The earliest preserved writings on surveying are those of Heron the Elder; a Greek
who lived in Alexandria about 150-100 B.C. His writings include a treatise, Dioptra (Surveyor's
Transit); a geometry book, Measurement; and an optical work, Mirrors. In Measurement, he
describes the method used in determining the area of a triangle from the lengths of three sides.
Thedioptra could be used for measuring angles and levelling (Fig. l.l).

In contrast to the Greeks, the Romans were more interested in practical applications of
mathematics and surveying for civil and military works. To layout a route for a road the Roman
surveyors used a few simple instruments for establishing horizontal lines and right angles. For
laying out right angles, they used a groma adopted from an Egyptian device. For long distance
measurement between cities, the Romans had an ingenious invention, the hodometer.
With the fall of the Roman empire, the ancient civilized world came to an end. All
technical disciplines, including surveying were no longer needed when even the basic laws
protecting life and property could not be enforced. During the Dark ages, the" art of surveying "
was almost forgotten. It was not until the beginning of Renaissance that a revival in exploration
and trade created new interest in western world in navigation, astronomy, cartography and
During the thirteenth century, the magnetic compass was invented by Neckarn, Don
Englishman as an aid to navigation. In 1571 Thomas Digges an English mathematician known as
the father of modern surveying published a book describing a new "topographical instrument"

Although several scientists share credit for this discovery. rods. Surveying methods and instruments used at the beginning of the twentieth century were basically the same as those used in the nineteenth century. The first man who attempted to tie established points together by triangulation was a young Dutch mathematics professor Willebrod Snellvan Roijen (1531-1626). compasses. The recent refinement in global . it was Galilee Galilei who perfected the instrument in 1609. Also shown were ropes. By the end of the eighteenth century many instruments and tools used by modern surveyors had been developed. The incorporation of data collectors and electronic field books with interface to computer.001 of a centimetre.developed from the quadrant which became known as the "theodelitus". The Construction and Principal Uses of Mathematical Instruments published in 1723 by French writer Nicholas Bion showed sketches of rulers. protractors and pantograph. Development of the telescope in the late sixteenth century greatly increased the speed and accuracy of surveying. However new light weight metals and more advanced callibration techniques resulted in development of lighter and more accurate instruments needed for the precise layout requirements of high speed railroads and highways. printer. especially in route surveying and site selection. Electronic distance measuring instruments for ground surveying now are capable of printing output data in machine- readable language for computer input and/or combining distance and angle measurements for direct readout of horizontal and vertical distances to the nearest0. Advances of eighteenth century left nineteenth century engineers and surveyors a remarkable heritage in tools and instruments. The plane table was described almost in its present form by Jean Practorius in 1590. and plotter devices has resulted in the era of total station surveying. This simple instrument had all the essential features of modern theodolite except for the telescope. By 1950 photogramrnetric methods had revolutionized survey procedures. chains and pins for surveying plus angle and level instruments mounted on tripods. and advanced rapidly during the following decades. dividers. MODERN TRENDS lN SURVEYING Recent developments in photogrammetric and surveying equipment have been closely associated with advances in electronic and computer technologies. Use of aerial photography for mapping began in the 1910s.

As a result of the technological breakthroughs in surveying and mapping the survey engineer of 1990s must be better trained in a much broader field of science than the surveyor of even a decade ago. . with its miniaturized packaging of accelerometers and gyroscopes and satellite radio surveying have already revolutionized geodetic control surveying and promises to impact all phases of the surveying process. A background in higher mathematics. geodetic science and electronics is necessary for today's survey engineer to compete in this rapidly expanding discipline. computer technology.positioning systems and techniques developed for military navigation has led to yet another dramatic change in surveying instrumentation. automatically levels the line of sight. The principal change in levelling instruments has been widespread adoption of the automatic level in which the main level bubble has been replaced with a pendulum device which after the instrument has been rough levelled. Inertial surveying. photogrammetry. Lasers are being used for acquisition of vertical control data in photograrnrnetry and for providing line and grade in construction related surveying.