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Alexander Makshanoff
Mrs. Stevens & Mrs. Radcliffe
Physical Science
13 January 2017

How Does Temperature Affect the Amount Of Gas Produced By Dry Ice?

I have always loved to watch things you can do with dry ice. It seemed cool the way it

gives off gas. Since I wanted to do something with dry ice, this idea turned into my science

experiment. I wanted to know if the temperature of water affects how much gas is produced by

dry ice. My hypothesis is that if I put various temperatures of water on dry ice, then the hotter

water will produce the most gas. (

How Does Dry Ice Work?

Dry ice can do many important and enjoyable things. It is used to make a spooky mood in

plays, Halloween, and concerts. Dry ice turns directly from a solid into a gas. This is called

sublimation. Dry ice is made of carbon dioxide, which must be turned into a liquid before turning

into a solid. This substance freezes at -109° fahrenheit. Dry ice can easily give a person instant

frostbite if touched. Another danger is that if you breathe in the gas, it can suffocate you. But

there are benefits of using dry ice too. Dry ice keeps perishable foods last longer. Additionally, it

is used in labs, haunted houses, and food storage facilities.(Carini)

What Safety Precautions Should Be Taken When Working With Dry Ice?

If you use bare hands it will result in frostbite and/or burns, and thus, you should wear

protection over exposed skin that could come in contact with dry ice. Working with dry ice

should be done in well ventilated areas in order to avoid suffocation due to low oxygen levels

created by the dry ice. If dry ice is contained in a bottle with water, it can explode. If you are

trying to store dry ice, put it in a dry ice cooler or styrofoam. When using dry ice, it would be
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safe to use goggles and wear some sort of coat to protect your body. Finally, it would not be wise

to dispose of dry ice in a sink, toilet, or shower.(Efseaff)

What Is Sublimation? And Why Does Dry Ice Preform Sublimation?

Sublimation is the process of a solid changing directly into a gas. It is somewhat rare that

something does this. Sublimation occurs because the temperature of the solid carbon dioxide and

liquid carbon dioxide are almost the same. Even though it performs sublimation you must turn

the gas into a liquid before you turn it into a solid. The reverse of sublimation is deposition,

which is also rare for a substance to do. When dry ice is put into water it quickens the rate of

sublimation and makes a fog. Sometimes so fast that it stops in a matter of seconds. This is what

makes the perfect spooky theme for Halloween. (

What Is The Most Efficient Way To Change a Liquid's Temperature?

Natural gas from a gas stove will make the water heat up the fastest. A close second is an

electric stove or a natural wood fire. When using electricity, it can come from dams and even

wind mills. Solar power is also recommended because of the clean energy it gives off.

Microwaves won't do well because microwave heat will not make water boil. In addition to the

heat source, the purity of the water is important. The more you get water to boil also makes it

cleaner with less additives. Water from wells are not always good to boil because of how many

minerals it has. you would have to boil it so many times that it would all evaporate. In

conclusion, a gas stove is best because it gives an instant flame and non-well water is best

because there are less minerals. (Kaberline)

What Temperature Of Water Is Used In Fog Machines?

Fog machines use very high temperatures to make fog. Most manufacturers do not give

specifics. Fluids are first heated up in a coil. This coil is called the heat exchanger. A pump
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pushes the fluid into the heat exchanger. You can stop this process with an on and off switch, but

not all of them have it. Also some have fog volume dials so you can determine how much fog

you want. Alternatively, dry ice can be used, but it could be costly.(Pappas)

What Is the Most Effective Way To Measure Gas Production?

To measure gas production, you can put the gas into a container and weigh it. But first,

you must take into account the weight of the container. Also there is air around it so you must

close it off. Alternatively, if you know the composition of gas you can look up its density. What

is called a ball-in-tube flow meter is really a mass flow meter. To do this you put a ball in a tube

and pump gas into it. The tube is marked in grams per second. You can freeze the gas and then

measure it.(Notre Dame)


If I pour various temperatures of water onto dry ice, then the hot water will make the

most gas. In conclusion, my science experiment was conceived based on fun. But when I dug

deeper into the science behind the fun, I realized that there is a lot more to dry ice and water than

cool smokey patterns and spooky atmosphere. I discovered that, for dry ice, temperature not only

makes a difference in gas output, but it is the reason behind the cool effect of sublimation itself.
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Works Cited

By Setting the DMX Address for a Channel at the Machine, It Can Be Run on Cue by the

Board Operator. "How Fog Machines Work -"

Carini, By David. "The Best Way to Boil Water: Nitty-Gritty." Stanford Magazine. Stanford

University, 2016. Web. 03 Nov. 2016

Efseaff, Nikolai Alex. "How Does Temperature Affect the Amount of Gas Produced by Dry Ice?"

Telephone interview. 27 Nov. 2016.

How Fog Machines Work - N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2016

Kaberline, Carolyn. "Why Does Dry Ice Sublimate?" EHow. Demand Media, 1999. Web.

02 Nov. 2016.

Pappas, Stephanie. "How Does Dry Ice Work?" Live Science. Purch, June-July 2010. Web. 1

Nov. 2016.



Dame, 2013. Web. 1 Nov. 2016.

Weighing, By. "Q & A: Measuring the Mass of a Gas." Physics Van. N.p., 22 Oct. 2007. Web. 28

Oct. 2016ZC