TG QMP/N49

2012-08-13
A recommendation on
the revision of the current quality management principles

Forward
According to the resolution approved in TC176/SC1 and SC2 plenary meetings held in Bogota in June 2010,
the Joint TC176/SC1 and SC2 Task Group Quality Management Principles was established. The objectives of
the task are to review the current eight Quality Management Principles (QMPs), to examine the need for
revision or amendment to those QMPs, to examine the need for new QMPs, and to develop enhanced QMPs,
if the need for revision, amendment, or new QMPs is recognized.

In its first meeting held in Sydney in December 2010, the task group has reached consensus on the need for
the change in the current QMPs. Since then, through two meetings held in Lisbon and Beijing in June and
October respectively in 2011 and electronic communications, the task group has reached conclusion on a set
of revised QMPs and drafted updated QMP brochure.

In this recommendation, the task group presents a suggested revision to the current QMP brochure in a form
of cross-reference table consisting of “current text”, “suggested text” and “remarks.”

Suggested revision to the current QMP brochure

Current Text Suggested Text Remarks
Quality management Quality management
principles principles

Introduction Introduction

This document introduces the eight This document introduces quality
quality management principles on management principles on which
which the quality management the quality management system
system standards of the ISO standards of ISO 9000 series are
9000:2000 and ISO 9000:2008 based.
series are based. These principles
can be used by senior management One of the definition of a
as a framework to guide their “principle” is a basic belief, theory,
organizations towards improved or rule that has a major influence
performance. The principles are on the way in which something is
derived from the collective done. And, “quality management
experience and knowledge of the principles” are a set of
international experts who fundamental belief, norms, rules
participate in ISO Technical and values that are accepted as
Committee ISO/TC 176, Quality true and that can be used as a
management and quality basis for quality management.
assurance, which is responsible for
developing and maintaining the ISO These principles can be used by
9000 standards. senior management as a
framework to guide their
organizations towards improved
performance.

The principles are originally
developed and updated based on
the collective experience and
knowledge of the international
experts who participate in ISO
Technical Committee ISO/TC 176,
Quality management and quality
assurance, which is responsible
for developing and maintaining the
ISO 9000 series standards.

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The eight quality management
principles are defined in ISO
9000:2005, Quality management
systems Fundamentals and
vocabulary, and in ISO 9004:2000,
Quality management systems
Guidelines for performance
improvements.

This document gives the This document gives the
standardized descriptions of the standardized “statements” of the
principles as they appear in ISO principles and their “rationale.” It
9000:2005 and ISO 9004:2000. In also provides examples of the “key
addition, it provides examples of benefits” derived from their use
the benefits derived from their use and of “typical activities” that will
and of actions that managers be typically performed in applying
typically take in applying the the principles to improve their
principles to improve their organizations' performance.
organizations' performance.

Principle 1: Customer focus QMP 1 Customer Focus Change in the order of the QMPs
Principle 2: Leadership QMP 2 Leadership has been suggested, but is kept
Principle 3: Involvement of people QMP 3 Engagement and as shown.
Principle 4: Process approach Competence of People
Principle 5: System approach to QMP 4 Process Approach Title of QMP 3: “empowerment” or
management QMP 5 Improvement “empowerment of people” has
Principle 6: Continual improvement QMP 6 Informed Decision Making been also suggested.
Principle 7: Factual approach to QMP 7 Relationship Management
decision making Title of QMP 6: considerations
Principle 8: Mutually beneficial have been given to find better
supplier relationships word than “informed”. A possible
The next step alternative is “Decision Making
based on Information and
Analysis”

Principle 1: Customer focus QMP 1 – Customer Focus <Justification of the revision>
 No change in the title, as
“customer” is the primary focus
of an organization.
 Some changes in the statement
to reflect the need for an
organization to pay attention to
its interested parties as well as
customers.

Organizations depend on their Statement
customers and therefore should Meeting customer requirements
understand current and future as well as offering customer
customer needs, should meet delight is the primary focus of
customer requirements and strive quality management.
to exceed customer expectations. Understanding current and future
needs of customers and other
interested parties is essential for
the sustained success of an
organization.

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Rationale
Every organization is established
primarily to provide value to its
customers. Sustained success
can be achieved only when the
organization attracts and retains
the confidence of the customers
and other interested parties on
whom it depends.

Key benefits: Key benefits
 Increased revenue and market  Customer satisfaction, leading
share obtained through flexible to sustained success.
and fast responses to market  Improved customer loyalty,
opportunities. leading to repeat business.
 Increased effectiveness in the  Enhanced reputation of the
use of the organization's organization as a respectful
resources to enhance customer social existence.
satisfaction.  Increased revenue and market
 Improved customer loyalty share obtained through flexible
leading to repeat business. and fast responses to market
opportunities.
 Increased effectiveness in the
use of the organization's
resources to enhance customer
satisfaction.

Applying the principle of Typical activities
customer focus typically leads  Identifying the organization’s
to: customer as those who receive
 Researching and understanding value through product directly or
customer needs and indirectly from the organization
expectations. and understanding that those
 Ensuring that the objectives of customers are the primary focus
the organization are linked to of quality management.
customer needs and  Researching and understanding
expectations. customer needs and
 Communicating customer expectations.
needs and expectations  Identifying value to be provided
throughout the organization. to customers and understanding
 Measuring customer the network for value provision.
satisfaction and acting on the  Ensuring that the objectives of
results. the organization are linked to
 Systematically managing the customer needs and
customer relationships. expectations.
 Ensuring a balanced approach  Communicating customer
between satisfying customers needs and expectations
and other interested parties throughout the organization.
(such as owners, employees,  Ensuring that products are
suppliers, financiers, local planned, designed, developed
communities and society as a and produced so as to achieve
whole). customer satisfaction.
 Measuring customer
satisfaction and acting on the
results.
 Ensuring sound relationship
management with customers
and other interested parties in a
balanced way.
 Ensuring a balanced approach
between satisfying customers
and other interested parties
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(such as owners, employees,
suppliers, financiers, local
communities and society as a
whole).

Principle 2: Leadership QMP 2 – Leadership <Justification for the revision>
 Leaders are not limited to “top
management”, also include
“leaders” at all levels in an
organization.
 Use the term “engagement”
instead of “involvement”, as it is
a better description of what we
mean.

Leaders establish unity of purpose Statement
and direction of the organization. Leaders at all levels establish
They should create and maintain unity of purpose and direction, and
the internal environment in which create an environment in which
people can become fully involved people can become engaged in
in achieving the organization's achieving the organization's
objectives. quality objectives.

Rationale
Unity of purpose and direction
enables an organization to align its
mission, vision and values with the
strategies, policies, processes and
resources it employs to achieve its
objectives.

Key benefits: Key benefits
 People will understand and be  Alignment between the
motivated towards the organization’s vision, practices
organization's goals and and ethical values.
objectives.  People are encouraged to
 Activities are evaluated, aligned engage with the organization's
and implemented in a unified goals and objectives.
way.  Activities are evaluated, aligned
 Miscommunication between and implemented in a unified
levels of an organization will be way.
minimized.  Reduced risk of reputational
damage through quality failure
or inappropriate behavior.
 Miscommunication between
levels of an organization will be
minimized.
 Sound development and growth
of both the organization and the
people in it and their ability to
deliver desired outcomes.
 Positive impact on the culture of
the organization.

Applying the principle of Typical activities
leadership typically leads to:  Clear communication of the
 Considering the needs of all organization's mission, vision
interested parties including and strategy.
customers, owners, employees,  Setting challenging goals and
suppliers, financiers, local targets.
communities and society as a  Creating and sustaining shared
whole. values, fairness and ethical role
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 Establishing a clear vision of the models at all levels of the
organization's future. organization.
 Setting challenging goals and  Establishing a culture of trust,
targets. integrity and transparency.
 Creating and sustaining shared  Establishing and maintaining
values, fairness and ethical role the commitment to quality
models at all levels of the throughout the organization.
organization.  Encouraging leadership and
 Establishing trust and mentorship at all levels in the
eliminating fear. organization.
 Providing people with the  Providing people with the
required resources, training and required resources, training and
freedom to act with freedom to act with
responsibility and responsibility and
accountability. accountability.
 Inspiring, encouraging and  Inspiring, encouraging and
recognizing people's recognizing people's
contributions. contributions.

Principle 3: Involvement of QMP 3 – Competence and <Justification for the revision>
people Engagement of People  Need to highlight that
engagement of people is
essential for an organization to
deliver outcomes which are
consistent and aligned with its
strategies and values.
 Avoid the phrase “to be used for
the organization's benefit.”

Change of the title to
“empowerment” or “empowerment
of people” has been suggested.

People at all levels are the Statement Suggested text based on
essence of an organization and Competent and engaged people “Empowerment”:
their full involvement enables their at all levels are the essence of an <Statement>
abilities to be used for the organization. Valuing and trust in People are the essence of an
organization's benefit. people is essential to gaining their organization and need to be
commitment and to removing empowered to act with
barriers to creativity in order to commitment and creativity in
deliver value to the organization delivering value to the
and its customers. organization and its customers.

Rationale
In order to manage the
organization effectively and
efficiently, it is important to involve
all the people in the organization,
to strive to enhance their
knowledge, skills and
engagement, and to respect their
humanity as individuals.

Key benefits: Key benefits
 Motivated, committed and  Empowered, capable and
involved people within the engaged people throughout the
organization. organization.
 Innovation and creativity in  Encouragement for people to
furthering the organization's understand and to be motivated
objectives. to achieve organization’s goals
 People being accountable for and objectives.
their own performance.  People are enabled to be
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 People eager to participate in accountable for their own
and contribute to continual performance.
improvement.  Encouragement for all to
contribute to improvement and
innovation in furthering the
organization's objectives.
 People as individuals have
opportunities for personal
development and creativity.

Applying the principle of Typical activities
involvement of people typically  People understanding the
leads to: importance of their contribution
 People understanding the and role in the organization.
importance of their contribution  People identifying constraints to
and role in the organization. their performance.
 People identifying constraints to  People accepting ownership of
their performance. problems and their responsibility
 People accepting ownership of for solving them.
problems and their  People evaluating their
responsibility for solving them. performance against their
 People evaluating their personal goals and objectives.
performance against their  People actively seeking
personal goals and objectives. opportunities to enhance their
 People actively seeking competence, knowledge and
opportunities to enhance their experience.
competence, knowledge and  People freely sharing
experience. knowledge and experience.
 People freely sharing  People openly discussing
knowledge and experience. problems and issues.
 People openly discussing
problems and issues.

Principle 4: Process QMP 4 – Process Approach <Justification for the revision>
approach  Merge the principles “Process
approach” and “System
Principle 5: System approach approach to management” for a
to management better recognition and
understanding of both of the two
principles and their close
relationship.
 Need to address “output
matters”.

Process approach Statement
A desired result is achieved more Desired outcomes are achieved
efficiently when activities and more effectively and efficiently
related resources are managed as when activities are managed as
a process. interrelated processes operating
as a coherent system.
System approach
Identifying, understanding and Rationale
managing interrelated processes The quality management system
as a system contributes to the is composed of interrelated
organization's effectiveness and processes. In order to achieve
efficiency in achieving its consistent and predictable results,
objectives. the organization needs to
understand how outputs are to be
generated by the system and
control the processes involved in
it.

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Key benefits: process Key benefits
approach  Logical structure of the quality
 Lower costs and shorter cycle management system with ability
times through effective use of to focus effort on key processes.
resources.  Integration and alignment of the
 Improved, consistent and processes that will best achieve
predictable results. the desired results.
 Focused and prioritized  Clarity of process
improvement opportunities. interrelationships thereby
reducing cross-functional
Key benefits: system barriers.
approach  Lower costs and enhanced
 Integration and alignment of the efficiencies through effective
processes that will best achieve use of resources.
the desired results.  Improved, consistent and
 Ability to focus effort on the key predictable results.
processes.  Focused and prioritized
 Providing confidence to improvement opportunities.
interested parties as to the  Providing confidence to
consistency, effectiveness and interested parties as to the
efficiency of the organization. consistency, effectiveness and
efficiency of the organization.

Applying the principle of Typical Activities
process approach typically  Systematically defining and
leads to: process approach managing as processes those
 Systematically defining the activities necessary to obtain a
activities necessary to obtain a desired result.
desired result.  Managing interrelated
 Establishing clear responsibility processes as a management
and accountability for managing system to achieve the
key activities. organization's objectives in the
 Analyzing and measuring of the most effective and efficient way.
capability of key activities.  Identifying process
 Identifying the interfaces of key interdependencies and
activities within and between the analyzing the effect of changes
functions of the organization. to individual processes on the
 Focusing on the factors such as system as a whole.
resources, methods, and  Understanding organizational
materials that will improve key capabilities and establishing
activities of the organization. resource constraints prior to
 Evaluating risks, consequences action.
and impacts of activities on  Establishing clear responsibility
customers, suppliers and other and accountability for managing
interested parties. key processes.
 Obtaining information to
Applying the principle of improve the system through
system approach to measurement and evaluation.
management typically leads to:  Evaluating risks, consequences
system approach and impacts of activities on
 Structuring a system to achieve customers, suppliers and other
the organization's objectives in interested parties.
the most effective and efficient
way.
 Understanding the
interdependencies between the
processes of the system.
 Structured approaches that
harmonize and integrate
processes.
 Providing a better
understanding of the roles and
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responsibilities necessary for
achieving common objectives
and thereby reducing
cross-functional barriers.
 Understanding organizational
capabilities and establishing
resource constraints prior to
action.
 Targeting and defining how
specific activities within a
system should operate.
 Continually improving the
system through measurement
and evaluation.

Principle 6: Continual QMP 5 – Improvement <Justification for the revision>
improvement  Currently “continual
improvement” is mistakenly
interpreted as a mere
incremental improvement.
 Need to address prioritization of
improvement initiatives to strive
for optimization.

Continual improvement of the Statement
organization's overall performance Having improvement of an
should be a permanent objective organization’s overall performance
of the organization. as a permanent objective and
regarding the need for change as
a potential opportunity are
essential to sustained success.

Rationale
The pursuit of improvement
strategies is essential for an
organization to maintain and
change its performance over the
long term. It is necessary to
maintain organizational values
which focus on the organization’s
capability to actively promote
improvement.

Key benefits: Key benefits
 Performance advantage  Performance advantage
through improved organizational through improved organizational
capabilities. capabilities.
 Alignment of improvement  Alignment of improvement
activities at all levels to an activities at all levels to an
organization's strategic intent. organization's strategic intent.
Flexibility to react quickly to  Development of knowledge from
opportunities. which the organization can
benefit.
 A more agile organization with
the capability and flexibility to
react quickly to changes, risks
and opportunities.
 A culture of prevention and
proactivity rather than reaction
and correction.
 Promotion of improvement and
innovation based on learning
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capability, autonomy and agility.
 An essential ingredient of and
contributor to sustainable
success.

Applying the principle of Typical activities
continual improvement typically  Employing a consistent
leads to: organization-wide approach to
 Employing a consistent improvement of the
organization-wide approach to organization's performance.
continual improvement of the  Establishing a learning
organization's performance. environment and training
 Providing people with training in opportunities to empower
the methods and tools of people to engage in innovation
continual improvement. and improvement activities.
 Making continual improvement  Making improvement of
of products, processes and products, processes and
systems an objective for every systems an objective for every
individual in the organization. individual in the organization.
 Establishing goals to guide, and  Establishing goals to guide, and
measures to track, continual measures to track, learning and
improvement. improvement.
 Recognizing and  Recognizing and
acknowledging improvements. acknowledging improvement,
learning and innovation.
 Embracing change as an
opportunity for improvement.

Principle 7: Factual approach QMP 6 – Informed Decision <Justification for the revision>
to decision making Making  Previous title is too narrow and
not well understood.
 Align the wording with current
definition of “data” and
“information”.

Considerations have been given
to find better word than “informed”.
An alternative title could be
“Decision Making based on
Information and Analysis”

Effective decisions are based on Statement
the analysis of data and Effective decisions are based on
information the analysis and evaluation of data
and information.

Rationale
A fact-based and logical approach
is essential for determining
objectives, identifying reasonable
means to achieve objectives and
understanding causal
relationships.

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Key benefits: Key benefits
 Informed decisions.  Informed decisions developed
 An increased ability to through reliable and robust
demonstrate the effectiveness decision making methods.
of past decisions through  Ability to measure and track the
reference to factual records. impact of actions taken to
 Increased ability to review, improve product, process and
challenge and change opinions system performance.
and decisions.  Increased ability to review,
challenge and change opinions
and decisions.
 Decisions more readily
supported by the people in the
organization, on the basis of
objective justification.

Applying the principle of factual Typical activities
approach to decision making  Identifying key indicators that
typically leads to: can accurately understand the
 Ensuring that data and organization’s performance and
information are sufficiently important aspects of its quality
accurate and reliable. management system.
 Making data accessible to those  Measuring or monitoring the key
who need it. indicators systematically.
 Analyzing data and information  Ensuring that information is
using valid methods. sufficiently accurate and
 Making decisions and taking reliable.
action based on factual  Making information accessible
analysis, balanced with to those who need it.
experience and intuition.  Analyzing data and information
using valid methods.
 Performance indicators are
identified to ensure important
characteristics are measured or
monitored.

Principle 8: Mutually QMP 7 – Relationship <Justification for the revision>
beneficial supplier Management  Need to emphasize broader
relationships collaborations which go beyond
the conventional supply chain
relations

An organization and its suppliers Statement
are interdependent and a mutually Effective management of
beneficial relationship enhances relationships with interested
the ability of both to create value parties who can impact on the
organization’s performance and
reputation, such as suppliers, is
vital to an organization’s sustained
success.

Rationale
Sustained success is more likely
to be achieved where an
organization is able to manage
relationships with its interested
parties so as to provide its
customers with value. This is
particularly important with regard
to the organization’s management
of relationships within its supplier
network.
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Key benefits: Key benefits
 Increased ability to create value  Optimization of costs and
for both parties. performance through
 Flexibility and speed of joint responding to the opportunities
responses to changing market and constraints related to each
or customer needs and interested party.
expectations.  Sharing common goals and
 Optimization of costs and values among all interested
resources. parties.
 Sharing of resources,
knowledge and experience
results in increased ability to
create value for all interested
parties.
 Ability to consistently meet the
needs and expectations of the
interested parties, in a balanced
way, over the long term.
 Flexibility and speed of joint
responses to changing market
or customer needs and
expectations.
 Ability to reduce risks to current
and future success.
 Identification and utilization of
core competencies within the
organization and its supplier
network.
 Ensuring a stable flow of supply
and services.

Applying the principles of Typical activities
mutually beneficial supplier  Identifying relevant interested
relationships typically leads to: parties (such as owners,
 Establishing relationships that employees, suppliers,
balance short-term gains with financiers, local communities
long-term considerations. and society as a whole) and
 Pooling of expertise and their relationship with the
resources with partners. organization.
 Identifying and selecting key  Ensuring sound relationship
suppliers. management with all interested
 Clear and open communication. parties in a balanced way.
 Sharing information and future  Gaining the knowledge and
plans. understanding needed to
 Establishing joint development balance short-term gains with
and improvement activities. long-term considerations.
 Inspiring, encouraging and  Pooling of expertise and
recognizing improvements and resources with relevant
achievements by suppliers. interested parties.
 Identifying and selecting key
suppliers and partners.
 Sharing appropriate information
and future plans through clear
and open communication with
suppliers and other interested
parties.
 Establishing joint development
and improvement activities with
suppliers and other interested
parties.
 Inspiring, encouraging and
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recognizing improvements and
achievements by suppliers.

The next step: The next step

This document provides a general This document provides a general
perspective on the quality perspective on the quality
management principles underlying management principles underlying
the ISO 9000:2000 series. It gives the ISO 9000 series standards. It
an overview of these principles gives an overview of these
and shows how, collectively, they principles and shows how,
can form a basis for performance collectively, they can form a basis
improvement and organizational for performance improvement and
excellence. organizational excellence.

There are many different ways of There are many different ways of
applying these quality applying these quality
management principles. The management principles. The
nature of the organization and the nature of the organization and the
specific challenges it faces will specific challenges it faces will
determine how to implement them. determine how to implement them.
Many organizations will find it Many organizations will find it
beneficial to set up quality beneficial to set up quality
management systems based on management systems based on
these principles. these principles.

Further information on the ISO Further information on the ISO
9000 standards is available from 9000 standards is available from
ISO's national member institutes ISO's national member institutes
or from the ISO Central or from the ISO Central
Secretariat ISO 9000 enquiry Secretariat ISO 9000 enquiry
service. Sales enquiries should service. Sales enquiries should
also be directed to the ISO also be directed to the ISO
members or to the ISO Central members or to the ISO Central
Secretariat sales department. Secretariat sales department.

ISO publishes the bimonthly ISO ISO publishes the bimonthly ISO
Management Systems, which Management Systems, which
provides updates on these provides updates on these
families of standards and news on families of standards and news on
their implementation around the their implementation around the
world. A Spanish-language edition world. A Spanish-language edition
is published by the Spanish is published by the Spanish
national standards institute, national standards institute,
AENOR. AENOR.

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