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Heriot-Watt University
School of Engineering and Physical Science
Chemical & Petroleum Engineering

Stage 2 Laboratory Experiment
Experiment 10: Mechanical Heat Pump

Contents

1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1
2 Objectives................................................................................................................................... 1
3 Basic Theory .............................................................................................................................. 2
4 Equipment .................................................................................................................................. 5
5 Operational Notes...................................................................................................................... 6
6 Experimental Data Sheets ........................................................................................................ 8
7 Analysis and Discussion................................................................................................... 9
8 Safety Note ................................................................................................................................ 9
9 Appendix .................................................................................................................................. 10

1 Introduction

The SOLTEQ® Heat Pump Equipment (Model: HE165-A) has been designed to provide
students with a practical and quantitative demonstration of a vapour compression cycle, and
is suitable for all course levels (intermediate and undergraduate). Refrigerators and heat
pumps both apply the vapour compression cycle, although the applications of these machines
differ, the components are essentially the same.

The Heat Pump Equipment is capable of demonstrating the heat pump application where a
large freely available energy source, such as the atmosphere is to be upgraded for water
heating. The unit will be of particular interest to those studying Mechanical Engineering,
Energy Conservation, Thermodynamics, Building Services, Chemical Engineering, Plant and
Process Engineering, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning.

2 Objectives

i) To determine the power input, heat output and coefficient of performance of a vapour
compression heat pump system.
ii) To produce the performance of heat pump over a range of source and delivery
temperatures.
iii) To plot the vapour compression cycle on the p-h diagram and compare with the ideal
cycle.
iv) To perform energy balances for the condenser and compressor.
v) To plot the performance of heat pump over a range of evaporating and condensation
temperatures which is the saturation temperature at condensing pressure.
vi) To determine the compression ratio and volumetric efficiency.

©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2

sanitation. and is cycling in a close stream.g. the circulating substance is physically separated from the heat source and heat delivery.1 Closed Cycle Vapour Compression Heat Pump Most of the heat pumps operate on the principle of the vapour compression cycle. Heat transformers (a type of absorption heat pump). 4. and. In this cycle. Figure 1: The closed loop compression cycle ©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 . Areas of interest are heating of buildings. which releases the heat at a required temperature which is higher after a physical or chemical transformation. iii. In the heat pump process. 2 3 Basic Theory A heat pump is a mechanism that absorbs heat from waste source or surrounding to produce valuable heat on a higher temperature level than that of the heat source. Generally. In the evaporator the heat is extracted from the heat source to boil the circulating substance. Heat pump technology has attracted increasing attention as one of the most promising technologies to save energy. The pressure of the circulating substance (working fluid) is reduced back to the evaporator condition in the throttling valve. Mechanical vapour recompression heat pumps operating at about at 200°C 3. 2. raising its pressure and temperature. The fundamental idea of all heat pump is that heat is absorbed by a medium. recovery of industrial waste heat for steam production and heating of process water for e. The circulating substance is compressed by the compressor. cleaning. The heat is delivered to the condenser. therefore called „closed cycle‟. 3. the following processes take place: 1. there are three types of heat pump systems: i. Closed cycle vapour compression heat pumps (electric and engine driven) ii.

©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 .2 Vapour Compression Heat Pump Principles Figure 2: Vapor Compression Heat Pump Cycle The labelled components are: 1. Compressor 3. This is where the heating takes place. Evaporator Four basic processes or changes in the condition of the refrigerant occur in a Vapor Compression Heat Pump Cycle. This is accomplished in a heat exchanger called the condenser. it must be brought to the liquid form at a high pressure. Heat is therefore transferred from the Refrigerant to the Cooling fluid and as a result. at a temperature lower than the refrigerant. ii) Condensing Process (t2  t3) The refrigerant leaves the compressor as a gas at high temperature and pressure. a cooling fluid flows (normally air or water). heat must be removed from it. i) Compression Process (t1 t2) The refrigerant at the pump suction is in gas at low temperature and low Pressure. 3 3. Condenser 2. Expansion Valve 4. Compressing the gas also results in increasing its temperature. These four processes shall be illustrated in the most simplistic way with the aid of above schematic sketch. The first step in this process is to increase the pressure of the refrigerant gas by using a compressor. In order to change it to a liquid. In order to be able to use it to achieve the heat pump effect continuously. The refrigerant flows through one circuit in the condenser. In the other circuit. the refrigerant condenses to a liquid state (3).

In order to vaporize. (COPH) of a heat pump cycle is an expression of the cycle efficiency and is stated as the ratio of the heat removed in the heated space to the heat energy equivalent of the energy supplied to the Compressor. The refrigerant has thus returned to its initial state and is now ready to repeat the cycle. it must gain heat (which it takes from that portion of the refrigerant that did not vaporize). iv) Vaporizing Process (t4  t1) The refrigerant flows through a heat exchanger called the evaporator. therefore heat is transferred from it to the refrigerant. COPH = Heat removed from heated space / Heat energy equivalent of the energy supplied to the Compressor Thus. the refrigerant is in liquid state at a relatively high pressure and temperature. 4 iii) Expansion Process (t3  t4) At Point (3). for the Theoretical Simple Cycle. The refrigerant boils because of the heat it receives in the evaporator. 3.3 Coefficient of Performance The Coefficient of Performance. The Pressure at (4) is so low that a small portion of the refrigerant flashes (vaporizes) into a gaseous. By the time it leaves the evaporator (4) it is completely vaporized. It flows to (4) through a restriction called the flow control device or expansion valve. this may be written as: COPH = Heating Effect / Heat of Compression (1) ©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 . in a continuous manner. The heat source is at a slightly higher temperature than the refrigerant. The refrigerant loses pressure going through the restriction.

Refrigerant flowmeter 7. Inlet Refrigerant 5.8 LPM f) Water Flowmeter Range: 0 – 4.1 Specifications a) Compressor Type : Hermetic Refrigerant: R-134a Swept Volume : 5. High Pressure Cut Off Switch 4. Coaxial Condenser 10. Expansion valve 6. Sight Glass 8.60 cm3/rev Compression Speed : 2800 RPM b) Condenser Type : Coaxial Condenser Medium : Water c) Evaporator Type : Fan Cooled / Continuous Tube / External Finned d) Expansion Valve Type : Thermostatic e) Refrigerant Flowmeter Range: 0 – 0. Low Pressure Cut Off Switch 3. Compressor 4. Evaporator 2. 5 4 Equipment Figure 3: Unit assembly of Mechanical Heat Pump (Model: HE165A) 1.5 LPM ©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 . Filter Drier 9.

Check that the unit and all instruments are in proper condition. Connect the power supply and switch on the main power follows by main switch at the control panel. Switch on the refrigerant compressor and observe that there is sufficient refrigerant in the system. Close the water supply and ensure that water is not left running. 5 Operational Note 5. 4. 6 Figure 4: Schematic diagram for Heat Pump Equipment (Model: HE165-A). 5. Check that the drain hose at the condensate collector is connected.2 General Shut-down Procedures 1. and the water pump follows by main switch and power supply. 3.1 General Start-up Procedures 1. 2.0 LPM. Switch off the compressor. 5. Check that the both water source and drain are connected then open the water supply and set the cooling water flowrate at 1. 2. The unit is now ready for experiment as soon as temperature and pressures are constant. ©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 .

7 5. heat output and coefficient of performance Procedures: 1. Refrigerant flow rate (LPM) = Refrigerant flow rate (%) × 0. 5. Allow the system to run for 15 minutes. The experiment may be repeated another constant evaporating temperature (TT4). 3. 6. Record all necessary readings into the experimental data sheet.5 LPM 100% 2. Repeat similar steps until the compressor delivery pressure reaches around 14.8 LPM 100% ©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 . 2.0 bar. Note: The cooling water and refrigerant flow rate display is in percentage (%).0 LPM. Cooling water flow rate (LPM) = Cooling water flow rate (%) × 4. 1. Maintain the evaporating temperature (TT4) by covering part of the evaporator for the purpose of lowering the evaporating load. Repeat the experiment with reducing water flowrate. 7. 4. Perform the general start-up procedures.3 Experiment 1: Determination of power input. Adjust the cooling water flowrate to 3. Below is the formula to convert cooling water and refrigerant flow rate to LPM.

FT2 % Refrigerant flowrate. P W Compressor Pressure Ratio - Volumetric Flowrate of Refrigerant m3/s at Compressor Suction Compressor Swept Volume m3/s Volumetric Efficiency % ©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 . TT3 °C Refrigerant Temperature. °C TT5 Cooling water outlet temperature.0 1. FT2 LPM 3. FT1 LPM Refrigerant flowrate. TT2 °C Refrigerant Temperature. PT1 Bar(g) Refrigerant Pressure (High). FT1 % Refrigerant Pressure (Low). PT2 Bar(abs) Refrigerant Temperature. °C TT6 Compressor Power Input. PT1 Bar(abs) Refrigerant Pressure (High).5 2. TT4 °C Cooling water inlet temperature.1 Experiment 1: Determination of power input. heat output and coefficient of performance Results: Table 1 Test 1 2 3 4 5 Cooling water flowrate. TT1 °C Refrigerant Temperature.5 1.0 2.0 Cooling water flowrate. PT2 Bar(g) Refrigerant Pressure (Low). 8 6 Experimental Data Sheets 6.

Calculate the Heat output and Coefficient of performance. Perform energy balance on the condenser. 2. 9 7 Analysis and Discussions 1. 8 Safety Note 1. Plot the experimental vapour compression cycle on the p-h diagram of R-134a and compare with the ideal cycle. Always check and rectify any leak. Calculate the compressor pressure ratio and volumetric efficiency. 2. Plot the performance curves for Heat Pump (COP. Heat Delivered. The unit must be operated under the supervision of trained personnel. All operating instructions supplied with the unit must be read and understood before attempting to operate the unit. Perform energy balance on the compressor. 7. Plot the performance curves for Heat Pump (COP. and Compressor Power Input) versus Condensing Temperature. 3. Heat Delivered. 3. 6. 5. ©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 . 4. and Compressor Power Input) versus Temperature of Water Delivered.

10 Appendix: Pressure-Enthalpy Diagram ©Heriot-W att University Chemical Engineering Lab Year 1 Jan 2017 v2 .

EPS Chemical Engineering 11 ©Heriot-W att University B49CE January 2017 v1 .