Interpretations No.1 to ANSI/ASME B31.

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(This supplement is not part of the ANSIIASME 831.3. It is included for infonnation only.)

It has been agreed to publish Interpretations issued by the B31 Committee concerning B31.3 as part
of the subscription service. This supplement includes Interpretations concerning B31 J issued between
January 1,1980, and December 31,1982. Future versions of this supplement will cover inquiries issued
over 1 year periods. Each Interpretation applies to the lat~st Edition or Addenda at the time of issuance of
the Interpretation. Subsequent revisions to the Code may have superseded the reply.

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B31.3 Interpretations No. I 1-1,1·:

Interpretation: 1·1
".. ' .
;. . ~ Subject: Table 327.4.IA, Umitations on Imperfections in Welds

Date Issued: February 8. 1980

File: 1426

Question: Does Note F to Table 327.4.1 A al10w concavity of the root surface of a depth equivalent
to the actual external weld reinforcement, prOVided the reinforcement does nol exceed the maximum al·
lowed by the Code?

Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee thaI Note F to Table 327.4.1 A allows concavity of the rOOl
surface of a depth equivalent to the actual external weld reinforcement, provided the reinforcement does
not exceed the maximum allowed by the Code.

Interpretation: 1·2

Subject: 337, Pressure Tests

Date Issued: April II, 1980

File: 1428

Question (1): When pressure testing, does 337 reqUire the test pump to be isolated from the piping
being tested when the test pressure has been attained?

Reply (l): It is the opinion of the Committee that the Code does not require isolation of the test
pump. It is not the intent of the Code to require specific equipment which may be necessary to perform the
examinations and tests required by the Code.

Question (2): What are the acceptance criteria for pressure tests performed in accordance with
ANSI/ ASME B31.3?

Reply (2): It is the opinion of the Committee that the acceptance criterion is a visual examination for
leakage to verify that there are no leaks in the tested piping.

Question (3): In reference to 337.1, what are some examples of "minor repairs or additions"?

Reply (3): It is the opinion of the Committee that minor repairs or additions are those which would
not affect the load carrying ability or leak tightness when precautionary measures are taken to assure sound
construction.

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1·3 B31.3 Interpretations No. I

Interpretation: )-3

Subject: 302.2.4, Allowances for Pressure and Temperature Variations

Date Issued: April 11, 1980

File: 1434

Question (1): What is the reason for allowances for occasional variations of pressure and tempera-
ture above design conditions in ANSI/ ASME B31.3?

Reply (l): As stated in ANSI/ASME B31.3. "Occasional variations of pressure or tempera ture. or
both, above operating levels are characteristic of certain services". It is the opinion of the Committee that
this Code recognizes that occasional loads do not require the same factor of safety on stress as long time
sustained loads. ANSI/ASME B31.3 allows an increase in allowable stress when designing for such varia·
tions prOVided all of the limitations of 302.2.3 (now 302.2.4) are adhered to.

Question (2): Is the allowance normally used in refinery and offshore facilities design?

Reply (2): The Committee does not have statistics on the frequency of application of various Code
provisions by users. It is the opinion of the Committee that occasional variations are normally designed for
in certain services in petroleum refineries and offshore facilities.

Question (3): Is it permissible to apply 302.2.3 (now 302.2.4) to offshore piping installations de-
signed in accordance with ANSI/ ASME B3I.3?

Reply (3): Yes. It is the opinion of the Committee that all provisions of ANSI/ASME B31.3 are ap-
plicable to all facilities covered by the scope of the Code unless there is a specific statement to the contrary.

The reader is directed to the Introduction and Scope of the Code which state, "The designer is cau.
tioned that the Code is not a design handbook. The Code does not do away"With the need for the designer
or competent engineering judgement" and "Where service requirements necessitate measures beyond the
Code ~imum, such measurts shall be specified by the engineering design. Where so specified, the Code
requires that they be accomplished."

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831.3 Interpretations No.1 1-4, 1·5

r Interpretation: 1-4

" Subject:

Date Issued:
337.1, Pressure Tests

April II, ]980

File: ]435

Question (]): Does the test referred to in 337.1 apply only to newly constructed piping systems?

Reply (1): Yes. It is the opinion of the Committee that the test required by 337.J applies only to
newly constructed piping systems, whether in the original installation or replacement in or of existing
facilities.

Question (2): Does the test referred to in 337.1 apply only to leakage to the environment?

Reply (2): Yes. It is the opinion of the Committee that the test referred to in 337.] applies only to
leakage to the environment.

Interpretation: 1-S

Subject: 336.6.1 (c), Progressive Examination

»ate Issued: April 11, 1980

File: 1444

Question: At what percentage repair rate does ANSI/ASME B31.3 permit one to revert to spot
radiography, upon improvement of the quality of welds, in a piping system requiring spot radiography of
welds but which has been subjected to 100% radiography due to poor weld quality?

Reply: ANSI/ASME B31.3 does not set down a repair rate percentage at which time the user may reo
tum to a random or spot percentage. 336.6.l(c), Progressive Examination, requires that all welds represented
by the original examination be repaired or replaced as per 336.6.](c)(]) or 336.6.I(c)(2). It is the opinion
of the Committee that when this is completed, one may revert (0 the original examination requirements.

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_. Question (1): Does ANSI/ASME 831.'. .\: . -'.~.6. The reader is directed to the Scope and Introduction to the Code which state.'i. while considered necessary and adequate (or safe design. in accordance with 319. r . Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: April 11. . .. A designer capable of applying a more rigorous analysis shall have the latitude to do so. :.' t t.:

• • •~ I ----- ---. "- '.3 does not provide specific stress intensification factors for lateral connections at other than 90 deg.6. 0' ': ... generally employ a simplified approach to the subject.I . ~..3.3 provide specific stress intensification factors for unreinforced or reinforced fabricated pipe intersections which intersect at other than 90 deg. the flexibility characteristics and stress intensification factors specified for welding elbows and pipe bends in Appendix D may be applied to welded elbows and pipe bends at angles less than 90 deg. 1-6 B31. ... Question (2): What is the co~rect flexibility and stress intensification factor for welded elbows at angles less than 90 deg...--- --------- .? Reply (2): It is the opinion of the Committee that. "Engineering require- ments of this Code.··. 1980 File: 1446 0i.3.. '.....3 Interpretations No. ~ '. :.1 Interpretation: 1·6 Subject: 319....? Reply (1): It is the opinion of the Committee that ANSI!ASM E B31.. ~.:.·. in the absence of more directly applicable data." The designer is cautioned that the Code does not do away with the need for the designer or com- petent engineering judgement.

1980 FUe: 1465 Question: Are compressors and internal piping excluded from the scope of ANSI/ASME B31.5% of the branch outside diameter? Question (2): What are the ANSI/ASME B31.1 1-7. 1-8 Interpretation: 1-7 Subject: Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors for an ANSI B16.3 as indi- cated by 300.9 Butt-Welding Tee (( .3 flexibility and stress intensification factors for an ANSI B16.3 flexibility and stress intensification factors for an ANSI Bi 6.1980 File: 1450 Question (1): What are the ANSI!ASME B31.1.5% of the branch diameter may use flexibility characteristics and stress intensification factors for an extruded welding tee.1. The reader is directed to the Introduction and Scope of the Code which state: "Engineering require- ments of this Code.: . provided the crotch thickness is less than 150% of the nominal wall thickness of the header pipe.'.:.1.3 Interpretations No.-'.B31. A designer capable of applying a more rigorous anaJysis shall have the latitude to do so.1. the designer has the responsibility to deter- mine the proper flexibility characteristics and stress intensification factors." ). If the crotch thickness is greater than 150% of the nominal header wall.I". He must be able to demonstrate the validity of his approach.9 tee is fabricated by methods other than extrusion. generally employ a simplified approach to the subject. while considered necessary and adequate for safe design. (0 . This is a contractual matter between the manufacturer and customer. or the ANSI B16. the Code does not prohibit equipment not within the scope of the Code from being designed to ANSI/ASME 8313. However.9 welding tees with a crotch radius less than 12.3(c)] and Fig. ' Date Issued: April 11.. Interpretation: 1-8 Subject: Compressors and Internal Piping !)ate Issued: May 23.. 7 .9 butt-welding tee with a crotch radius less than 12.3? Reply: Compressors and internal piping are excluded from the scope of ANSI/ASME B31.4(d) [now 300. 300. ~.9 butt·welding tee with a crotch thickness less than 150% of the nominal wall thickness of the header pipe? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that extruded ANSI B16.

1 I'\.3 does not specifically classify tungsten inclusion imperfections. As a result of your inquiry. 1-9 B31. 8 . the Committee will consider specific classification for future Addenda. Limitations on Imperfections in Welds Date Issued: June 20. As a result of your inquiry. Reply (2): The Committee does not have porosity charts. 1980 File: 1449 Question (l): Is it the intent of Notes Band C of Table 327. . Neither the greatest dimension of an individual pocket nor the total projected area shall exceed the limits set forth in Notes Band C.3 Interpretations No.1 A to require evaluation of porosity by (a) summing the areas of the individual pockets in any square inch of projected weld and rejecting the weld if the sum exceeds three times the area of a single maximum pocket allowable. that is part (a) of Question (I) is the corre!:t me thod. Question (2): The Inquirer requests that porosity charts be sent to him.IA. I Interpretation: 1·9 Subject: Table 3:!7. Question (3): Are tungsten inclusion imperfections classified as nonfusion or porosity'? Reply (3): ANSI/ASME B31. or (b) summing the diameters of the individual pockets in any square inl:h of projected weld and reo jecting the weld if the sum exceeds the diameter calculated for a circle with an area equal to three times the area of a single maximum pocket? Reply (l): It is the opinion of the Committee that the total area of porosity projected radially through the weld is the sum of the areas of all the individual areas. the Committee will consider the addition of SUdl charts to future Addenda to the Code.4.4.

" .S.4. of Section V states that: . System of Identification. Date Issued: June 20. 1 1-10 Interpretation: 1-10 .. and the fabricator to prepare suitable records of radiographic examinations performed for the Inspector's use. of Section V states that: Prior to being presented to the Inspector for acceptance..1(b) of ANSI/ASME B31. 1980 File: 1457 Question: What records are required by 336 for radiographic examinations performed? How long must the records be retained? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that 336. B31. the erector. Records are required to be retained to allow the Inspector reasonable time to exercise his rights deline- ated in 336. (b) the data specified in T-236 and T-237. T-236.. As a minimum. The Manufacturer shall record on a review form accompanying the radiographs the interpretation of each radiograph and disposition of the material examined.1.3 requires the manufacturer. the Manufacturer's sym- bol or name and the date of the radiograph shall be plainly and per- manently included on the radiograph. or part numbers.3 In terpretations No. T·292. as appropriate. A system shall be used to produce permanent identification on the radiograph traceable to the contract.. component. T·293. the radio- graphs shall be examined and interpreted by the Manufacturer as com- plying with the referencing Code Section. In addition.. .3. Section Vof the ASME SPV Code.:". the information shall include: (a) number of rums. of Section V states that: To aid in proper interpretation of radiographs.~~.. A record of this is required so that the Inspector can verify this requirement.S(b) requires the radiographic methodology to be in accordance with Article 2. details of the radio- graphic examination setup used shall accompany each group of radio- graphs if the same information applies. 336. Reference to a standard setup is acceptable if descriptions of this standard setup are readily available to the Inspector. 9 ( . 336. Subject: Radiographic Examination in 336 (T . Evaluation by Manufacturer. weld or weld seam. Radiographic Setup Information.3 requires that the welds selected for random radiography include at least one weld of each individual welder or welding operator doing the production welding. ':..

2 to exclude testing of the heat affected lone. such as ASTM A 633 Gr. Test pieces are not required for welder performance qualification or production welds. E.08 maximum carbon) for: (1) weld procedure qualification. (3) production welds? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the impact test requirements for weldments are covered in Column A of Table 323.1 and 323. 1-11. Subject: Use of MSS SP-75 Fittings Date Issued: June 20. On this basis weld procedure qualification requires one test piece (3 specimens) for impact testing of the weld for each welding procedure.2. As a result of your inquiry. It is the opinion of the Committee that it is the responsibility of the designer to insure that the ma- terial used conforms with the requirements of both MSS SP·75 (Section 6) and ANSI/ASME B31.1-12 831.2.2 Date Issued: June 20.3.3.3 permit the usc of ASTM A 633 Gr.. the Committee will review present impact requirements for possible clarification. Chapter III of ANSI!ASME B31. 10 .2.3 Interpretations No. .3 require for solution-annealed Type 304 S5 (0.1 modified by 3b of Column A of Table 323. Interpretation: 1·12 Subject: Tables 323. E material to be used in the manufacture of fittings in accordance with MSS SP·75? Reply: MSS sp· 75 does not list specific materials of construction for fittings covered by that specifi- cation. and each flux to be used. 1980 File: 1458 Question: Does ANSI/ASME B31.3 provides a basis for establishing allowable stresses and lists some of the factors to be considered in evaluating the suitability of an unlisted material. Ally revision will appear in a subsequent Addenda to the Code. AWS E·XXXX classification). (2) welder performance qualification.1 Interpretation: 1-11 (. type of electrode or filler metal (Le. Additional test piece(s) (3 specimens) are required if the material thicknesses to be welded are outside the range 1/2 to t + 1/4 where t is the thickness of the test piece. 1980 File: 1460 Question: What impact tests does ANSI/ASME B31.

Any revision will appear in a subsequent Addenda to the Code. or Tw/4 for the depth.1 A lists the limitations for undercutting on girth welds as the lesser of 1/32 in.1-14 Interpretation: 1·13 Subject: Allowable Stresses for ASTM A 587 Date Issued: June 20.4. the Committee will review the need for providing allowable stresses at higher temperatures. 11 . As a result of your inquiry. however.1980 File: 1461 Question: Why does ANSl/ASME 831. and procedures for establishing upper temperature limitations are given in 323:2. Interpretation: 1·14 Subject: Umitations on Undercutting in Table 327. it was the opinion of the Com- mittee that a maximum temperature of 650°F was adequate to cover applications of this material in chemical plant and petroleum refinery piping.4. Is there a limitation on the length or width of undercutting? Reply: No.3 limit allowable stresses in Appendix A to 650°F for ASTM AS8?? Reply: At the time that ASTM A 587 was added to Appendix A. 1980 Fue: 1466 Question:.1A .1.3 Interpretations No. B31. that this does not preclude the use of this material at higher temperatures. It is the opinion of the Committee that the limiting dimension is only applicable to the depth of undercutting.Table 327. 1 1-13. Date Issued: June 20. It should be noted.

1-15. Examples of published specifications include manufac- turer's specifications for proprieury material.3.1.1. federal military speCifications.1.77 Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that such a flexible component used in this manner is not within the scope of ANSl/ASME 831. and unlisted ASTM specifica- tions.3 to such tank parts insofar as the provisions may be suitable.3(d)]. Listed or Published Specifications D'Jte Issued: August 1.1 Interpretation: 1·15 Subject: 323.3 Interpretations No. a published speci- fication is one that has been prepared for continuing usage as opposed to a single or very limited application such as might be covered in a design specification.1. 12 . and therefore subject to the rules of 319. 1980 File: 1455 Question: Is an expansion joint that is used to provide for relative movement between the inner and outer shells of a refrigerated ammonia storage tank.1·16 B31.1? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that a published specification for material is one that con· tains all of the information outlined in 323. and to seal the space between them.1.1. In addition.3 under the provisions of300. considered to be piping within the scope of ANSI/ASME 831.4(d) [now 300.1 and is available to the public. 1980 File: 1477 Question: What is meant by the term "published specification" as used in 323. Such exclusion does not bar contractual agreement between purchaser and manufacturer to apply the provisions of ANSI! ASME 831. lnterpretatkln: 1-16 Subject: Expansion Joints Date Issued: August 22.

I 1-17.3. in the majority of cases. \'hy are these provisions different? Reply: The use of brazed joints in flammable service is allowed in the 1976 Edition only if appropriately safeguarded :IS outlined in Appendix G. 1980 File: 1474 Question: The 1976 Edition allows the use of brazed joints for flammable service.2(d).3-1966). which is the same requirement as in the 1973 Edition. ASME BPV Code. Division I and ANSI B31.g.3 In tcrpretations No. a more conser· vative basis was used (e. \- Interpretation: 1-17 Subject: Use of Brazed Joints for Flammable Service Date Issued: August 22. 1980 File: 1475 Question: Are the allowable stress values in tension that are listed in Table 1 of Appendix A the lowest values obtained by applying all of the criteria listed in 302.3. Interpretation: 1·18 Subject: 302. the allowable stress values in tension listed in Table 1 of Appendix A are the lowest values obtained by applying all of the criteria listed in 302.2 Bases for Allowable Stresses Date Issued: August 22.3.2. 13 C . Recognition of safeguarding was not incorporated in the 1973 Edition.B31. the 1976 Edition prohibits the use of brazed joints in flammable service.3. multiplied by the appropriate quality factor (see Note 46 to Table I). For some materials where it was not possible to obtain allowable stress values based on the criteria of 302. Section VIlI.2(d)? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that. Without the consideration for safeguarding.. whereas the 1973 Edition prohibits brazed joints in this service.

is assembled on skids or is packaged in a manufacturing facility. and thread depth or groove depth) be included in the thickness used in the calculation of longitudinal stresses SL in 302. \ Interpretation: 1-19 Subject: Code Exclusions Date Issued: August 22. It is the opinion of the Committee that neither the assembly method nor the point of assembly are pertinent.4 D.3.1 .1-20 B31.4 (corrosion. Often the equipment listed as well as other equipment.l. heater external crossover piping. is it the intent of the Code also to exclude the piping that interconnects the equipment? Reply: No.1980 File: 1478 Question: 300. sometimes of a proprietary nature. The reader is referred to the last sentence of 302.4 shall no~ be included in the waIl thickness used in the c:aIculation oflongitudinal stresses SL in 302. and whether assembled in a manufacturing facility or in the field.1.J.5{c). Whether skidded or packaged. and lube oil console piping. such interconnecting piping is not excluded. Some examples of where such piping must conform to the Code are: compressor interstage piping.3. 300.3.3.5(c).3(c) and (d)] set out.1 illustrates.1980 File: 1480 Question: Should thickness allowances for items listed in 302. a num- ber of pieces of equipment that are excluded from the scope of ANSI/ASME B3I.3. erosion.lte Issued: August 22.ickness Allowances in 302. and Fig.1-19.4(c) and (d) [now JOO.5(c)? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the thickness allowances described in 302. 14 .3 Interpretations No. When such skids or packages containing two or more of the excluded pieces of equipment are for installation in a facility that is to be in accordance with ANSI!ASME B3I. Interpretation: 1-20 Subject: Th. the intercoMecting piping must comply with the requirements of the Code any time the ultimate installation must comply.

2.'{'. whereas buckling associated with pipe bends is uninten- tional and random. 1'~3 interpretation: 1-21 Subject: Extruded Outlet Headers Date Issued: August 22. Question (1): How does a bend with buckles differ from a corrugated bend? Reply (1): It is the opinion of the Committee that a corrugated bend has intentional geometrically spaced corruptions placed at the inside radius.1980 File: 1483 Question: In the pressure design ofeniter bends. Pressure design of branch connections must meet the requirements of 304.4 are not applicable to extrudet! outlets that do not fall within the definition of an extruded outlet header as specified in that paragraph..2. 304. 1980 . In addition.. (5)1 Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the correct value of R 1 to be used in the pressure de· sign of miter bends in accordance with Eq. (4b) of 304.' File: 1482 Question: Are the rules for pressure design of extruded outlet headers in 304. Question (2): Define "substantially free of buckles" as used in 329. 1980 j.4 applicable to ex- truded outlets that do not fall within the definition of an "extruded outlet header" given in that paragraph? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the rules of 304.3. :~' . .3. (4b) of 304.3 Date Issued: August 22. I .3 Interpretations No.1 1-21." IS . (5).'..3.3.2. Fde: 1485 :'. is the correct value of R 1 to be used in Eq..1.3 is the actual effective bend radius of !T1iter bend as defmed for Fig. compliance with the Code requires that the value of R 1 be equal to or greater than the value given by Eq. Interpretation: 1·22 Subject: Value of R 1 in 304.' B31.2.3 the actual bend radius of the value obtained from Eq. 1-22. Interpretation: 1·23 Subject: Bends '" 'r- Date Issued: August 22. Reply (2): The Code does not define "substantially free of buckles.

5 and M336. and the owner to require.1-24.3(bX2)? [NOTE: M336. Interpretation: 1·25 Subject: 337.3 Interpretations No. Section V of the ASME BPV Code? Reply: No.5. Sensitive Leak Test Date Issued: September 5.5.] Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the Code sets forth what industry considers to be the minimum requirements for the safe design and construction of piping systems. Section V of the ASME BPV Code is intended to be used. more stringent requirements when considered necesl'ary to increase the required level of safety. It is the opinion of the Committee that demonstration of the sensitivity requirement of 337.3e·1980.5.l(b). 1·25 831. 336.1(b). M336.5. 1980 File: 1486 Question: What is the technical basis for the varied p~rcentages of required examinations stated in 336.6.1 Int~rprC'tation: 1·24 Subject: 336.3(bX2) was deleted in ANSl/ ASME B31. Extent of Required Examinatiuns Date Issued: August 22. 1980 File: 1484 Question: Does demonstration of the sensitivity requirement of 337. ments are consistent with the increasing potential for hazards. and M336. 16 .6 apply to the gas and bubble formation testing method specified in Article 10.3(b).5.6 is required only if a testing method other than the gas and bubble formation testing method specified in Article 10. The increasing NDE require.5. The designer has the responsibility to specify.

Some of the components (e.B31. 17 c .. 1980 File: 1488 An equipment fabricator is contracted by an owner to construct a palletized assembly of components and interconnecting piping to meet ANSI!ASME B31.1(d).g. valves) are purchased by the fabricator. and test? Reply (2): It is the opinion of the Committee that the certification applies only to components and materials. records.l(d).ling the requirements of the examiner? Reply (3): It is the opinion of the Committee that the fabricator is responsible for fulfilling the re- quirements of the examiner unless otherwise specified by the owner or the engineering design. The engineering design is the owner's.5. under the conditions defined above. to verify that compliance with all the applicable requirements of ANSI!ASME B31.2. heat exchangers) are supplied by the owner and some of the components (e. if the fabricator and the examiner cannot or will not provide the owner (Authorized Inspector) with a written certification on the materials and components. it is not a matter of Code interpretation.3.5. is it in compliance with the Code if the Authorized Inspector certifies that the components and materials meet the requirements of ANSI!ASME B31.3 Interpretations No.J(d). I 1-26 Interpretation: 1-26 Subject: Examination and Inspection Date Issued: October 10. Question (I): With regard to 300(b)(I) and 336. the owner is also the designer and has overall responsibility for compliance with Code requirements both for the engineering design and the required examinations and tests.3. Nor- mally the certification is furnished by the entity providing the materials or components.1. but since specific contractual agreements can modify that.g. is the fabricator respon- sible for fulm.uthorized Inspector is now Owner's Inspector. inspection. Question (2): With regard to 336. Question (5): With regard to 336. examination.) Reply (1): Yes. exercised through the Authorized Inspector. are the fabricator and the examiner required to furnish a certification only for the materials and components that the fabricator supplied.3 and the engineering design have been met by the fabricator? (NOTE: The term A. It is the opinion of the Committee that under the conditions given. Question (3): With regard to 336. provided that supporting certifications. Question (4): With regard to 336. or also to fabrication.1.1. does the owner have the overall responsibility.5. or other evidence have been reviewed by the Authorized Inspector and found satisfactory? Reply (4): It is the opinion of the Committee that this is in compliance with the Code. or are they also reqUired to furnish I certification for the owner supplied components? Reply (5): The Code requires that I certification be furnished for alJ materials and components. does the certification referred to apply only to components and materials..

What is the definition of T? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the definition of the symbol Tis Jiven in Appendix J.5..4.1 l Question (6): With regard to 300. . pumps. '. and therefore.-. as indicated in 300. including internal piping and connections for external piping.3 places the responsibility for performing examinations on the manufacturer. ----- --------- . 1·28 B31.3 Interpretations No.1. are excluded from ANSl/ASME 831.4. pumps. . the fabricator. a minimum of 5% of each welder's welds be also radiographed? Reply (1): No. heat ex· changers.1(b) Date Issued: October 10.2B refers to the symbol T.2B Date Issued: October 10. ~ " /J-26. Interpretation: 1-28 Subject: Defmition of Tin Fig. including intcTIlal piping and connections for external piping.31 Reply (6): It is the opinion of the Committee that pressure vessels. 1980 File: 1489 Question (1): Is it the intent of 336. and other fluid handling or process equipment. or the erector.1.S. the fabricator.•. or the erector giving the owner the right to select welds for examination. Reply (2): It is the opinion of the Committee that 336.4(d) [later changed to 300. .3..3(d)}. in the absence of any con- tractual arrangement between the owner and the manufacturer. It is not the intent to require examination of 5% of each welder's work. 1980 t· : ~' File: 1491 f Question: Figure 321. •..4(d) (later changed to 300. Interpretation: 1·27 Subject: Random Radiography in 336. 8 .5.1.1(b) that..~ . or the erector.. the choice of selected welds would be the prerogative of the manufacturer. heat exchangers.1. excluded from ANSl/ AS~1l~ 831. in addition to the required radiography of 5% of circumferential buttwelds for a designated lot of piping. the fabricator.3(d)]. j.1. It is the opinion of the Committee that it is the intent of the Code that each welder's work be included in the 5% examination required in 336. arc pressure vessels. " . and other fluid handling or process equipment. 1-27.1(b). 327.. Question (2): Who selects the random welds to be examined? .

3·1976 from "Prior to initial operation. the designer has a responsibility to consider the pos· sible adverse effects of any heat treatment that he might specify... installed piping shall be. Table 1 for all austenitic stainless steel H grades are applicable whether or not the material has received a I500°F heat treatment." To "Prior to initial operation.1 Date Issued: November 3.1 1·29..1-30 Interpretation: ) ·29 Subject: Allowable Stresses for Austenitic Stainless Steel H Grades Date Issued: November 3. Table I be used at 1000°F and below for material that has had a stabilizing heat treatment at ISOO°F to enhance corrosion resistance following the required solution anneal? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the allowable stresses in Appendix A."? This change is in Addenda ANSI/ASME B31. however.3d·1980.. Interpretation: 1·30 Subject: Change of Wording in 337. 1980 File: 1495 Question: What is the reason for changing the rust sentence in 337. and as indicated in Appendix F [F323. 1980 File: 1492 Question: May the allowable stresses for ASTM A 312 Grade TP 347H pipe shown in Appendix A. each piping system shall be .B31. . 19 C'.1 of ANSI B31.3 Interpretations No. that heat treatment to enhance corrosion resistance is not a Code mat· ter. Reply: This change was made because "installed piping" was not dermed and "piping system" is dermed in 300. It should be noted.2.2(c)(2»).

2. considering all design conditions specified in 302.3 does not give specific rules for determining the set pressure on pres· sure relief devices. Assurance of compliance with the limits on frequency and duration used by the designer in the design is the responsi· bility of the owner [see 300(b)] .. Please note that the term Authorized Inspector has been changed to Owner's Inspector in ANSI!ASME 831.1.2.3e·1980.1. 1-3:! B31. the Authorized Inspector shall not represent nor be an employee of the piping erector unless the owner is also the erector.3 may not be used as the only basis for determining the set pres- sure of relief devices.3? Reply (I): ANSI/ASME 831. Interpretation: 1·32 Subject: Pressure Relief Devices Date Issued: January 9. ." Subject: 336.3 also act as the Authorized Inspector? Reply: As stated in 336. I Interpretation: 1-31 .> I)Jte Issued: November 3.1-31. The pressure setting of relief devices shall be such as to safely relieve excessive pres· sures above those for which the piping system has been designed. as well as such considerations as pressure accumulation and relief device capacity.1981 File: 1490 Question (l): What specific rules govern the setting of pressure relief devices in ANSI/ASME 831.. Qualification of the Owner's Inspector .3..2.. including the allowances for pressure·temperature variations iit 302. 20 • .3 be used as the basis for determining the setting of pres- sure relief devices? Reply (2): The limitations in 302. The exact set pressure is the responsibility of the designer. 1980 File: 1499 Question: May the piping erector ofa facility designed in accordance with ANSI/ASME 831. The designer is cautioned that pressure relief devices are only capable of limiting pressure.3 Interpretations No. Question (2): May the limitations in 302.

1981 File: 1470-1 Question: Is it the intent that the stress intensification factors shown in Appendix D of each reo spective Code be applied for sustained and occasional loads as weD as for expansion loads? Reply: Stress intensification factors (SIF's) listed in Appendix D of the various Code Sections are intended for design against fatigue failure and were to a large extent developed from cyclic bending tests of piping components.l(c) of ANSI B31. the system must be "of uniform size". it is the intent of the various Codes to provide adequate protection from component collapse.B31. 1980 Ed. or bends between two anchor points. 21 t .1981 File: 1507 Question (1): 319.)..1 1-33.16. Please provide an interpretation on what is meant by "uniform size".3-1976 lists an empirical equation that can be used to exempt piping systems from the requirement fora formal analysis of adequate flexibility.' Date Issued: January 9.4. C. or Z shaped expansion loop. The reader is referred to a paper by A. L. R. '" '. Madel. Interpretation: 1-34 Subject: Appendix D on Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: February 23. a warning is given listing additional criteria to be considered. It has been shown that the SIF of 0. Please provide an interpretation of what "near straight sawtooth runs" are.1. Question (3): Considering the limitations referenced. The statement is made that in order to apply Eq. for additional information. Reply (1): Uniform size refers to a piping system of a single nominal diameter and thickness. Reply (2): Near straight sawtooth runs occur in piping systems containing more than one small U. Requirements for Analysis '<. the Committee is aware that the formula is still used.." published in the ASME transactions. is it the opinion of the Committee that the formula is in general use? Reply (3): The Committee cannot offer any specific information concerning the frequency or use of the formula.75. Therefore.. however.1 applied to sustained and occasional bending and torsion loads provides a conservative margin against component collapse.1-34 Interpretation: 1·33 (. 1955. however. (but not less than 1. 19 (Eq.0) found in ANSI/ASMEB31.""" '/ Subject: 319. Sustained and occasional loads may not be cyclic loads. Contained in the warning is a reference to "near straight sawtooth runs". Question (2): In a footnote. "Piping Flexibility Analysis.3 Interpretations No. the application of the SIF for cyclic bending and torsion loads is appropriate.4..

4.2 require for the preliminary check? Reply (2): 337.2 that the preliminary check be conducted at a pressure less than the operating pressure to minimize the consequences of gross leakage or failure dUring the test. Question (3): May the preliminary check be waived if the operating pressure is less than 25 psig? Reply (3): No. 1981 File: 1509 Question (1): What pressure should be used for the preliminary check required in 337.3(a) or 337. 1981 File: 1508 Question: If piping designed for external pressure is tested hydrostatically or pneumatically in accordance with 337.2..5. 27 (now Eq.2 if the op- erating pressure of the system does not exceed 25 psig? Reply (1): It is the intent of 337. 1-36 B31. Subjcct: Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Testing Date Issued: March 6..1 ( Interpretation: 1·35 ..3 Interpretations No..4...5.4.. The value to be used shall be selected by the designer after consideration of such consequences. 24) of 337.5. as in Eq. Please note that the test may be conducted during or prior to initial operation. 1-35. is it necessary to use the ratio of the allowable stress at test tem- perature to the allowable stress at design temperature in establishing the test pressurc..2 does not define the test fluid requirements for the preliminary check.5. Alternative Test for Category 0 Fluid Service Date Issued: March 6.I(b)? Reply: No. Question (2): What test fluid does 337. Interpretation: 1-36 Subject: 337.5. 22 .4.

what is intended by the expression "radius of any alC sector of approxi· mately 4S deg.3.l). ksi -20 to 100 33. eF Yield Strength.C are suitable for establishing allowable stresses for this material from -20°F to 750°F? Reply: Suitable yield strength values for ASTM A 570 Gr. which is limited to Category D Fluid Service (see 30S.1 Note that the yield strength does not govern in estabUshing allowable stresses in this temperature range.1 1-37. arc shall be within the minimum and maxinlum radii limits specified in 304.1 300 29.8 750 23.3.. Interpretation: 1·38 Subject: Yield Strength Values for ASTM A 570 Gr. although the intent of the Code is met if the radius of curvature is nowhere less than the specified minimum.7 600 24.4(c) Date Issued: April 24.0 700 23.4 6S0 24. what values of yield strength for ASTM A 570 Gr.deg.4. It should be noted also that the only pipe specification listed in Appendix A using ASTM A 570 material is A 134.1-38 Interpretation: 1-37 Subject: Use of Term.3 Interpretations No. The current Edition of the Code does not address the limits of radii at any specific point on the surface.3.3 400 28. 1981 File: 1496 Question: In 304.3. 23 c .B31. C from -20°F to 750°F are: Temperature. 1981 File: 1510 Question: Using the criteria of ANSI/ASME B31.4(c)(3). C Date Issued: April 24. "Radius of allY Arc Sector of Approximately 45.2. arc sector is specified as a practical necessity for establishing maxi· mum and minimum radii limits on a die controlled contour that may have a continuously varying radius of curvature.0 200 30.3 500 26."? Reply: The approximate 45 deg." in 304. The best fit radius to any 45 deg.

6(b) (2) are met.1. the pipe is A 33s·Ps.3.2 Date Issued: April 24. except the fitting is A 182·Fsa? Reply (2): Postweld heat treatment is required by 331.3.3.3. the pipe is A 33S·PS. and the mlet weld size is less than Yo: in. provided the requirements of 331. Exceptions to this requirement are in 331. 1-40 B31. I Interpretation: 1·39 Subject: 331. See 300(b) (I). in 300.3. and the weld is made with metal that is not air hardening? Reply (3): No. if the provisions of 331.6(b) (2). Interpretation: 140 Subject: Defmition of Category M Fluid Service in 300. a 350°F preheat is used.6(b) (3). 1981 File: 1517 Question (1): In ANSI/ASME B31. Question (2): Same.6(b) (3) are met.21 Reply: "A very small quantity" is the amount determined by the owner to be significant in his identification of a Category M Fluid Service. 1981 File: 1518 Question: What constitutes "a very small quantity" in the defi~ition of Category M Fluid Service.3. 24 . Thickness Effect on Heat Treatment Requirements Date Issued: April 24.3.? Reply (I): No.1 and 331. is postweld heat treatment required for an NPS 2 or smaller socket or se~ weld if the fitting is A 182·Fs or A 182·Fsa.6. Question (3): In ANSI!ASME B31.3 Interpretations No. is postweld heat treatment required for an NPS 2 or smaller socket or seal weld if the fitting is A 182·F5.1·39.

2 (Eq.3.4 does not list a joint factor for a circumferential or girth butt·weld because none of the design rules covered in ANSI/ASME B31.4.1-43 Interpretation: 141 Subject: Table 327.0 when estab· lishing SE values for calculating the required thickness (304.3.3 require the use ofa joint factor Ej other than 1.3 Interpretations No.4. Umitations on Imperfections in Welds Date Issued: April 24. 25 . 1981 File: 1522 Question: Arc different type imperfections as listed in Table 327.1) of seamless pipe containing a circumferential weld(s)? Reply (1): No. Interpretation: 142 Subject: Joint Factors Date Issued: May 22. Question (2): Why doesn't Table 302. 27 of the 1976 Edition) be applied to a pneumatic pressure test in 337.3 require the use of such a factor.4.4.1981 File: 1531 Question: Should a temperature correction such as that given in Eq.B31. 24 of 337.4 list a joint factor for a circumferential or girth butt weld? Reply (2): Table 302.4.1A.1981 File: 1527 Question (1): Does ANSI/ASME B31.1A permitted in the same area.4? Reply: The requirement for a temperature correction does not apply to pneumatic pressure testing in 337. Pneumatic Testing Date Issued: May 22.1 1-41.1-42.4.4.4. as long as each specific imperfection is within its own respective limitation? Reply: Yes. Interpretation: 143 Subject: 337.

3 under which the piping system(s) is being designed and constructed shall be evaluated as an unlisted component (302. if 100% radiography is ap- plied.3 Interpretations No.2. 26 • 0·" .5.5 and M336. Type and Extent of Required Examination Date Issued: July 21.5.'. Under what conditions is it permissible to use components and material manufactured to a superseded or later edition of these standards and specifications? Reply: Components and material manufactured to an edition of a standard or specification which has been superseded in the ANSI/ASME B31. Subject: Components and Material Manufactured to an Edition of a Standard or Specification Which Has Been Superseded Date Issued: May 29. ---.3) or unlisted material (323.5.1 (b) requires that random radiography be used to examine the full length of at least 5% of the circumferential butt welds in a piping installation.1 (a) and M336. Interpretation: 145 Subject: 336..1 Interpretation: 144 " . Referring only to circumferential butt welds. may the user omit the visual examination of these welds which is required by 336. 145 B31. Components and material manufactured to an edition of a standard or specification which has been superseded or has a later date than in the edition of ANSI/ASME B31. 144. ---~------.5. -~----. ---------.l (b) increases the minimum to 20% and includes other types of welds. M336.. respectively? Reply: No.1).1981 File: 1526 (3) Question: Dated component standards and materials specifications which are acceptable for use are listed in Appendix K.3 Code may be used in piping systems designed and constructed to the edition of the Code in which they were listed.1 (a). ----- .1981 File: 1542 Question: 336.5.1.

.: The Code does not place any limits on the width of reinforcing pad used other than those reo quired by 304.:. C. _ _- . 74. "Fatigue Tests of Piping Components" by A. - .' (2 . B31. what limits does the Code place on the width of the reinforcing pad? Reply. ( 27 . Mark! for a more complete discussion of the technical basis for the Code rules. R.1981 File: 1537 Question: When applying the equations given in Appendix 0 for determining the stress intensifica· tion factor for a reinforced fabricated tee with a pad.3 for pressure design.- -: -----. No.3. '.". The reader is referred to the transactions of the ASME Vol. ".".3 Interpretations No.1 1-46 Interpretation: 146 Subject: Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: August 7.

Similarities among different Code Sections are natural and encouraged because of similarities in the basic subject matter. (d) Specific Differences.4 as separate Cude Sectiuns for the folloWing reasons. or which may be affected by possible piping failure. (1) Allowable Stress Basis. In B31.g. in B31.• the safeguarding and severe cyclic conditions concepts) be· cause of the diversity of services and environments. Decisions to merge.4. nlese are not dealt with in B31. A few of the major differences between B31.4 be combined into a single Code Section? Reply: It is the opiniun of the BJ 1 Cummit tce that it is appropriate to continue publishing ANSI! ASME 1331. (c) Diffm:llL'cs vs. Similarities. Comparison orCodes l)Jte IsslIed: Septcmber 4.1·1955. operation.3 and ANSI/ASME B31.fluids handled. corrosion can take so many forms and result from so many sources that the designer must rely on expertise not found in the Cllde).4. and maintenance of piping . as well as developing new Sec· tions. In 1955. in fact. (3) Application .. (3) Umi/atiuns un Components and Joints.g. range of pressure and temperature. 28 . or to develop separate Se. construction.g. These factors. actual or potential regulatory jurisdictions.1 Interpretation: 1-47 Subject: 1331. There are many others. 1-47 B31. They arc permitted. . But these similarities do not warrant merging one Section with another where basic differences in services. that other industry Sections should also be published separately.which in turn necessita te separate Sections.3 and 831. Several technical Committees are maintained by the B31 Committee to exploit opportunities for common practice among all Code Sections. where they differ substantially as in the case of piping for refineries and chemical plants versus piping for cross-country oil transportation.4that arise from basic differences outlined above arc listed here. ASA B31. Questions of combining Code Sections. after review of pertinent factors.3 they require complex guidelines (e. decisions to combine two Sections have been made in two instances. (a) Estahlislu:d Practice.4 because services are of limited diversity.3 because the complexity of activities is too great for effective codilication (e.3 and B31. the B31 Committee decided. These are expressed as straightforward rules in 831. appeared that same year.. environment. In 831.surroundings which may impact on piping safety. account for crucial differences in philosophy reo lating to design. The more extensive and complex criteria in B31.. for corrosion protection and monitoring) which also aid in protecting the public.3 because unanticipated service can be expected to require them. have been based on similarities and differences in the folloWing factors: (1) Services . etc. and applica· tion exist.3 Interpretations No. nlese are not permitted under B31. (2) Environments .:tions. 1981 File: 1538 Question: Why cannot the two piping Code Sections B31.how the Code is used.3 are necessitated by the extreme range of temperatures and material of construction.4 the fruits of many years of experience are summed up in useful rules (e. The last edition of a combined Code for Pressure Piping.. (2) Unlisted MateriJlls and Cumpcments. with rules for qualifying them.3 and 1331. Publication of separate Code Sections began in 1952. (4) Operation and Maimelw"cc. have been rais~d periodically during the past 25 years and. . (b) Basis for Decisions.

3(c) for sustained loads or 302. and 32? Reply (2): The allowable stresses for unlisted materials may be determined in accordance with 323.2 must also be met. 1981 PUe: ISS3 Question: How shall longitudinal piping stresses due to unbalanced loads from pressure surges which result in anchor displacements be evaluated in ANSI/ASME B31. Pressure-temperature limits of 302.1. 31.149. 29 ( . B3I. Question (2): What are the allowable B31." : Subject: Carbon Sleel Pipe C . and longitudinal stress limits must comply with 302. ~'. 198 I File: 1549 Question (1): For carbon steel pipe made from plate (such as ASTM A671) for service below -20°F.4(d) permit plastic materials approved for pressure piping to be used as pipe support elements in tension at pipe temperatures above ambient? Reply: Yes. <~~:. Interpretation: I-SO Subject: Loads Due to Pressure Surges Date Issued: September 8. Design of Pipe Supporting Elements Date Issued: September 8.3 Interpretations No.1.1'50 Interpretation: 148 .6 for occasional loads.1 have been satisfied. .3 stresses for ASTM A671 Classes 30. Date Issued: September 8. provided the other reqUirements of 321. 1 148.1.3. 1981 File: 1552 Question: Does 321. Interpretation: 149 Subject: 321..3? Reply: Loads due to pressure surges are considered as primary loads.3. is normalizing the plale acceptable or does the pipe require normalizing? Reply (I): Either approach is acceptable as long as the finished product meets the impact require- ments of the Code.

Interpretation: I-52 Subject: B31. 300.3·1980 Edition.3. Please refer to 304. and test of piping within coal based syn fuels plants for the production of electric power and/or industrial steam? Reply: ANSI/ASME B31. Fig.1. 1981 File: 1541 .3 Interpretations No.) Either ANSI/ASME B31.. "Non·Ferrous Pipe Flanges 150. 300. examination.1.300.1.3 (b) and Fig. 1·52 B31.600. Subject: Use of Aluminum Flanges Date Issued: October 19.1.) ANSI/ASME B31.3 applies to all other piping. 30 . Addenda ANSI/ASME B31. the Com- mittee considers it inappropriate to reference it. Synfuel Plant Piping Date Issued: October 27.2 for qualifying unlisted aluminum flanges.3 I. fabrication. (See B31. 1·5 I.7. 1981 File: 1554 Question: Will ASME B31 reinstate ANSI BI6. Question: What section of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping.3a-198I ? Reply: Since the American National Standards Institute has withdrawn ANSI B16.1 and B31.1 or B31. inspection.3 is applicable to other piping associated with the production or distribution of industrial steam or production of electric power. (See B31.1 Intcrprcbtioll: 1-S 1 (". may be used for materials. 1500 and 2000 lb" that has been dropped from ANSI/ASME B31. assembly.900. 300. B31.1 applies to piping associated with power boilers and subject to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 1inspection and stamping.31.1. de- •j sign.3.1. erection.

given in equation form? Reply: The correct dermition of d for pressure design is given by the following equation: .1 and T = pipe wall thickness. be applicable? Reply: It is appropriate to use a recognized English language dictionary for each of the words in a phrase.. d -D. Interpretation: 1·54 Subject: Definition of "d" in 304.3 does not specifically define the phrase "substantially free of buckles.l (b). l. inside diameter of pipe.B31. measured or minimum per purchase specification (see Appendix 1).2(T. l." is it intended that the definition of "substantially. I I-53. I-54 Interpretation: I-53 Subject: Ddinition of "Substantially Free of Buckles" Date Issued: February 10.1.l (b) Date Issued: February 18.c) where D and care dermed in 304.1982 FUe: 1566 Question: In accordance with 304. 1982 File: 148SR Question: Since ANSI/ASME B31." given in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. in the absence of any specific definition in the Code. 31 . what is the correct definition of d.3 Interpretations No.

with the geometry limits specified.4(c) and Appendix D both be met in all instances? Reply (6): In certain instances.x required in 304.x in Appendix D and in 304. Stress intensification factors for fabricated tees are given separately in Appendix 0 in the description column.3 Interpretations No. Refer to 319. Refer also to 319.4(c)? Reply (3): Yes.3. and for extruded welding tees with other geometry limits. in Appendix D.3 does not specifically address the requirements for flexibility charac· teristic h outside the geometry limits specified in Appendix D. Question (6): Can the limitations on.4 and Appendix D [}Jte Issued: February 19.3.6 for components not covered .3.9.4? Reply (I): Yes. for large diameter welding tees for ANSI BI6. the geometry limitations given in Appendix 0 are intended only to provide limits on the specific applicability of the equations for flexibility characteristic h. unless specifically required elsewhere in ANSl/ASME B31. all of th~ geometry limits specified for.9 welding tees is not directly applicable.9. }-55 B31. provided that it is extruded using a die or dies to control the radii of the extrusion and that all of the limits on geometry required by 304. Question (5): Are the geometry limitations specified for components listed in Appendix D intended to be mandatory for manufacturing such components? Reply (5): No.! .3. Question (2): Are the stress intensification factors given in Appendix 0 for welding tees valid for fabricated tees and/or for tees formed by an extrusion process? Reply (2): The stress intensification factors given in Appendix 0 for welding tees are not valid for fabricated tees employing intersection welds. in which case the flexibility char- acteristic II specified for B16.3.6 for components not covered in Appendix D.4 are met.3.3. 32 ~ . The stress intensification factors for welding tees formed by an extrusion process are given in Appen· dix 0 both for tees in accordance with ANSI B16. Refer to Note 2 in Appendix D.3.3.4(c) cannot be met.' Question (4): When the geometry limits specified for the components listed in Appendix D are not met.9 geometry limitations. 1982 File: 1567 Question (1): Maya "drawn tee" be considered as an extruded outlet header in accordance with 304. Question (3): Is the flexibility characteristic h specified in Appendix 0 for an extruded welding tee valid only within the geometry limits for. } Interpretation: I-55 Subject: 304. Appendix 0 also provides an equa- tion for flexibility characteristic h for extruded welding tees with other than B16. what equations should be used in calculating the respective flexibility characteristic h? Reply (4): ANSl/AsME B31. given in 304. .

(d) "Piping Flexibility Analysis.' Reply (2): The relative effect of branch diameter to run diameter on flexibility characteristic h for branch outlets is being investigated at the present time. Question (4): What is the effect of external crotch radius. When properly substantiated design criteria are available." by A.x on flexibility characteristic h for extruded welding tees within specified thickness limits is given in Appendix D.1955. . R. (c) "Fatigue Tests of Piping Components:' by A.~ in Appendix D? "~" e· I. R.3 Interpretations No. 77. Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: February 22. Phase Report No. 127·149. 74. 1957. From a practical standpoint both the external radius of curvature 'x and the crotch wall thickness Tc have influence on the flexibility characteristic h. C. pp. Question (2): What is the effect of relative branch to run diameter on the flexibility characteristic h ···l). Markl and H. Trans. 69.. E." by E. C. I 1·56 Interpreta tion: 1·56 Subject: Appendix D. (b) "Fatigue Tests on Flanged Assemblies. Markl. .x and crotch wall thickness Tc on flexibil· ity characteristic h or extruded outlets? Reply (4): The effect of crotch radius." by A. 1971. Trans.1982 File: 1443 Question (1): What is the basis for the formulas for stress intensification factors and flexibility f3ctors given in Appendix D? Reply (J): Basic background material for derivations of formulas for flexibility characteristics can be found in the following: (0) "Fatigue Tests of Welding Elbows and Comparable Double-Mitre Bends. ASME Vol. . ASME Vol. Trans. 72. C. R. n 8. Moore.B31.'. Trans. 77-87. Nov. 33 c: . . (e) "-Effects of Internal Pressure on Flexibility and Stress·Intensification Factors of Curved Pipe or Welding Elbows. 1952. Rodabaugh and H." by A. H. they will be considered for inclusion in the Code. 1947.303. pp. C." E.1950. Markl.. Trans. George.287. ASME Vol. George. C.. ASME Vol. ' . The formulated relationship has not been developed at the present time. ASME Vol. if) "Comparisons of Test Data with Code Methods for Fatigue Evaluation. Rodabaugh and S.. pp. R. . 115·10. H. Markl. 869·879. 79. Question (3): Is f shown in Appendix D for extruded welding tees the nominal wall thickness of the fitting or the matching pipe? Reply (3): The T to be used is the wall thickness of the matching pipe. C.. \ . pp. ORNL·TM·3520.

1 Interpretation: 1·57 .2. 1982 File: 1559 Question (1): In accordance with 304. Vol..1. J Subject: Note 2 of Appendix A . Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure Date Issued: February 22. (3a) for the internal pressure design of straight pipe? Reply (1): Yes.1. may the Lame Eq. "Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis. in the pressure design of piping components. other factors need to be considered such as those listed in 304. A Decade of Progress. ". Subject: 304. -~'. I-58 831. (3b). 1972.2.2(b). graphitization rather than 775°F as in ANSI/ASME B31. it is difficult to be very precise in specifying a temperature above which prolonged exposure will cause graphitization.3 Interpretations No. A discussion concerning the bursting strength of thick walled cylinders is contained in the ASME publication. F. and (3c) are all permissible.1 ? Reply: Since the disassociation of the metastable iron carbide to graphite and iron is influenced by many factors in addition to temperature (including time of exposure).1. One. the Lame theory may be used for the determination of elastic pressure stresses. " Question (2): When the pipe wall thickness t is equal to or greater than 0. (3c) be used instead ofEq. (3a). how· ever. Eqs. . I-57. 34 I . Langer Com· memorative Volume. Interpretation: I-58 ..385. The Committee con· siders the value of 800°F to be reasonable. " Date Issued: February 12." B. 1982 File: 1568 Question: Why does Note 2 of Appendix A specify a temperature of 800°F relative to the onset of . may the Lame theory be used for calculating the stresses due to internal pressure? Reply (2): Yes.

' 1'.1982 ~'.1982 File: 1577 Question: 331. Question: 336.1. the nIlet size te is usually larger than y~ in.4(b) (the smaller of 0. does the 5% minimum examination apply? Reply: The 1981 Addenda. Thickness Effect on Heat Treatment Requirements Date Issued: May 4. 327.3. requires the 5% minimum examination if the fluid is toxic or flammable without regard to the pressure or temperature... File: 1569 '.. . .4.4." The value for te to be used is the greater of the minimum required in 327.3-1980 states. "Welds shall be calculated in accordance with 304.3 . Interpretation: 1-60 Subject: 336.4." For most.3·1980 gives formulas for calculating thickness of various branch welds to determine if the weld requires heat treatment. in-process examination may be substituted on a weld-for-weld basis for the radiographic or ultrasonic eXJrtlination.a in.7 Tb or Y.4(b) as "the smaller of 0.4. The value of te is defined in 327 .4.3.3 Interpretations No. 3S . the thickness is given as Tb + te.3 but shall not be leSs than the sizes shown in Fig.40.7 Tb or Y.3-1980 Edition requires a minimum of 5% of circumferen- tial butt welds to be examined fully by random radiography ~n accordance with 336.1"" " . :-:._-. Prior to issuance of the above Addenda. I 1-59.4.831. What value is reqUired to be used for te when determining heat treat- ment requirements? Reply: 327. For detail (I) of Fig.) or the size calculated for-the design.3a-1981. please note that if specified in the engineering design.6. Also.5. ANSI/ASME B31.40.1(b) of ANSI/ASME 831.1-60 Interprctation: I-59 Subject: 331. --- . Examination Normally Required Date Issued: June 9.6 when piping is intended for service at temperatures above 366°F (l86°C) or gage pressure above 150 psi (1030 \cPa).4(b) of ANSI/ASME 831.6(a) of ANSI/ASME 831.5.4.a in. 327.5 or by ultrasonic examination in accordance with 336. If the fluid is toxic or flammable and exceeds neither 150 psig nor 366°F service. the 5% minimum examination did not apply.

Hydrostatic Testing of Internally Pressured Piping Date Issued: June9.4.• Interpretation: 1·61 t ' .. 36 .4. Subject: 337.1 (c) allows the hydrostatic test pressure to be reduced to the maximum pressure that will not exceed the yield strength at test temperature. Question (2): Is this considered safe? Reply (2): Yes.1 c.•. but no single reo quirement can be considered as the sole criterion for safety....l982 File: 1576 Question (l): 337. \~. Does the Code require a weld joint qu:di'ty factor to be applied when calculating this maximum pressure? Reply (1): No.1. when all applicable requirements of the Code have been fulfilled.3 Interpretations No. 1-61 B31...

threaded joints.•. cold spring.5 states. (d) same method of welding operation. it is not limited to welds. "all comparable items may be replaced or they shall be fuUy examined and repaired to meet applicable quality requirements. Le. (3) Repair and radiograph all welds in the group until all are acceptable. Question (3): When a weld representing the 5% random radiography required by 336. others by the same welder or welding operation). to the requirements of the engineering design. alignment. 336. two additional examinations of the same kind of item (if of a weld. With respect to welds. .. (2) Continue progressive examination. 1 1-62 Interpretation: 1-62 (S "'. ~. which represents a 15% (3 out of 20) sampling.. For 5% radiography. Only the first weld in the group may be counted toward the required percent. Question (2): Please refer to the progressive examination delineated in 336.. two additional examinations are required. (1) Replace all items in the group." Is it the intent of the Code that "same kind" encompass all of the following? (0) same type of base material.B31. at the point of original examination. Types and Extent of Required Examinations . as the Code implies. does one progress to a fourth group? Reply (2): (0) No to both questions.. the Code is not specific as to what criteria determine "same kind" except for the same welder or welding operator. ~. welding procedure. the Code states. Reply (1): No. The following options are available. (0) If any of the second group faUs to meet Code.5.5. Should that radiograph fan to meet specification. "when the required examination of a spot or random type reveals a defect requiring repair. repair and reradiograph all defective welds until they are acceptable. Only the fust weld in the group may be counted toward the required percent. a 5% sampling has been represented (1 out of 20). At this point in the progression. aU welds in the group (20) shall be replaced or repaired and radiographed until acceptable.1 (b) is de· fective. (c) same size of butt weld. and welds. "same kind" examples are supports..3 Interpretations No.5. (b) No.. ." 37 . '. is it mandatory. .5 requires radiographic examination of two additional welds by the same welder or welding operator and so on. etc.-". bolted joints. This is a general statement applying to all spot and random examinations. When a weld in the third group of the progression is found defective. Date Issued: June 9. . size of pipe." ": Subject: 336. (b) same type of weldment. but leaves such factors as base material. that further examinations are required? Is the alternative available whereby all welds of that given group of 20 may be totally repaired without subsequent radiographs? (b) If any of the third group of radiographed welds fails to meet Code.1982 File: 1578 Question (1): The third sentence of 336. Examinations performed on items which are subsequently replaced may not be counted as contributing toward the required percent random examination.

Le. and 5 materials.4.4. 38 . does radiographic examination performed before heat treatment satisfy the ANSIIASME 831.3 Interpretations No.4.4.I Reply (2): The factor of 1. . finding a defect in one group does not affect the status of another group.2.1-64 B31.1 5 for all pressure tests? . Question (2): If so. why can't one use 1. Only the group of II weld~ is required to be replaced or repaired and examined until acceptable.3 Code requirements? Reply: No..5 requires the examination to be performed after heat treatment.5 is required where feasible.5 factor in Formula (24) [337 .1-63.-~ . 3. Interpretation: 1-64 Subject: 336. the Owner must approve its use for each specific case.1982 File: 1579 Question (l): For calculating the hydrostatic test pressure. 336.. (b) No.. Also. Type and Extent of Required Examination Date Issued: June 9. docs replacement of the 11 ' .2(b) conditionally allows a factor of 1. Interpretation: 1-63 Subject: 337. 1-62.. The lower factor represents the Committee's best judgment for the special case of integrated equipment and piping which cannot be readily isolated for a separate test. welds or repair and examination of the II welds until the)' are acceptable terminate the proglcssion? (b) Is this c. 337 .5..20 welds was found acceptable? Reply (3): (0) Yes.hanged if the total was 31 welds and the weld representing the first .15 to be substituted for the 1. if the owner has authorized the use of this conditional clause. Hydrostatic Testing Piping With Vessels as a System Date Issued: June 9. Is this considered safe for sub- sequent operation? Reply (1): Yes.1(b)}.1 (0) If the welder was terminated after welding a total of II wclJs.1982 File: 1580 Question: For PoNos.

welded to a qualified welding procedure with nIler metal impact tested at -300°F? Reply (2): No. Please note that when the Supplementary Essential Variables . the progression for welding the qualification test is reqUired to be uphill. is it acceptable to the Code for the production welds to be made in either the uphill or downhill position? Reply: Yes. Table 323.1-66 Interpretation: 1-65 Subject: Impact Testing Date Issued: June 9. Question (3): Is heat treatment for austenitic stainless steel reqUired after welding? Reply (3): No. See Note I.3 can austenitic stainless steel having OJ I::Hbon content of 0.s. Question (2): Is impact testing required for deposited filler metal of production welds. B31. Interpretation: 1-66 Subject: 327.1982 FDe: 1588 Question: If a procedure for the GTAW or SMAW welding process is qualified in accordance with the requirements of 327.10% and below (including "H" grades) be used at -lOO°F without impact testing? Reply (1): Yes.2.Notch Toughness of the ASME BPV Code Section IX are applicable.1 1-65. Qualification for Welding Date Issued: June 9. 39 ( -------- .5 and the welder is qualified in both the uphill and downhill position.1982 File: 1587 Question (J): Under ANSI!ASME 831.2.3 Interpretations No.

3."lSI/ASME B31. will appear in a future Addenda of ANSI/ASME B31.1982 FUe: 1592 . "PVRC Interpretive Report of Pressure Vessel Research: Section I Design Considerations.3 Subgroup on High Pressure Piping is a Committee currently working on specific design rules for the High Pressure range." J. Any revisions to tltis section of A. 1982 File: 1589 Question: In accordance with A304.3 will appear in future Addenda.3 is to an earlier edition of the ASME BPV Code.5. These rules. Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code for the design of full face gaskets? Reply: The correct Appendix in Section VIII . Faupel 40 . S5· PET· I.1-67. J' Reply: The Code does not have a specific design procedure for designs in the high pressure range at this time.3 Interpretations No. or P/SE> 0." B.3857 . Pressure Design of Flanges Date Issued: June 9.5.1(d).1 Interpretation: 1·67 Subject: A304. Langer (b) ASME Paper No. The reader is referred to the following publications for a discussion of pressure design in the high pressure range: (a) Welding Research Council Bulletin #95/AprU 1969. H. when approved. Divison 1 of the 1980 Edition of the ASM E BPV Code for the design of full face gaskets is Appendix Y. "Yield and Bursting Characteristics of Heavy-Wall Cylinders. what is the correct Appendix in Section VIII. The ASME B31.. F.•. Interpretation: 1-68 Subject: High Pressure Date Issued: June 9. 1-68 B31. Section Vlll recently reorganized portions of Division 1 and the existing reference in Addenda (a) of B31."""\ Question: What calculation method shall be used for the pressure design of pipe with t :> D/6.

Group No.3 require specific heating rates when performing heat treatment? Reply (1): No. 41 C :~--':"- .3a·1981. Question (2): Is it permissible to calculate the required pressure design thickness of an externaily reinforced extruded header on the basis of the inside diameter? Reply (2): Yes.B31.1.1982 Fue: 1594 Question (l): What is the correct value of D for calculating the required pressure design thickness of an externally reinforced extruded header by Eq."" .. (3a)1 Reply (1): The correct value D is the outside diameter of the header (see Fig. 'I":" :' -:i~. Interpretation: 1·70 Subject: 304.".1 of ANSI/ASME B31.4). The following equation is equivalent to Eq: (3a) for an externally reinforced extruded header using inside diameter d: P(d+ 2c) t -= 2 (SE .3 Interpretations No. • •. 1\.' .Y)] where nomenclature is as dermed in 304. Requirements for Heat Treatment C'.P (l . The Commit- tee will give consideration to future revision of these diagrams.1-70 Interpretation: 1-69 :- Subject: Table 331. 304.1982 File: 1593 Question (I): Docs ANSI/ASME B31 ..- ~--~----- .' Date Issued: June 9. .3.3. Pressure Design Date Issued: June 9.1 materials? Reply (2): Yes. llA. . I 1-69.1 apply only to P-No. Question (2): Does the cooling rate at the bottom of Table 331.3.1.

Equation 21 gives the appropriate formula for the "effective section modulus of the bran'ch:.1982 r· I File: 1597 Question: Are the stress intensification factors for tees given in Appendix D applicable to both the branch as well as the run or header? Reply: Yes. '. Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: July 13.1.1982 File: 1609 Question: What are the requirements for pressure testing of discharge piping in ANSI!ASME B31.3? Reply: ANSI/ASME B31.f . The computation of stress using those stress intensification factors must be based on the appropriate section modulus. )-72 B31.3 Interpretations No..""'" Interpretation: 1-72 Subject: 337. Pressure Tests Date Issued: July 16.•. -". the stress intensification factors for tees given in Appendix D are applicable to both the branch and run or header..3..< •. 42 ". "I 1-71. '. I Interpretation: 1-7 J Subject: Appendix D.3 requires discharge piping to be tested in accordance with 337 unless ex- cluded from Code coverage by 300. --------- "-- .

quantity ..4." This distinction is very important in understanding the intent of ANSI! ASME B31. Figure 327. 43 . 327... (angular branch)? Reply (2): The Code does not dermc nllet weld size reqUired for this joint configuration. L' .' • JI"erpret3tion: 1·73 subject: Category M Fluid Service Date Issued: September 8.location. .3 to parallel the "lethal substance" reference in the ASME BPV Code Section VIII. . .J Interpretations No..40 shows te in the longitudinal plane of the header (run) which bisects the branch.. (b) The Code does not define rillet weld size at this location of the joint. toxicity.. "Fluid Service" is much broader in concept in that it encompasses the complete handling and control of the fluid.1·74 I .3 the same as a "lethal substance" in the ASME BPV Code Section VIII? Reply: The Committee points out that the term used in ANSI!ASME B31. .4(c) requires a cover fillet weld with a minimum throat dimension of tc.(such as pressure. (a) what is the required cover rillet at the transverse plane of the header (run) which bisects the branch.. Finally. in that plane.." it was not the intent of ANSI!ASME B31. .3 is "Category M Fluid Service.:.. etc.'..3 (a)] is less than 90 deg.. B31. etc. r .. temperature.. but weld geometry should provide a smooth transition between the branch and header (run) surfaces.4.4. ~ ". . is a groove butt joint. Welded Branch COMections Date Issued: October 26. Question (2): What is the required cover rillet weld at the longitudinal plane of the header (ron) which bisects the branch when beta [see 304..3.. When the branch and header (run) are the same nominal pipe size.) as they affect an aspects of the piping system." not "Category M Fluid. but weld geometry should provide a smooth transition between the weld and the groove weld with added fillet weld. .3. It takes into consideration not only the fluid properties (such as flammability.:. in developing "Category M Fluid Service. ~ _. 1"'.) but also the service conditions.1982 File: 1596 Question: Is a "Category M Fluid" in ANSI!ASME B31. ---.:..1982 File: 1598 Question (1): For branch connections. and (b) in those branch bisecting planes moving from the transverse of the header (run) toward the longitudinal of the header (run)? Reply (1): (a) A rillet weld is not applicable as the weld. 1 1-73. Interpretation: 1-74 Subject: 327..4. Division 1.

3e·1980 allows an exclusion from impact testing. th is the pressure design thickness of the header. .3.3 Interpretations No. low alloy steel. and the Engineering Design specifies a design temperature below -20°F (-29°C)? (b) Note 2 of Table 323. Question (2): Does ANSI B31. Refer to Appendix J for nomenclature and 304. 1982 File: 1613 Question: In 304. For one to take advantage of this exclusion.2 of ANSI B31. is per- mission required from the Design Engineer? Reply (1): (a) Yes.3 when the material is either carbon steel. Interpretation: 1·76 SUbject: Impact Testing Date Issued: October 26.4(d). .3. is th the nominal wall thickness? Reply: No.3e·1980 require the fabricator and assembler to perform impact testing of the deposited weld metal in accordance with 323.s.2.1982 Fue: 1615 Question (1): (a) Does ANSI B31. the design engineer is responsible for evaluating the piping system and authorizing the exclusion.3·1976 including Addenda through ANSI/ASME B31.4(d) Date Issued: October 26.3·1976 including Addenda throughANSI/ASME B31. Reply (3): Yes. .3e·1980 require the fabricator and assembler to perform impact testing of the deposited weld metal and heat affected zone in accordance with 323.1·75. intermediate alloy steel.3.3 when the material is austenitic stainless steel and the Engineering Design specifies a design tempera· ture below _20°F (_29°C)? Reply (2): Yes. or high alloy (ferritic or martensitic) steel.3(a) for determination of th for reinforcement calculation. Question (3): Is specification of a design temperature below -20°F (-29°C) for the above materials sufficient [see 327.1 Interpretation: 1·75 Subject: Definition of til in 304. 1·76 B31.3-1976 including Addenda through ANS1/ASME B31 .1(d)] to require the impact testing of weld specimens in qualifying weld procedure specifications? . (b) Yes.

The reader is referred to Table 302.3? Reply (1): Yes.0 ksi rather than 75. (b) There are no plans to include a separate DSAW classification. (b) No. Question (3): (a) For API SL DSAW pipe with wall thickness greater than ~ in. Nos.3." ~' . These references are erroneous and will be corrected in future Addenda. does the manufacturer's weld require postweld heat treatment to meet the requirements of ANSI/ASM'E B31.1. except as provided for in 331. ~. for additional Ej weld joint quality factors which can apply to this pipe specifica· tion.3? (b) Can hardness testing be substituted for stress relieving? Reply (3): (a) Yes.. -•.1. 1982 File: 1616 Question: Appendix A.1-78 C·'" Interpretation: J. will API SL DSAW pipe be formally listed with a DSAWclassification and listing of allowable stresses? Reply (2): (a) Yes. Note 30 specifies a reduced tensile strength (70. Is this Note correctly referenced in the stress tables for pipe made in conformance to ASTM A 312 and A 403 specifications? Reply: No.0 ksi) for pipe of NPS 8 and larger with wall thickness of schedule 140 or heavier.3... Subject: Note 30 of Appendix A Date Issued: October 26.4. Interpretation: 1-78 Subject: Use of API 5L Grades A and B Double Submerged Arc Welded Pipe Date Issued: November 23.3 Interpretations No. 77 '.. Grades A and B double submerged arc welded (DSAW) pipe acceptable under ANSI/ASME B31. 1982 FDe: 1623 Question (1): Is API 5L. 3b and 4b. I 1-77. B31.. Question (2): (a) Does this material fall under the "Electrical Fusion Welded Pipe" (straight seam) classification? (b) In future Editions of ANSI/ASME B31. 45 ( .

Related Interests

• • •~ I ----- ---. "- '.3 does not provide specific stress intensification factors for lateral connections at other than 90 deg.6. 0' ': ... generally employ a simplified approach to the subject.I . ~..3.3 provide specific stress intensification factors for unreinforced or reinforced fabricated pipe intersections which intersect at other than 90 deg. the flexibility characteristics and stress intensification factors specified for welding elbows and pipe bends in Appendix D may be applied to welded elbows and pipe bends at angles less than 90 deg. 1-6 B31. ... Question (2): What is the co~rect flexibility and stress intensification factor for welded elbows at angles less than 90 deg...--- --------- .? Reply (2): It is the opinion of the Committee that. "Engineering require- ments of this Code.··. 1980 File: 1446 0i.3.. '.....3 Interpretations No. ~ '. :.1 Interpretation: 1·6 Subject: 319....? Reply (1): It is the opinion of the Committee that ANSI!ASM E B31.. ~.:.·. in the absence of more directly applicable data." The designer is cautioned that the Code does not do away with the need for the designer or com- petent engineering judgement.

1980 FUe: 1465 Question: Are compressors and internal piping excluded from the scope of ANSI/ASME B31.5% of the branch outside diameter? Question (2): What are the ANSI/ASME B31.1 1-7. 1-8 Interpretation: 1-7 Subject: Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors for an ANSI B16.3 as indi- cated by 300.9 Butt-Welding Tee (( .3 flexibility and stress intensification factors for an ANSI B16.3 flexibility and stress intensification factors for an ANSI Bi 6.1980 File: 1450 Question (1): What are the ANSI!ASME B31.1.5% of the branch diameter may use flexibility characteristics and stress intensification factors for an extruded welding tee.1. The reader is directed to the Introduction and Scope of the Code which state: "Engineering require- ments of this Code.: . provided the crotch thickness is less than 150% of the nominal wall thickness of the header pipe.'.:.1.3 Interpretations No.-'.B31. A designer capable of applying a more rigorous anaJysis shall have the latitude to do so.1. the designer has the responsibility to deter- mine the proper flexibility characteristics and stress intensification factors." ). If the crotch thickness is greater than 150% of the nominal header wall.I". He must be able to demonstrate the validity of his approach.9 tee is fabricated by methods other than extrusion. generally employ a simplified approach to the subject. while considered necessary and adequate for safe design. (0 . This is a contractual matter between the manufacturer and customer. or the ANSI B16. the Code does not prohibit equipment not within the scope of the Code from being designed to ANSI/ASME 8313. However.9 welding tees with a crotch radius less than 12.3(c)] and Fig. ' Date Issued: April 11.. Interpretation: 1-8 Subject: Compressors and Internal Piping !)ate Issued: May 23.. 7 .9 butt-welding tee with a crotch radius less than 12.3? Reply: Compressors and internal piping are excluded from the scope of ANSI/ASME B31.4(d) [now 300. 300. ~.9 butt·welding tee with a crotch thickness less than 150% of the nominal wall thickness of the header pipe? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that extruded ANSI B16.

1 I'\.3 does not specifically classify tungsten inclusion imperfections. As a result of your inquiry. 1-9 B31. 8 . the Committee will consider specific classification for future Addenda. Limitations on Imperfections in Welds Date Issued: June 20. As a result of your inquiry. Reply (2): The Committee does not have porosity charts. 1980 File: 1449 Question (l): Is it the intent of Notes Band C of Table 327. . Neither the greatest dimension of an individual pocket nor the total projected area shall exceed the limits set forth in Notes Band C.3 Interpretations No.1 A to require evaluation of porosity by (a) summing the areas of the individual pockets in any square inch of projected weld and rejecting the weld if the sum exceeds three times the area of a single maximum pocket allowable. that is part (a) of Question (I) is the corre!:t me thod. Question (2): The Inquirer requests that porosity charts be sent to him.IA. I Interpretation: 1·9 Subject: Table 3:!7. Question (3): Are tungsten inclusion imperfections classified as nonfusion or porosity'? Reply (3): ANSI/ASME B31. or (b) summing the diameters of the individual pockets in any square inl:h of projected weld and reo jecting the weld if the sum exceeds the diameter calculated for a circle with an area equal to three times the area of a single maximum pocket? Reply (l): It is the opinion of the Committee that the total area of porosity projected radially through the weld is the sum of the areas of all the individual areas. the Committee will consider the addition of SUdl charts to future Addenda to the Code.4.4.

" .S.4. of Section V states that: . System of Identification. Date Issued: June 20. 1 1-10 Interpretation: 1-10 .. and the fabricator to prepare suitable records of radiographic examinations performed for the Inspector's use. of Section V states that: Prior to being presented to the Inspector for acceptance..1(b) of ANSI/ASME B31. 1980 File: 1457 Question: What records are required by 336 for radiographic examinations performed? How long must the records be retained? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that 336. B31. the erector. Records are required to be retained to allow the Inspector reasonable time to exercise his rights deline- ated in 336. (b) the data specified in T-236 and T-237. T-236.. As a minimum. The Manufacturer shall record on a review form accompanying the radiographs the interpretation of each radiograph and disposition of the material examined.1.3 requires the manufacturer. the Manufacturer's sym- bol or name and the date of the radiograph shall be plainly and per- manently included on the radiograph. or part numbers.3 In terpretations No. T·292. as appropriate. A system shall be used to produce permanent identification on the radiograph traceable to the contract.. component. T·293. the radio- graphs shall be examined and interpreted by the Manufacturer as com- plying with the referencing Code Section. In addition.. .3. Section Vof the ASME SPV Code.:". the information shall include: (a) number of rums. of Section V states that: To aid in proper interpretation of radiographs.~~.. A record of this is required so that the Inspector can verify this requirement.S(b) requires the radiographic methodology to be in accordance with Article 2. details of the radio- graphic examination setup used shall accompany each group of radio- graphs if the same information applies. 336. Reference to a standard setup is acceptable if descriptions of this standard setup are readily available to the Inspector. 9 ( . 336. Subject: Radiographic Examination in 336 (T . Evaluation by Manufacturer. weld or weld seam. Radiographic Setup Information.3 requires that the welds selected for random radiography include at least one weld of each individual welder or welding operator doing the production welding. ':..

2 to exclude testing of the heat affected lone. such as ASTM A 633 Gr. Test pieces are not required for welder performance qualification or production welds. E.08 maximum carbon) for: (1) weld procedure qualification. (3) production welds? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the impact test requirements for weldments are covered in Column A of Table 323.1 and 323. 1-11. Subject: Use of MSS SP-75 Fittings Date Issued: June 20. On this basis weld procedure qualification requires one test piece (3 specimens) for impact testing of the weld for each welding procedure.2. As a result of your inquiry. It is the opinion of the Committee that it is the responsibility of the designer to insure that the ma- terial used conforms with the requirements of both MSS SP·75 (Section 6) and ANSI/ASME B31.1-12 831.2.2 Date Issued: June 20.3.3.3 permit the usc of ASTM A 633 Gr.. the Committee will review present impact requirements for possible clarification. Chapter III of ANSI!ASME B31. 10 .2.3 Interpretations No. .3 require for solution-annealed Type 304 S5 (0.1 modified by 3b of Column A of Table 323. Interpretation: 1·12 Subject: Tables 323. E material to be used in the manufacture of fittings in accordance with MSS SP·75? Reply: MSS sp· 75 does not list specific materials of construction for fittings covered by that specifi- cation. and each flux to be used. 1980 File: 1458 Question: Does ANSI/ASME B31.3 provides a basis for establishing allowable stresses and lists some of the factors to be considered in evaluating the suitability of an unlisted material. Ally revision will appear in a subsequent Addenda to the Code. AWS E·XXXX classification). (2) welder performance qualification.1 Interpretation: 1-11 (. type of electrode or filler metal (Le. Additional test piece(s) (3 specimens) are required if the material thicknesses to be welded are outside the range 1/2 to t + 1/4 where t is the thickness of the test piece. 1980 File: 1460 Question: What impact tests does ANSI/ASME B31.

Any revision will appear in a subsequent Addenda to the Code. or Tw/4 for the depth.1 A lists the limitations for undercutting on girth welds as the lesser of 1/32 in.1-14 Interpretation: 1·13 Subject: Allowable Stresses for ASTM A 587 Date Issued: June 20.4. the Committee will review the need for providing allowable stresses at higher temperatures. 11 . As a result of your inquiry. however.1980 File: 1461 Question: Why does ANSl/ASME 831. and procedures for establishing upper temperature limitations are given in 323:2. Interpretation: 1·14 Subject: Umitations on Undercutting in Table 327. it was the opinion of the Com- mittee that a maximum temperature of 650°F was adequate to cover applications of this material in chemical plant and petroleum refinery piping.4. Is there a limitation on the length or width of undercutting? Reply: No.3 limit allowable stresses in Appendix A to 650°F for ASTM AS8?? Reply: At the time that ASTM A 587 was added to Appendix A. 1980 Fue: 1466 Question:.1A .1.3 Interpretations No. B31. that this does not preclude the use of this material at higher temperatures. It is the opinion of the Committee that the limiting dimension is only applicable to the depth of undercutting.Table 327. 1 1-13. Date Issued: June 20. It should be noted.

1-15. Examples of published specifications include manufac- turer's specifications for proprieury material.3.1.1. federal military speCifications.1.77 Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that such a flexible component used in this manner is not within the scope of ANSl/ASME 831. and unlisted ASTM specifica- tions.3 to such tank parts insofar as the provisions may be suitable.3(d)]. Listed or Published Specifications D'Jte Issued: August 1.1 Interpretation: 1·15 Subject: 323.3 Interpretations No. a published speci- fication is one that has been prepared for continuing usage as opposed to a single or very limited application such as might be covered in a design specification.1. 12 . and therefore subject to the rules of 319. 1980 File: 1455 Question: Is an expansion joint that is used to provide for relative movement between the inner and outer shells of a refrigerated ammonia storage tank.1·16 B31.1? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that a published specification for material is one that con· tains all of the information outlined in 323. and to seal the space between them.1.1. In addition.3 under the provisions of300. considered to be piping within the scope of ANSI/ASME 831.4(d) [now 300.1 and is available to the public. 1980 File: 1477 Question: What is meant by the term "published specification" as used in 323. Such exclusion does not bar contractual agreement between purchaser and manufacturer to apply the provisions of ANSI! ASME 831. lnterpretatkln: 1-16 Subject: Expansion Joints Date Issued: August 22.

I 1-17.3. in the majority of cases. \'hy are these provisions different? Reply: The use of brazed joints in flammable service is allowed in the 1976 Edition only if appropriately safeguarded :IS outlined in Appendix G. 1980 File: 1474 Question: The 1976 Edition allows the use of brazed joints for flammable service.2(d).3-1966). which is the same requirement as in the 1973 Edition. ASME BPV Code. Division I and ANSI B31.g.3 In tcrpretations No. a more conser· vative basis was used (e. \- Interpretation: 1-17 Subject: Use of Brazed Joints for Flammable Service Date Issued: August 22. 1980 File: 1475 Question: Are the allowable stress values in tension that are listed in Table 1 of Appendix A the lowest values obtained by applying all of the criteria listed in 302.3. Interpretation: 1·18 Subject: 302. the allowable stress values in tension listed in Table 1 of Appendix A are the lowest values obtained by applying all of the criteria listed in 302.2 Bases for Allowable Stresses Date Issued: August 22.3.2. 13 C . Recognition of safeguarding was not incorporated in the 1973 Edition.B31. the 1976 Edition prohibits the use of brazed joints in flammable service.3. multiplied by the appropriate quality factor (see Note 46 to Table I). For some materials where it was not possible to obtain allowable stress values based on the criteria of 302. Section VIlI.2(d)? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that. Without the consideration for safeguarding.. whereas the 1973 Edition prohibits brazed joints in this service.

is assembled on skids or is packaged in a manufacturing facility. and thread depth or groove depth) be included in the thickness used in the calculation of longitudinal stresses SL in 302. \ Interpretation: 1-19 Subject: Code Exclusions Date Issued: August 22. It is the opinion of the Committee that neither the assembly method nor the point of assembly are pertinent.4 D.3.1 .1-20 B31.4 (corrosion. Often the equipment listed as well as other equipment.l. heater external crossover piping. is it the intent of the Code also to exclude the piping that interconnects the equipment? Reply: No.1980 File: 1478 Question: 300. sometimes of a proprietary nature. The reader is referred to the last sentence of 302.4 shall no~ be included in the waIl thickness used in the c:aIculation oflongitudinal stresses SL in 302. and whether assembled in a manufacturing facility or in the field.1.J.5{c). Whether skidded or packaged. and lube oil console piping. such interconnecting piping is not excluded. Some examples of where such piping must conform to the Code are: compressor interstage piping.3. 300.3.3.5(c).3(c) and (d)] set out.1 illustrates.1980 File: 1480 Question: Should thickness allowances for items listed in 302. a num- ber of pieces of equipment that are excluded from the scope of ANSI/ASME B3I.3. erosion.lte Issued: August 22.ickness Allowances in 302. and Fig.1-19.4(c) and (d) [now JOO.5(c)? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the thickness allowances described in 302. 14 .3 Interpretations No. When such skids or packages containing two or more of the excluded pieces of equipment are for installation in a facility that is to be in accordance with ANSI!ASME B3I. Interpretation: 1-20 Subject: Th. the intercoMecting piping must comply with the requirements of the Code any time the ultimate installation must comply.

2.'{'. whereas buckling associated with pipe bends is uninten- tional and random. 1'~3 interpretation: 1-21 Subject: Extruded Outlet Headers Date Issued: August 22. Question (1): How does a bend with buckles differ from a corrugated bend? Reply (1): It is the opinion of the Committee that a corrugated bend has intentional geometrically spaced corruptions placed at the inside radius.1980 File: 1483 Question: In the pressure design ofeniter bends. Pressure design of branch connections must meet the requirements of 304.4 are not applicable to extrudet! outlets that do not fall within the definition of an extruded outlet header as specified in that paragraph..2. 304. 1980 . In addition.. (5)1 Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the correct value of R 1 to be used in the pressure de· sign of miter bends in accordance with Eq. (4b) of 304.' File: 1482 Question: Are the rules for pressure design of extruded outlet headers in 304. Question (2): Define "substantially free of buckles" as used in 329. 1980 j.4 applicable to ex- truded outlets that do not fall within the definition of an "extruded outlet header" given in that paragraph? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the rules of 304.3. :~' . .3. (4b) of 304.3 Date Issued: August 22. I .3 Interpretations No.1 1-21." IS . (5).'..3.3.2. Fde: 1485 :'. is the correct value of R 1 to be used in Eq..1.3 is the actual effective bend radius of !T1iter bend as defmed for Fig. compliance with the Code requires that the value of R 1 be equal to or greater than the value given by Eq. Interpretation: 1·22 Subject: Value of R 1 in 304.' B31.2.3 the actual bend radius of the value obtained from Eq. 1-22. Interpretation: 1·23 Subject: Bends '" 'r- Date Issued: August 22. Reply (2): The Code does not define "substantially free of buckles.

5 and M336. and the owner to require.1-24.3(bX2)? [NOTE: M336. Interpretation: 1·25 Subject: 337.3 Interpretations No. Section V of the ASME BPV Code? Reply: No.5. Sensitive Leak Test Date Issued: September 5.5.] Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the Code sets forth what industry considers to be the minimum requirements for the safe design and construction of piping systems. Section V of the ASME BPV Code is intended to be used. more stringent requirements when considered necesl'ary to increase the required level of safety. It is the opinion of the Committee that demonstration of the sensitivity requirement of 337.3e·1980.5.l(b). 1·25 831. 336.1(b). M336.5. 1980 File: 1486 Question: What is the technical basis for the varied p~rcentages of required examinations stated in 336.6.1 Int~rprC'tation: 1·24 Subject: 336.3(bX2) was deleted in ANSl/ ASME B31. Extent of Required Examinatiuns Date Issued: August 22. 1980 File: 1484 Question: Does demonstration of the sensitivity requirement of 337. ments are consistent with the increasing potential for hazards. and M336. 16 .6 apply to the gas and bubble formation testing method specified in Article 10.3(b).5.6 is required only if a testing method other than the gas and bubble formation testing method specified in Article 10. The increasing NDE require.5. The designer has the responsibility to specify.

Some of the components (e.B31. 17 c .. 1980 File: 1488 An equipment fabricator is contracted by an owner to construct a palletized assembly of components and interconnecting piping to meet ANSI!ASME B31.1(d).g. valves) are purchased by the fabricator. and test? Reply (2): It is the opinion of the Committee that the certification applies only to components and materials. records.l(d).ling the requirements of the examiner? Reply (3): It is the opinion of the Committee that the fabricator is responsible for fulfilling the re- quirements of the examiner unless otherwise specified by the owner or the engineering design. The engineering design is the owner's.5. under the conditions defined above. to verify that compliance with all the applicable requirements of ANSI!ASME B31.2. heat exchangers) are supplied by the owner and some of the components (e. if the fabricator and the examiner cannot or will not provide the owner (Authorized Inspector) with a written certification on the materials and components. it is not a matter of Code interpretation.3.5. is it in compliance with the Code if the Authorized Inspector certifies that the components and materials meet the requirements of ANSI!ASME B31.3 Interpretations No.J(d). I 1-26 Interpretation: 1-26 Subject: Examination and Inspection Date Issued: October 10. Question (I): With regard to 300(b)(I) and 336. the owner is also the designer and has overall responsibility for compliance with Code requirements both for the engineering design and the required examinations and tests.3. Nor- mally the certification is furnished by the entity providing the materials or components.1. but since specific contractual agreements can modify that.g. is the fabricator respon- sible for fulm.uthorized Inspector is now Owner's Inspector. inspection. Question (2): With regard to 336. Question (5): With regard to 336. examination.) Reply (1): Yes. exercised through the Authorized Inspector. are the fabricator and the examiner required to furnish a certification only for the materials and components that the fabricator supplied.3 and the engineering design have been met by the fabricator? (NOTE: The term A. It is the opinion of the Committee that under the conditions given. Question (3): With regard to 336. provided that supporting certifications. Question (4): With regard to 336. or also to fabrication.1.1. does the owner have the overall responsibility.5. or other evidence have been reviewed by the Authorized Inspector and found satisfactory? Reply (4): It is the opinion of the Committee that this is in compliance with the Code. or are they also reqUired to furnish I certification for the owner supplied components? Reply (5): The Code requires that I certification be furnished for alJ materials and components. does the certification referred to apply only to components and materials..

What is the definition of T? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the definition of the symbol Tis Jiven in Appendix J.5..4.1 l Question (6): With regard to 300. . pumps. '. and therefore.-. as indicated in 300. including internal piping and connections for external piping.3 places the responsibility for performing examinations on the manufacturer. ----- --------- . 1·28 B31.3 Interpretations No.1. are excluded from ANSl/ASME 831.4. pumps. . the fabricator. a minimum of 5% of each welder's welds be also radiographed? Reply (1): No. heat ex· changers.1(b) Date Issued: October 10.2B refers to the symbol T.2B Date Issued: October 10. ~ " /J-26. Interpretation: 1-28 Subject: Defmition of Tin Fig. including intcTIlal piping and connections for external piping.31 Reply (6): It is the opinion of the Committee that pressure vessels. 1980 File: 1489 Question (1): Is it the intent of 336. and other fluid handling or process equipment. or the erector.1.S. the fabricator.•. or the erector giving the owner the right to select welds for examination. Reply (2): It is the opinion of the Committee that 336.4(d) [later changed to 300. .3..3(d)}. in the absence of any con- tractual arrangement between the owner and the manufacturer. It is not the intent to require examination of 5% of each welder's work. 1980 t· : ~' File: 1491 f Question: Figure 321. •..4(d) (later changed to 300. Interpretation: 1·27 Subject: Random Radiography in 336. 8 .5.1.1(b) that..~ . or the erector.. the choice of selected welds would be the prerogative of the manufacturer. heat exchangers.1. excluded from ANSl/ AS~1l~ 831. in addition to the required radiography of 5% of circumferential buttwelds for a designated lot of piping. the fabricator.3(d)]. j.1. It is the opinion of the Committee that it is the intent of the Code that each welder's work be included in the 5% examination required in 336. arc pressure vessels. " . and other fluid handling or process equipment. 1-27.1(b). 327.. Question (2): Who selects the random welds to be examined? .

3·1976 from "Prior to initial operation. the designer has a responsibility to consider the pos· sible adverse effects of any heat treatment that he might specify... installed piping shall be. Table 1 for all austenitic stainless steel H grades are applicable whether or not the material has received a I500°F heat treatment." To "Prior to initial operation.1 Date Issued: November 3.1 1·29..1-30 Interpretation: ) ·29 Subject: Allowable Stresses for Austenitic Stainless Steel H Grades Date Issued: November 3. Table I be used at 1000°F and below for material that has had a stabilizing heat treatment at ISOO°F to enhance corrosion resistance following the required solution anneal? Reply: It is the opinion of the Committee that the allowable stresses in Appendix A."? This change is in Addenda ANSI/ASME B31. however.3d·1980.. Interpretation: 1·30 Subject: Change of Wording in 337. 1980 File: 1495 Question: What is the reason for changing the rust sentence in 337. and as indicated in Appendix F [F323. 1980 File: 1492 Question: May the allowable stresses for ASTM A 312 Grade TP 347H pipe shown in Appendix A. each piping system shall be .B31. . 19 C'.1 of ANSI B31.3 Interpretations No. that heat treatment to enhance corrosion resistance is not a Code mat· ter. Reply: This change was made because "installed piping" was not dermed and "piping system" is dermed in 300. It should be noted.2.2(c)(2»).

2. considering all design conditions specified in 302.3 does not give specific rules for determining the set pressure on pres· sure relief devices. Assurance of compliance with the limits on frequency and duration used by the designer in the design is the responsi· bility of the owner [see 300(b)] .. Please note that the term Authorized Inspector has been changed to Owner's Inspector in ANSI!ASME 831.1.2.3e·1980.1. 1-3:! B31. the Authorized Inspector shall not represent nor be an employee of the piping erector unless the owner is also the erector.3 may not be used as the only basis for determining the set pres- sure of relief devices.3? Reply (I): ANSI/ASME 831. Interpretation: 1·32 Subject: Pressure Relief Devices Date Issued: January 9. ." Subject: 336.3 also act as the Authorized Inspector? Reply: As stated in 336. I Interpretation: 1-31 .> I)Jte Issued: November 3.1-31. The pressure setting of relief devices shall be such as to safely relieve excessive pres· sures above those for which the piping system has been designed. as well as such considerations as pressure accumulation and relief device capacity.1981 File: 1490 Question (l): What specific rules govern the setting of pressure relief devices in ANSI/ASME 831.. Qualification of the Owner's Inspector .3..2.. including the allowances for pressure·temperature variations iit 302. 20 • .3 be used as the basis for determining the setting of pres- sure relief devices? Reply (2): The limitations in 302. The exact set pressure is the responsibility of the designer. 1980 File: 1499 Question: May the piping erector ofa facility designed in accordance with ANSI/ASME 831. The designer is cautioned that pressure relief devices are only capable of limiting pressure.3 Interpretations No. Question (2): May the limitations in 302.

1981 File: 1470-1 Question: Is it the intent that the stress intensification factors shown in Appendix D of each reo spective Code be applied for sustained and occasional loads as weD as for expansion loads? Reply: Stress intensification factors (SIF's) listed in Appendix D of the various Code Sections are intended for design against fatigue failure and were to a large extent developed from cyclic bending tests of piping components.l(c) of ANSI B31. the system must be "of uniform size". it is the intent of the various Codes to provide adequate protection from component collapse.B31. 1980 Ed. or bends between two anchor points. 21 t .1981 File: 1507 Question (1): 319.)..1 1-33.16. Please provide an interpretation on what is meant by "uniform size".3-1976 lists an empirical equation that can be used to exempt piping systems from the requirement fora formal analysis of adequate flexibility.' Date Issued: January 9.4. C. or Z shaped expansion loop. The reader is referred to a paper by A. L. R. '" '. Madel. Interpretation: 1-34 Subject: Appendix D on Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: February 23. a warning is given listing additional criteria to be considered. It has been shown that the SIF of 0. Please provide an interpretation of what "near straight sawtooth runs" are.1. Question (3): Considering the limitations referenced. The statement is made that in order to apply Eq. for additional information. Reply (1): Uniform size refers to a piping system of a single nominal diameter and thickness. Reply (2): Near straight sawtooth runs occur in piping systems containing more than one small U. Requirements for Analysis '<. the Committee is aware that the formula is still used.." published in the ASME transactions. is it the opinion of the Committee that the formula is in general use? Reply (3): The Committee cannot offer any specific information concerning the frequency or use of the formula.75. Therefore.. however.1 applied to sustained and occasional bending and torsion loads provides a conservative margin against component collapse.1-34 Interpretation: 1·33 (. 1955. however. (but not less than 1. 19 (Eq.0) found in ANSI/ASMEB31.""" '/ Subject: 319. Sustained and occasional loads may not be cyclic loads. Contained in the warning is a reference to "near straight sawtooth runs". Question (2): In a footnote. "Piping Flexibility Analysis.3 Interpretations No. the application of the SIF for cyclic bending and torsion loads is appropriate.4..

4.2 require for the preliminary check? Reply (2): 337.2 that the preliminary check be conducted at a pressure less than the operating pressure to minimize the consequences of gross leakage or failure dUring the test. Question (3): May the preliminary check be waived if the operating pressure is less than 25 psig? Reply (3): No. 1981 File: 1509 Question (1): What pressure should be used for the preliminary check required in 337.3(a) or 337. 1981 File: 1508 Question: If piping designed for external pressure is tested hydrostatically or pneumatically in accordance with 337.2..5. 27 (now Eq.2 if the op- erating pressure of the system does not exceed 25 psig? Reply (1): It is the intent of 337. 1-36 B31. Subjcct: Hydrostatic and Pneumatic Testing Date Issued: March 6..1 ( Interpretation: 1·35 ..3 Interpretations No..4...5.4.. The value to be used shall be selected by the designer after consideration of such consequences. 24) of 337.5. as in Eq. Please note that the test may be conducted during or prior to initial operation. 1-35. is it necessary to use the ratio of the allowable stress at test tem- perature to the allowable stress at design temperature in establishing the test pressurc..2 does not define the test fluid requirements for the preliminary check.5. Alternative Test for Category 0 Fluid Service Date Issued: March 6.I(b)? Reply: No. Question (2): What test fluid does 337. Interpretation: 1-36 Subject: 337.5. 22 .4.

what is intended by the expression "radius of any alC sector of approxi· mately 4S deg.3.l). ksi -20 to 100 33. eF Yield Strength.C are suitable for establishing allowable stresses for this material from -20°F to 750°F? Reply: Suitable yield strength values for ASTM A 570 Gr. which is limited to Category D Fluid Service (see 30S.1 Note that the yield strength does not govern in estabUshing allowable stresses in this temperature range.1 1-37. arc shall be within the minimum and maxinlum radii limits specified in 304.1 300 29.8 750 23.3.. Interpretation: 1·38 Subject: Yield Strength Values for ASTM A 570 Gr. although the intent of the Code is met if the radius of curvature is nowhere less than the specified minimum.7 600 24.4(c) Date Issued: April 24.0 700 23.4 6S0 24. what values of yield strength for ASTM A 570 Gr.deg.4. It should be noted also that the only pipe specification listed in Appendix A using ASTM A 570 material is A 134.1-38 Interpretation: 1-37 Subject: Use of Term.3 Interpretations No. The current Edition of the Code does not address the limits of radii at any specific point on the surface.3.3 400 28. 1981 File: 1496 Question: In 304.3. 23 c .B31. C from -20°F to 750°F are: Temperature. 1981 File: 1510 Question: Using the criteria of ANSI/ASME B31.4(c)(3). C Date Issued: April 24. "Radius of allY Arc Sector of Approximately 45.2. arc sector is specified as a practical necessity for establishing maxi· mum and minimum radii limits on a die controlled contour that may have a continuously varying radius of curvature.0 200 30.3 500 26."? Reply: The approximate 45 deg." in 304. The best fit radius to any 45 deg.

6(b) (2) are met.1. the pipe is A 33s·Ps.3.2 Date Issued: April 24. except the fitting is A 182·Fsa? Reply (2): Postweld heat treatment is required by 331.3.3.3. the pipe is A 33S·PS. and the mlet weld size is less than Yo: in. provided the requirements of 331. Exceptions to this requirement are in 331. 1-40 B31. I Interpretation: 1·39 Subject: 331. See 300(b) (I). in 300.3. and the weld is made with metal that is not air hardening? Reply (3): No. if the provisions of 331.6(b) (2). Interpretation: 140 Subject: Defmition of Category M Fluid Service in 300. a 350°F preheat is used.6(b) (3). 1981 File: 1517 Question (1): In ANSI/ASME B31. Question (2): Same.6(b) (3) are met.21 Reply: "A very small quantity" is the amount determined by the owner to be significant in his identification of a Category M Fluid Service. 1981 File: 1518 Question: What constitutes "a very small quantity" in the defi~ition of Category M Fluid Service.3. 24 . Thickness Effect on Heat Treatment Requirements Date Issued: April 24.3.? Reply (I): No.1 and 331. is postweld heat treatment required for an NPS 2 or smaller socket or se~ weld if the fitting is A 182·Fs or A 182·Fsa.6. Question (3): In ANSI!ASME B31.3 Interpretations No. is postweld heat treatment required for an NPS 2 or smaller socket or seal weld if the fitting is A 182·F5.1·39.

2 (Eq.3.4 does not list a joint factor for a circumferential or girth butt·weld because none of the design rules covered in ANSI/ASME B31.4.1-43 Interpretation: 141 Subject: Table 327.0 when estab· lishing SE values for calculating the required thickness (304.3.3 require the use ofa joint factor Ej other than 1.3 Interpretations No.4. Umitations on Imperfections in Welds Date Issued: April 24. 25 . 1981 File: 1522 Question: Arc different type imperfections as listed in Table 327.1) of seamless pipe containing a circumferential weld(s)? Reply (1): No. Interpretation: 142 Subject: Joint Factors Date Issued: May 22. Question (2): Why doesn't Table 302. 27 of the 1976 Edition) be applied to a pneumatic pressure test in 337.3 require the use of such a factor.4.4.1981 File: 1531 Question: Should a temperature correction such as that given in Eq.B31. 24 of 337.4 list a joint factor for a circumferential or girth butt weld? Reply (2): Table 302.4.1A.1981 File: 1527 Question (1): Does ANSI/ASME B31.1A permitted in the same area.4? Reply: The requirement for a temperature correction does not apply to pneumatic pressure testing in 337. Pneumatic Testing Date Issued: May 22.1 1-41.1-42.4.4.4. as long as each specific imperfection is within its own respective limitation? Reply: Yes. Interpretation: 143 Subject: 337.

3 under which the piping system(s) is being designed and constructed shall be evaluated as an unlisted component (302. if 100% radiography is ap- plied.3 Interpretations No.2. 26 • 0·" .5.5 and M336. Type and Extent of Required Examination Date Issued: July 21.5.'. Under what conditions is it permissible to use components and material manufactured to a superseded or later edition of these standards and specifications? Reply: Components and material manufactured to an edition of a standard or specification which has been superseded in the ANSI/ASME B31. Subject: Components and Material Manufactured to an Edition of a Standard or Specification Which Has Been Superseded Date Issued: May 29. ---.3) or unlisted material (323.5.1 (b) requires that random radiography be used to examine the full length of at least 5% of the circumferential butt welds in a piping installation.1 (a) and M336. Interpretation: 145 Subject: 336..1 Interpretation: 144 " . Referring only to circumferential butt welds. may the user omit the visual examination of these welds which is required by 336. 145 B31. Components and material manufactured to an edition of a standard or specification which has been superseded or has a later date than in the edition of ANSI/ASME B31. 144. ---~------.5. -~----. ---------.l (b) increases the minimum to 20% and includes other types of welds. M336.. respectively? Reply: No.1).1981 File: 1526 (3) Question: Dated component standards and materials specifications which are acceptable for use are listed in Appendix K.3 Code may be used in piping systems designed and constructed to the edition of the Code in which they were listed.1 (a). ----- .1981 File: 1542 Question: 336.5.1.

.: The Code does not place any limits on the width of reinforcing pad used other than those reo quired by 304.:. C. _ _- . 74. "Fatigue Tests of Piping Components" by A. - .' (2 . B31. what limits does the Code place on the width of the reinforcing pad? Reply. ( 27 . Mark! for a more complete discussion of the technical basis for the Code rules. R.1981 File: 1537 Question: When applying the equations given in Appendix 0 for determining the stress intensifica· tion factor for a reinforced fabricated tee with a pad.3 for pressure design.- -: -----. No.3. '.". The reader is referred to the transactions of the ASME Vol. ".".3 Interpretations No.1 1-46 Interpretation: 146 Subject: Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: August 7.

Similarities among different Code Sections are natural and encouraged because of similarities in the basic subject matter. (d) Specific Differences.4 as separate Cude Sectiuns for the folloWing reasons. or which may be affected by possible piping failure. (1) Allowable Stress Basis. In B31.g. in B31.• the safeguarding and severe cyclic conditions concepts) be· cause of the diversity of services and environments. Decisions to merge.4. nlese are not dealt with in B31. A few of the major differences between B31.4 be combined into a single Code Section? Reply: It is the opiniun of the BJ 1 Cummit tce that it is appropriate to continue publishing ANSI! ASME 1331. (c) Diffm:llL'cs vs. Similarities. Comparison orCodes l)Jte IsslIed: Septcmber 4.1·1955. operation.3 and ANSI/ASME B31.fluids handled. corrosion can take so many forms and result from so many sources that the designer must rely on expertise not found in the Cllde).4. and maintenance of piping . as well as developing new Sec· tions. In 1955. in fact. (3) Application .. (3) Umi/atiuns un Components and Joints.g. range of pressure and temperature. 28 . or to develop separate Se. construction.g. These factors. actual or potential regulatory jurisdictions.1 Interpretation: 1-47 Subject: 1331. There are many others. 1-47 B31. They arc permitted. . But these similarities do not warrant merging one Section with another where basic differences in services. that other industry Sections should also be published separately.which in turn necessita te separate Sections.3 and 831. Several technical Committees are maintained by the B31 Committee to exploit opportunities for common practice among all Code Sections. where they differ substantially as in the case of piping for refineries and chemical plants versus piping for cross-country oil transportation.4that arise from basic differences outlined above arc listed here. ASA B31. Questions of combining Code Sections. after review of pertinent factors.3 they require complex guidelines (e. decisions to combine two Sections have been made in two instances. (a) Estahlislu:d Practice.4 because services are of limited diversity.3 because the complexity of activities is too great for effective codilication (e.3 and B31. the B31 Committee decided. These are expressed as straightforward rules in 831. appeared that same year.. environment. In 831.surroundings which may impact on piping safety. account for crucial differences in philosophy reo lating to design. The more extensive and complex criteria in B31.. for corrosion protection and monitoring) which also aid in protecting the public.3 because unanticipated service can be expected to require them. have been based on similarities and differences in the folloWing factors: (1) Services . etc. and applica· tion exist.3 Interpretations No. nlese are not permitted under B31. (2) Environments .:tions. 1981 File: 1538 Question: Why cannot the two piping Code Sections B31.how the Code is used.3 are necessitated by the extreme range of temperatures and material of construction.4 the fruits of many years of experience are summed up in useful rules (e. The last edition of a combined Code for Pressure Piping.. (2) Unlisted MateriJlls and Cumpcments. with rules for qualifying them.3 and 1331. Publication of separate Code Sections began in 1952. (4) Operation and Maimelw"cc. have been rais~d periodically during the past 25 years and. . (b) Basis for Decisions.

3(c) for sustained loads or 302. and 32? Reply (2): The allowable stresses for unlisted materials may be determined in accordance with 323.2 must also be met. 1981 PUe: ISS3 Question: How shall longitudinal piping stresses due to unbalanced loads from pressure surges which result in anchor displacements be evaluated in ANSI/ASME B31. Pressure-temperature limits of 302.1. 31.149. 29 ( . B3I. Question (2): What are the allowable B31." : Subject: Carbon Sleel Pipe C . and longitudinal stress limits must comply with 302. ~'. 198 I File: 1549 Question (1): For carbon steel pipe made from plate (such as ASTM A671) for service below -20°F.4(d) permit plastic materials approved for pressure piping to be used as pipe support elements in tension at pipe temperatures above ambient? Reply: Yes. <~~:. Interpretation: I-SO Subject: Loads Due to Pressure Surges Date Issued: September 8. Design of Pipe Supporting Elements Date Issued: September 8.3 Interpretations No.1.1'50 Interpretation: 148 .6 for occasional loads.1 have been satisfied. .3 stresses for ASTM A671 Classes 30. Date Issued: September 8. provided the other reqUirements of 321. 1 148.1.3. 1981 File: 1552 Question: Does 321. Interpretation: 149 Subject: 321..3? Reply: Loads due to pressure surges are considered as primary loads.3. is normalizing the plale acceptable or does the pipe require normalizing? Reply (I): Either approach is acceptable as long as the finished product meets the impact require- ments of the Code.

Interpretation: I-52 Subject: B31. 300.3·1980 Edition.3. Please refer to 304. and test of piping within coal based syn fuels plants for the production of electric power and/or industrial steam? Reply: ANSI/ASME B31. Fig.1. 1981 File: 1541 .3 Interpretations No.) Either ANSI/ASME B31.. "Non·Ferrous Pipe Flanges 150. 300. examination.1.300.1.3 (b) and Fig. 1·52 B31.600. Subject: Use of Aluminum Flanges Date Issued: October 19.1.) ANSI/ASME B31.3 applies to all other piping. 30 . Addenda ANSI/ASME B31. the Com- mittee considers it inappropriate to reference it. Synfuel Plant Piping Date Issued: October 27.2 for qualifying unlisted aluminum flanges.3 I. fabrication. (See B31. 1·5 I.7. 1981 File: 1554 Question: Will ASME B31 reinstate ANSI BI6. Question: What section of the ASME Code for Pressure Piping.3a-198I ? Reply: Since the American National Standards Institute has withdrawn ANSI B16.1 and B31.1 or B31. inspection.3 is applicable to other piping associated with the production or distribution of industrial steam or production of electric power. (See B31.1 Intcrprcbtioll: 1-S 1 (". may be used for materials. 1500 and 2000 lb" that has been dropped from ANSI/ASME B31. assembly.900. 300. B31.1 applies to piping associated with power boilers and subject to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section 1inspection and stamping.31.1. de- •j sign.3.1. erection.

given in equation form? Reply: The correct dermition of d for pressure design is given by the following equation: .1 and T = pipe wall thickness. be applicable? Reply: It is appropriate to use a recognized English language dictionary for each of the words in a phrase.. d -D. Interpretation: 1·54 Subject: Definition of "d" in 304.3 does not specifically define the phrase "substantially free of buckles.l (b). l. inside diameter of pipe.B31. measured or minimum per purchase specification (see Appendix 1).2(T. l." is it intended that the definition of "substantially. I I-53. I-54 Interpretation: I-53 Subject: Ddinition of "Substantially Free of Buckles" Date Issued: February 10.1.l (b) Date Issued: February 18.c) where D and care dermed in 304.1982 FUe: 1566 Question: In accordance with 304. 1982 File: 148SR Question: Since ANSI/ASME B31." given in Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. in the absence of any specific definition in the Code. 31 . what is the correct definition of d.3 Interpretations No.

with the geometry limits specified.4(c) and Appendix D both be met in all instances? Reply (6): In certain instances.x required in 304.x in Appendix D and in 304. Stress intensification factors for fabricated tees are given separately in Appendix 0 in the description column.3 Interpretations No. Refer to 319. Refer also to 319.4(c)? Reply (3): Yes.3. and for extruded welding tees with other geometry limits. in Appendix D.3 does not specifically address the requirements for flexibility charac· teristic h outside the geometry limits specified in Appendix D. Question (6): Can the limitations on.4 and Appendix D [}Jte Issued: February 19.3.6 for components not covered .3.9.4? Reply (I): Yes. for large diameter welding tees for ANSI BI6. the geometry limitations given in Appendix 0 are intended only to provide limits on the specific applicability of the equations for flexibility characteristic h. unless specifically required elsewhere in ANSl/ASME B31. all of th~ geometry limits specified for.9 welding tees is not directly applicable.9. }-55 B31. provided that it is extruded using a die or dies to control the radii of the extrusion and that all of the limits on geometry required by 304. Question (5): Are the geometry limitations specified for components listed in Appendix D intended to be mandatory for manufacturing such components? Reply (5): No.! .3. Question (2): Are the stress intensification factors given in Appendix 0 for welding tees valid for fabricated tees and/or for tees formed by an extrusion process? Reply (2): The stress intensification factors given in Appendix 0 for welding tees are not valid for fabricated tees employing intersection welds. in which case the flexibility char- acteristic II specified for B16.3.6 for components not covered in Appendix D.4 are met.3.3. 32 ~ . The stress intensification factors for welding tees formed by an extrusion process are given in Appen· dix 0 both for tees in accordance with ANSI B16. Refer to Note 2 in Appendix D.3.3.4(c) cannot be met.' Question (4): When the geometry limits specified for the components listed in Appendix D are not met.9 geometry limitations. 1982 File: 1567 Question (1): Maya "drawn tee" be considered as an extruded outlet header in accordance with 304. Question (3): Is the flexibility characteristic h specified in Appendix 0 for an extruded welding tee valid only within the geometry limits for. } Interpretation: I-55 Subject: 304. Appendix 0 also provides an equa- tion for flexibility characteristic h for extruded welding tees with other than B16. what equations should be used in calculating the respective flexibility characteristic h? Reply (4): ANSl/AsME B31. given in 304. .

(d) "Piping Flexibility Analysis.' Reply (2): The relative effect of branch diameter to run diameter on flexibility characteristic h for branch outlets is being investigated at the present time. Question (4): What is the effect of external crotch radius. When properly substantiated design criteria are available." by A.x on flexibility characteristic h for extruded welding tees within specified thickness limits is given in Appendix D.1955. . R. (c) "Fatigue Tests of Piping Components:' by A.~ in Appendix D? "~" e· I. R.3 Interpretations No. 77. Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: February 22. Phase Report No. 127·149. 74. 1957. From a practical standpoint both the external radius of curvature 'x and the crotch wall thickness Tc have influence on the flexibility characteristic h. C. pp. Question (2): What is the effect of relative branch to run diameter on the flexibility characteristic h ···l). Markl and H. Trans. 69.. E." by E. C. I 1·56 Interpreta tion: 1·56 Subject: Appendix D. (b) "Fatigue Tests on Flanged Assemblies. Markl. .x and crotch wall thickness Tc on flexibil· ity characteristic h or extruded outlets? Reply (4): The effect of crotch radius." by A. 1971. Trans.1982 File: 1443 Question (1): What is the basis for the formulas for stress intensification factors and flexibility f3ctors given in Appendix D? Reply (J): Basic background material for derivations of formulas for flexibility characteristics can be found in the following: (0) "Fatigue Tests of Welding Elbows and Comparable Double-Mitre Bends. ASME Vol. . ASME Vol. Trans. 72. C. R. n 8. Moore.B31.'. Trans. 77-87. Nov. 33 c: . . (e) "-Effects of Internal Pressure on Flexibility and Stress·Intensification Factors of Curved Pipe or Welding Elbows. 1952. Rodabaugh and H." by A. H. they will be considered for inclusion in the Code. 1947.303. pp. C." E.1950. Markl.. Trans. George.287. ASME Vol. George. C.. ASME Vol. ' . The formulated relationship has not been developed at the present time. ASME Vol. if) "Comparisons of Test Data with Code Methods for Fatigue Evaluation. Rodabaugh and S.. pp. R. . 115·10. H. Markl. 869·879. 79. Question (3): Is f shown in Appendix D for extruded welding tees the nominal wall thickness of the fitting or the matching pipe? Reply (3): The T to be used is the wall thickness of the matching pipe. C.. \ . pp. ORNL·TM·3520.

1 Interpretation: 1·57 .2. 1982 File: 1559 Question (1): In accordance with 304. Vol..1. J Subject: Note 2 of Appendix A . Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure Date Issued: February 22. (3a) for the internal pressure design of straight pipe? Reply (1): Yes.1. may the Lame Eq. "Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis. in the pressure design of piping components. other factors need to be considered such as those listed in 304. A Decade of Progress. ". Subject: 304. -~'. I-58 831. (3b). 1972.2.2(b). graphitization rather than 775°F as in ANSI/ASME B31. it is difficult to be very precise in specifying a temperature above which prolonged exposure will cause graphitization.3 Interpretations No. A discussion concerning the bursting strength of thick walled cylinders is contained in the ASME publication. F. and (3c) are all permissible.1 ? Reply: Since the disassociation of the metastable iron carbide to graphite and iron is influenced by many factors in addition to temperature (including time of exposure).1. One. the Lame theory may be used for the determination of elastic pressure stresses. " Question (2): When the pipe wall thickness t is equal to or greater than 0. (3c) be used instead ofEq. (3a). how· ever. Eqs. . I-57. 34 I . Langer Com· memorative Volume. Interpretation: I-58 ..385. The Committee con· siders the value of 800°F to be reasonable. " Date Issued: February 12." B. 1982 File: 1568 Question: Why does Note 2 of Appendix A specify a temperature of 800°F relative to the onset of . may the Lame theory be used for calculating the stresses due to internal pressure? Reply (2): Yes.

' 1'.1982 ~'.1982 File: 1577 Question: 331. Question: 336.1. the nIlet size te is usually larger than y~ in.4(b) (the smaller of 0. does the 5% minimum examination apply? Reply: The 1981 Addenda. Thickness Effect on Heat Treatment Requirements Date Issued: May 4. 327.3. requires the 5% minimum examination if the fluid is toxic or flammable without regard to the pressure or temperature... File: 1569 '.. . .4.4." The value for te to be used is the greater of the minimum required in 327.3-1980 states. "Welds shall be calculated in accordance with 304.3 . Interpretation: 1-60 Subject: 336.4." For most.3·1980 gives formulas for calculating thickness of various branch welds to determine if the weld requires heat treatment. in-process examination may be substituted on a weld-for-weld basis for the radiographic or ultrasonic eXJrtlination.a in.7 Tb or Y.4(b) as "the smaller of 0.4. The value of te is defined in 327 .4.3.3 Interpretations No. 3S . the thickness is given as Tb + te.3 but shall not be leSs than the sizes shown in Fig.40.7 Tb or Y.3-1980 Edition requires a minimum of 5% of circumferen- tial butt welds to be examined fully by random radiography ~n accordance with 336.1"" " . :-:._-. Prior to issuance of the above Addenda. I 1-59.4.831. What value is reqUired to be used for te when determining heat treat- ment requirements? Reply: 327. For detail (I) of Fig.) or the size calculated for-the design.3a-1981. please note that if specified in the engineering design.6. Also.5. ANSI/ASME B31.40.1(b) of ANSI/ASME 831.1-60 Interprctation: I-59 Subject: 331. --- . Examination Normally Required Date Issued: June 9.6 when piping is intended for service at temperatures above 366°F (l86°C) or gage pressure above 150 psi (1030 \cPa).4(b) of ANSI/ASME 831.6(a) of ANSI/ASME 831.5.4.a in. 327.5 or by ultrasonic examination in accordance with 336. If the fluid is toxic or flammable and exceeds neither 150 psig nor 366°F service. the 5% minimum examination did not apply.

Hydrostatic Testing of Internally Pressured Piping Date Issued: June9.4.• Interpretation: 1·61 t ' .. 36 .4. Subject: 337.1 (c) allows the hydrostatic test pressure to be reduced to the maximum pressure that will not exceed the yield strength at test temperature. Question (2): Is this considered safe? Reply (2): Yes.1 c.•. but no single reo quirement can be considered as the sole criterion for safety....l982 File: 1576 Question (l): 337. \~. Does the Code require a weld joint qu:di'ty factor to be applied when calculating this maximum pressure? Reply (1): No.1. when all applicable requirements of the Code have been fulfilled.3 Interpretations No. 1-61 B31...

threaded joints.•. cold spring.5 states. (d) same method of welding operation. it is not limited to welds. "all comparable items may be replaced or they shall be fuUy examined and repaired to meet applicable quality requirements. Le. (3) Repair and radiograph all welds in the group until all are acceptable. Question (3): When a weld representing the 5% random radiography required by 336. others by the same welder or welding operation). to the requirements of the engineering design. alignment. 336. two additional examinations of the same kind of item (if of a weld. With respect to welds. .. (2) Continue progressive examination. 1 1-62 Interpretation: 1-62 (S "'. ~. which represents a 15% (3 out of 20) sampling.. For 5% radiography. Only the first weld in the group may be counted toward the required percent. Question (2): Please refer to the progressive examination delineated in 336.. two additional examinations are required. (1) Replace all items in the group." Is it the intent of the Code that "same kind" encompass all of the following? (0) same type of base material.B31. at the point of original examination. Types and Extent of Required Examinations . as the Code implies. does one progress to a fourth group? Reply (2): (0) No to both questions.. the Code is not specific as to what criteria determine "same kind" except for the same welder or welding operator. ~. welding procedure. the Code states. Reply (1): No. The following options are available. (0) If any of the second group faUs to meet Code.5.5. Should that radiograph fan to meet specification. "when the required examination of a spot or random type reveals a defect requiring repair. repair and reradiograph all defective welds until they are acceptable. Only the fust weld in the group may be counted toward the required percent. a 5% sampling has been represented (1 out of 20). At this point in the progression. aU welds in the group (20) shall be replaced or repaired and radiographed until acceptable.1 (b) is de· fective. (c) same size of butt weld. and welds. "same kind" examples are supports..3 Interpretations No.5. (b) No.. ." 37 . '. is it mandatory. .5 requires radiographic examination of two additional welds by the same welder or welding operator and so on. etc.-". bolted joints. This is a general statement applying to all spot and random examinations. When a weld in the third group of the progression is found defective. Date Issued: June 9. . size of pipe." ": Subject: 336. (b) same type of weldment. but leaves such factors as base material. that further examinations are required? Is the alternative available whereby all welds of that given group of 20 may be totally repaired without subsequent radiographs? (b) If any of the third group of radiographed welds fails to meet Code.1982 File: 1578 Question (1): The third sentence of 336. Examinations performed on items which are subsequently replaced may not be counted as contributing toward the required percent random examination.

Le. and 5 materials.4.4. 38 . does radiographic examination performed before heat treatment satisfy the ANSIIASME 831.3 Interpretations No.4.4.I Reply (2): The factor of 1. . finding a defect in one group does not affect the status of another group.2.1-64 B31.1 5 for all pressure tests? . Question (2): If so. why can't one use 1. Only the group of II weld~ is required to be replaced or repaired and examined until acceptable.3 Code requirements? Reply: No..5 requires the examination to be performed after heat treatment.5 is required where feasible.5 factor in Formula (24) [337 .1-63.-~ . 3. Interpretation: 1-64 Subject: 336. the Owner must approve its use for each specific case.1982 File: 1579 Question (l): For calculating the hydrostatic test pressure. 336.. (b) No.. Also. Type and Extent of Required Examination Date Issued: June 9. docs replacement of the 11 ' .2(b) conditionally allows a factor of 1. Interpretation: 1-63 Subject: 337. 1-62.. The lower factor represents the Committee's best judgment for the special case of integrated equipment and piping which cannot be readily isolated for a separate test. welds or repair and examination of the II welds until the)' are acceptable terminate the proglcssion? (b) Is this c. 337 .5..20 welds was found acceptable? Reply (3): (0) Yes.hanged if the total was 31 welds and the weld representing the first .15 to be substituted for the 1. if the owner has authorized the use of this conditional clause. Hydrostatic Testing Piping With Vessels as a System Date Issued: June 9. Is this considered safe for sub- sequent operation? Reply (1): Yes.1(b)}.1 (0) If the welder was terminated after welding a total of II wclJs.1982 File: 1580 Question: For PoNos.

welded to a qualified welding procedure with nIler metal impact tested at -300°F? Reply (2): No. Please note that when the Supplementary Essential Variables . the progression for welding the qualification test is reqUired to be uphill. is it acceptable to the Code for the production welds to be made in either the uphill or downhill position? Reply: Yes. Table 323.1-66 Interpretation: 1-65 Subject: Impact Testing Date Issued: June 9. Question (3): Is heat treatment for austenitic stainless steel reqUired after welding? Reply (3): No. See Note I.3 can austenitic stainless steel having OJ I::Hbon content of 0.s. Question (2): Is impact testing required for deposited filler metal of production welds. B31. Interpretation: 1-66 Subject: 327.1982 FDe: 1588 Question: If a procedure for the GTAW or SMAW welding process is qualified in accordance with the requirements of 327.10% and below (including "H" grades) be used at -lOO°F without impact testing? Reply (1): Yes.2.Notch Toughness of the ASME BPV Code Section IX are applicable.1 1-65. Qualification for Welding Date Issued: June 9. 39 ( -------- .5 and the welder is qualified in both the uphill and downhill position.1982 File: 1587 Question (J): Under ANSI!ASME 831.2.3 Interpretations No.

3."lSI/ASME B31. will appear in a future Addenda of ANSI/ASME B31.1982 FUe: 1592 . "PVRC Interpretive Report of Pressure Vessel Research: Section I Design Considerations.3 Subgroup on High Pressure Piping is a Committee currently working on specific design rules for the High Pressure range." J. Any revisions to tltis section of A. 1982 File: 1589 Question: In accordance with A304.3 will appear in future Addenda.3 is to an earlier edition of the ASME BPV Code.5. These rules. Division 1 of the ASME BPV Code for the design of full face gaskets? Reply: The correct Appendix in Section VIII . Faupel 40 . S5· PET· I.1-67. J' Reply: The Code does not have a specific design procedure for designs in the high pressure range at this time.3 Interpretations No. or P/SE> 0." B.3857 . Pressure Design of Flanges Date Issued: June 9.5.1(d).1 Interpretation: 1·67 Subject: A304. Langer (b) ASME Paper No. The reader is referred to the following publications for a discussion of pressure design in the high pressure range: (a) Welding Research Council Bulletin #95/AprU 1969. H. when approved. Divison 1 of the 1980 Edition of the ASM E BPV Code for the design of full face gaskets is Appendix Y. "Yield and Bursting Characteristics of Heavy-Wall Cylinders. what is the correct Appendix in Section VIII. The ASME B31.. F.•. Interpretation: 1-68 Subject: High Pressure Date Issued: June 9. 1-68 B31. Section Vlll recently reorganized portions of Division 1 and the existing reference in Addenda (a) of B31."""\ Question: What calculation method shall be used for the pressure design of pipe with t :> D/6.

Group No.3 require specific heating rates when performing heat treatment? Reply (1): No. 41 C :~--':"- .3a·1981. Question (2): Is it permissible to calculate the required pressure design thickness of an externaily reinforced extruded header on the basis of the inside diameter? Reply (2): Yes.B31.1.1982 Fue: 1594 Question (l): What is the correct value of D for calculating the required pressure design thickness of an externally reinforced extruded header by Eq."" .. (3a)1 Reply (1): The correct value D is the outside diameter of the header (see Fig. 'I":" :' -:i~. Interpretation: 1·70 Subject: 304.".1 of ANSI/ASME B31.4). The following equation is equivalent to Eq: (3a) for an externally reinforced extruded header using inside diameter d: P(d+ 2c) t -= 2 (SE .3 Interpretations No. • •. 1\.' .Y)] where nomenclature is as dermed in 304. Requirements for Heat Treatment C'.P (l . The Commit- tee will give consideration to future revision of these diagrams.1-70 Interpretation: 1-69 :- Subject: Table 331. 304.1982 File: 1593 Question (I): Docs ANSI/ASME B31 ..- ~--~----- .' Date Issued: June 9. .3.3. Pressure Design Date Issued: June 9.1 materials? Reply (2): Yes. llA. . I 1-69.1 apply only to P-No. Question (2): Does the cooling rate at the bottom of Table 331.3.1.

Equation 21 gives the appropriate formula for the "effective section modulus of the bran'ch:.1982 r· I File: 1597 Question: Are the stress intensification factors for tees given in Appendix D applicable to both the branch as well as the run or header? Reply: Yes. '. Flexibility and Stress Intensification Factors Date Issued: July 13.1.1982 File: 1609 Question: What are the requirements for pressure testing of discharge piping in ANSI!ASME B31.3? Reply: ANSI/ASME B31.f . The computation of stress using those stress intensification factors must be based on the appropriate section modulus. )-72 B31.3 Interpretations No..""'" Interpretation: 1-72 Subject: 337. Pressure Tests Date Issued: July 16.•. -". the stress intensification factors for tees given in Appendix D are applicable to both the branch and run or header..3..< •. 42 ". "I 1-71. '. I Interpretation: 1-7 J Subject: Appendix D.3 requires discharge piping to be tested in accordance with 337 unless ex- cluded from Code coverage by 300. --------- "-- .

quantity ..4." This distinction is very important in understanding the intent of ANSI! ASME B31. Figure 327. 43 . 327... (angular branch)? Reply (2): The Code does not dermc nllet weld size reqUired for this joint configuration. L' .' • JI"erpret3tion: 1·73 subject: Category M Fluid Service Date Issued: September 8.location. .3 to parallel the "lethal substance" reference in the ASME BPV Code Section VIII. . .J Interpretations No..40 shows te in the longitudinal plane of the header (run) which bisects the branch.. (b) The Code does not define rillet weld size at this location of the joint. toxicity.. "Fluid Service" is much broader in concept in that it encompasses the complete handling and control of the fluid.1·74 I .3 the same as a "lethal substance" in the ASME BPV Code Section VIII? Reply: The Committee points out that the term used in ANSI!ASME B31. .4(c) requires a cover fillet weld with a minimum throat dimension of tc.(such as pressure. (a) what is the required cover rillet at the transverse plane of the header (run) which bisects the branch.. Finally. in that plane.." it was not the intent of ANSI!ASME B31. .3 is "Category M Fluid Service.:.. etc.'..3 (a)] is less than 90 deg.. B31. etc. r .. temperature.. but weld geometry should provide a smooth transition between the branch and header (run) surfaces.4.4. ~ ". . is a groove butt joint. Welded Branch COMections Date Issued: October 26. Question (2): What is the required cover rillet weld at the longitudinal plane of the header (ron) which bisects the branch when beta [see 304..3.. When the branch and header (run) are the same nominal pipe size.) as they affect an aspects of the piping system." not "Category M Fluid. but weld geometry should provide a smooth transition between the weld and the groove weld with added fillet weld. .3. It takes into consideration not only the fluid properties (such as flammability.:. in developing "Category M Fluid Service. ~ _. 1"'.) but also the service conditions.1982 File: 1596 Question: Is a "Category M Fluid" in ANSI!ASME B31. ---.:..1982 File: 1598 Question (1): For branch connections. and (b) in those branch bisecting planes moving from the transverse of the header (run) toward the longitudinal of the header (run)? Reply (1): (a) A rillet weld is not applicable as the weld. 1 1-73. Interpretation: 1-74 Subject: 327..4. Division 1.

3e·1980 allows an exclusion from impact testing. th is the pressure design thickness of the header. .3.3 Interpretations No. low alloy steel. and the Engineering Design specifies a design temperature below -20°F (-29°C)? (b) Note 2 of Table 323. Question (2): Does ANSI B31. Refer to Appendix J for nomenclature and 304. 1982 File: 1613 Question: In 304. For one to take advantage of this exclusion.2 of ANSI B31. is per- mission required from the Design Engineer? Reply (1): (a) Yes.3 when the material is either carbon steel. Interpretation: 1·76 SUbject: Impact Testing Date Issued: October 26.4(d). .3. is th the nominal wall thickness? Reply: No.3e·1980 require the fabricator and assembler to perform impact testing of the deposited weld metal in accordance with 323.s.2.1982 Fue: 1615 Question (1): (a) Does ANSI B31. the design engineer is responsible for evaluating the piping system and authorizing the exclusion.3·1976 including Addenda through ANSI/ASME B31.4(d) Date Issued: October 26.3·1976 including Addenda throughANSI/ASME B31. Reply (3): Yes. .3e·1980 require the fabricator and assembler to perform impact testing of the deposited weld metal and heat affected zone in accordance with 323.1·75. intermediate alloy steel.3.3 when the material is austenitic stainless steel and the Engineering Design specifies a design tempera· ture below _20°F (_29°C)? Reply (2): Yes. or high alloy (ferritic or martensitic) steel.3(a) for determination of th for reinforcement calculation. Question (3): Is specification of a design temperature below -20°F (-29°C) for the above materials sufficient [see 327.1 Interpretation: 1·75 Subject: Definition of til in 304. 1·76 B31.3-1976 including Addenda through ANS1/ASME B31 .1(d)] to require the impact testing of weld specimens in qualifying weld procedure specifications? . (b) Yes.

The reader is referred to Table 302.3? Reply (1): Yes.0 ksi rather than 75. (b) There are no plans to include a separate DSAW classification. (b) No. Question (3): (a) For API SL DSAW pipe with wall thickness greater than ~ in. Nos.3." ~' . These references are erroneous and will be corrected in future Addenda. does the manufacturer's weld require postweld heat treatment to meet the requirements of ANSI/ASM'E B31.1. except as provided for in 331. ~. for additional Ej weld joint quality factors which can apply to this pipe specifica· tion.3? (b) Can hardness testing be substituted for stress relieving? Reply (3): (a) Yes.. -•.1. 1982 File: 1616 Question: Appendix A.1-78 C·'" Interpretation: J. will API SL DSAW pipe be formally listed with a DSAWclassification and listing of allowable stresses? Reply (2): (a) Yes. Note 30 specifies a reduced tensile strength (70. Is this Note correctly referenced in the stress tables for pipe made in conformance to ASTM A 312 and A 403 specifications? Reply: No.0 ksi) for pipe of NPS 8 and larger with wall thickness of schedule 140 or heavier.3... Subject: Note 30 of Appendix A Date Issued: October 26.4. Interpretation: 1-78 Subject: Use of API 5L Grades A and B Double Submerged Arc Welded Pipe Date Issued: November 23.3 Interpretations No. 77 '.. Grades A and B double submerged arc welded (DSAW) pipe acceptable under ANSI/ASME B31. 1982 FDe: 1623 Question (1): Is API 5L. 3b and 4b. I 1-77. B31.. Question (2): (a) Does this material fall under the "Electrical Fusion Welded Pipe" (straight seam) classification? (b) In future Editions of ANSI/ASME B31. 45 ( .

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