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)

**An Improved Genetic Algorithm Using Opposition-
**

based Learning for Flexible Job-shop Scheduling

Problem

**Huang Ming, Wang Mingxu, Liang Xu Huang Ming, Wang Mingxu, Liang Xu
**

School of software School of software

Dalian Jiaotong University Dalian Jiaotong University

Dalian, China Dalian, China

15041119328@163.com 15041119328@163.com

Abstract—Aiming at the flexible job-shop scheduling A dual chains structure coding method was used. Multi-parent

problem, the mathematical model was established with the precedence operation crossover and opposite critical-machine

objective of minimizing the makespan, and an improved crossover were proposed. Modified neighbor search mutation

genetic algorithm using opposition-based learning was and opposite inverse mutation were proposed. Compared this

proposed. For the characteristics of flexible job-shop proposed algorithm with other algorithms for solving FJSP,

scheduling, a dual chains structure coding method was some typical benchmark examples were used for validation and

used to encode the chromosome. Population was initialized the results show this proposed algorithm is an effective

with a hybrid scheme. Genetic operations were conducted approach.

in population among two effective crossover methods and

two mutation methods, which were proposed basis of II. FJSP MODEL

context coding method. Lastly, case-studies based on some

typical benchmark examples were carried out to evaluate A. Problem Description

the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show FJSP can be formulated as follows: there are

that these improvements allow the genetic algorithm to N jobs J i , i 1,2, , N , which need to be processed on

reach high quality solutions in very short time. M machines Mi ,i 1,2,, M .Each job Ji i 1,2,, N consists

Keywords—flexible job-shop scheduling problem; opposition- of a sequence of ki ki 1 operations. Oij denotes the

based learning; genetic algorithm k k 1,2, , k i operation of job J i . Mi k Mi k 1,2,, M

represents the set of machines which can process the Oij . An

I. INTRODUCTION

operation Oij can be executed by one machine out of set

Flexible job-shop scheduling problem (FJSP), which is an

extension of the classical job-shop problem [1], was also a non- M i k of given machines.

polynomial-hard (NP-hard) problem. It has captured the

interest of many researchers. For example, a FJSP with 3 jobs and 4 machines is

illustrated in TABLE I. The symbol “—” means the operation

In recent years, the hotspot of research is still using cannot be processed on the corresponding machine.

intelligent optimization algorithms, such as genetic algorithm

[2], for solving FJSP. Wang el al. [3] examined the

characteristics of FJSP, proposed an improved genetic TABLE I. PROCESS TIMES FOR A FJSP WITH 3JOBS AND 4 MACHINES

algorithm. Peng el al. [4] introduced evolutionary strategy

Job Operation M1 M2 M3 M4

based on cloud model and proposed a modified non-dominated

sorting algorithm. Lu el al. [5] proposed an improved cellular O11 3 4 — 3

genetic algorithm for FJSP according to its characteristics. Wu J1

O12 3 5 — —

el al. [6] proposed a hybrid intelligence algorithm to solve

multi-objective FJSP that was based on the combination of O21 3 4 5 —

J2

genetic algorithm, ant colony algorithm, and particle swarm O22 — 3 4 —

optimization.

O31 — — 3 4

However, the shortcomings of premature convergence and

J3 O32 3 — 2 4

low search efficiency still exist when using the genetic

algorithm for solving FJSP. An improved genetic algorithm O33 4 3 6 —

using opposition-based learning was put forward in this paper.

**978-1-4673-9822-0/16/$31.00 ©2016 IEEE 8 Dalian, China
**

FJSP mainly focuses on two problems: where 1 i n , r n , 1 j, u ki .

Arrange an operation Oij to an appropriate machine, 4) Positive constraint: the start time, process time, and

completion time are always positive.

called machine allocation problem.

Arrange the sequence of operations for the N jobs st ijk 0 ， Cijk 0 ， t ijk 0

reasonably, called job-shop scheduling.

The objective of FJSP is finding a reasonable processes

sequence and machine arrangement that allows some III. OPPOSITION-BASED LEARNING

objectives reach the optimal. Opposition-based learning was firstly proposed by

Tizhoosh [7]. The basic idea of it is chosen a better one from

B. Objective Function current solution and their opposite solution to be next

This paper considers minimizing makespan, so we choose generation. It’s conducive to improve population diversity and

the following function as objective function: avoid premature convergence. The conception of opposite

number was depicted by Definition 1 and Fig.1.

f minmax Ci , i 1,2, , n Definition 1 Opposite number [8]: if x a.b and x R ,

then the opposite number of x is:

where Ci is the completion time of the job J i .

x a b x

C. Constraints

Four kinds of constraints need to be considered for FJSP as

follows:

1) Operation constraint: Oij must be processed after

Oi j 1 finished. Fig. 1. Opposite number

** st ijk st i j 1h t i j 1h According to opposition-based learning, this paper
**

proposed improved genetic operations.

where st ijk denotes the start time of Oij on machine M i , t ijk IV. IMPROVED GENETIC ALGORITHM USING OPPOSITION-BASED

denotes the completion time of Oij on machine M i , LEARNING

1 i n ， 1 j k i ， h, k 1,2, , M A. Coding

2) Operation processing constraint According to the characteristics of FJSP, our chromosome

a) Processing time constraint uses a dual chains structure coding method [9]. One chain is

coding based on the process sequence of operations, called

C ijk t ijk process chain. Another chain is coding based on the

arrangement of processing machine, called machine allocation

chain.

where Cijk denotes the completion time of Oij on machine M i ,

1) Process chain coding

1 i n , 1 j ki . Concerning the process chain, we use an array of integers

b) Processing machine constraint: Oij can only be with the length of each chain, and each integer value equals the

index of array of operation for the corresponding job sequence.

processed by the machine from the given set. According to TABLE I, for example, one process chain can be

coding as follows:

M k M ik

**where M k denotes k th machine in the machine set
**

M m1, m2,,mM , M i k denotes the set of available machines of

Oij .

3) Machine constraint: each M k can only process one Oij

at the same time.

st ijk st ruk t ruk

9

C. Initial Population Chromosomes

Process

Based on initializing population by a hybrid scheme [10],

2 1 3 2 3 3 1 an improved hybrid scheme was proposed to generate the

chain

initial population. The population has good uniformity and

diversity.

1) Initial chromosomes randomly

Job

For the process chain, the value of each gene position is

J2 J1 J3 J2 J3 J3 J1

sequence chosen from job set J j1 , j 2 ,, j N randomly. For the

machine allocation chain, the value of each gene position is

generated randomly in the length range of the machine

Operation O21 O11 O31 O22 O32 O33 O12 allocation chain.

sequence

**2) Initial chromosomes based on U n n s (uniform design)
**

Fig. 2. Process chain coding Step1: Compute the length of machine allocation

chain length .

2) Machine allocation chain coding

For the machine allocation chain, we use the array of Step2: If length is odd number, set n length ;

integers with the length of machine allocation chain, and each else, n length 1 .

integer value equals the number of machine chosen by

corresponding operation for each job. Step3: Find all integers h which have the following

properties:

According to TABLE I, for example, one machine

allocation chain can be coding as follows: h n

The greatest common divisor of n and h is 1

Sort by

O11 O12 O21 O22 O31 O32 O33 The generating vector h h1 , h2 ,, hs is composed of

operation

these integers.

Machine 2 1 4 3 2 3 1

Step4: Generate U n n s according to the h h1 , h2 ,, hs .

allocation Each cell of uniform design is generated by recurrence formula

chain

as follows:

M1 M2 M4 M1 M3 M4 uij h j

uij h j u

h j n

ij

ui 1, j u h % n

uij h j n

i j j

Arrange machine M1 M2 M3

where i 1,2, , n 1 , j 1,2, , s

Fig. 3. Machine allocation chain coding

Step5: If n length 1 , delete the last row of U n n s .

B. Fitness Function Step6: Select s columns from U n n s as s machine

In GA, the evolution of individuals is mainly according to allocation chain.

the value of their fitness function. The ability of adapting to

environment is also determined by that value. In GA, the 3) Initial chromosomes based on the best machine

minimization problem is usually converted into an equivalent Each gene position of machine allocation chain is the

maximization problem, so we choose the following machine with minimal process time in their available machines

transformation as fitness function: set. According to TABLE I, for example, each operation’s best

machine, process time and coding are illustrated in TABLE II.

**C max f ( x ) ( f ( x ) C max ) TABLE II. BEST MACHINE CODING
**

Fx

0 ( f ( x) C max )

Operation Best machine Time Coding

**where C max is taken as a large positive, f x is objective O11 M1 2 1
**

function. O12 M1 3 1

10

O21 M1 3 1 fitness value of the population; f max represents the biggest

fitness value of the population; N denotes the evolutionary

O22 M2 3 2 generations; represents a convergence limit of adaptive

O31 M3 3 3 crossover probability. is a fixed positive decimal in this

paper.

O32 M3 2 3

According to the characteristics of FJSP, two kinds of

O33 M2 3 2 method for crossover operation were proposed. One is multi-

parent precedence operation crossover; the other is opposite

D. Selection critical-machine crossover.

Selection operation is responsible for selecting some

individuals of the population. Roulette-wheel selection 1) Multi-parent precedence operation crossover

operator is used to select some good individuals. The Based on improved precedence operation crossover [11], a

multi-parent precedence operation crossover was proposed.

population size is M , the fitness value of individual i is Fi , the

Three parent individuals are Parent 1 , Parent 2 and Parent 3 .

selection works as follows:

Two new children individuals are Chidren 1 and Chidren 2 .

Step1: Compute the sum of fitness value of all individuals. The crossover works as follows:

Step1: Set c C , Pc denotes crossover probability.

M

Fi , i 1,2, , M Step2: If c 0 , go to Step 3; else, end;

i 1

**Step3: Generate a random number rand between 0， 1 ,
**

Step2: Compute the probability of being selected for each

individual i i 1,2，

，M . if rand Pc , select three individuals from C as Parent 1 ,

Parent 2 and Parent 3 , and go to Step 4; else, go directly to

Step 8.

M

Step4: Divide the job set 1， 2，i, j, n into two non-

Pi Fi / F , i 1,2, , M

i 1

i

empties mutual children set J 1 and J 2 randomly;

Step3: Compute the cumulative probability of each Step5: Copy all genes of Parent 1 that are included in

individual i i 1,2，

，M . J 2 to Chidren 1 in the same position.

**Step6: Copy all genes of Parent 2 that are included in J 1
**

Pi Pi Pi 1 to Chidren 2 in the same position.

Step4: Generate a random number random between 0,1 , Step7: Copy all genes of Parent 3 that are included in J 1

to Chidren 1 sequentially and copy the gene of Parent 3 that

if Pi random Pi1 , select individual i i 1,2，

，M .

are included in J 2 to Chidren 2 sequentially.

E. Crossover

An improved adaptive crossover probability was put Step8: Set c c 3 , back to Step 2.

forward, which takes evolutionary generation and status of the where C means number of individuals ready for crossover

population into consideration within their compute process. operation.

The crossover probability formulas were shown as follows:

Set J 1 1,2 , J 2 3 . The process of three parent

individuals generating two children was depicted in Fig.4:

P P P P f favg

c1 c2 c1 c2 sin , f favg

Pc 2 2 2 fmax favg

Pc1 f favg

1

Pc1

2 lg N

**where Pc 2 is a fixed positive decimal; f denotes the bigger
**

fitness value of two individuals; f avg represents the average

11

where C means number of individuals ready for crossover

Parent 1 ① ② 3 ② ① 3 3 ② ① operation.

3) Critical-machine

Critical-machine represents the last machine which

completes the processing task, and all operation processed by

Chidren 1 3 3 3 that machine called critical-operation. Makespan is determined

by critical-machine many times. Fig.5 is the Gantt chart of

Fig.2 and Fig.3, critical-machine was underlined, and the

Parent 3 ① ① ② 3 ② ② 3 ① 3 shaded area represents the critical-operation.

Chidren 1 ① ① 3 ② ② 3 3 ② ①

Parent 2 2 2 1 ③ 1 1 ③ 2 ③

Chidren 2 2 2 1 1 1 2

Parent 3 1 1 2 ③ 2 2 ③ 1 ③

Fig. 5. Gantt chart

Chidren 2 2 2 1 ③ 1 1 ③ 2 ③ F. Mutations

Fig. 4. Multi-parent precedence operation crossover

Similar with the improved adaptive crossover probability,

improved adaptive mutation probability formulas were shown

2) Opposite critical-machine crossover as follows:

Based on critical-machine optimization crossover [12], an

opposite critical-machine crossover was proposed. The

crossover works as follows: P P P P f favg

m1 m2 m1 m2 sin , f favg

Step1: Set c C , Pc denotes crossover rate. Pm 2 2 2 fmax favg

Pm1 , f favg

Step2: If c 0 , go to Step 3; else, end;

**Step3: Generate a random number rand between 0， 1 ,
**

if rand Pc , select two individuals from C as Parent 1 0.1

Pm1

and Parent 2 , and go to Step 4; else, go directly to Step 8. 2 0.8 lg N

Step4: Decode individual Parent 1 , and get the critical- where Pm 2 is a fixed positive decimal; f denotes the fitness

machine of Parent 1 . value of individual ready for mutation; f avg represents the

Step5: Find all critical-operations of Parent 1 that are average fitness value of the population; f max represents the

processed on the critical-machine. biggest fitness value of the population; N denotes the

Step6: Take all machines out of Parent 2 corresponding to evolutionary generations; represents a convergence limit of

adaptive mutation probability. is a fixed positive decimal in

the critical-operation in Parent 1 and compute their opposite

this paper.

machine

Similarity, according to the features of FJSP, modified

Step7: Exchange the machine of critical-operation in the neighbor search mutation and opposite inverse mutation

Parent 1 and the opposite machine of corresponding operation methods were proposed.

in the Parent 2 ;

1) Modified neighbor search mutation

Step8: Set c c 2 , back to Step 2. Based on improved neighbor search mutation [13], an

improved neighbor search mutation was proposed. The

mutation works as follows:

12

Step1: Set c 1 , Pm denotes mutation probability. Step3: If g times , algorithm ends; else, go to Step 4.

**Step2: If c C , go to Step 3; else, end; Step4: Calculate the fitness value Fi of each individual i
**

Step3: Generate a random number rand between 0， 1 , Step5: Execute roulette wheel selection operation

if rand Pm , select individual ci ci C from C as Step6: According to crossover probability Pc , execute

Parent 1 and go to Step 4; else, go directly to Step 6. multi-parent precedence operation crossover and opposite

critical-machine crossover respectively.

Step4: Generate gene positions differently and give a full

array of these genes, generate ！individuals. Step7: According to mutation probability Pm , execute

Step5: Compute the fitness value of those ！individuals, modified neighbor search mutation and opposite inverse

and return the best individual to replace ci ci C mutation respectively.

Step8: Set g g 1 , back to Step 3;

Step6：Set c c 1 , back to Step 2;

Begin

2) Opposite inverse mutation

Based on the classic inverse mutation, opposition-based

learning mechanism was imported, and opposite inverse

mutation was proposed. The mutation works as follows: Initialize parameters, set g0

**Step1: Set c 1 , Pm denotes mutation probability.
**

Step2: If c C , go to Step 3; else, end; Initialize population by a hybrid scheme

**Step3: Generate a random number rand between 0， 1 ,
**

if rand Pm , select individual ci ci C from C as Parent 1 Y

g times

and go to Step 4; else, go to Step 9.

Step4: Generate two integers r1 and r2 in the length of N

individual ci ci C randomly, and r1 r2 . Calculate the fitness value

**Step5: According to r1 and r2 , ci ci C is divided into
**

three parts: 0，r1 , r1，r2 and r2，l .

Roulette wheel selection

Step6: Retain 0，r1 and r2，l parts, reverse gene order

of r ，r , generate new part r ，r .

1 2 1 2

**Step7: Compute each gene’s opposite number in r1，r2 ,
**

Multi-parent precedence Opposite critical-

crossover machine crossover

generate new part r ，r .

1 2

**Step8: Three parts 0，r1 , r1，r2 and r2，l construct a
**

new individual c .

i

Neighbor search mutation Opposite inverse

mutation

Step9: Set c c 1 , back to Step 2.

where C means the total number of individuals ready for

mutation operation, l denotes the length of machine allocation Set g g 1

chain.

G. Famework of the Proposed Algorithm

The algorithm is executed in the following steps. The flow

chart was shown as Fig.6. times means the maximal End, output results

evolutionary generation.

Step1: Initialize the parameters used in the proposed Fig. 6. Flow chart of proposed algorithm

algorithm and set g 0 ;

Step2: Initialize the population by hybrid scheme.

13

V. BENCHMARK EXAMPLE VALIDATION [18]. Besides, TABLE VI and Fig.7 represent one minimum

In this section, we adopt the famous examples, the Kacem makespan of 8 8 instance and their Gantt chart respectively.

[14] and Brandimarte [15], to validate our proposed algorithm.

All parameters used in the proposed algorithm were shown in TABLE III. PARAMETERS USED IN THIS PAPER

TABLE III.

Popsize times Pc Pm

The result of two kinds of benchmark is shown in TABLE

IV and TABLE V respectively. In Kacem examples, we use the 100 100 0.8 0.01 0.8 0.13

proposed algorithm with classical genetic algorithm and the where Popsize denotes the number of initial population.

algorithm proposed by YUAN el al [16] for comparison. For

Brandimarte example, we use the proposed algorithm compare

with algorithm proposed by ZHANG el al [17] and Wang el al

TABLE IV. COMPARISON WITH DIFFERENT ALGORITHM USED KACEM INSTANCE

**Classical YUAN el al Proposed algorithm
**

Problem Factor Best result

GA [16] Best( C max ) Avg( C max )

88 C max 14 16 14/15 14 14

10 10 C max 7 7 7 7 7

TABLE V. COMPARISON WITH DIFFERENT ALGORITHM USED BRANDIMARTE INSTANCE

**ZHANG el Wang el al Proposed algorithm
**

Problems Factor Best result

al [17] [18] Best( C max ) Avg( C max )

MK 01 C max 40 40 40 40 40

MK 04 C max 60 60 60 60 61.6

As shown in TABLE IV, for Kacem 8 8 and 10 10 As shown in TABLE V, for Brandimarte MK 01 and

instances, the minimum makespan obtained by the proposed MK 04 instance, the result obtained by our paper is equal to

algorithm is better or equal to the other algorithm. For example, the other algorithm.

the minimum makespan 14 obtained by us is better or equal to

the other algorithm.

TABLE VI. ONE OF BEST SOLUTION

Process chain 3,4,5,5,8,4,6,1,5,6,1,8,1,7,4,7,7,5,8,2,2,3,2,3,8,6,2

Machine allocation chain 12,4,16,3,17,5,23,5,9,8,2,14,3,25,6,23,6,10,7,20,3,12,3,22,2,21,2

Fig. 7. Gantt chart of TABLE VI

14

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VI. CONCLUSION intelligence [C]. Proceedings of IEEE computational Intelligence for

modelling, Control and Automation, Vienna, Austria, 2005:695-701.

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on opposition-based learning for FJSP. For the characteristics differential evolution [J]. IEEE Transaction on Evolutionary

of FJSP, the mathematical model was established with the Computation, 2008,12 (1): 64-79.

objective of minimum makespan, process chain and machine [9] LIU Xiao-bing, JIAO Xuan, NING Tao, LIANG XU. Flexible job shop

allocation chain coding method was used. Initialize the scheduling based on double chains quantum genetic algorithm [J].

population by a hybrid scheme. Multi-parent precedence Computer integrated manufacturing Systems. 2015(02)

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