General description Technical specification
AS440 is a half wave phase controlled thyristor type AVR SENSING INPUT
and forms part of the excitation system for a brushless Voltage Jumper selectable
generator. The design employs Surface Mount Technology 100-130 Vac 1 phase or
190-264 Vac 1 phase
(SMT) for high integration of features in a small footprint
Frequency 50-60 Hz nominal
Voltage 100-264 V ac 1 phase
Positive voltage build up from residual levels is ensured by Frequency 50-60 Hz nominal
the use of efficient semiconductors in the power circuitry of OUTPUT
the AVR. The power and voltage sensing circuits have Voltage 82 V d.c. @ 200 V a.c.
separate terminals, allowing the excitation power to be Current continuous 4A (see note 1).
derived directly from the stator winding for basic transient 7.5A for 10 secs.
Resistance 15 ohms min
applications or from an auxiliary winding if sustained short
(10 ohms min when input
circuit performance is required. volts is less than 175 ac)
The AVR is linked with the main stator windings and the +/- 1.0% (see note 2)
exciter field windings to provide closed loop control of the THERMAL DRIFT
output voltage with load regulation of +/- 1.0%. 0.03% per deg. C change in AVR ambient (see note 3)
The AVR voltage sensing terminals continuously sample AVR response 20 ms
Filed current to 90% 80 ms
the output windings for voltage control purposes. In
Machine Volts to 97% 300 ms
response to this sample voltage, the AVR controls the EXTERNAL VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT
power fed to the exciter field, and hence the main field, to +/-10% with 1 k ohm 1 watt trimmer (see note 4)
maintain the machine output voltage within the specified Increasing resistance lowers voltage.
limits, compensating for load, speed, temperature and UNDER FREQUENCY PROTECTION
power factor, of the generator. Set point 94 -98% Hz (see note 5)
A frequency measuring circuit continually monitors the 12 watts maximum
generator output and provides under-speed protection of BUILD UP VOLTAGE
4 Volts @ AVR terminals
the excitation system, by reducing the output voltage ANALOGUE INPUT
proportionally with speed below a pre-settable threshold. A Maximum input +/- 5 Vdc (see note 6)
manual adjustment is provided for factory setting of the Sensitivity 1V for 5% Generator Volts (adjustable)
under frequency roll off point, (UFRO). This can easily be Input resistance 1k ohm
changed to 50 or 60 Hz in the field by push-on link QUADRATURE DROOP INPUT
selection. 10 ohms burden
Max. sensitivity: 0.07 A for 5% droop 0PF
Over excitation conditions are limited to a safe period by a Max. input: 0.33 A
protection circuit within the AVR.
Set point 65 V dc
Time delay 10-15 seconds (fixed)
Provision is made for the connection of a remote voltage ENVIRONMENTAL
trimmer, allowing the user fine control of the generator's Vibration 20-100 Hz 50mm/sec
output. 100Hz – 2kHz 3.3g
Operating temperature -40 to +70C (note 7)
An analogue input is provided allowing connection to the Relative Humidity 0-70C 95% (note 8)
Power Factor controller or other external devices with Storage temperature -55 to +80C
compatible output.
1. De-rate by 12% if mounted in ‘portrait’ orientation.
The AVR has the facility for droop CT connection, to allow 2. With 4% engine governing.
parallel running with other similarly equipped generators. 3. After 2 minutes.
4. Generator de-rate may apply. Check with factory.
5. Factory set, semi-sealed, jumper selectable.
6. Any device connected to the analogue input must be fully
floating (galvanically isolated from ground), with an
insulation strength of 500V ac.
7. De-rate output current by 5% per degree C above 60C.
8. Non condensing.

©2006 1 TD_AS440 AVR_09.06_03_GB

Suppression components are included to prevent sub cycle voltage spikes damaging the AVR components The Stability Circuit provides adjustable negative ac and also to reduce the amount of conducted noise on feedback to ensure good steady state and transient the generator terminals. The Ramp Generator and Level Detector and Driver infinitely Power Control Devices vary the amount of exciter field control the conduction period of the Power Control Devices current in response to the error signal produced by the and hence provides the excitation system with the required Amplifier. affecting the operation of the AVR control circuit.c. A Light Emitting Diode gives indication of underspeed running.c.09_04_GB . The Over Excitation Detector continuously monitors the The Low Hz Detector measures the period of each exciter field voltage and provides signals. DESIGN DETAIL Voltage Sensing Generator Droop Potential Divider & Hand Rectifier Suppression Trimmer Low Hz Synchronising Low Pass Detection Circuit Filter Reference Power Voltage supply Short circuit Detector Analogue Level Power DC Ramp Detector & Control Input Amp Mixer Generator Driver Devices Over Exciter Stability excitation Field Circuit detector The main functions of the AVR are: Potential Divider and Rectifier takes a proportion of the The Synchronising circuit is used to keep the Ramp generator output voltage and attenuates it. power to maintain the generator voltage within specified limits. The DC Mixer adds the Analogue input signal the Sensing The Short Circuit Detector senses the presence of a signal. The output from the droop CT is also added to this signal. ©2006 2 TD_AS440 AVR_03. to collapse electrical cycle and causes the reference voltage to be the output voltage if an over excitation condition reduced approximately linearly with speed below a persists for the specified time period. The potential Generator and Low Hz Detector locked to the generator divider is adjustable by the AVR Volts potentiometer and waveform period. input signal into d. performance of the control system. short circuit on the generator output and forces the Power Control Devices into full conduction. A rectifier converts The Low Pass Filter prevents distorted waveforms the a. This only The Amplifier (Amp) compares the sensing voltage to the occurs when the AVR is powered from an auxiliary Reference Voltage and amplifies the difference (error) to winding. for further processing. external hand trimmer (when fitted). provide a controlling signal for the power devices. The Power Supply provides the required voltages for the AVR circuitry. presettable threshold.

8.09_04_GB . Terminals La and Lb are 3. Connect a suitable voltmeter (0-300V ac) across line to neutral of the generator. Turn STABILITY control to midway position. 6. refer to WARNING! stability adjustment. 4. trimmer if fitted. Remove 8 and Z2 – linked for link before fitting hand trimmer. but For major adjustments and replacing the AVR. FITTING AND OPERATING REFER TO GENERATOR WIRING DIAGRAM F2 F1 7 8 8 Z2 FOR CONNECTION DETAILS Volts Hand trimmer terminals. mounted on the generator case. Before running generator. 2. voltage is reached. Carefully turn VOLTS control clockwise until rated to observe this could cause equipment damage. turn the VOLTS control PROCEDURE’. If the red Light Emitting Diode (LED) is illuminated. terminals as these could be above earth potential. ©2006 3 TD_AS440 AVR_03. turn the VOLTS control 9. VOLTS adjustment is required. link if no hand trimmer is required. fully anti-clockwise before running generator. WARNING! Do not increase the voltage above the rated 5. or by the external hand attempting to follow it. Turn remote volts trimmer (if fitted) to midway Terminals 1 and 2 on the AVR will be fitted with a shorting position.g. Start generator set. 1 2 normal operation Link must be fitted when hand 3 trimmer is not required. Voltage adjustment is now completed. then re-adjust voltage if If a replacement AVR has been fitted or re-setting of the necessary. and run on no load at nominal generator voltage. If instability is present at rated voltage. fully anti-clockwise. Lb La AS440 Stability Selection Table Droop Stability No. can be altered by careful adjustment of the VOLTS Read and understand this procedure before control on the AVR board. refer to the rating plate frequency e. If major adjustment is necessary or you lose stability. linked only for special low voltage applications. Failure 7. 50-53Hz or 60-63Hz. Power range Response S1 Selection S2 ABCD A1 B-D < 100kW Slow A2 Frequency A-C < 100kW Fast Selection B-C 100-550kW Fast Trim 60Hz A-B > 550kW Fast Exc 50Hz Trip Stab UFRO Indicator LED SUMMARY OF AVR CONTROLS CONTROL FUNCTION DIRECTION VOLTS TO ADJUST GENERATOR OUTPUT VOLTAGE CLOCKWISE INCREASES OUTPUT VOLTAGE STABILITY TO PREVENT VOLTAGE HUNTING CLOCKWISE INCREASE THE DAMPING EFFECT STAB SWITCH TO OPTIMISE TRANSIENT PERFORMANCE SEE TABLE ABOVE UFRO TO SET THE UFRO KNEE POINT CLOCKWISE REDUCES THE KNEE POINT FREQUENCY DROOP TO SET THE GENERATOR DROOP TO 5% AT 0PF CLOCKWISE INCREASES THE DROOP VTRIM TO OPTIMISE ANALOGUE INPUT SENSITIVITY CLOCKWISE INCREASES THE GAIN OR SENSITIVITY EXC TRIP TO SET OVER EXCITATION TRIP CUT OFF LEVEL CLOCKWISE INCREASES THE CUT OFF LEVEL ADJUSTMENT OF AVR CONTROLS VOLTAGE ADJUSTMENT VOLTAGE SETUP PROCEDURE The generator output voltage is set at the factory. refer to the Under Frequency Roll Off (UFRO) WARNING! Do not ground any of the hand trimmer adjustment. If in doubt. follow the ‘VOLTAGE SETUP 1.

the LED should illuminate as the circuit. FITTING AND OPERATING STABILITY ADJUSTMENT TRIM ADJUSTMENT The AVR includes a stability or damping circuit to provide An analogue input (A1 A2) is provided to connect to a good steady state and transient performance of the Power Factor Controller or other devices.e. accept dc signals up to +/. The modifications mentioned below must be done with the DROOP ADJUSTMENT generator at rest.09_04_GB . "knee" point. 47Hz on a 50Hz depending on the AVR connection to the generator stator. The link should be kept for future use if required. applications. then the AVR power circuit is connected to dependent signal for the AVR. The C.T. then the AVR power circuit is connected to an is no droop.5 volts. system or 57Hz on a 60Hz system. In this case a switch with a nominal rating of 240vac 10 Amps can be connected in series with the wire Z2. The TRIM control allows the user to adjust the sensitivity of the input. are stable but close to the unstable region). When the switch is open. Nominal rating of 240vac 10 Amps can be connected across the AVR terminals Z2 & 8 after removing the link. In some applications it is desirable to isolate the excitation For optimum setting. The red Light Emitting Diode (LED) gives indication that The generator must be stopped to reset an over excitation the UFRO circuit is operating.e. The UFRO adjustment is preset and sealed and only ISOLATING THE EXCITATION CIRCUIT requires the selection of 50/60Hz using the jumper link. Normal setting is fully clockwise when used with a Power UNDER FREQUENCY ROLL OFF (UFRO) Factor Controller. with an insulation capability of 500 Vac. In this case a switch with a S1. Generators intended for parallel operation are fitted with If the AVR is fitted with a link across the 2 way terminal a quadrature droop C. The table shows the options available. Negative on A2 decreases excitation. Failure to The slow response settings may prove helpful in observe this could result in equipment damage. the excitation circuit is isolated. ADJUSTMENT OVER EXCITATION (EXC TRIP) ADJUSTMENT The AVR incorporates an underspeed protection circuit which gives a volts/Hz characteristic when the generator The adjustment is set and sealed in the works and should speed falls below a presettable threshold known as the not be altered. A1 is connected to the AVR 0 volts. i. The dc signal applied to this input adds to the AVR sensing The correct setting of the Stability adjustment can be circuit. signal injected into the AVR and increases the droop with lagging power If the AVR has a wire connected to terminal Z2 (wire factor (cos Ø). Clockwise increases the amount of C. The DROOP adjustment is normally preset in the works to give 5% voltage droop at full load zero power factor. An over excitation condition is indicated on the common LED which also indicates under speed running.T. With the control fully anti-clockwise there labeled Z2). A switch is provided to change the response of the WARNING! Any devices connected to this input must stability circuit to suit different frame size generators and be fully floating and galvanically isolated from ground. Positive on A2 found by running the generator at no load and slowly increases excitation. the excitation circuit is isolated Barnack Road • Stamford • Lincolnshire • PE9 2NB Tel: 00 44 (0)1780 484000 • Fax: 00 44 (0)1780 484100 ©2006 4 TD_AS440 AVR_03. is connected to the main stator winding. auxiliary winding. condition. With TRIM fully anti-clockwise the externally The optimum or critically damped position is slightly applied signal has no effect. where the machine volts effect. reducing lamp flicker.T. which provides a power factor block Z2 & 8. It is designed to generator. There are two different ways of doing this frequency falls just below nominal. Clockwise it has maximum clockwise from this point (i. S2 on the AVR. When the switch is open. turning the stability control anti-clockwise until the generator voltage starts to become unstable.