ROBOTIC PRINTING

The pipeline

Figure 1: Process Pipeline

Figure 1 shows a brief overview of the printing pipeline. The print path is first
generated from the 3D CAD model of the desired object, using 3D to 2D slicing
software, which slices the 3D shape of the object into layers of constant
thickness. This process takes in parameters of the type of extruder nozzle and
rheology of the concrete, which affects the total print time, resolution of print
and material deposition strategy. For instance, using a multiple nozzle setup of
variable geometry and offsets will allow the printing of a concrete wall in a single
print pass.

Figure 2: Printable area for the manipulator. Blue: printable areas, Red: non-printable
areas due to collision or kinematic unreachability.

The second step is to find some feasible sets of placements of robots. We define
a placement as feasible if the robot in that placement can deposit material
accurately into the desired printing paths. By formulating a geometrical
optimization problem, we take advantage of the advanced numerical solvers to
find the optimal value for positions and orientations of the robots.
The third step is to plan motion and control for robots to deposit material
accurately onto the path in while avoiding collision. We devise our own algorithm
to accomplish this task – task-precise coordinated motion planning.

PA. mobile platform. including the dynamically printed concrete piece. progressing cavity and nozzle. over conventional gantry based designs. Techical Report CMU-RI-TR-08-34. Pittsburgh. OpenRAVE: A planning architecture for autonomous robotics. 3D stereo camera. . ensuring that the robotic arm will not collide with itself and the surrounding.HARDWARE The robotic setup consists of a 6 axis position controlled robotic arm. to help localize the robot printer when it is moving around and printing large objects. using Openrave’s IKFast method[1] . Robotics Institute. July 2008. [1] R. This algorithm is shown to perform well for kinematic chains of 6 DoF and hence is used to generate closed-form IK-solvers. Ku®ner. SOFTWARE A task precise coordinated motion planning is used to plan the print trajectory using a combination of randomized motion planning and closed-loop differential kinematics technique. The robotic arm’s end effector is attached with modularly designed nozzle setups. The arm is mounted on a holonomic platform which affords the robotic setup mobility advantages in the x and y direction. The 3D stereo camera is used in conjunction with fiducial markers that are placed around the print space. and allows the robotic setup to ultimately print xy scalable designs. Diankov and J. This allows the generation of collision-free IK solutions. providing the flexibility of interchangeable nozzle geometry and other features.