Project Report Of Rocket

Subject: Physics

By

Hao Qi Chen 5861032

Bo Zhang 5861012

Poonsarp

Mahidol University International Demonstration School

Objective
The purpose of this project is to apply physics concept in real life like
designing and building rocket ship

Introduction and Background

what is rocket? The word "rocket" can mean different things. Most
people think of a tall, thin, round vehicle. They think of a rocket that
launches into space. however in this case it is a cylindrical projectile that
can be propelled to a great height or distance by the combustion of its
engine.
then, how it different from jet engine? the different is that the jet
engine because A jet engine needs air to work. A rocket engine doesn't
need air. It carries with it everything it needs, which mean that rocket
engine works even in space.

we will be able to see newton's laws are involved in the lab. for
example, third law says that for every action, there is an equal and
opposite reaction. The rocket pushes on its exhaust. The exhaust pushes
the rocket, too. The rocket pushes the exhaust backward. The exhaust
makes the rocket move forward.

in this lab we use "white vinegar" and baking soda as propellent
which produce CO2 when combine to move rocket.

There are different kinds of vinegar depending on what ingredients
are used to produces it. For example, apple cider vinegar made up from
apple, but No matter what you use to make vinegar, the end product can
be distilled to make what is commonly called “white vinegar.” it is a mix
of acetic acid and water. The most common household vinegars are 5%
acetic acid and 95% water.
Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda is alkaline compound with the
formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate
ions. when react with acetic acid will produce sodium acetate, water, and
carbon-dioxide.

Material
Discussion of Physic concepts

1) Measurement took a big part of in both design of the rocket and the
amount of “fuel” . In order to calculate the exact number of fuel needed
for best dissolution rate, an accurate number need to be measured for
Vinegar(350ml) and Baking soda(25g); For rocket, fins and launcher
stays in a right angle is indispensable, which is 60 degrees for fins and
40 degrees for launcher. Due to unfit in launcher if fins are flat (0
degrees), we find best angles which will let fins fit in launcher also have
the least effect to rocket. These are all depend on measurement such as
to wall of launcher.

2) Newton’s first law: According to first law, if there isn’t any input
force, the object will either stay at rest or move in constant speed in
straight line. This rocket have gas as the input force, so it can change
from rest to move.

F
3) Newton’s second law: According to second law, aα
m , we
decreased the mass by use a smaller bottle, which lead to Higher
acceleration.

4) Newton’s third law: According to third law, for every action, there
is an equal and opposite reaction. We put a little plank at the end of
launcher, which create following set of reaction: when gas outbreak, it
push on plank, so, in opposite, plank is also pushing gas, which means it
is pushing rocket forward.
5) Linear motion(freefall): To avoid the effect of free fall, the launcher
increased to 40 degrees which can lead to a landing on 20 meter on the
effect of free fall, instead of further or closer landing.

6) Projectile: In order to have a curve that connect launcher and
target, the knowledge of projectile and linear motion(freefall) is mixed.
After launch, projectile rocket will lead to a curve incline, while reach
half of the distance(10m), The effect of gravity slowly transfer rocket to
free fall, which leads to a curve decline, then after another half of the
distance, rocket will hit the ground.

7) Impulse and Momentum: This part of knowledge we used the
most in rocket launching process, it directly related to the distance
rocket can travel. Momentum of rocket decreased after launch, because
the velocity decreased. The impulse is mostly depend on how many gas
can produced and stored,

8) Energy(power, work, KE, PE): In this case, energy is
chemical that we used , work is what we got from chemical
reaction, and power is when rocket need more chemical for
longer distance. Before gas outbreak, all the energy is PE, as long
as it still holding in the bottle, it is still potential. After gas
outbreak, PE will transfer into KE, which provide force to rocket.

Discussion of design

1) Research information about aerodynamic design and
launcher for the best accuracy which will use to make for a rocket.
There are many aerodynamic like fin and body of the rocket.

2) Gather material that uses for make rocket which has 2
types of a bottle that we got. The first one was the light weight
bottle which is not good because it can’t pass through wind or air.
The second bottle is heavier and thicker than first one.

3) Build rocket and launcher. Rocket uses parts of Packing
box for the top parts of the rocket because of aerodynamic design.
The plasticine was added to the top part after we finish build
because we need to add more weight to the top part.

4) The first trial which will have predicted about the amount
of chemical because we didn’t discover the distance of rocket after
we insert chemical. The amount of chemical that we used was 250
ml of vinegar and 270 grams of baking soda. Vinegar was already
inserted before we start to launch. Baking soda was put in the
tissue paper because we need time to run away from rocket before
it launched. We use a wine cork to attract with the bottom of the
rocket. A wine cork will help to make a reaction. The results that
we got was 8 meters from where we launched it.

5) The second trial, we removed 37.41 grams of plasticine
from the top parts of the rocket and increase an amount of
chemical. the result is better than the first trial because rocket gets
longer distances than before.

6) After the second trial, the changed was an amount of
chemical to get the best accuracy.
Data
Group No.# No.on Rocket Vinegar Baking Total Radio= Decoration Angle Distance
Trial target (g) soda (g) rocket/che (m)
mical

China 1 0 176.50 250 15 270 g 0.93 2 30 8
Town

China 2 0 139.09 350 20 370 g 0.38 2 30 18
Town

China 3 0 139.09 400 25.03 425.0 0.33 3 40 18
Town 3g

China 4 0 139.09 400 28.13 428.1 0.32 3 40 More than
Town 3g 30 M

China 5 1 139.09 350 25 375g 0.37 3 45 20
Town

Analysis of Data
Data show that weight of rocket affect the distance that rocket can
go. The first trial, the weight of rocket is 176.50g which we use 250 ml
of vinegar, 15 grams of baking soda and angle is 30 degree. The distance
of the first trail is 8 meters which are half of goal. After the first trial, the
plasticine was removed from the rocket and amount of chemical was an
increase. The result that rocket can go was 10 meters more than the first
trial. It shows that weight of rocket affects the distance of rocket. The
Third and Fourth trials are about the amount of chemical and the angle
that was changed to 40 degrees that we got the most accuracy. The
second and third trial have a perfect distance from first to fourth which
have similar about of chemical. The fifth trial uses 350 ml of vinegar,
25 grams of baking soda and the angle is 45 degrees. In this trial was
focused on cork wine because cork wine affects the reaction that
happened in a rocket. the result of the fifth trial was hit No 1 on the
target which means the distance must be 20 meters. It shows that
distance and accuracy of a rocket depend on other things not only
chemical like winds and cork wine. The deep of cork wine affect directly
to a reaction which means the outcome of a reaction was more then it
leads to longer distance and larger velocity.

Conclusion
The rocket must have the shape that can pass through air. The
design of rocket, launcher, and fin called aerodynamic design. The
distance of launcher depends on aerodynamic design, the amount of
chemical that uses in a rocket and angle of a launcher. The rocket that
was used in this rocket has the wrong angle because the fin can't insert
into launcher then an angle of the fin must be 45 degrees. the effect of
the fin was it will not make perfect projectile. The fin should be on 180
angles on both sides which will make the perfect projectile and it will
increase the accuracy of a rocket.

Chemical is the energy of the rocket which will give the work of
the rocket. The product that comes from a reaction of vinegar and baking
soda was gas which will push the rocket forward.

The distance and accuracy depend on many things like wind,
chemical, the design of the rocket, launcher and cork wine. Cork wine
affect the rocket while it has a reaction because the deep of cork wine in
a bottle will not let gas release from the bottle until there is a lot of gas
to push it out. The rocket must have a lot of chemicals to move it
forward because to related to freefall because rocket will fall down when
there is no energy anymore. Freefall means the object will fall down
with 9.8 meters per second which mean rocket will fall after it launched
a few second later. The amount of chemical will make rocket fall at the
perfect time that will make rocket drop on the point.

Recommendation
The rocket that we used in this project has a strange design like fin
because of the launcher that we can’t fix. In this case, we recommend
making the launcher that can insert rocket perfectly. Rocket can’t get a
perfect design like our fin has a strange angle from aerodynamic design.
Fin was at 45 degree which makes rocket has fin looks like the letter V.
The best fin must be on equal to both side or it will look like straight line
attract to rocket. The wine cork should get in bottle deep because it will
help chemical to have a full reaction before it released all gas from a
rocket. It will improve distance of rocket.

Reference:
Dunbar, B. (2015, May 20). What Is a Rocket? Retrieved February 26, 2017, from
https://www.nasa.gov/audience/forstudents/k-4/stories/nasa-knows/what-is-a-rocket-
k4.html
Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Chemistry Expert. (2016, August 17). Know the
Chemical Formula of Vinegar. Retrieved February 26, 2017, from
http://chemistry.about.com/od/molecularformulas/a/Vinegar-Chemical-Formula.htm