negative expressions.
1. (A) She is very busy.
(B) She has lots of free time.
(C) It is not necessary to take out
interview.
the trash.
3. (A) He has almost all the notes.
(D) She will do it if she has time.
2. (A) The interview is very (B) His attendance was perfect.
(C) He went to all the lectures but
important.
one.
(B) He is worried about the
(D) He missed more than one
interview.
(C) What he’s wearing to the psychology class.
interview is important.
(D) He is not concerned about the
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you read: (A) Calling off his visit (B) Talking about his parents (C) Calling his parents in a while (D) Phoning his family Dalam contoh ini.. ekspresi “why don’t” merupakan contoh saran. why not.. Ciri dari pertanyaan ini adalah 3 terdapat kata: let’s. why don’t. Sehingga jawaban terbaik adalah (D). (C) The library closes at 6:00.m this afternoon? (woman) As far as I know. (D) Give the plants a limited amount of water. you read: (A) The exam is far away. Center for International Language Development | 6 . (B) Give the plants no more water. Beberaoa ciri uncertainty adalah sebagai berikut: as far as I can tell. karena kata think menandakan bahwa dia merasa tidak yakin.. summer.. (narrator) What does the woman mean? In your test book. (B) She knows that the exam schedule has been changed. you hear: (man) Is the exam still scheduled at 3 p. Example: On the recording.. (C) She is sure that the exam is set for Thrusday. six books in the summer. (A) They passed the library at 6:00. (D) She thinks she knows when the test is Jawaban yang tepat adalah D. Example: On the recording. juga seringkali terdaoat soal terkait uncertainty atau ketidakyakinan. Ini berarti bahwa si wanita itu menyarankan menelefon keluarganya sekarang (bukan nanti). Skill 3: SUGGESTIONS AND UNCERTAINTY Saran juga sangat umum digunakan dalam dialog singkat.. (C) Water the plants often while (D) You can’t chect out more than the man is gone. (A) Water the plants once a day. jadi saran si wanita adalah untuk memanggil mereka. as far as I know. (B) The library opens at 6:00 in the 5.isn’t it (tag). 4. Selain itu. .. Perhatikan contoh dibawah. you hear: (man) I haven’t talked with my parents in a while (woman) Why don’t you call them now? (narrator) What does the woman suggest? In your test book.

Ingat bahwa jawaban terbaik adalah yang memberikan saran. listen carefully to each short dialogue and question on the recording. talent. (C) He has to tell her how far she 4. (D) Washing the dishes before they (B) The man should try something leave. Kemudian. (D) The man should feel sorry. 1. You should be particularly careful of expressions of emphatic surprise. has been changed. Center for International Language Development | 7 . (A) The man should take the pie do the dishes now. (C) The man shouldn’t try cherry (B) Matt has far from enough pie. (A) He knows the movie starts at (D) She believes Matt has the 8:00. (A) He’s sure about which chapters (C) He thinks the start of the movie they are read to. out. (A) Not doing the dishes now. Garisbawahi ekspresi saran di setiap dialog singkat berikut. (man) The weather’s so beautiful 2. should go. (B) He thinks he knows what the (D) He will start the movie himself assignment is. (C) Leaving later so that they can 2. (A) She’s told Matt he’ll go far. ability for the part. the chapters after the exam. 1. (B) He is not quite sure when the movie begins. pilih jawaban terbaik untuk pertanyaan itu. and then choose the best answer to the question. 3. else. at 8:00. (B) Leaving the house with the (D) The professor told them to read dishes. (woman) I have never enough today spending money (woman) Let’s walk to school (man) Why not get a part-time job? instead of driving (narrator) What does the man suggest? (narrator) What does the woman suggest? (A) Spending less money (B) Doing a better job at work (A) Taking the car to school (C) Earning some money (B) Taking a walk instead of going to (D) Spending less time at her job school (C) Going for a drive in the beautiful weather (D) Going to class on foot TOEFL EXERCISE 3: In this exercise. (C) She told Matt to roll farther. 5.

si wanita menggunakan ide aktif. 1. Pastikan Anda memahami siapa yang melakukan tindakan dalam kalimat pasif. (man) what happened to your 2. Jawaban yang benar untuk menggunakan gagasan pasif adalah “kursi itu dibeli”. Sehingga. Masalah ini sering diujikan dalam dialog singkat. Kemudian baca pertanyaan dibawah dan pilih jawaban terbaik untuk pertanyaan itu. you hear: (man) Is that a new chair? (woman) Yes. Baca dialog singkat dan garisbawahi pernyataan aktif atau pasif yang ada. “kami baru saja membelinya (kursi)”. you read: (A) She brought the chair with her (B) The chair was lost for a week (C) The chair was purchased recently (D) She bought the last chair from the store Dalam dialog ini. we just bought it last night (Narrator) What does the woman mean? In this test book. jawaban terbaik untuk pertanyaan di atas adalah (C). Example: On the recording. (man) When are we going to talk notebook? about the problem with the copy (woman) I left it in the cafetaria machine? (narrator) What does the woman (woman) It will be discussed at the imply? copy machine (A) The cafetaria is to the left (narrator) What does the woman (B) She left a note on the cafetaria door mean? (C) She took some notes in the cafetaria (A) She needs to make copies before (D) The notebook was left in the the meeting cafeteria (B) They will talk about the problem tomorrow (C) It is a problem to have meeting (D) They must discuss whether or not to have a meeting Center for International Language Development | 8 . Skill 4: PASSIVE 4 Kadang-kadang sulit untuk mengerti siapa atau apa yang melakukan tindakan dalam kalimat pasif.

dan dimana tempat percakapan tersebut dilakukan berdasarkan klausa dalam dialog. 1. and WHERE (Siapa. you hear: (A) An athlete (B) A member of the audience (C) A clerk in a music store (D) A musician Petunjuk piano dan bernyanyi dalam percakapan menggiring kita pada kesimpulan bahwa wanita itu seorang musisi sehingga (D) adalah jawaban yang benar. and then choose the best answer to the question. (C) If the vegetables are fresh (C) The falling trees destroyed a (D) If vegetarian food can be obtained store. dan Dimana) Keduanya sering digunakan dalam dialog singkat dengan tujuan menarik kesimpulan. student. apa aktifitas yang dilakukan. (A) He admitted that he wanted to go (D) In the light the destruction of to law school in the fall. (A) She was broke from skiing. (A) Mark’s plants were cared for in his absence. listen carefully to each short dialogue and question on the recording. (A) The lights in the trees were (B) If the man would like to go to the destroyed in the storm. Center for International Language Development | 9 . Apa. WHAT. restaurant (B) The storm damaged the trees. you hear: (man) What do you do during your performance? (woman) I play the piano and sing (narrator) Who is the woman most likely to be? In your test book. (D) She was careful while Mark was 5 gone. 3. (C) Mark was careful about his plans for the out-of-town trip. Skill 5: WHO. mountains. You should be particularly careful of passives. 2. (B) She went skiing in spite of her (C) The law professor admitted that he accident. (B) The law school accepted him as a 5. (D) He would be admitted to law (D) Her skis were broken in the school after the fall semester.TOEFL EXERCISE 4: In this exercise. (B) Mark’s plan was to be out of town. Example 1: On the recording. would be a student in the fall (C) Her leg was hurt on a skiing semester. Salah satu jenis kesimpulan yang umum di bagian tes ini adalah meminta Anda untuk menentukan siapa pembicara itu. (A) If the restaurant is on the corner 4. trip. the storm could be seen. melainkan harus dapat disimpulkan berdasarkan klausa yang diberikan dalam dialog. Dalam hal ini jawabannya tidak dinyatakan dengan jelas.

(A) In a bank (B) In a biology laboratory (B) In a restaurant (C) In an office (C) At a service station (D) In the library (D) In a beauty salon 2. you read: (A) In a accounting class (B) In a bank (C) At a service station (D) In a market Dalam latihan ini. and where. Example 2: On the recording. You will have to draw conclusions about who. baca dialog singkat dan pertanyaan dibawah. (A) He’s a pilot. (man) I’d like to mail this package. department 3. you hear: (man) I’d like to open an account. please (woman) What type of account would you like. what. a checking or savings account? (narrator) Where does the conversation probably take place? In your test book. (B) A shoe repairperson (C) He’s a member of the ground (C) A party caterer crew. 2. (D) A salesclerk in a fixtures (D) He works clearing land. listen carefully to each short dialogue and question on the recording and then choose the best answer to the question. (A) In a photography studio 4. garisbawahi petunjuk yang bisa membantu dan pilih jawaban terbaik. 1. 5. (A) Wash the dishes immediately (B) Use as many dishes as possible (C) Wash the dishes for as long as possible (D) Wait until later to clean up Center for International Language Development | 10 . 1. (woman) How much are the flowers? please (man) Ten dollars a bouquet (woman) First or second class? (narrator) Where does this (narrator) Who is the woman most conversation probably take place? likely to be? (A) In a bakery (A) A school administrator (B) In a grocery store (B) A postal worker (C) In a florist shop (C) A banker (D) In a garden (D) A teacher TOEFL EXERCISE 5: In this exercise. (A) A salesclerk in a shoe store (B) He’s flight attendant.

(narrator) What does the woman mean? In your test book. Hal ini berarti si wanita setuju dengan pendapat si laki-laki. too” menunjukkan persetujuan dalam hal positif. Sehingga (B) adalah jawaban yang paling tepat. you hear: (man) I thought that the meal was overpriced (woman) Me. Ingat bahwa jawaban terbaik adalah yang menunjukkan persetujuan. 1. 1. (A) The trip would cost too much (C) she would like to take two trips (B) she doesn’t think that a trip rather than one would be a good idea (D) she would also like to take a trip Center for International Language Development | 11 . (woman) A trip to the park might take forever be nice? (man) I’ll say (man) You can say that again (narrator) What does the man (narrator) What does the man mean? mean? (A) It’s going to take forever to get (A) The woman should repeat what home she said (B) It takes a long time to get from (B) It’s nice in the park at night home to work (C) The woman should tell him about (C) He and the woman have the same part of the trip opinion about the homework (D) He agrees about the trip to the (D) He needs to take the homework to park class (E) TOEFL EXERCISE 5: In this exercise. Remember that the best answer is one that shows agreement. Example: On the recording. you read: (A) There were too many spices in the meal (B) She has the same opinion of the meal as the man (C) She wants to share the man‟s meal (D) The price of the meal was great Ungkapan “ Me. (woman) This homework is going to 2. Pilih jawaban terbaik untuk pertanyaan itu. Skill 6: AGREEMENT (Persetujuan) 6 Ungkapan persetujuan lazim digunakan dalam dialog singkat. too. Garisbawahi ekspresi yang menunjukkan persetujuan di setiap dialog singkat. Berikut contoh yang menunjukkan perjanjian dengan pernyataan positif. listen carefully to each short dialogue and question on the recording and then choose the best answer to the question.

2. Center for International Language Development | 12 . Percakapan juga dapat berupa kehidupan umum di Amerika Serikat (desalinasi pasokan air. (A) she is not sure which course 5. kerusakan dari badai atau tipe lain dari fenomena alam). bagaimana menulis sebuah makalah penelitian. Percakapan panjang akan diikuti beberapa buah pertanyaan yang merujuk dari tema yang sama. 1.2. daur ulang produk yang digunakan. dsb) atau tentang kehidupan secara umum (menyewa apartemen. bagaimana cara mendaftar untuk kursus. bermain olahraga. (A) he would like to see the 4. LONG CONVERSATION (Percakapan Panjang) Pembicaraan panjang seringkali berkisar tentang beberapa persoalan terkait studi (betapa sulitnya sebuah mata kuliah. (A) The man should repeat what he elections for town council said (B) he agrees that Matt should be (B) the man said something foolish elected (C) she thinks that the food is the (C) he thinks the elections should best she has ever tasted take place next month (D) she agrees that the food is (D) he disagress with the woman pretty bad 3. pergi ke bank). (A) this party hasn’t been any fun she should take at all (B) she’s not sure if she should take (B) he wonders if the woman a trip to France enjoyed herself (C) she knows that she is not ready (C) he wants to know what he said for intermediate French (D) he’s enjoyed himself (D) she wants to take neither tremendously beginning nor intermediate French Pilih jawaban yang paling tepat dari short dialogue yang kalian dengar.

Example: On the recording you hear: (narrator) Question 1 through 4. menarik beberapa gambar di dinding. 2. Wanita itu mengatakan bahwa dia akan meletakkannya di atas sofa. On the recording you hear: (narrator) What are the man and woman discussing? In your test book you read: (A) Taking some pictures (B) Hanging some plants (C) Taking a trip to the mountains (D) Putting some pictures on the wall Karena si wanita meminta si pria itu untuk membantu menggantung gambar-gambar di dinding. (man) Sure. di atas sofa. Listen to a conversation between two people who are decorating an appartment. dan si wanita dengan jelas mengatakan bahwa ada dua. jadi jawaban terbaik untuk pertanyaan ini adalah jawaban (B). jawaban terbaik untuk pertanyaan ini adalah jawaban ini (D). What do you think? (man) I think they’ll look fine there. (woman) Hey. How about if you hold the pictures while I hammer the nails into the wall? (woman) Okay. Center for International Language Development | 13 . On the recording you hear: (narrator) How many pictures are there? In your test book you read: (A) One (B) Two (C) Three (D) Four Pertanyaan kedua bertanya berapa banyak gambar yang ada. Let’s start with the picture of my family. Monica. 3. Where do you want them to go? (Woman) I’d like to picture of the mountains over the fireplace. and I’d like the picture of my family over the sofa. jadi jawaban terbaik adalah jawaban (B). Walt. On the recording you hear: (narrator) Where is the picture of the woman‟s family going? In your test book you read: (A) in the fireplace (B) Above the sofa (C) Home with Walt (D) To the top of the mountain Pertanyaan ketiga bertanya tentang lokasi gambar keluarga. Do you think you could help me hang these pictures on the wall? There are only two of them. Questions: 1.

In the ancient past in China. you hear: (narrator) Question 1 through 4. soldiers were not paid in money but were instead paid in salt. Pembicaraan panjang bisa juga diperpendek dengan tema perkuliahan di perguruan tinggi Amerika dan universitas luar negeri lainnya. jadi jawaban terbaik adalah jawaban (C). Pilih jawaban yang paling tepat dari long conversation yang kalian dengar. Center for International Language Development | 14 .3. In fact. which today seems so plentiful to us. and in parts of Africa it was traded in place of money. LONG TALKS (Pembicaraan Panjang) Topik pembicaraan sering tentang beberapa aspek kehidupan sekolah atau topik dalam berita. Walt telah menyarankan bahwa ia harus memasang paku-paku ke dinding. In the Roman Empire. in the past used to be a valuable commodity. 1. Listen to a lecture in a history class (woman) Salt. the English word “salary” which means the amount of money that one earns.4. salt was used to make coins. Dari sebuah long talks akan diberikan beberapa pertanyaan terkait pembicaraan tersebut. On the recording you hear: (narrator) What is Walt probably going to do next? In your test book you read: (A) Sit on the sofa (B) Photograph Monica‟s family (C) Hammer the nails into the walls (D) Climb the walls Pertanyaan terakhir menanyakan apa yang mungkin akan dilakukan oleh Walt. comes from the latin root for “salt”. Example: On the recording.

Pembicaraan dimulaidengan topik garam dan terus berbicara tentang hal itu di seluruh bagian. jadi jawaban terbaik adalah jawaban (B). jadi jawaban terbaik adalah jawaban (B). 4. you read: (A) Valuable commodities (B) Salt (C) Ancient China (D) Money Pertanyaan pertama menanyakan tentang topik pembicaraan. you read: (A) Salt (B) Rome (C) Money (D) Trade Pertanyaan terakhir menanyakan tentang arti akar kata dari "sal". Pembicara mengatakan bahwa di Cina. jadi jawaban terbaik adalah jawaban (C). Questions: 1. Pilih jawaban yang paling tepat dari long talks yang kalian dengar. Garam digunakan untuk untuk membuat koin. On the recording. you read: (A) Coins (B) Earnings (C) Soldiers (D) Commodities Pertanyaan ketiga menanyakan arti dari "gaji". On the recording you hear: (narrator) What is the meaning of the root “sal” in Latin? In your test book. 2. Pembicara mengatakan gaji yang berarti jumlah uang. Center for International Language Development | 15 . Pembicara mengatakan bahwa "sal" berasal dari akar bahasa Latin untuk "garam. you hear: (narrator) What was salt used for in China? In your test book. you read: (A) To spice food (B) To build houses (C) To make coins (D) To locate Africa Pertanyaan kedua menanyakan tentang penggunaan garam di Cina. On the recording. you hear: (narrator) What is the topic of the talk? In your test book. jadi jawaban terbaik adalah jawaban (A). 3. On the recording. you hear: (narrator) What does “salary” mean in English? In your test book.

______2. the best answer is (C) because it is a singular subject that agrees with the singular verb was. and so on. are needed. ______5. Example II Engineers _______ for work on the new space program. it is the best answer. of. ______4. (A) has (C) later (B) he (D) when Center for International Language Development | 16 . ______1. The new computer program has provides a variety of helpful applications. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). (A) Yesterday (C) Traffic (B) In the morning (D) Cars In this example. at. Skill 2: BE CAREFUL OF OBJECTS OF PREPOSITIONS 2 An object of preposition is a noun or a pronoun that comes after a preposition. such as in. A job on the day shift or the night shift at the plant available. (After his exams) Tom will take a trip (by boat) This sentence contains two objects of prepositions. The box can be opened only with a special screwdriver. Last week went fishing for trout at the nearby mountain lake. by behind. Because answer (B). to. Example With his friend _______ found the movie theater. is a verb. Exams is the object of the preposition after and boat is the object of the preposition by. A schedule of the day’s events can be obtained at the front desk. ______3. (A) necessary (C) hopefully (B) are needed (D) next month In this example you should notice immediately that the sentence has a subject (engineers). and that there is no verb. UNIT II STRUCTURE & WRITTEN EXPRESSION Skill I: BE SURE THE SENTENCE HAS A SUBJECT AND A VERB 1 Example I ___________ was backed up for miles on the freeway. on. to form a prepositional phrase. EXERCISE 1: Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice in each of the following sentences.

Center for International Language Development | 17 . flowers in quantities of a dozen or a half dozen can be delivered for free. The progressive reading methods at this school are given credit for the improved test scores. The man is talking to his friend. _____5. In the last possible momen before take off took his seat in the airplane. he. C 1. C 1. _____3. The companies offering the lowest prices will have the most customers. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. VERB _____ 3. EXERCISE 3: Each of the following sentences contains one or more present participles. I 2. Circle the present participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. VERB In this sentence talking is part of the verb because it is accompanied by is. ADJ. The fraternities are giving the wildest parties attract the most new pledges. Because a subject is needed in this sentence. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).In this example you should notice the verb found and should also notice that there is no subject. (A) now (C) he (B) is (D) was In this example. I _ 2. _____4. The first team winning four games is awarded the championship. so this sentence does not need another subject or verb. Those travelers are completing their trip on Delta should report to Gate Three. Skill 3: BE CAREFULL OF PRESENT PARTICIPLES 3 A Present participle is the –ing form of the verb. It is part of the verb when it is preceded by some form of the verb be. The interviews by radio broadcasters were carried live by the station. For the last three years at various hospitals in the county has been practicing medicine. Example The child_______ playing in the yard is my son. In the sentence there is a complete subject (child) and a complete verb (is). The best answer here is (A). EXERCISE 2: Each of the following sentences contains one or more prepositional phrases. _____ 4. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). Circle the prepositional phrases that come before the verb. The artisans were demonstrating various handicrafts at booths throughout the fair. is the best answer. _____ 5. you should recognize that playing is a participial adjective rather than a verb because there is another verb in the sentence (is). At the neighborhood flower shop. answer (B).

yet he is not going to sleep. (A) have (C) them (B) were (D) just In this example it appears that packages is the subject and mailed is either a complete verb or a past participle that needs a helping verb. ADJ B _____ 3. Tom told a joke. Example The packages _______ mailed at the post office will arrive Monday. Circle the past participles and label them as adjectives or verbs. answer (D) is the best answer to this question EXERCISE 4: Each of the following sentences contains one or more past participles. The loaves of bread were baked in a brick oven at a low temperature for many hours. _______ the lamps went out. you should notice that the sentence needs a connector to join the two clauses. and Paul is dancing. The ports were reached by the sailors were under the control of a foreign nation. Skill 5: USE COORDINATE CONNECTORS CORRECTLY 5 When you have two clauses in an English sentence. I 1. or yet between the clauses. Tom is tired. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Tom must write the letter. VERB VERB C 2. but. The chapters were taught by the professor this morning will be on next week’s exam. so. Skill 4: BE CAREFULL OF PAST PARTICIPLES 4 The past participle is the form of the verb that appears with have or be. The car listed in the advertisement had already stalled. So. Center for International Language Development | 18 . but Paul is short. The money was offered by the client was not accepted. Tom is singing. so Paul laughed. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). or. The best answer is answer (B) because so can connect two clauses. Tom is tall. you must connect the two clauses correctly. _____ 4. or Paul will do it. Example A power failure occured. _____ 5. (A) then (C) later (B) so (D) next In this example. A past participle often ends in –ed but there are also many irregular past participles. One way to connect two clauses is to use and.

C __1. ____ 4. No one is admitted to the academy unless he or she the education requirements. Circle the connectors. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. so it must be followed by a subject and a verb.It is impossible to enter that program if you lack experience as a teacher. Center for International Language Development | 19 . (A) studying (C) to study (B) study (D) you study In this example you should notice the adverb condition connector provided. This connector comes in the middle of the sentence.The commandant left strict orders about the passes. and this computer is an IBM. suh as conmtrast. In the sentence the adverb condition connector if comes in the middle of the sentence. and place. manner. _____ 3. ____ 3. ___ _ 5. it has been on the market for two months. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). The software should be used on an IBM computer. They are trying to sell their house. The lifeguard will warn you about the riptides. or she may require you to get out of the water. Circle the connectors. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). The best answer is answer (D). Example You will get a good grade on the exam provided _______. Study the following examples: I will leave at 7:00 if I am ready. I 2. but no has fallen. which contains the subject and a verb you study. So the quality of the print was not good. _____ 5. condition. While most students turned the assignment in on time. _____ 4. I will take you wherever need to go to complete the registration procedures. C _1. I changed the toner cartridge. The rain clouds can be seen in the distance. EXERCISE 5: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. a few asked for an extension. EXERCISE 6: Each of the following sentences contains more than one clause. Skill 6: USE OTHER ADVERB CONNECTORS CORRECTLY 6 Adverb clauses can also express a number of other ideas. I __2. several soldiers left the post anyway.

dominant. Each object ____ Jupiter’s 2. at the magnetic field is deluged with Palomar Observatory in southern electrical charges. and Nebraska. _______ creation of such a 5. Montana. The Sun’s gravity severely distorted the path of the comet _______ Center for International Language Development | 20 . 4. The three basic chords in entered its widely erratic orbit ________ the tonic. to be accepted. scientists can (A) enters photograph objects severalbillion (B) it enters light years away. and the subdominant. impossible to run a graphical (A) it focuses program. One of the Largest and most (D) is powerful birds of prey in the world. ________ spared no mans’s arms and legs. California. the around Jupiter. expense in the fight to win several. (A) it (A) functional harmony (B) when (B) functional harmony is (C) after the comet came into it (C) functional harmony are (D) once the comet (D) functional harmony they are 7. (A) it appears (A) Since the (B) but it appears (B) The (C) appears (C) Later. Without the proper card installed prairies of the Dakotas. The charter for the Loiusiana _____ a six-foot wingspan and lottery was coming uo for the legs and talons roughly the size of a renewal. TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISES (Skill 1-6): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence. ______ Hale Telescope. triple star. As its name suggests. inside the computer. ______ to the naked the requisite political upheaval had eye to be single star. (B) focuses on (A) is definitely (C) focusing (B) because of (D) to focus on (C) it is 9. 1. the Prairie (C) They use the Wetlands Resource Center _____ (D) It is the the protection of wetlands on the 3. While in reality Alpha Centauri is a community was a desirable step. (A) so the harpy has (A) the lottery committee (B) the harpy having (B) so the lottery committee and (C) with the harpy having (C) so the lottery committee (D) the harpy has (D) the lottery committee made 10. ____ Minnesota. the (D) despite it (D) It was the 6. (C) entering (A) The (D) enter (B) With the 8.

I 2. The children sat in the fancy restaurant found it difficult to behave. In the reduced form. in a complete or reduced form. _____5. he attends all of the games as a fan. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). ____ 4. and this reduced form can appear at the front of the sentence. but the subject and be-verb are omitted. EXERCISE 8: Each of the following sentences contains an adjective clause. _____ 5. _____ 3. Example When _______ . was destroyed in the accident. The ointment can be applied where needed. If not completely satisfied. this answer is the reduced form of the clause when you are finished with the report. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). in a complete or reduced form. In the reduced form. the mayor of the town will face reelection next year. Although he is rather unwell. purchasing less than two weeks ago. I 2. Center for International Language Development | 21 . Underline the adjective clauses. Skill 7: USE REDUCE ADJECTIVE CLAUSE CORRECTLY 7 Adjective clause can appear in a reduced form. Tom began to look for a job after completing his master’s degree in engineering. Underline the adjective clauses. The fans who supporting their team always come out to the games in large numbers. you can return the product to the manufacturer. ____ 3. _____ 4. Although not selecting for the team. the witness gave conflicting accounts of whta had happened. The brand new Cadillac. We will have to return the merchandise purchased yesterday at the Broadway. the adjective clause connector and the be-verb that directly follow it are omitted. the speaker will take part in the seminar. (A) He appeared(C) Appearing (B) Who appeared (D) Appears In this example. (A) the finished report (C) the report (B) finished with the report (D) is the report finished The correct answer is answer (B). EXERCISE 7: Each of the following sentences contains an adjective clause. Example: The woman who is waving to us is the tour guide. Steve has had to learn how to cook and clean since left home. answer (C) is the correct answer because it is the reduced form of the clause who appeared. C _ 1. Skill 8: USE REDUCE ADVERB CLAUSE CORRECTLY 8 Adverb clause can also appear in a reduced form. you are free to leave. the adverb connector remains. Example _______ on several different television programs. Serving a term of four eyes. C _ 1.

I do not know what the homework is. Skill 9: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH QUESTION WORDS 9 • They can introduce a question. _____ 6. so the subject and verb should not be inverted.. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. What is the homework? • These words can join together two clauses. EXERCISE 9: Each of the following sentences contains a question word. Another example: 1. Circle the question words. The phone company is not certain when will the new directories be ready.. I 1. so a subject and verb are needed after this connector. Only the pilot can tell how far the plane go on one tank of fuel. Around the corner is Sam’s house. How long it has been since you arrived in the United States? _____ 5. (A) did he do (C) he did (B) did he (D) did In this example the question word why is used to connect the two clauses. _____ 3. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). Skill 10: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH PLACE EXPRESSIONS 10 • Using single words expressing place. C _ 2.) 2. The best answer is therefore answer (C). (the subject birds and verb are inverted because the place expression is needed to complete the idea many exotic birds are. and in this case the subject and verb that follow are inverted. What type of security does he prefer for his investments? _____ 7. this is not a question. • The subject and verb can also be inverted after prepositional phrases expressing place. In the forest. Example The lawyer asked the client why _______ it. The jury doubts what the witness said under cross-examination. The professor does not understand why so many students did poorly on the exam. or nowhere Here is the book that you lent me. and in this case the subject and verb that follwo are not inverted. How new students can get information about parking? _____ 4. (the subject I and verb walked are not inverted because the idea I walked for many hours is complete without the place expression in the forest) Center for International Language Development | 22 . such as here. I walked for many hours. In the forest are many exotic birds. there.

Example On the second level of the parking lot _______. act like negatives. not or never.The best answer is therefore answer (D). so an inverted subject and verb are needed. Circle the expressions of place. If one of these words comes at the beginning of a sentence. and the main verb be. and neither does Tom. such as no. (This means that he almost never takes time off) • When a negative expression appears in fornt of a subject and verb in the middle of a sentence. In the backyard the two trees are that need to be pruned. (A) will be the printing presses (C) that the printing presses will be (B) the printing presses will be (D) will the printing presses be In this example the sentence begins with the negative only. (A) is empty (C) some empty stalls are (B) are empty (D) are some empty stalls This example needs a subject and a verb to be complete. • Certain words such as hardly. Not once did I miss a question. In the cave was a vast treasure of gems and jewels. barely. There a big house is on the corner. Center for International Language Development | 23 . _____ 4. I 2. I do not want to go. Skill 11: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH NEGATIVES 11 • When negative expressions. Answer (D) is the best answer because it contains a correctly inverted subject and verb. The subject and verb should be inverted because the place expression is necessary to complete the idea some empty stalls are. with the helping verb will. _____ 3. _____ 5. This happens often with the negative words neither and nor. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). Look at the clauses that immediately follow the place expressions and underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. the subject printing presses.. Hardly ever does he take time off. scarcelyand only. C _ 1. the subject and verb are also inverted. Example Only in extremely dangerous situations _______ stopped.. At the Italian restaurant was the food too spicy for my taste. EXERCISE 10: Each of the following sentences contains an expression of place at the beginning of the sentence. In front of the house were some giant trees. come at the beginning of a sentence.

Skill 12: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH CONDITIONALS 12 • When the helping verb in the conditional clause is had. _____ 5. we might have had something to say about it . Skill 13: INVERT THE SUBJECT AND VERB WITH COMPARISONS 13 • The inversion of a subject and verb after a comparison is optional. My sister spends more hours in the office than John. I 1. the results would have been better. but if could be omitted and the subject and verb inverted. EXERCISE 12: Each of the following sentences contains a conditional with a stated or an implied if. My sister spends more hours in the office than does John. or put an asterisk ( ⃰ ) where if has been omitted. Look at the clauses that follow and underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. he will take two full weeks off in December. _____ 4. Circle the conditionals. Steve dod not win the prize. the results would have been better. I would like to know could you help me pack these boxes. Because it is correct to invert the subject more care and the helping verb had. _____ 5. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). Circle the negative expressions. C _ 1. Had we been informed of the decision. There are plenty of blankets in the closet if should you get cold during the night. should. EXERCISE 11: Each of the following sentences contains a negative or “almost negative” expression. Only once in my life gone I have to New York City. Look at the clauses that follow and underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Center for International Language Development | 24 . Did he go out of the house at no time. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). On no occasion did they say that to me. Never the boy wrote to his sisters. C _ 2. _____ 3. (A) if more care (C) had taken more care (B) more care had been taken (D) had more care been taken In this example. ⃰ Were our neighbors a bit more friendly. a connector if and a subject and verb are needed. rather tah required. Has he enough vacation days left this year. or were. If he had taken more time. and the conditional connector if is omitted. _____ 4. My sister spends more hours in the office than John does. Had he taken more time. I 2. it would be somewhat easier to get to know them. answer (D) is correct. and it is a rather formal structure. _____3. nor did he expect to do so. Example The report would have been accepted _______ in checking its accuracy.

______ by the governor to curtail (A) they are on a railway expenditure.800 poems (B) There was a wide (B) There were 1. and you should also understand that the results of the currect experiment is being compared with the results of any previous tests. EXERCISE 13: Each of the following sentences contains a comparison.800 poems 2. 24 were given titles and 7 the most exquisite roses. you should notice the comparison more consistent than. This candidate has received more votes than has any other candidate in previous years. (B) are on a (A) so it was proposed (C) are they on a (B) was proposed (D) on a (C) because of the proposal 3. ________ variety of flowers in 4.800 poems (C) Was there (C) Because the 1. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). I 2. C _1. The wedges ______ dartboard are 5. TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISES (Skill 1-13): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence. (A) His company is (B) His companies (C) The company (D) Why the company is Center for International Language Development | 25 .800 poems (D) Many (D) The 1. The vegetables at the market this morning were far fresher than were those at the market yesterdat . Circle the comparisons. _____ 5. from simple carnationsto wrote. Example The results of the current experiment appear to be more consistent than _______ the results of any previous tests. I am afraid that is the condition of these tires as bad as the condition of others. ________ that Emily Dickinson the show. (A) them (C) they were (B) were (D) were they In this example. ____ producing many new movies (D) it was proposed for release after the new season. 1. _____ 3. only a verb is needed. Obviously we were much more impressed with the performance than did the other members of the audience. The film that we saw last night at the festival was far better than any of the other films. Look at the clauses that follow and underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Since an immediate change was worth from one to twenty points needed on an emergency basis. each. the best answer to this question is therefore answer (B). (A) A wide (A) Of the 1. Because the results of any previous tests is the subject. were published during her lifetime. _____ 4.

(B) in a collection (A) that others are (C) is a collection (B) and others are (D) which is a collection (C) others are 7. _______ squezzed. the orange catch to target species ____ more juice in a one-cup serving provides strict in enforcing penalties. twice the minimum daily (A) the government had been requirement for vitamin C. In the Morgan Library in New York 9. _____ all written works into ten classes according to subject. Individual differences in brain- City _______ of medieval and wave activity may shed light on renaissance manuscripts. (B) if the government had (A) It is freshly (C) had the government been (B) It freshly (D) if the government (C) You freshly 8. The Dewey decimal system. Some fishing fleets might not have (D) than are others been so ineficient in limiting their 10.6. (D) If it freshly currently used in the libraries throughout the world. why some people are more prone to (A) a collection is emotional stress disorder _____. (A) dividing (B) divides (C) it would decide (D) was divided Center for International Language Development | 26 .

depending on what follows the preposition of. have lasted for several hours. PLURAL All (of the information) was interesting. Skill 15: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY 15 • When an expression of quantity is the subject. you should choose answer (D) because (D) is not correct. All (of the book) was interesting. ❖ PROBLEM WITH SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT Skill 14: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES 14 • When a prepositional phrase come between the subject and the verb. The interrogation. most. the subject (all. ____ 5. THE WRITTEN EXPRESSION QUESTIONS Example I The final delivery of the day is the importantest. surrounded by Secret Service agents. SINGULAR All (of the books) were interesting. Therefore. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). The buildings destroyed during the fire are being rebuilt at the taxpayers’ expense. be sure that the verb agrees with the subject. Therefore. the singular verb was is incorrect because it does not agree with the plural subject books. ____ 4. you should choose answer (C) because (C) is not correct. The correct superlative form of important is the most important. EXERCISE 14: Each of the following sentences has one or more prepositional phrases between the subject and verb. I _2. In this situation. A B C D If you look at the underlined words in this example you should notice immediately that importantest is not correct. C _1. The tenants in the apartment next to mine is giving a party this evening. conducted by three police officers. The climbers on the sheer face of the mountain need to be rescued. is trying to make his way to the podium. or some) can be singular or plural. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. ____ 3. UNCOUNTABLE Center for International Language Development | 27 . The president. the verb should be were instead. Example I The books that I read was interesting A B C D In this example. the verb agrees with the subject. Circle the prepositional phrases.

Each of the doctors in the building needs to have a separate reception area. Center for International Language Development | 28 . The witnesses saw that most of the fire in the hills was extingushed. _____6. _____3. I 2. Underline the subjects once and the verbs twice. Some of the animals from the zoo was released into the animal preserve. so they take singular verb: anybody everybody nobody somebody each (+ noun) anyone everyone no one someone every (+ noun) anything everything nothing something EXERCISE 16: Each of the following sentences contains one of the words that are grammatically singular but have plural meanings. She did not know where most of the people in the room was from. _____5. All of the witnesses in the jury trial. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). Skill 16: MAKE VERBS AGREE AFTER CERTAIN WORDS 16 SUBJECT/VERB AGREEMENT AFTER CERTAIN WORDS These words or expressions are grammatically singular. I 1. Circle the objects that the objects that the verbs agree with. _____4. _____ 7. _____ 4. It is impossible to believe that somebody actually admire that man. _____ 5. All of the students in the class taught by Professor Roberts is required to turn in their term papers next Monday. C _ 2. have indicated that they believed that defendant was guilty. nothing has to be done now. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). Everybody participating in the fund-raiser are to turn in the tickets by 8:00. Because of the low number of orders.The president felt that no one were better suited for the position of chief staff advisor. which lasted more than two weeks. Underline these words once and underline the verbs twice. C _1. EXERCISE 15: Each of the following sentences has a quantity expression as the subject. Half of the food that we are serving to the guests are still in the refrigerator. _____3. We believe that some of the time of the employees is going to be devoted to quality control.

The musical instrument ______ is (D) Psychologists have theories six feet long. ________ of economics cycles attempts. Five miles beyond the hills were a fire with its flames reaching up to the sky. what were first played on horseback. When is a flag hung upside down. TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISES (Skill 1-16): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence. 5. Robert Peary reached the been helpful in predicting turning North Pole on April 6. ________ several unsuccessful 4. points in cycles. 1. were incorporated into the A B C D orchestra in the eighteenth century. The museum of the Confederation in Richmond hosts an exhibition which A documenting the origins and history of the banner that most Americans think of as B C D The Confederate flag. D ______ 7. (B) He made (A) Psychological theories (C) When (B) Psychological theories have (D) His (C) Had psychological theories 2. More than half of the children in the 1. they would have (A) After been used more consistently. _____10. ____ they are full of irregularities. (A) once (A) when (B) that once (B) so (C) have (C) is that (D) once had (D) in case Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct.356-member district qualifies for A B C reduced-price of free lunches. One problem with all languages hands. Kettledrums.. A B C D ______8. ______9. Center for International Language Development | 29 . ______6. 1909. Hospital committees ______ (A) is called the bass spent weeks agonizing over which (B) it is called the bass artificial kidney candidate would (C) called the bass receive the treatments now find (D) calls the bass that the decision is out of their 3. it is an internationally recognized symbol of A B C D distress.

We are meeting them later today. he began studying for the exam. I 2. Underline the verbs or past participle twice. ____ 5.00 Sam is eat his lunch. OR OTHER MODALS. The message was took by the receptionist. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). USE THE PRESENT PARTICIPLE OR THE PAST 18 PARTICPLE VERB FORMS AFTER BE BE + (1) present participle (2) past participle e. The secretary has broke her typewriter. _____ 3. EXERCISE 17: Each of the following sentences contains a verb in the past or a past participle. The television movie will finishes in a few minutes. _____ 3. Center for International Language Development | 30 . Having finished the tem paper. _____ 5.g: The boat will leave at 3:00. At 12. _____ 4. The installer should have completes the task more quickly. WOULD. The Smiths are build their house on some property that they own in the desert. Skill 19: AFTER WILL. ____3. Should everyone arrive by 8:00? ____4. _____ 4. C _ 2. The machine may clicks off if it is overused. I 1. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). _____ 5.❖ PROBLEMS WITH THE FORM OF THE VERB Skill 17: AFTER HAVE. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). The young girl drunk a glass of milk. Skill 18: AFTER BE. Before she left. Underline the verbs twice. she had asked her mother for permission. The salesclerk might lower the price. C _ 2. Being hard was extremely important to him. USE THE BASE 19 FORM OF THE VERB VERB FORMS AFTER MODALS MODAL + base form of the verb e. The method for organizing files can be improved. Underline the verbs twice. The book was taken by Tom EXERCISE 18: Each of the following sentences contains a verb with be. USE THE PAST PARTICIPLE • Verb forms after have HAVE + PAST PARTICPLE My friend has sung in the choir. C _1. I 1. EXERCISE 19: Each of the following sentences contains a verb formed with a model.g: We are doing our homework.

West Side. the federal tariff. The study demonstrates that neither experience or awarness will improve chances A B C D of success. (A) The Office of Management ____. Helium has the most low boiling point of all substances. (B) The Office of Management was (A) jobs are secure (C) In the Office of Management (B) to be secure (D) Where the Office of (C) job security Management Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct. 1. A B C D Center for International Language Development | 31 . _____10. ______ inclined to push for such (D) can be found in a reduction. A B C D ______ 8. C D ______9. Extension of the countdown hold to fourteen hours was order to give crews A B more time to repair wiring and clear away equipment. TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISES (Skill 1-19): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence. it would probably not 3. 1789. improve the working conditions. intended by the (A) Central Park Founding Fathers to be the (B) Where Central Park givernment’s primary source of (C) Where is Central Park revenue. fourteen of them in the toes. Bioluminescent animals ______ (A) was first enacted the water or on a land. The purpose of a labor union is to be succesful. A B C D ______7. ______6. When ________ on July 4. There is twenty-six-bones in the human foot. 2. was remarkably (D) Central Park which evenhanded. Some of the eye movements used in reading is actually unnecessary. ________ separates Manhattan’s (D) the job’s security Upper East Side from the Upper 4. and pay of its members. (B) first enacted (A) live (C) was enacted first (B) are living either (D) it first (C) they are found in 5.

Everything to organize the picnic has already done. Although most of the wild horses in the western range have already been rounded A B up. _____ 5. EXERCISE 20: Each of the following sentences has a passive meaning. The Military Academy at West (C) Most Point ______ on the west bank of (D) Most of the the Hudson River. TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISES (Skill 1-20): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence. (C) The problem had already been (A) It was the most (D) The problem has already (B) The most 2. The physics exam began just a few minutes ago. Only rarely sound waves are of a single frequency encountered in practice. ______4. the greater the possibility that wild horses can still C D be found. Pasive sentence: The letter was mailed by us today before noon. (C) which is located star constellation in the Shape of a (D) whose location is cup. A B C D ______6. a seven. (A) located (B) is located Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct. 3. During this period. The first fish have appeared on the earth approximately 500 million years ago. north of New York City. e. ____ impressive chapter in the (A) The problem had already book was the chapter on (B) The problem is already Stuart’scientific theories. is part of Ursa Major. ________ Big Dipper. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). C _2. A B C D ______5. The package containing the necessary samples has just sent. Skill 20: RECOGNIZE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE MEANINGS 20 ACTIVE The subject does the action of the verb. _____ 3. A B C D ______7. ______8. PASSIVE The subject receives the action of the verb. The police investigated him because of his unusual actions. I 1. 1. $206 was spend annually on food by families in the lower A B C D Center for International Language Development | 32 . The car parked in a no-parking zone.g: Active sentence: We mailed the package at the post office. the most remote the area. Underline the twice the verbs that should be passive. _____ 4. Cameos can be carved not only from onyx and sardonyx or from agate.

trees. ______9. _____3. C _2. and grass. and the filling bottles are to the right. For lunch at the restaurant she ordered a mixed salad. third income bracket. e. (countable plural – no article needed) I have a book. Center for International Language Development | 33 . unfortunately. (uncountable – no article needed) I have books.g: I have money. She is taking ˅trip with friends. The teacher gave a quiz on the just completing lesson. The empty bottles are to the left. VERB The cleaning woman worked on the car.article needed) EXERCISE 22: The following sentences contain different types of nouns. In a recent survey of Americans. _____ 5. ADJECTIVE EXERCISE 21: Each of the following sentences contains either an –ed or an –ing verbal adjective. Circle only the countable singular nouns. They thought that it had been a very satisfied dinner. C _2. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I). C D Skill 21: USE –ED AND –ING ADJECTIVES CORRECTLY 21 • Verb forms ending in –ed and –ing can be used as adjectives. (countable singular . Draw arrows to the words they describe. In my yard there are flowers. ADJECTIVE The woman put the cleaned car back in the garage.) e. an. Mark where articles (or determiners) have been omitted. I 1. the) or some other determiner such as my or each.g: The woman cleans the car. I 1. more than 75 percent expressed the view that the A B government it should take a more active role in health care. There is a fascinating movie at the theater tonight. _____4. Skill 22: USE ARTICLES WITH SINGULAR NOUNS 22 • A singular noun must have an article (a. The dangers of noise are. D _____10. (A plural noun or uincountable noun may or may not have an article. not as clear-cut than are those from A B C most other health hazards. Circle the verbal adjectives. Then indicate if the sentences are correct (C) or incorrect (I).

U. (C) among them (A) can the casual gardener (D) the relationship between (B) the casual gardener 2. (A) the temperature (B) that of Choose the letter of the underlined word or group of words that is not correct. 1. Detailed photometric data of the area just north of Triton’s equatorial region A indicate the existence of a thin. Rarely ____ remove the entire (A) among root of a dandelion because of its (B) when it is length and sturdiness. When lava reaches the surface._____3. the same amount of ant A B C species can be found in a single tree in Peru. Whereas there are forty-three ant species in Great Britain. The manager sent memo to his employees. census figures indicate that people with only an elementary education can A B earn just half as much as college graduations. _____4. Operas can be broadly classified as either comedies or they are tragedies. B C D ______6. There is car in front of the building. In economics. its (C) the casual gardener will temperature can be ten times (D) does the casual gardener’s ______ boiling water. and for this reason it is often A use in equipment that must withstand high temperatures. D ______8. C D Center for International Language Development | 34 . A B C D ______5. D ______7.S. _____ 5. 3. Inside the Lincoln Memorial is a large statue of Lincoln make from white marble. ______ 4. People voice theirs opinions first in small groups or among friends and A B C acquaintances. Tungsten has the highest melting point of all metals. “diminishing (C) it is returns” describes ________ (D) more resource inputs and production. B C D _____10. TOEFL REVIEW EXERCISES (Skill 1-22): Choose the letter of the word or group of words that best completes the sentence. transparent layers of frost. The child and his friends are having milk and cookies. A B C D ______9.

you should study at the beginning of each paragraph to determine the main idea. MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION What is the topic of the passage? What is the subject of the passage? What is the main idea of the passage? What is the author’s main point in the passage? With what is the author primarily concerned? Which of the following would be the best title? Center for International Language Development | 35 . If a passage consists only one paragraph.” With reasoning.. intelligence is the only absolute way to achieve a balance between realism and idealism. between practically and wisdom of life. but it is through intelligence that control is taken of events that shape one’s life. title. Intelligence involves “interacting with other things and knowing them. a mind that beholds or grasps object outside the world of things. a sharp distinction is made between “intelligence” and “reasoning...” while reasoning is merely the act of an observer. which mentions a sharp distinction . You will be asked to identify the topic. you should study the beginning of that paragraph to determine the main idea. a level of mental certainty can be achieved. primary idea. “. the idea of how intelligence differs from reasoning comes from the first sentence of the passage. subject. between “intelligence” and “reasoning..” If a passage consists of more than one paragraph. UNIT III READING COMPREHENSION Skill 1: ANSWER MAIN IDEA QUESTIONS CORRECTLY 1 Almost every reading passage on the TOEFL test will have a question about the main idea of a passage..” According to Dewey.. The question: What is the topic of this passage? (A) The intelligence of John Dewey (B) Distinctions made by John Dewey (C) Dewey’s ideas on the ability to reason (D) How intelligence differs from reasoning in Dewey’s works The best answer is therefore (D). Example I The passage: In the philosophy of John Dewey. or main idea.

quartz (number 7) is harder than feldspar (number 6) and is therefore able to scratch it. government’s gold deposits. Kentucky (A) The Massive Concrete Vault (B) The federal gold depository (B) Fort Knox Security (C) The U. is the site of a U. Keeps Its Gold (D) Gold bullion (D) A Visit to Kentucky One identifying characteristic of minerals is their relative hardness. the most up-to-date security devices available are in place at Fort Knox. army post at Fort Knox (C) Where the U. a harder mineral can scratch a softer one. In this type of test.S. mark on other minerals (C) Feldspar on the Mohs’ scale (B) diamonds. Naturally.S. the massive vault that contains the bulk of the U. with a hardness of 10 on (D) Recognizing minerals in their the Mohs’ scale. 3. the vault itself is made of steel and concrete and has a door that weighs more than twenty tons. Which of the following would be the the topic of the passage? best title for this passage? (A) The city of Fort Knox. Which of the following best describes 2. however feldspar is unable to make a mark on quartz. 3. Look for a common theme or idea in the first lines. Kentucky. 2. Ten minerals are listed in this scale. The Mohs’ scale hardness scale is used to rank minerals according hardness. Which of the following best states the 4.S. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices. HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION 1. but it is even more renowned for the Fort Knox Bullion Depository. and concrete. WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER The answer to this type of question can generally be determined by looking at the first sentence of each paragraph. ranging from talc with a hardness of 1 to diamond with a hardness of 10. the vault is housed in a two-story building constructed of granite. Which of the following would be the subject of this passage? best title for this passage? (A) The hardness of diamonds (A) the hardness of a mineral can be (B) Identifying minerals by means of a determined by its ability to make a scratch test. Pass your eyes quickly over the rest of the passage to check that you really have found the topic sentence(s). TOEFL EXERCISE Fort Knox. Completed in 1936. but a softer mineral is unable to scratch the harder one. Read the first line of each paragraph. On this scale.S. 1. army post. which can be determined by scratching one mineral with another. and the army post nearby provides further protection. can scratch all natural state other minerals (C) a softer mineral cannot be scratched by a harder mineral (D) talc is the first mineral listed on the Mohs’ scale Center for International Language Development | 36 . steel. 4.

How to answer the question 1. STATED DETAIL QUESTIONS HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION According to the passage. The questions: 1. Look for the answer that restates an idea in the passage. The author mentions that. It is stated in the passage. Choose a key word in the question.. 5...? WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER The answers to these questions are found in order in the passage. The passage indicates that.. 3. and there were fewer mosquitoes. Skim in the appropriate part of the passage for the key word or idea. Center for International Language Development | 37 . The site for Williamsburg had been selected by the colonists because the soil drainage was better three than at the Jamestown location. According to the passage. twenty-six years after the first permanent English colony in America was settled at Jamestown... with rivers in two sides is closest in meaning to between two rivers. Example The passage: Williamsburg is a historic city in Virginia situated on a peninsula between two rivers. Williamsburg is located (A) on an island (B) in the middle of a river (C) where the York and James meet (D) on a piece of land with rivers on two sides • The best answer to the first question is answer (D).. In the beginning the colony at Williamsburg was named Middle Plantation because of its location in the middle of the peninsula.. . It was settled by English colonists in 1633. Which of the following is true. the York and the James. 4. Eliminate the definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices. Read the sentence that contains the key word or idea carefully... Skill 2: ANSWER STATED DETAIL QUESTIONS CORRECTLY 2 A stated detail question asks about one piece of information in the passage rather than the passage as a whole. 2.

The sundew has sticky hairs on its leaves. Past ice ages can be recognized from rock strata that show evidence of foreign materials deposited by moving walls of ice or melting glaciers. are generally found in humid areas where there is an inadequate supply of nitrogen in the soil. In order to survive. it gets caught up in the sticky hairs. The passage covers how many different happens during an ice age? methods of recognizing past ice ages? (A) Rock strata are recognized by (A) One geologists. what in the Earth’s surface. such as U-shaped valleys. sculptured landscapes. when an insect lands on these leaves. The noun that the pronoun refers to is generally found before the pronoun.” in line X refers to which of the following? WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER The line where the pronoun is located is generally given in the question. 1. Example The passage: Carnovorous plants. Center for International Language Development | 38 . They have digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the insects. are known to have occured at least six times. The pronoun “they” in line 4 refers to (A) humid areas (B) these plants (C) insects (D) digestive fluids In the first example.lf around the insect. so the best answer to this question is answer (B). Ice ages can also be recognized from land formations that have been produced from moving walls of ice. and the leaf wraps itse.. These plants trap the insects in a variety ways. According to the passage.. TOEFL EXERCISE Ice ages. you should look before the pronoun to find the noun. what 2. According to the passage. The leaves of the Venus-flytrap function more a like a trap. snapping suddenly and forcefully shut around an insect The questions: 1. (D) Four (C) Ice covers a large portion of the 3. such as the sundew and the Venus-flytrap. (B) Two (B) Evidence of foreign materials is (C) Three found. PRONOUN REFERENTS HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION The pronoun “. those periods when ice covered extensive areas of the Earth. past ice age? (A) Ice (B) Melting glaciers (C) U-shaped valleys Skill 3: FIND PRONOUN REFERENTS (D) Substances from other areas 3 • Whenever you are asked which noun a pronoun refers to. and polished rock faces. these plants have developed mechanism to trap insects within their foliage. rock strata is a clue to geologists of a (D) Ice melts six times. you should understand from the context that these plants have digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the insects.

k. The pronoun “It” in line 2 refers to 2. This musical-sounding language can be heard regularly by visitors to the islands. the harvest moon occurs in September at the time of the autumnal equinox. they can work when the moon is at its brightest to bring in the fall harvest. In the southern hemisphere. i. likely.) 2. Look for nouns that come before the pronoun. Read the part of the passage before the pronoun carefully. u. It is a bright moon which allows farmers to work late into the night for several nights. w. Each syllable in the language ends in a vowel. e. It is implied that a luau is (A) a dance (C) a concert (B) a feast (D) a language Center for International Language Development | 39 . (The line where the pronoun can be found is generally stated in the question. Questions of this type contain words implied. 1. the harvest moon occurs in March at the time of the vernal equinox.HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION 1. n. Most Hawaiians speak English. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices. Which of the following is probably NOT a Hawaiian word? (A) mahalo (C) meklea (B) mahimahi (D) moana 2. m. and two consonants never appear together. 3. 4. Find the pronoun in the passage. p. but it is quite common to hear English that is liberally spiced with words and expressions from the traditional language of the culture. and the seven consonants h. A visitor may be greeted with the expression aloha and may be referred to as a malihini because he is a newcomer to the island. The questions: 1. so vowels have a much higher frequency in the Hawaiian language than they do in English. The harvest moon of course occurs at different times of the year in the northern and southern hemisphere. The pronoun “they” in line 3 refers to (A) the equinox (A) farmers (B) the Sun (B) nights (C) the harvest moon (C) times of the year (D) the night (D) northern and southern 4 hemispheres Skill 4: ANSWER IMPLIED DETAIL QUESTIONS CORRECTLY You will sometimes be asked to answer a question by drawing a conclusion from a specific detail or details. inferred. This visitor may attend an outside luau where everyone eats too much and may be invited afterwards to dance the hula. o. l. Example The passage: The Hawaiian language is a melodious language in which all words are derived from an alphabet of only twelve letters. the five vowels a. or probably. TOEFL EXERCISE The full moon that occurs nearest the equinox of the Sun has become known as the harvest moon.

The California redwood is the tallest living tree and is in fact the tallest living thing on the face of the Earth..In this example. giant sequoias have been measured at more than 100 feet (30 meters) around the base.. 3. The California redwood is found along the northern coast of the state.? WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER The answers to these questions are found in order in the passage. IMPLIED DETAIL QUESTIONS HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION It is implied in the passage that. along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas. 1. winter (C) The California redwood weighs 2.. Choose a key word in the question. It can be inferred from the passage that more than the giant sequoia. TOEFL EXERCISE Two types of trees from the same family of trees share honors in certain respects as the most impressive of trees. you should see the part of the passage where it states that in the Hawaiian language two consonants never appear together. is probably not a Hawaiian word because the consonants k and l appear together in this word. the Sierra Nevada are (D) Other living things are larger than (A) a type of giant redwood the giant sequoia Center for International Language Development | 40 . HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION 1. with weights of more than 6. It is most likely that. Though not quite as tall as the California redwood.. From this you can draw the conclusion that answer (C). Both evergreen conifers. with a height of 320 feet (100 meters). Carefully read the sentence that contains the key word. while the giant sequoia is found inland and at higher elevations. maklea. according to that sentence. the giant sequoia is nonetheless the largest and most massive of living things.. Look for an answer that could be true. Scan the passage for the key word (or a related idea). so answer (C) is the best answer to this question. the California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiandendron giganteum) are found growing natively only in the state of California.. (D) The leaves of neither type of tree in (B) The California redwood is not as the passage turn brown in the big around as the giant sequoia.000 tons. 4. Which of the following is implied in the (C) The leaves of both types of trees in passage? the passage turn brown in the (A) The giant sequoia is taller than the winter California redwood. 2.. It can be inferred from the passage that. the height of the tallest redwood on record is 385 feet (120 meters). What probably happened .. It is implied in the passage that (B) a coastal community (A) The leaves of only the California (C) a group of lakes redwood turn brown in the autumn (D) a mountain range (B) The leaves of only the giant sequoia turn brown in the winter 3.

The questions: 1. The WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER answer can generally be found in the last line for a following question. 4. TRANSITION QUESTIONS The paragraph preceding the passage probably. mythical receptable for anything that falls into the water. although it might be a rather interesting rip considering all the treasures located there. The name “Jones” is thought by some etymologists to have been derived from the name “Jonah. so you must look at the beginning of the passage and draw a conclusion about what probably came before.. you should understand that the new passage is going to present a second myth of the oceans and the previous passage probably presented the first myth of the oceans. Needless to say. any sailor on the seas is not so eager to take a tour of Davy Jones’s locker. Choose the answer that is reflected in the first or last line of the passage. The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discusses (A) the youth of Davy Jones (B) Davy Jones’s career as a sailor (C) a different traditional story from the sea (D) preparing to travel on the ocean 2. this is probably going to be the topic of the next paragraph. The topic of the paragraph following the passage most likely is (A) Valuable items located at the bottom of the ocean (B) Where Davy Jones is found today (C) Jonah and the whale (D) Preventing objects from falling overboard The first question asks about the topic of the preceding paragraph. HOW TO ANSWER THE 3. A myth is traditional story. the ocean-sized. According to tradition. who in folklore is the mean-spirited sovereign of the ocean’s depths. Since the passage begins with the expression another myth of the oceans. and there is in Davy Jones’s locker. Read the first line for a preceding question. HOW TO IDENTIFY What is most likely in the paragraph following the passage? The answer can generally be found in the first line of the passage for a preceding question. and you must draw a conclusion to determine what is probably in these paragraphs. Read the last line for a following question. so the best answer to this question is answer (C). Draw a conclusion about what comes before or QUESTION after. or at the bottom of the ocean. Skill 5: ANSWER TRANSITION QUESTIONS CORRECTLY 5 The topic of the preceding or following paragraph is not directly stated. any object that goes overboard and sinks to the bottom of the ocean is said to have gone to Davy Jones’s locker.” the Hebrew prophet who spent three days in a whale’s belly.. The second question asks about drawing a conclusion about what probably comes after. 2. The passage ends with the mention of all the treasures located there. Center for International Language Development | 41 . 1. Example The passage: Another myth of the oceans concerns Davy Jones. The best answer to the second question is therefore answer (A).

dealt with topics and issues from varied fields of science. a noted astronomer and Pulitzer Prize-winning author. broadcast on public television. The principal writer and narrator of the program was Carl Sagan. Center for International Language Development | 42 . Far from land. The paragraph following this passage most probably discusses most likely contains information on (A) a different scientific television what? series (A) The popularity of science (B) Carl Sagan’s scientific (B) The program Cosmos achievements (C) The astronomer Carl Sagan (C) the Pulitzer Prize won by Carl (D) Topics and issues from various Sagan fields of science (D) public television When a strong earthquake occurs on the ocean floor rather than on land. 1. but this is really an inappropriate name in that the cause of the tsunami is an underground earthquake rather than the ocean’s tides. it can reach a height of 100 feet (30 meters) or more and can cause tremendous flooding and damage to coastal areas. destructive waves called tsunamis can be formed. 600 miles (900 kilometers) per hour and often can travel tremendous distances without losing height and strength. a tremendous force is exerted on the seawater and one or more large. TOEFL EXERCISE Another program instrumental in the popularization of science was Cosmos. it is possible 1) That the passage provides information about the meaning of the word 2) That there are structural clues to tell you that the definition of a word is included in the passage. The paragraph preceding the passage 4. Tsunamis are commonly called tidal waves in the United States. a tsunami can move through the wide open vastness of the ocean’s tides. The paragraph preceding this passage 2. This series. 3. When a tsunami reaches shallow coastal water. Which of the following is most likely most probably discusses the topic of the paragraph following (A) Tsunamis in various parts of the the passage? world (A) The cause of tsunamis (B) The negative effects of tsunamis (B) The destructive effects of (C) Land-based earthquakes tsunamis on the coast (D) The effect of tides on tsunamis (C) The differences covered by tsunamis (D) Topics and issues from various fields of science Skill 6: FIND DEFINITIONS FROM STRUCTURAL CLUES 6 When you are asked to determine the meaning of a word.

. Locate any structural clues.F.? What is the meaning of. the restatement clue. or punishment. a toy with an interesting history behind it. 2. Skinner. dashes Restatement: or. e. He came to believe that positive reinforcements such as praise. Theodore Roosevelt. rather than conscious or unconscious thought.. WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER Information to help you determine what something means will generally be found after the punctuation clue. A bear was captured. 4. for example.. clunked over the head to knock it out. one of which was hunting. HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION 1.e. which is observable.? TYPES OF CLUES Punctuation: comma. It is. or money were more effective in promoting good behavior than negative reinforcement. or the example clue. STRUCTURAL CLUES HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION What is . Read the part of the passage after the structural clue carefully. which is not. Eliminate any definitely wrong answers and choose the best answer from the remaining choices. TOEFL EXERCISE The teddy bear is a child’s toy. that is.. Find the word in the passage. One day the president was invited to take part in a bear hunt. was president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. and tied to a tree. and inasmuch as Teddy was president. parentheses. Teddy. or Teddy as he was commonly called.g. however. in other words.. He was unusually active man with varied pastimes.? What is true about. while the best answer for the second question is answer (D). Example The passage: One of the leading schools of psychological thought in the twentieth century was behaviorism – the belief that the role of the psychologist is to study behavior. who Center for International Language Development | 43 . What is “negative reinforcement” in in line 6? line 7? (A) A gift (A) A promotion (B) A reward (B) A reward (C) A bribe (C) A surprise (D) A penalty (D) A punishment The best answer for the first question is answer (B). What is “positive reinforcement” 2. however. who was famous for his research on how rewards and punishments influence behavior. Probably the bestknown proponent of behaviorism is B. 3. a nice. Example: such as. his hosts wanted to ensure that he caught a bear. i. soft stuffed animal suitable for cudding. The questions: 1. food..

In line 10. disintegrated on impact and spread half a billion tons of rock over the surface of the land. and the cartoon was widely distributed and reprinted throughout the country. Center for International Language Development | 44 . made of nickel and iron. Berryman to make fun of this situation-appeared in the Washington Post. 3. Then toy manufactures began producing a toy bear which they called a “teddy bear. The rim of the crater rises more than ten miles on a clear day. “pastimes” could best be (D) Shot replaced by 4. The meteor. The masiveness of the meteor can only be imagined from the mammoth size of the crater.000-ton meteor about 50. The incident attracted a lot of attention among journalists. which measures a mile in diameter and three miles around the top. 1. refused to shoot the bear and in fact demanded that the bear be extricated from the ropes. Arizona. In line 4. Where in the passage does the author mention the distance from which the crater can be seen? (A) Lines 1-4 (B) Lines 4-5 (C) Lines 6-8 (D) Lines 9-10 The best answer to the first question is answer (B). Where in the passage does the author discuss the composition of the meteor? (A) Lines 1-4 (B) Lines 4-5 (C) Lines 6-8 (D) Lines 8-10 2. a great crater approximately 40 miles east of Flagstaff. The word “extricated” in line 9 is what is a “teddy bear”? closest in meaning to which of the (A) A ferocious animal following? (B) The president of the United States (A) Released (C) A famous hunter (B) Tied up (D) A plaything (C) Hunted 2. he demanded that the bear be set free. Example Meteor Crater. is generally thought by scientists to have formed as a result of the impact of a 60.really wanted to actually hunt. According to the line 1 of the passage. that is. First a cartoon-drawn by Clifford K. a “cartoon” could best be (A) things that occurred in the past described as (B) previous jobs (A) a newspaper (C) hunting trips (B) a type of teddy bear (D) leisure activities (C) a drawing with a message 7 (D) a newspaper Skill 7: DETERMINE WHERE SPECIFIC INFORMATION IS FOUND Sometimes the final question in a reading passage will ask you to determine where in the passage a piece of information is found. The best way to approach this type of question is to study the question to determine the information that you are looking for and then to go to the lines listed in the answers and skim for that information.000 years ago.” The teddy bear became the most widely recognized symbol of Roosevelt’s presidency. The questions: 1. While the best answer to the second question is answer (D).

In the modern period (after 1750). HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION 1. an ensemble composed of two violins. or kits. You should skim for the key word or idea. These ensemble compositions were often written for two violins and a cello. Skim the lines in the passage that are listed in the answers to the question. In the earliest period (1450-1650). These two-year-old beavers then proceed to start new family clusters of their own. . 2. Center for International Language Development | 45 . the harpsichord was also featured in various compositions of this period. These baby beavers live with their parents until they are two years old. In the second period (1650-1750). Where in the passage does the author 3. Where in the passage does the author (D) Lines 4-5 mention the time of year when new 4. 3. trio sonatas dominated. 1. and a cello. the preponderance of chamber music was written for the string quartet. Choose the answer that contains the line numbers of a restatement ofthe question. a viola. QUESTIONS ABOUT WHERE IN THE PASSAGE HOW TO IDENTIFY THE QUESTION Where in the passage. A female beaver gives birth each spring to two to four babies at a time. and four to eight young beavers. the viol and other instrumental families developed considerably. TOEFL EXERCISE Beavers generally live in family clusters consisting of six to ten members. Where in the passage does the author baby beavers are born? indicate why the young beavers must (A) Line 1 leave their parents’ home? (B) Line 2 (A) Line 1 (C) Line 3 (B) Line 2 (D) Lines 4-5 (C) Line 3 (D) Lines 4-5 PASSAGE TWO (Questions 5-7) Chamber music received its name because it was originally intended to be performed in small rooms in private homes rather than huge concert halls or theaters. and instrumental music took its first steps toward equal footing with vocal music. ? WHERE TO FIND THE ANSWER The answer can be in any of the lines listed in the answers to the question. Where in the passage does the author give the name of a baby beaver? state the age at which beavers must go (A) Line 1 out on their own? (B) Line 2 (A) Line 1 (C) Line 3 (B) Line 2 (D) Lines 4-5 (C) Line 3 2. In the springtime of their second year they are forced out of the family group to make room for the new babies. The compositions written for this type of performance can easily be classified into three distinct periods. one male and one female. Choose a key word or idea in the question. Today it has evolved into small ensemble music in which each performer in the ensemble plays an individual part. One cluster would probably consist of two adults. . each with its style of music and instrumentation.

there was strong sentiment against military decoration. The institution of the Medal of Honor in 1861 was a source of great discussion and concern. the United States awarded no military honors. PURPOSE. Answer (C) Center for International Language Development | 46 . The passage would probably be assigned reading in a course on (A) general science (B) psychology (C) American history (D) interior decoration 1. and today it is awarded only in the most extreme cases of heroism.5. Answer (D) 2. The tone of the passage is (A) angered (B) humorous (C) outraged (D) informational 2. The author’s purpose in this passage is to (A) describe the history of military awards from the Revolutionary War to the Civil War (B) demonstrate an effect of America’s attitude toward royalty (C) give an opinion of military awards (D) outline various historical symbols of royalty 3. OR COURSE Example Military awards have long been considered symbolic of royalty. Where in the passage does the author discuss the modern definition of mention music written for four chamber music? strings? (A) Lines 2-3 (A) Lines 2-3 (B) Lines 4-5 (B) Lines 4-5 (C) Lines 8-9 (C) Lines 7-9 (D) Lines 9-11 (D) Lines 9-11 6. several awards have been instituted since World War I. The questions: 1. Where in the passage does the author mention the time of year when new baby beavers are born? (A) Lines 2-3 (B) Lines 4-5 (C) Lines 7-9 8 (D) Lines 9-11 Skill 8: DETERMINE THE TONE. from the end of the Revolutionary War until the Civil War. Answer (B) 3. the Medal of Honor was the only military award given by the United States government. and thus when the United States was a young nation just finished with revolution and eager to distance itself from anything tasting of monarchy. For a century. From the Civil War until World War I. Where in the passage does the author 7. Although the United States is still somewhat wary of granting military awards.

PURPOSE: 1. Choose the answer that identifies the emotion. TOEFL EXERCISE Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood (1966) is a well-known example of the “nonfiction novel. 2. Capote interviewed the murderers. and he maintains that his book presents a faithful reconstruction of the incident. This passage would probably be (A) discuss an example of a particular assigned reading in which of the literary genre following courses? (B) tell the story of In Cold Blood (A) Criminal Law (C) explain Truman Capote’s reasons (B) American History for writing In Cold Blood (C) Modern American Novels (D) describe how Truman Capote (D) Literary Research researched his nonfiction novel. PURPOSE: Draw a conclusion about the purpose from the main idea and supporting details. Which of the following best describes the tone of the passage? (A) Cold (B) Sadistic (C) Emotional (D) Descriptive Center for International Language Development | 47 . Draw a conclusion about the purpose. 2. HOW TO ANSWER TONE: 1. Study the main idea in the topic sentence and the details used to support the main idea. 1. the author describes the sadistic murder of a family on a Kansas farm. often showing the point of view of the killers.” a popular type of writing based upon factual events in which the author attempts to describe the underlying forces. PURPOSE. draw a conclusion about the course. thoughts. COURSE: 1. and emotions that lead to actual events. The purpose of this passage is to 3. OR COURSE HOW TO IDENTIFY TONE: What is the tone of the passage? THE QUESTION PURPOSE: What is the author’s purpose in this passage? COURSE: In which course would this reading be assigned? WHERE TO FIND TONE: There will be clues throughout the passage that THE ANSWER the author is showing some emotion rather than just presenting facts. Skim the passage looking for clues that the THE QUESTION author is showing some emotion. Study the main idea in the topic sentence and the details used to support the main idea. TONE. 2. In Capote’s book. 2. To research the book. COURSE: Draw a conclusion about the course from the topic of the passage and the supporting details.

particularly as sources for the music he wrote for the ballets Billy the Kid. or to establish an immediate rapport with an audience. (B) Lines 2-4 (C) A variety of explanations exist as to (C) Lines 4-6 why a composer might use (D) Lines 6-9 traditional sources of music. Which of the following is not listed in (C) the works of Aaron Copland the passage as a source for Ive’s (D) the history of folk and popular compositions? music (A) National music 2.S. It can be inferred from this passage (B) The History of Jazz that the author is not sure (C) American Music (A) when Ives wrote his compositions (D) Composition (B) that Ives and Copland actually borrowed from traditional music Center for International Language Development | 48 . and popular songs in his compositions. was the use of folk and popular music as a base for more serious compositions. The motivation for these borrowings from traditional music might be a desire on the part of a composer to return to simpler forms. Rodeo. while Copland drew upon folk music. jazz. For whatever reason. composers such as Charles Ives and Aaron Copland offered compositions featuring novel musical forms flavored with refrains from traditional Americana. 1. The paragraph preceding this passage (C) why certain composers borrowed most probably discusses from folk and popular music (A) nineteenth-century music (D) if Copland really featured new (B) one development in music in the musical forms twentieth century 4. READING REVIEW PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-6) Another noteworthy trend in twentieth-century music in the U. and Appalachian Spring. Which of the following best describes (B) Religious music the main idea of the passage? (C) Jazz (A) Traditional music flavored some (D) American novels American musical compositions in 5. hymns. list examples of title of Copland’s (B) Ives and Copland used folk and works? popular music in their (A) Lines 1-2 compositions. Ives employed the whole gamut of patriotic songs. Where in the passage does the author the last century. 6. to enhance patriotic feelings. (A) American History 3. The passage would most probably be (D) Traditional music is composed of assigned reading in which of the various types of folk and popular following courses? music.

7. At the end of a forward thrust. threby injecting its venom. closest in meaning to (C) Their fierce nature has been (A) percentage underplayed in myth and folklore (B) illness (D) Their poison can kill people. varying in length from 20 inches to 6 feet and also varying in toxicity of venom. The word “posture” in line 5 is closest (D) survival in meaning to which of the following? 13. According to the passage. There are more than 30 species of rattlesnakes. Although the rattlesnake is needed a venomous snake capable of killing a human. Which of the following would be the (C) is partially off the ground best title for this passage? (D) assumes it s prepared by thrusting (A) The Exaggerated Reputation of the its fangs into the ground Rattlesnake 11. The author’s purpose in this passage is (A) Mood to (B) Fight (A) warn readers about the extreme (C) Position danger from rattlesnakes (D) Strike (B) explain a misconception about 10. It can be inferred from the passage that (B) The Dangerous and Deadly (E) all rattlesnake bites are fatal Rattlesnake (F) all rattlesnake bites are not equally (C) The Venomous Killer of Humans harmful (D) Myth and Folklore about Killers (G) the few deaths from rattlesnakes 8. (C) death 9. The word “mortality” in line 10 is deadly. In its defensive posture the rattlesnakes raises the front part of its body off the ground and assumes an S-shaped form in preparation for a lunge forward. it (C) describe a rattlesnake attack (A) lies in an S-shape on the ground (D) clarify how rattlesnakes kill human (B) lunges with the back part of its body Center for International Language Development | 49 . When a rattlesnake is ready to defend rattlesnakes itself. which of the bites are from six-foot snakes following is true about rattlesnakes? (H) deaths from rattlesnake bites have (A) They are always ready to attack. been steadily increasing (B) They are always dangerous and 12.PASSAGE TWO (Questions 7-13) The rattlesnake has a reputation as a dangerous and deadly snake with a fierce hatred for humanity. the rattlesnake pushes its fangs into the victim. with a mortality rate of less than 2 percent of those attacked. The rattlesnake is not inherently aggressive and generally strikes only when it has been put on the defensive. its nature has perhaps been somewhat exaggerated in myth and folklore. In the United States there are only a few deaths annually from rattlesnake.

1825. emphasizing what a boon to the economy of the country the canal would be. One year lates. and Clinton was on the first barge to travel the length of the canal. contruction of the canal was started. Where in the passage does the author (D) In 1825 mention a committee that worked to 16. 14. The Seneca Chief was government for funds for the canal? (A) The name of the canal (A) One hundred years before the canal (B) The name of a boat was built (C) Clinton’s nickname (B) In 1812 (D) The nickname of buffalo (C) In 1816 20. however. In 1816. and arrived in New York City on November 4. and Clinton himself was made head of it. A canal commission was instituted.S. The information in the passage 18. The man who was instrumental in accomplishing the feat that was the Erie Canal was DeWitt Clinton. locations (C) The commission (C) The effect of the Erie Canal on the (D) The state governor Buffalo area (D) Clinton’s career as governor of New York Center for International Language Development | 50 .S. he was in the nation’s capital petitioning the federal government or financial assistance on the project. The pronoun “it” in line 12 refers to most probably discusses which of the following? (A) The century before the bulding of (A) The New York State Legislature the Erie Canal (B) The canal (B) Canals in different U. there was much discussion among the general population of the Northeast as to the need for connecting the waterways of the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. 19. Because of the success of the Erie Canal. In what year did the actual building of (A) gives a cause followed by an effect the canal get underway? (B) is in chronological oder (A) In 1812 (C) lists opposing viewpoints of a (B) In 1816 problem (C) In 1817 (D) is organized spatially (D) In 1825 15. his efforts with the federal government. and this time he did succeed.PASSAGE THREE (Questions 14-21) For a century before the Erie Canal was built. A project of such monumental proportions was not going to be undertaken and completed without a supreme amount of effort. The paragraph following the passage 17. the Seneca Chief. and soon after. The canal took eight years to complete. were not successful. Clinton was elected governor of the state. Clinton asked the New York State Legislature for the funding for the canal. As early as 1812. numerous other canals were built in other parts of the country. The word “boon” in line 7 is closest in develop the canal? meaning to which of the following? (A) The first paragraph (A) Detriment (B) The second paragraph (B) Disadvantage (C) The third paragraph (C) Benefit (D) The fourth paragraph (D) Cost 21. which departed from buffalo on October 26. When did Clinton ask the U.

though not all. These languages developed from the language of the Celts.. These two clusters of languages most likely developed from dialects of the same language. the language of Gaul prior to the days of the Roman Empire. the language of the Isle of Man. though. Many. a warlike civilization originating in the eastern part of central Europe. the language of the Celts in their original homeland. Place names of Celtic origin can be found today all over the British Isles and France. mostly on the northern Hebridean Islands. the Celtic NOT include languages did NOT (A) Welsh (A) develop from the Indo-European (B) Cornish language family (C) Manx (B) originate in the British Isles (D) Breton (C) exist before the time of the Roman 27. the last five centuries B.D.C. Scottish. the former in the nineteeth century and the latter just a few decades ago. The author’s purpose in the passage is to (D) at the height of their civilization (A) describe the past and present of a 1. of the Celtic languages are either extinct or are in the process of becoming extinct. with its Latin-speaking population. the Celtic languages consist of two distinct clusters: the Gaelic group and the Brythonic group. there are more than a hundred thousand speakers of Irish. There are under a hundred thousand speakers of Scottish Gaelic.500 years ago related set of languages 25. 22. and Gaulish. and Manx. Celtic languages were spoken in much of western Europe during Pre-Roman and Roman times. in northern Spain and Italy. The Brythonic group of Celtic languages includes Welsh. Rather than one language. The expression “fanned out” in line 5 (B) list the major characteristics of Celtic could best be replaced by languages (A) spread out (C) outline the major achievements of the (B) called off Celts (C) got lost (D) explain how languages manage to (D) turned out survive without changing 26. and along the Danube during that Bronze Age. It is implied in the passage that Gaulish Empire (A) first surfaced after the Roman (D) provide any Italian place names Empire 24. Irish. Cornish and Manx both actually became extinct. and Breton are all declining in use. and in Switzerland and parts of Germany. In all these situations. Of all the Celtic languages. but both are being revived and are now taught in a few schools each. Gaulish apparently disappeared around 600 A. in the northern Alps.PASSAGE FOUR (Questions 22-33) The Celtic languages are a group of languages of northern Europe that are descendents of the Indo-European family of languages. The Celts reached the height of their civilization during the Iron Age. Scottish. and this does not bode well for the survival of these languages. perhaps only Welsh has a strong hold on the future. the rate of transmission to new generations is low. The passage states that the Celts were (B) has been revived in the last century (A) peaceful farmers (C) is declining in use (B) unheard of during the Bronze Age (D) was replaced by Latin (C) at their peak during the Iron Age Center for International Language Development | 51 . Cornish. Breton. These two dialects were most likely mutually intelligible to some degree as late as the fourth century. mainly in the western counties of Ireland. The Brythonic group of languages does 23. The Gaelic group of Celtic languages consists of Irish. there are about a half million speakers who use Breton on a daily basis. and then fanned out from their original homeland into many parts of continental Europe and across the channel and into the British Isles. According to the passage.

This passage would most likely be that assigned reading in a course on (A) all Celtic languages are extinct (A) archeology (B) a few Celtic languages disappeared (B) European literature (C) some Celtic languages are flourishing (C) historical linguistics (D) most Celtic languages are either dead (D) Bronze Age civilizations or dying 32. the percentage 33. likely discusses and Breton is (A) how Welsh is surviving (A) nonexistent (B) efforts to classify Celtic languages (C) languages that preceded Celtic languages (B) not high in Europe (C) increasing (D) the causes of language extinction (D) quite robust Center for International Language Development | 52 . According to the passage. It is NOT true according to the passage explain when the two clusters of Celtic that both Cornish and Manx languages were still understood by (A) were once considered extinct members of each group of speakers? (B) became extinct in the same century (A) Lines 2-4 (C) are being resuscitated (B) Lines 6-7 (D) may be taught in some academic (C) Lines 10-11 institutions (D) Lines 12-13 30. The main idea of the third paragraph is 31. Irish.28. The paragraph following the passage most of young people learning Scottish. Where in the passage does the author 29.