Drilling rig types

Geothermal modifications
Sverrir Thorhallsson
ISOR-Iceland GeoSurvey
s@isor.is

Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 1

Geothermal wells
• Are drilled into formations having a temperatures of 200-
350°C in volcanic regions.
• Blow-outs are rare as the formations are usually with a low
pressure, water table at 50-500 m below the wellhead.
• BOP´s and wellheads must withstand pressures of 120 bar
and high temperatures. See later lecture on this subject.
• Require relatively large diameter casings to produce
commercial quantities of steam and water.
• Are open to the formation for over half their depth, the
well being supported by a slotted liner.
• The drilling mud needs to be cooled not to overheat.
• Water only or water+air is commonly selected to drill the
productive formation.
Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 2

Types of wells being drilled

•The majority
of geothermal
wells being
drilled are of the
“directional”
type.

•Typical
production wells
are 2-3 km deep.

Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 3

cooling tower for mud. separator for aerated drilling. Specially built oilfield trucks can drag heavy equipment onto the truck bed for transport. provisions for measurement of fluid losses. • The rigs are mobile and are transported on trucks (50-100 loads). Some new rigs handle “singles” (1). • Additional equipment required for geothermal drilling. • The mast is high enough to pull out three (3) drill pipes at a time “tripples”. The rig types • Practically all drilling rigs are sourced from petroleum drilling. Some are 3-phase electric motors with variable Hz or hydraulic. hook load (300-450 t).: Rotating head BOP. • Most rigs are diesel-electric (~2000 kW) with SCR variable speed DC drives. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 4 . Most are medium size rigs.

as there is space for the drill collars. simultaneous casing system) with drilling fluid a) mud. Saving valuable time of the more expensive rig. Rigs to drill for surface casing Some of the dvantages of landing the surface casing (30-90 m. • Old style cable tool rigs have been used (chissel). • Truck-mounted rotary rigs: (tricone. air hammer. • Types of rigs used: • Auger rig. • Drilling can start with full weight on the bit (WOB). 20-30") before bringing in the large drilling rig are: • Troublesome (collapses. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 5 . d) reverse circulation. c) foam. • The big rig may not be able to handle the large diameters of the surface hole. losses) near-surface layers are cased off. b) air.

Rotary table – Hydraulic top-drive Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 6 .

ph/ Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 7 .energy.com. Lihir. Papua New Guinea Ref: http://www. PNOC Rig.

com.energy.ph/ Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 8 . Rig specifications (PNOC Phil.) PNOC in the Philippines has drilled 488 geothermal wells Ref: http://www.

Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 9 . Jarðboranir hf.

Jarðboranir hf. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 10 .

Iron roughneck Top drive Jarðboranir hf. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 11 .

Note the indisensable weight indicator. Photo: Sverrir Thorhallsson Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 12 . Rig control consoles Ross Hill: SCR-DC motor control Rig with rotary table Soilmec: All hydraulic rig.

Drilling rigs in Iceland Týr JB 5000 m Óðinn JB 4000 m Geysir JB 4000 m Jötunn JB 3300 m Sleipnir JB 2400 m Trölli Nýr bor RFS 1600 m Saga JB 1350 m Trölli RFS 1100 m Jötunn Langþr. RFS 600 m Glámur RFS 600 m Einráður RFS 500 m Sleipnir Ýmir JB 1000 m Hrímnir JB 300 m Alvarr 300 m Trítill RFS 120 m Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 13 .

Ræktunarsamband Flóa og Skeiða-“Trölli” Mobile rig for drilling thermal gradient wells and production holes to 1100 m Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 14 .

Power for rotation Drill String Conventional rig Modern rig Rotary table Top-drive •Swivel •Top drive motor • Rotary table drive + kelly •Drill •Drill Pipe Pipe •Drill Collars •Drill Collars •(Mud motor + MWD) •(Mud motor + MWD) •Drill bit •Drill bit Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 15 .

•Always connected to because: drill string – can rotate to •Only intermittent avoid getting stuck cooling when running into •Can use for screwing hole. Top-drive vs. rotary table drive Top-drive: Rotary table drive: This is the preferred This is the “old” type type of rig for geothermal and rigs that have not drilling: been upgraded find •Efficient bit cooling difficulty in getting jobs. drill pipe and casings •Large fill-in can preclude engaging kelly Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 16 .

Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 17 . Drilling methods used in Iceland Most common Rotary Air hammer Odex Holte Pressure bal.

The mud circulation system Tri-cone drill bit Check valve Typical for 8-½”: above Flow 40 l/s bit Presure 100 bar Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 18 .

Underbalanced or balanced drilling Two methods used to “lighten” the water column by entering compressed air – mixing it with the mud or water. Water flow similar but air is extra. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 19 .

Weight on bit (WOB) Typical: 1 tonne per Drill 1" of bit pipe diameter Drill collar Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 20 .

– Racking capacity of drill pipes (m). – Top-drive or rotary table (Hp). – Size of hole in rotary table or rig floor (dia"). Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 21 . – Hook load (t) of mast and drawworks. Rig Selection .Size • The casing program affects the rotary table size hoisting requirements and pump capacity. Power of mud pumps (kW). – Height of substructure (m) to accommodate BOP´s. • The main factors affecting the rig selection are: – Mast total gross capacity (t). – Capacity (L/s) and pressure rating (bar) of rig pumps.

Rig #2 hook loadrating 50 t 40 Rig #2 with S.2001 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Depth (m) Sverrir Thorhallsson 22 .12. depth capacity Hook Load 100 Rig #1 hook load rating 100 t vs. Depth The diagram shows Weight in water (tonnes) how deep a rig can 80 Rig #1 with safety factor 1. based on the 60 4" 3" hook load rating. 5" 4 1/2" drill.33 S.F.F.Þ. 1. Example. 13 3/8" 5" 4 1/2" 4" 100 tons rig can reach 20 9 5/8" 3" 2300 m with 5" drillpipe 7" Casings 20 t weight on bit 2700 m with 4-1/2" dp 10 t weight on bit S. Hook load vs.

jardboranir. rigs Ref.Depth capacity of Jarðboranir hf.: www.is/?PageID=104 Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 23 .

HT wells in Iceland & Italy Ref: Huang Hefu Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 24 .

Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 25 . Low temp. Icelandic geothermal wells High temp.

Vertical vs. The build-up starts at the kick off point (KOP) at 300- 500 m. directional The casing programmes are virtually the same. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 26 . Inclination of 30- 40° is common in geothermal wells.

Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 27 .

Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 28 .

Compact drillsite for HT well Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 29 .

Rig Set-Up PNOC (Philippines) office office hopper hole pump power suction pump tank house desilter coolin desander g lab shaker tower settling tank intermediate tank water tanks Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 30 .

Rig Set-Up ”Dofri” (Iceland) office crew hole Note simplicity: Large water supply No cooling tower settling No desilter/sander shaker tank Has drilled to 300°C mud sump pump mud tank pump water freshwater 40 l/s tank Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 31 .

or a master valve. 3. Annular BOP for closing around any object. 2. 4. The BOP stack must have 3” kill lines and valves for cement returns below the BOPs. Ram BOP for full closure. Ram BOP for closing around drill pipes. Rotating BOP on top to protect the mast and crew (optional). Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 32 . BOP Stack for Geothermal Drilling The following blowout preventers (BOP) are usually found on HT geothermal wells. counting from the well up: 1.

Drilling production interval with Master valve on well. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 33 . BOP stack Drilling for production casing.

BOP stack and closing unit Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 34 .

Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 35 .2002 S. BOP stack 21-1/4” Rotating The BOP stack can be quite tall.Th. thus Annular requiring a high Pipe rams drilling rig substructure or a deep cellar.10. Blind rams Drilling 17 1/2“ to 2400 m 21 1/4” x 2M ORKUSTOFNUN ROS 11.

BOP´s Annular preventer can close around any object – drill pipe. Ram type BOP has fixed rams that close around a fixed OD. or solid rams for full closing. collar casing. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 36 .

washingtonrotating.com/ Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 37 . Rotating head BOP´s ROTATING CONTROL HEAD (Kelly Drive) ROTATING) DUAL STRIPPER ROTATING CONTROL HEAD .GEOTHERMAL Ref: http://www.

water. High substructure req. • Multiple types of drilling fluids used to drill one well: mud. • Rig size depends mainly on depth to be drilled. • Cooling tower or Hx reg. Geothermal Drilling Course Indonesia 2010 Sverrir Thorhallsson 38 . Conclusions • Rigs are sourced from petroleum drilling. Small rigs. aerated fluids. hook load. • Pre-drilling is common for large diameters to 30-90 m. to cool the mud. • Top-drive rigs are preferred.