Please note: this Science Grade 8 document has been provided to assist school districts

,
schools, and teachers in preparing to deliver Science Grade 8 in 2006/2007, the first of
year of prescribed implementation.

Feedback on an earlier draft of Science 8 to 10 was collected from June to December
2005. This feedback was provided by focussed review sessions as well as interested
teachers, students, parents, school district staff, education partners, and stakeholders.
This document reflects revisions made as a result of this feedback.

This information in this document supersedes the information re Grade 8 Science
contained in the Science 8 to 10 Integrated Resource Package 1996. The entire updated
Grade 8-10 curriculum will be implemented according to the following
implementation schedule: September 2006 for grade 8; September 2007 for grade 9;
September 2008 for grade 10.

SCIENCE GRADE 8
Integrated Resource Package 2006

GBG016

Copyright © 2006 Ministry of Education, Province of British Columbia.

Copyright Notice
No part of the content of this document may be reproduced in any form or by any means, including
electronic storage, reproduction, execution, or transmission without the prior written permission of the
Province.

Proprietary Notice
This document contains information that is proprietary and confidential to the Province. Any reproduction,
disclosure, or other use of this document is expressly prohibited except as the Province may authorize in
writing.

Limited Exception to Non-Reproduction
Permission to copy and use this publication in part, or in its entirety, for non-profit educational purposes
within British Columbia and the Yukon, is granted to (a) all staff of BC school board trustees, including
teachers and administrators; organizations comprising the Educational Advisory Council as identified by
Ministerial Order; and other parties providing, directly or indirectly, educational programs to entitled
students as identified by the School Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c.412, or the Independent School Act, R.S.B.C. 1996, c.216,
and (b) a party providing, directly or indirectly, educational programs under the authority of the Minister of
the Department of Education for the Yukon Territory as defined in the Education Act, R.S.Y. 2002, c.61.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Acknowledgments ................................................................................................................................................ 5

PREFACE

Preface .................................................................................................................................................................... 7

INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE 8 TO 10

Rationale .............................................................................................................................................................. 11
Requirements and Graduation Credits ............................................................................................................ 11
Graduation Program Examination ................................................................................................................... 11
Goals for Science 8 to 10 ..................................................................................................................................... 12
The 2006 Science 8 to 10 Revision ..................................................................................................................... 12
Curriculum Organizers ...................................................................................................................................... 13
Aboriginal Content in the Science 8 to 10 Curriculum .................................................................................. 13
Suggested Time Frame ....................................................................................................................................... 14
Science K to 10: At a Glance .............................................................................................................................. 16

CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM DELIVERY

Alternative Delivery Policy ................................................................................................................................ 19
Addressing Local Contexts ................................................................................................................................ 19
Involving Parents and Guardians ..................................................................................................................... 19
Course Requirements Respecting Beliefs ........................................................................................................ 20
Safety Considerations ......................................................................................................................................... 20
Confidentiality .................................................................................................................................................... 20
Inclusion, Equity, and Accessibility for all Learners ...................................................................................... 21
Working with the School and Community ..................................................................................................... 21
Working with the Aboriginal Community ...................................................................................................... 22
Information and Communications Technology ............................................................................................. 22
Copyright and Responsibility ........................................................................................................................... 22

PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES

Prescribed Learning Outcomes ......................................................................................................................... 27
Prescribed Learning Outcomes – Grade 8 ....................................................................................................... 29

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 33
Student Achievement – Grade 8 ....................................................................................................................... 37
Processes of Science ..................................................................................................................................... 38
Life Science ................................................................................................................................................... 42
Physical Science ........................................................................................................................................... 44
Earth and Space Science ............................................................................................................................. 48

SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 3

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL

Introduction ......................................................................................................................................................... 53
Classroom Model – Grade 8 .............................................................................................................................. 57
Processes of Science ..................................................................................................................................... 59
Life Science ................................................................................................................................................... 63
Physical Science ........................................................................................................................................... 72
Earth and Space Science .............................................................................................................................. 89

LEARNING RESOURCES

Learning Resources ........................................................................................................................................... 105

GLOSSARY

Glossary ................................................................................................................................................................. 109

4 • SCIENCE GRADE 8

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

M
any people contributed their expertise to this document. The Project Manager was Mr. Waël Afifi
of the Ministry of Education, working with other ministry personnel and our partners in
education. We would like to thank all who participated in this process.

SCIENCE 8 TO 10 IRP WRITING TEAM

Matthew Bourget School District No.71 (Comox)
Andrew Chisholm School District No 57 (Prince George)
Diana Kermer School District No 36 (Surrey)
Barbara McKinley School District No 44 (North Vancouver)

GT Publishing Services, Ltd. project coordination, writing, and editing

SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 5

schools • information about graduation program Also included in this section are key elements— requirements and provincial examinations descriptions of content that help determine the • goals for Science 8 to 10 intended depth and breadth of prescribed learning • information about the revision process that led outcomes. PREFACE T his Integrated Resource Package (IRP) PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES provides information teachers will require in order to implement Science 8 to 10. including special features meet the expectations set out by the prescribed and requirements. to the publication of this document • descriptions of the curriculum organizers— CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL groupings for prescribed learning outcomes that share a common focus This section contains a series of classroom units • Aboriginal content in the science curriculum that address the learning outcomes. September 2007 for grade 9.bc. Prescribed learning outcomes are the Integrated Resource Package 1996. • a graphic overview of the curriculum content and are provided to support classroom from K to 10 assessment. Achievement indicators are INTRODUCTION statements that describe what students should be The Introduction provides general information able to do in order to demonstrate that they fully about Science 8 to 10. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 7 .bced. achievement. The information contained in this document is also available on the Internet at www. according to the legally required content standards for the following implementation schedule: September provincial education system. learning outcomes. This This section contains the prescribed learning document supersedes the Science 8 to 10 outcomes. The learning outcomes are statements of what students are expected to know and be able to do by the end of the course. required attitudes. a sequence of suggested practices and plan their program delivery to meet assessment activities. skills. subject.ca/irp/irp. Achievement indicators are not mandatory. including sets of specific achievement indicators for each prescribed learning outcome.htm STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT This section of the IRP contains information about The following paragraphs provide brief classroom assessment and measuring student descriptions of the components of the IRP. a information to help educators develop their school suggested timeframe. and sample assessment the needs of all learners. These units are suggestions only— teachers may use or modify the units to assist them as they plan for the implementation of this CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM curriculum. instruments. DELIVERY This section of the IRP contains additional Each unit includes the prescribed learning outcomes and suggested achievement indicators.gov. They define the 2006 for grade 8. The units • suggested time allotments for each course have been developed and piloted by BC teachers. and knowledge for each September 2008 for grade 10. they are provided to assist Included in this section are teachers in assessing how well their students • a rationale for teaching Science 8 to 10 in BC achieve the prescribed learning outcomes.

and ordering information for the recommended learning resources in the Earth Science 8 to 10 Grade Collections. providing a link to titles. descriptions. Integrated Resource Package. 8 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .PREFACE LEARNING RESOURCES GLOSSARY This section contains general information on The glossary defines selected terms used in this learning resources.

INTRODUCTION .

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and assessment activities. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 11 . abilities. important or irrelevant All students taking Science 10 are required to • identify supporting or refuting information write the examination in order to receive credit for and bias this course. in draft form. Wherever engages students in the investigation of scientific appropriate for this curriculum. skills. and learn from mistakes. and geology – it encourages them to • develop a positive attitude toward science • examine basic concepts. Science education develops and builds learners have been integrated as much as possible on students’ sense of wonder about the world into the learning outcomes. was available for risks. four-credit course. students understand that the skills and knowledge students. It prompts a public review and response from June to curiosity about the changing world and helps December. physics. Science education fosters students’ desire to meet a challenge. individuals. their adult lives. and GRADUATION PROGRAM theories through scientific inquiry EXAMINATION • demonstrate respect for precision Although the instructional approach for Science 8 • develop awareness of assumptions in all to 10 is intended to be experiential in nature. parents. and attitudes • Learning requires the active participation of that provide the basis for sound and ethical the student. this document recognizes that British Columbia’s To prepare students for further education and for schools include students of varied backgrounds. ways to meet questions and the development of plausible these needs and to ensure equity and access for all solutions. Feedback from educators. the forms of science-related communication Grade 10 course has a set Graduation Program • separate fundamental concepts from the less examination. society. 2005. astronomy. and attitudes that will Science 10 is designated as a provincially be relevant in their everyday lives and their future examinable. skills. reflect advances in scientific knowledge and technology. In addition to introducing them to current reported as such to the Ministry of Education for concepts. INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE 8 TO 10 • T his Integrated Resource Package (IRP) sets recognize that scientific knowledge is out the provincially prescribed curriculum continually developing for Science 8 to 10. findings. the Science 8 to 10 curriculum interests. and other educational partners they are gaining will be refined and expanded to informed the development of this updated IRP. endeavour and their potential to contribute to science In addition to these three principles. and needs. worth 20% of the final course mark. Letter grades and percentages scientific disciplines – biology. problem solving and decision making • People learn in a variety of ways and at • assess the impact of science and technology on different rates. and must be careers. chemistry. RATIONALE REQUIREMENTS AND GRADUATION Science education in British Columbia is designed to provide opportunities for students to develop CREDITS scientific knowledge. and the environment • Learning is both an individual and a group • cultivate appreciation of the scientific process. must be reported for this course. laws. take Science 8 to 10. and processes in various transcript purposes. principles. responsibility to sustain it. The development of • use given criteria for evaluating evidence and this IRP has been guided by the principles sources of information of learning: • actively gain knowledge. achievement around them and encourages a feeling of indicators.

and the A variety of resources were used in the environment (STSE ) – Students will develop development of this IRP: an understanding of the nature of science and • British Columbia Science 8 to 10 IRP (1996) technology. 3rd Edition (2000). for • Provincial science curricula working collaboratively. and of the social and Learning Outcomes (1997). At the same time. National Science Teachers contributions of groups of British Columbia Association. & encouraged to develop attitudes that support Marzano. for solving problems. American environment. and − Alberta Earth and space science. Project 2061. the scope and sequence of science www. where possible and Education examinations web site: appropriate. society. and apply these • Content Knowledge: A Compendium of understandings to interpret. Standards and Benchmarks for K-12 • GOAL 4: Attitudes – Students will be Education.INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE 8 TO 10 For more information.gov. and extend their knowledge. of the relationships between • Pan-Canadian Common Framework of Science science and technology.ca/branches/pser/wha inquiry.ca/exams/ education in British Columbia with the scope and sequence outlined in the K to 12 Common Framework of Learning Outcomes (developed and GOALS FOR SCIENCE 8 TO 10 published by the Council of Ministers of Education. society. for tsnew. Washington DC educators.ca/science/framework/) • GOAL 2: Skills – Students will develop the • Science Curriculum Review Report (2001) skills required for scientific and technological http://www. National Science Teachers THE 2006 SCIENCE 8 TO 10 REVISION Association. • GOAL 1: Science. Among other benefits. − APEF (Atlantic Provinces Education Foundation) • GOAL 3: Knowledge – Students will − Ontario construct knowledge and understandings of − Manitoba concepts in life science. it is for Science 8 to 10 in each curriculum organizer. anticipated that this alignment will facilitate inter- These goals are in alignment with the provincial transfers for students leaving or foundational statements from the Pan-Canadian arriving in British Columbia and give British Science Framework (Council of Ministers of Columbia educators access to a wider range of Education. S. integrate. Canada technology.htm#scrr communicating scientific ideas and results. Canada.bc. J. American This 2006 revision incorporates components from Association for the Advancement of Science. Washington DC • Designs for Science Literacy (2000). R.org/standards- scientific and technological knowledge to the benchmarks) mutual benefit of self. Council of Ministers environmental contexts of science and of Education. (http://cmec. Association for the Advancement of Science. the 1996 provincial Science 8 to 10 curriculum and Project 2061. the responsible acquisition and application of (http://www. Canada. and for making informed decisions. the allocation of topics at each grade reflects a commitment by the 12 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . and the • Atlas of Science Literacy (2001).bced.1997) that delineate the four choice when acquiring textbooks and other critical aspects of students’ scientific literacy. under the aegis of the Pan- The over-riding goals for Science 8 to 10 are Canadian Protocol for Collaboration on School represented in the prescribed learning outcomes Curriculum).technology.mcrel.bc.bced.gov.J. learning resources to teach Science 8 to 10. refer to the Ministry of Ministry of Education to align. physical science. Kendall.

and reproduction) to the • Life Sciences macroscopic level (the study of ecological • Physical Sciences complexity and the diversity. classifying. ABORIGINAL CONTENT IN THE SCIENCE These emphases are maintained and reinforced at CURRICULUM all three grade level. the Physical Science organizer incorporates a series of topics that give students a Processes of Science foundation for understanding Physics (via a focus on optics. predicting. continuity. fluids. being able to comprehend and evaluate and technologies in the study of terrestrial and science-related material). critical thinking. Integration of authentic Aboriginal them will occur in relation to the study of optics content into the K to 10 science curriculum with and the study of life science topics such as cells the support of Aboriginal people will help SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 13 . and understanding and extra-terrestrial systems. organ • Processes of Science systems in organisms. the curriculum places areas of science (especially Physical Science). it is model that includes instructional strategies. and motion) and Students in Science 8 to 10 are building on skills Chemistry (via a focus on atoms. the greater emphasis on skills related to lab safety. inferring. electricity. 8 to 10. These topics are dealt with in each year of the 8-10 include skills such as observing. INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE 8 TO 10 • Shared Learnings (1998). and and processes that they have been developing chemical reactions). Aboriginal and micro-organisms).. A curriculum organizer consists of a set of Life Science prescribed learning outcomes that share a At the 8 to 10 level. The curriculum Education Initiative. As a complement to the study of topics in other Beginning in Grade 8. the Life Science organizer common focus.. and hypothesizing. Earth and Space Science organizer gives students scientific communication (e. representing an opportunity to examine some of the information in graphic form). British Columbia accordingly assumes that instruction and Ministry of Education assessment related to these skills an processes will be integrated and will occur frequently as CURRICULUM ORGANIZERS appropriate throughout each year.g. The prescribed learning outcomes embraces a range of biology topics. Scientific reasoning. using scientific technology (e. • Earth and Space Science interactions. At the 8 to 10 level. anticipated that skills and processes of science will assessment tools and models that can help mostly be developed as part of work related to the teachers provide all students with an other curriculum organizers (e. Note that these four organizers are for the purposes of identifying prescribed learning Physical Science outcomes. elements. moving from for Science 8 to 10 are grouped under the the microscopic level (the study of cellular following curriculum organizers: processes and how these relate to tissues. program.. and balance among organisms and their environments).g.g. Two main Physical Science from Kindergarten through to Grade 7. equipment involved in the study of electricity).. understanding understanding and appreciation of Aboriginal how microscopes work and learning how to use science. The science curriculum guide integrates Although some discrete instruction related to prescribed learning outcomes within a classroom Processes of Science will likely occur.g. scientific literacy macroscopic applications of scientific principles (e. microscopes. they are not intended to suggest a linear delivery of course material. and decision making Earth and Space Science are also part of that foundation.

and mathematics. the report of the scientific panel for sustainable forest practices in Clayoquot Sound emphasizes TEKW and the importance of including indigenous knowledge in planning and managing traditional territories. and UNCED ‘92. ethnobiology. Our Common Future (World Commission LIFE SCIENCE 20-25 hours on Environment and Development. For Science 8 to 10. ecology. (TEKW) is defined as the study of systems of knowledge developed by a given culture. PHYSICAL SCIENCE 40-48 hours botany.INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE 8 TO 10 promote understanding of BC’s Aboriginal the Convention on Biological Diversity. 21. Agenda peoples among all students. geology. anthropology. around 12. and is considered a branch of biological instructional time as necessary. Grade 9 engineering. exciting. Curriculum Organizer Suggested Time Recognition of the importance of incorporating Allocation TEKW into environmental planning is evident in PROCESSES OF SCIENCE integrated with science-based reports and agreements in Canada other organizers and internationally. prescribed learning outcomes for each Science viewing the world as an interconnected whole curriculum organizer. while still allowing for flexibility relevant and interesting for all students. teachers will adjust the science. The incorporating of Aboriginal science with western science can provide a meaningful context SUGGESTED TIME FRAME for Aboriginal students and enhance the learning experience for all students. drew PHYSICAL SCIENCE 40-45 hours our attention to the contributions of traditional EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE 20-25 hours knowledge. The inclusion of Provincial curricula are developed in accordance Aboriginal examples of science and technologies with the amount of instructional time allocated for can make the subject more authentic. In British Columbia. architecture. The recognition of TEKW globally is explicitly addressed in international agreements including 14 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . each subject area. Allocation PROCESSES OF SCIENCE integrated with Examples of TEKW science may be accessed other organizers through living elders and specialists of various LIFE SCIENCE 20-25 hours kinds or found in the literature of TEKW. TEKW tends to be holistic. navigation. climatology. It is a subset of traditional prescribed curriculum. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE 20-22 hours agriculture. to address local needs. biology. horticulture. The Brundtland Commission report.5% of instructional hours per school year is Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Wisdom recommended. when delivering the important than nature. and ecological science. 1987). It brings The following chart shows the suggested the concept of wisdom to our discussion of science estimated instructional time to deliver the and technology. These estimates have been where humans are not regarded as more provided as suggestions only. ethnology. medicine. or the Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro. astronomy. nautical science. This knowledge with its characteristic respect for sustaining community Grade 8 and environment offers proven conceptual approaches which are becoming increasingly Curriculum Organizer Suggested Time important to all BC residents.

INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE 8 TO 10 Grade 10 Curriculum Organizer Suggested Time Allocation PROCESSES OF SCIENCE integrated with other organizers LIFE SCIENCE 20-25 hours PHYSICAL SCIENCE 40-45 hours EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE 20-25 hours SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 15 .

Space Exploration information and Compounds • scientific literacy • ethical behaviour Characteristics of and cooperative Electricity Grade 10 skills Sustainability of Chemical Reactions Energy Transfer in • application of Ecosystems and Radioactivity Natural Systems scientific principles • science-related Motion technology 16 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . Elements. and Soil observations and Changes Matter • making inferences Grade 3 • questioning Plant Growth and Materials and Stars and Planets • measuring and Changes Structures reporting Grade 4 • interpreting data Habitats and Light and Sound Weather • predicting Communities Grade 5 • designing Human Body Forces and Simple Renewable and Non- experiments Machines Renewable Resources • fair testing Grade 6 • controlling variables Diversity of Life Electricity Exploration of • scientific problem Extreme solving Environments Grade 7 • hypothesizing Ecosystems Chemistry Earth’s Crust • developing models Grade 8 • safety Cells and Systems Optics Water Systems on • scientific method Earth • representing and Fluids and interpreting Dynamics Grade 9 scientific Reproduction Atoms. Water.INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE 8 TO 10 SCIENCE K-10: AT A GLANCE PROCESSES AND SKILLS LIFE SCIENCE PHYSICAL SCIENCE EARTH AND SPACE OF SCIENCE SCIENCE Kindergarten • observing Characteristics of Properties of Surroundings • communicating Living Things Objects and (sharing) Materials Grade 1 • communicating Needs of Living Force and Motion Daily and Seasonal (recording) Things Changes • classifying Grade 2 • interpreting Animal Growth Properties of Air.

CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM DELIVERY .

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refer to • confidentiality www. Neither does it allow students to be excused from meeting any learning outcomes related to health. September 2008) • Health and Career Education 8 and 9 It is highly recommended that schools inform • Planning 10 parents and guardians about the Science 8 to 10 curriculum. contained in the Health curriculum organizer of The school plays a supportive role by focussing on the following curriculum documents: the prescribed learning outcomes in the Science 8 • Health and Career Education K to 7. in consultation with their local school authority. and their parents or guardians.bced. • responding to parent and guardian requests to It is important to note the significance of the term discuss course unit plans. When selecting topics it The Alternative Delivery policy outlines how may be appropriate to incorporate student input. Parents and guardians can Personal Planning K to 7 Personal support. Alternative Delivery policy. Included health and career education curriculum. CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM DELIVERY T his section of the IRP contains additional information to help educators develop their school practices and plan their program delivery to meet the needs of all learners. learning resources. providing opportunities for individual teacher and student choice in the ALTERNATIVE DELIVERY POLICY selection of topics to meet learning outcomes.gov.bc. and accessibility • working with the school and community • working with the Aboriginal community ADDRESSING LOCAL CONTEXTS • information and communications technology There is some flexibility in the Science 8 to 10 • copyright curriculum. It is expected that students who arrange for alternative in this section is information about: delivery will address the health-related learning • Alternative Delivery policy outcomes and will be able to demonstrate their • addressing local contexts understanding of these learning outcomes. and values. The policy does not permit schools to omit addressing or assessing any of the prescribed learning outcomes within the SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 19 . and teachers (along with school and The policy recognizes the family as the primary district administrators) may choose to do so by educator in the development of children’s • informing parents/guardians and students of attitudes. be addressed and assessed in the agreed-upon providing an overview during parent-teacher alternative manner of delivery. • involving parents and guardians • course requirements respecting beliefs For more information about policy relating to • safety considerations alternative delivery. enrich. and extend the curriculum at Development curriculum organizer (until home. “alternative delivery” as it relates to the etc. standards. may choose means other than instruction by a teacher INVOLVING PARENTS AND GUARDIANS within the regular classroom setting for The family is the primary educator in the addressing prescribed learning outcomes development of students’ attitudes and values. This flexibility enables educators to plan their The Alternative Delivery policy does not apply to programs by using topics and examples that are the Science 8 to 10 curriculum. and to 10 curriculum. but the policy the prescribed learning outcomes for the still requires that all prescribed learning outcomes subject by sending home class letters. equity.ca/policy/ • inclusion. etc. relevant to their local context and to the particular interests of their students. students. interviews.

g. the study of some science concepts may lead to issues and questions Field work and field trips require special vigilance that go beyond the immediate scope of curriculum with respect to traffic and road safety. in WHMIS is designed to ensure that those using part. hazardous materials have sufficient information to they should be addressed. consider factors other than scientific feasibility before adopting a particular process).htm creationism. sensitivity. that science only provides the have an individual trained in WHMIS who can background for what is hoped will be informed work with teachers to establish safe. well- personal and social decisions. and Systems (WHMIS). and students in every kept confidential. then that information cannot be administrators. 10. science is used to meet many industrial practices in study areas and when obtaining requirements. values. These safety guidelines must support and • Do not use students’ Personal Education encourage the investigative approach generally Numbers (PEN) on any assignments that and laboratory instruction specifically. including Science 8 to Safety guidelines must be discussed with students. To assist teachers in providing a safe science- Reconciling scientific discoveries (for example. from capabilities that science makes possible. or intelligent design theory. and an awareness of changes in weather. Encouraging a positive safety attitude personal information that indicates they are at is a responsibility shared among the board. provides an exciting method of teaching and administrators. It must be made clear to handle them safely. Teachers. The co-operation of all these groups helps develop a strong safety BELIEFS consciousness both inside and outside our schools. 20 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM DELIVERY COURSE REQUIREMENTS RESPECTING school district.gov.bced. CONFIDENTIALITY SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS The Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FOIPPA) applies to students. personal beliefs of students. safe (e. and to all curricula. the Ministry of Education age dating) and religious faith poses a particular publishes the Science Safety Resource Manual. Each school district should students. Because these social questions arise. in learning environment. theory of divine creation. human reproduction.ca/irp/resdocs/scisafety. experiments and the following: demonstrations may involve inherent risks for • Be aware of district and school guidelines both the teacher and the student.. While respecting the has been distributed to every school. However. material medical technology raises questions of ethics and safety data sheets. which challenge for some students. Through labelling. however. while at the students wish to keep confidential. school risk for harm. The Another important aspect of in-school safety is the technological application of science in areas such Workplace Hazardous Materials Information as genetic engineering. teachers should be careful to distinguish between knowledge based The Science Safety Resource Manual is available on the application of scientific methods. For many students and teachers. to school district Science education is an activity-based process that employees. Teachers must ventilated classroom and laboratory working handle these questions objectively and with conditions.bc. and online at religious teachings and associated beliefs such as www. but industrial decision makers must samples. regarding the provisions of FOIPPA and how it applies to all subjects. and education and training. teachers. and district staff should consider learning. same time promoting safety in the classroom and • Ensure students are aware that if they disclose laboratory.

and themes such as inclusion. EQUITY. personal information in the context of the Science 8 to 10 curriculum. and accessibility for all students.mser. relevant especially the right to have access to their own issues. workshops. teachers are encouraged to ensure that these choices support inclusion.htm in other areas of their lives.bced. and resources community organizations and members.ca/specialed/ the personal information held by the school. In particular.gov.bc.bc. This curriculum addresses a wide range of skills For more information about confidentiality. CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM DELIVERY • Inform students of their rights under FOIPPA. and abilities. to support the implementation of Science 8 to 10. activities. and personal information in their school records. Government policy supports the principles of • Minimize the type and amount of personal integration and inclusion of students who have information collected. and COMMUNITY complete. refer to only insofar as it pertains to students’ www. When may wish to draw on the expertise of these selecting specific topics. Teachers on meeting the needs of all students. refer to can ask the school to correct or annotate any of www. Most of the prescribed learning the reason for which it is collected. modifications can be made to the • Provide students and their parents with the prescribed learning outcomes for students with reason(s) they are being asked to provide Individual Education Plans. and resources reflect sensitivity to diversity and SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 21 . have strategies may require adaptations to ensure that consented to teachers collecting that those with special and/or ESL needs can information from other people (including successfully achieve the learning outcomes. assessment.ca/esl/ progress. or their parents. and field studies.ca/FOI_POP/index. INCLUSION. acceptance. The with locally developed learning resources.gov. in accordance with Section 29 of FOIPPA. guest Kindergarten to grade 12 school system focusses speakers. equity. Where parents). accurate. • Ensure students are aware that their parents For more information about resources and may have access to the schoolwork they create support for ESL students. • Ensure that any information used in assessing WORKING WITH THE SCHOOL AND students’ progress is up-to-date.bc. It is important to recognize that learning related to this curriculum extends beyond the science classroom. respect. teachers should ensure that classroom instruction. Inform parents of their rights to access their children’s school records. outcomes and suggested achievement indicators • Inform students that they will be the only ones in this IRP can be met by all students. For more information about resources and • Inform students and their parents that they support for students with special needs.gov. including recording personal information about those with special needs and/or ESL needs. Community British Columbia’s schools include students of organizations may also support the curriculum varied backgrounds. refer to and understandings that students are developing www. AND ACCESSIBILITY FOR ALL LEARNERS School and district-wide programs support and extend learning in Science 8 to 10. incorporate positive role portrayals.bced. necessary. Some themselves unless they. and ensure that it is English as a second language and of students with used only for purposes that relate directly to special needs. interests.

The consult the Aboriginal Education web site: copyright law determines how resources can be www. This dramatic. or transmission learning. right to be paid for their work and the right to say Aboriginal peoples in BC. unless permission has been given by a The study of information and communications copyright owner: technology is increasingly important in our • photocopy copyrighted material to avoid society. and communicating diverse in terms of language. that the cultures and contributions of Aboriginal peoples in BC are reflected in all provincial Literacy in the area of information and curricula. performances. In addition. To Literacy also involves a critical examination and begin discussion of possible instructional and understanding of the ethical and social issues assessment activities. For more information about these documents. communities. As Aboriginal communities are gathering. chiefs.e. It is unlawful to do the following. Development of these skills is important for COMMUNITY students in their education.bc. such as copying for private study or research. to reason and communicate. and counsellors in their district instruction and assessment in Science 8 to 10. and signals. their future careers. instruction. to develop literacy in relation to information and tribal or band councils. Aboriginal cultural communications technology sources. section of the resource.htm used in the classroom and by students at home. specific things permitted) for schools but these are very limited. assessing. communications technology. Aboriginal Friendship Centres. and to reflect centres. INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS In order to respect copyright it is necessary to TECHNOLOGY understand the law. the advice and support of local Aboriginal Becoming literate in this area involves finding. culture. including the “Planning Your Program” Copyright is the legal protection of literary. and communications provide students with knowledge of. When planning for support workers. Shared Learnings. The Ministry of Education is dedicated to ensuring and their everyday lives. teachers are strongly encouraged to seek of information by means of media technology. each community will have its developing the knowledge and skills to use and own unique protocol to gain support for solve problems effectively with the technology. who will be able to facilitate the identification of teachers should provide opportunities for students local resources and contacts such as elders. There are some exceptions in the law (i. study. how their work is to be used. society. and musical works. as well as available resources.CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM DELIVERY WORKING WITH THE ABORIGINAL technology for a variety of purposes. artistic.. and to understand • photocopy or perform copyrighted material and use information and communications beyond a very small part—in some cases the 22 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . teachers may wish to consult the COPYRIGHT AND RESPONSIBILITY various Ministry of Education publications available. teachers. teachers should first contact related to the use of information and Aboriginal education co-ordinators.ca/abed/welcome. Copyright provides creators with the legal opportunities to share experiences with. and information using electronic means. integration of local knowledge and expertise.gov. To address these topics in the classroom communications technology can be defined as the in a way that is accurate and that respectfully ability to obtain and share knowledge through reflects Aboriginal concepts of teaching and investigation. reason to make informed decisions.bced. Students need to be able to acquire and purchasing the original resource for any analyse information. sound resource was developed to help all teachers recordings. and Métis critically on the role of these technologies in or Inuit organizations.

stm Permission from or on behalf of the copyright owner must be given in writing. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 23 . teacher guides. and commercially available tests and examinations It is important for education professionals. necessary to meet an educational objective). • show videotapes at schools that are not parents. others should not be used without their for purposes other than a specific educational permission. Permission may also be given to copy or use all or some portion of copyrighted work through a licence or agreement. and review educational institutions. and students to respect the value of cleared for public performance original thinking and the importance of not • perform music or do performances of plagiarizing the work of others. and producers have whole works. It is important to know • show videotaped television or radio programs what licences are in place and how these affect the to students in the classroom unless these are activities schools are involved in. The works of copyrighted material for entertainment (i. criticism.e. CONSIDERATIONS FOR PROGRAM DELIVERY copyright law considers it “fair” to copy Many creators. In these cases. instruction manuals.cmec. it is broadcast that by law have record-keeping important to assess the educational value and requirements—see the web site at the end of merits of copying or performing certain works to this section for more details) protect the school’s financial exposure (i. publishers.. only • photocopy print music. refer to express message that the work can be copied www.. copy or use that portion that is absolutely instructional materials. workbooks.e. Some licences cleared for copyright for educational use may also have royalty payments that are (there are exceptions such as for news and determined by the quantity of photocopying or news commentary taped within one year of the length of performances. for purposes of research and royalty payments and copying conditions for private study. such as an article in a journal or formed groups or “collectives” to negotiate a photograph. objective) • copy work from the Internet without an For more information about copyright.ca/copyright/indexe.

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PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES .

.

may choose to address additional items that also fall under the general requirement set out by the The psychomotor domain includes those aspects outcome. • Knowledge includes those behaviours that this arrangement is not intended to imply a emphasize the recognition or recall of ideas. The following best take place. • Understanding and application represents a Wording of Prescribed Learning Outcomes comprehension of the literal message All learning outcomes complete the stem. word “including” indicates that any ensuing item synthesis. and teachers and the spectrum of values and value systems. or phenomena. guided by further specified as including three cognitive provincial policy. by the end of the subject and grade. they are the prescribed curriculum.” to apply an appropriate theory. It is expected that student achievement will vary in relation to the learning outcomes. however. definitions of the three domains are based on Bloom’s taxonomy. When used in a prescribed learning outcome. and are coded develops over time. Lists of items introduced by processes level subsumes both the knowledge the word “including” represent a set of minimum and the understanding and application levels. learning outcomes set out the or priority.g. requirements associated with the general requirement set out by the outcome. however. and evaluation. Clearly stated and expressed in measurable and requirements that must be addressed.” (for example) affective consequences with physical in a prescribed learning outcome indicates that the performances. and knowledge—what their own choosing that they feel best address the students are expected to know and be able to do— intent of the learning outcome. idea. Teachers are free to substitute items of required attitudes. and integrates the cognitive and Conversely. nor is it put forward in any special order of importance observable terms.. of learning associated with movement and skill demonstration. and illustrate how student learning organizer and suborganizer. The lists are The affective domain concerns attitudes. The cognitive domain can be judgment and experience of teachers. principle. The cognitive domain deals with the recall or reporting. the • Higher mental processes include analysis.g. and higher mental processes. alphanumerically for ease of reference. or method to a new situation.” is neither exhaustive nor prescriptive. and affective. Presented in parentheses. skills. These levels are Prescribed learning outcomes for Science 8 to 10 determined by the verb used in the learning are presented by grade and by curriculum outcome. and student placement with respect to recognition of knowledge and the development of these outcomes are dependent on the professional intellectual abilities. not necessarily exhaustive. however. and the ability expected that students will …. required instructional sequence. “It is contained in a communication. beliefs. levels: knowledge. Domains of Learning Schools have the responsibility to ensure that all Prescribed learning outcomes in BC curricula prescribed learning outcomes in this curriculum identify required learning in relation to one or are met. the list of items introduced by “e. The higher mental must be addressed. ensuing items are provided for illustrative purposes or clarification. and are not SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 27 . material. understanding and application. schools have flexibility in more of the three domains of learning: cognitive. the abbreviation “e. Evaluation. determining how delivery of the curriculum can psychomotor. PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES P rescribed learning outcomes are content standards for the provincial education system..

In addition. cognitive levels. particularly. inform the design and development of the Graduation Program examination for Science 10.PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES Domains of learning and cognitive levels also form the basis of the Assessment Overview Tables provided for each grade in the Classroom Assessment Model. 28 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . domains of learning and.

PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES Grade 8 .

responsible. secondary. and gases.g. and tertiary defence systems Physical Science: Optics It is expected that students will: C1 demonstrate knowledge of the behaviour of waves C2 explain the properties of visible light C3 compare visible light to other types of electromagnetic radiation C4 explain how human vision works Physical Science: Fluids and Dynamics It is expected that students will: C5 explain the concept of force C6 describe the relationship between solids. liquids. temperature. area.PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES • Grade 8 GRADE 8 Processes of Science It is expected that students will: A1 demonstrate safe procedures A2 perform experiments using the scientific method A3 represent and interpret information in graphic form A4 use models to explain how systems operate A5 demonstrate scientific literacy A6 demonstrate ethical. and the roles of the primary. pneumatic) Earth and Space Science: Water Systems on Earth It is expected that students will: D1 explain the significance of salinity and temperature in the world’s oceans D2 describe how water and ice shape the landscape D3 describe factors that affect productivity and species distribution in aquatic environments 30 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . and force in fluids C9 recognize similarities between natural and constructed fluid systems (e. hydraulic. tissues. organs. cooperative behaviour A7 describe the relationship between scientific principles and technology A8 demonstrate competence in the use of technologies specific to investigative procedures and research Life Science: Cells and Systems It is expected that students will: B1 demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of living things B2 relate the main features and properties of cells to their functions B3 explain the relationship between cells. using the kinetic molecular theory C7 determine the density of various substances C8 explain the relationship between pressure. and organ systems B4 explain the functioning of the immune system..

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT .

.

and parents) about their growth. criteria they establish. oral. section are key elements – descriptions of content that help determine the intended depth and This type of assessment serves to answer the breadth of prescribed learning outcomes. With support and achievement for reporting. knowledge about learning. and are working toward. This information can be used to inform be used in conjunction with each other to support teaching and create a direct link between student achievement. • samples of student work • projects Students benefit most when assessment feedback • oral and written reports is provided on a regular. Using assessment as a • Assessment for learning is assessment for way of obtaining feedback on instruction supports purposes of greater learning achievement. ongoing basis. Criteria are based on prescribed • observation learning outcomes. make plans. along with the specific learning goals. are able to Assessment for learning is criterion-referenced. peers. it shows • portfolio assessments students their strengths and suggests how they can develop further. practical) expectations. STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT T his section of the IRP contains information about classroom assessment and student achievement. opportunity for teachers to review what their students are learning and what areas need further There are three major types of assessment that can attention. constructing SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 33 . use their insight. students take responsibility for their own learning. Also included in this and to promote their own achievement. process of developing and supporting students’ active participation in their own Assessment as Learning learning. including specific achievement indicators to assist teachers in Assessment for Learning Classroom assessment for learning provides ways to engage and encourage students to become involved in their own day-to-day assessment—to assessing student achievement in relation to each acquire the skills of thoughtful self-assessment prescribed learning outcome. to make judgments about student performance in relation to prescribed Assessment for learning also provides an learning outcomes. and set future experience with students. teachers.. in do. student achievement by informing teacher • Assessment as learning is assessment as a planning and classroom practice. established criteria rather than to the performance such as of other students.g. Assessment evidence which a student’s achievement is compared to can be collected using a wide variety of methods. Teachers communicate with others (e. collected through assessment activities. Students can use this Student performance is based on the information information to redirect their efforts. When • journals and learning logs assessment is seen as an opportunity to promote • performance reviews learning rather than as a final judgment. as well as on suggested • student self-assessments and peer assessments achievement indicators or other learning • quizzes and tests (written. guidance from their teacher. assessment and instruction. • Assessment of learning is assessment for Assessment as learning actively involves students purposes of providing evidence of in their own learning processes. following questions • What do students need to learn to be CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT AND successful? EVALUATION • What does the evidence of this learning look like? Assessment is the systematic gathering of information about what students know.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

meaning for themselves. Through a process of Large-scale assessments, such as Foundation Skills
continuous self-assessment, students develop the Assessment (FSA) and Graduation Program
ability to take stock of what they have already exams, gather information on student
learned, determine what they have not yet performance throughout the province and provide
learned, and decide how they can best improve information for the development and revision of
their own achievement. curriculum. These assessments are used to make
judgments about students’ achievement in relation
Although assessment as learning is student- to provincial and national standards. The large-
driven, teachers can play a key role in facilitating scale provincial assessment for Science 8 to 10 is
how this assessment takes place. By providing the graduation program examination for Science
regular opportunities for reflection and self- 10, worth 20% of the final course mark. This exam
assessment, teachers can help students develop, is a requirement for all students taking Science 10.
practise, and become comfortable with critical
analysis of their own learning. Assessment of learning is also used to inform
formal reporting of student achievement.
Assessment of Learning
Assessment of learning can be addressed through For Ministry of Education reporting policy,
summative assessment, including large-scale refer to www.bced.gov.bc.ca/policy/policies/
assessments and teacher assessments. These student_reporting.htm
summative assessments can occur at the end of the
year or at periodic stages in the instructional
process.

Assessment for Learning Assessment as Learning Assessment of Learning
Formative assessment Formative assessment Summative assessment
ongoing in the classroom ongoing in the classroom occurs at end of year or at key
stages
• teacher assessment, student • self-assessment • teacher assessment
self-assessment, and/or • provides students with • may be either criterion-
student peer assessment information on their own referenced (based on
• criterion-referenced—criteria achievement and prompts prescribed learning outcomes)
based on prescribed learning them to consider how they or norm-referenced
outcomes identified in the can continue to improve their (comparing student
provincial curriculum, learning achievement to that of others)
reflecting performance in • student-determined criteria • information on student
relation to a specific learning based on previous learning performance can be shared
task and personal learning goals with parents/guardians,
• involves both teacher and • students use assessment school and district staff, and
student in a process of information to make other education professionals
continual reflection and review adaptations to their learning (e.g., for the purposes of
about progress process and to develop new curriculum development)
• teachers adjust their plans understandings • used to make judgments
and engage in corrective about students’ performance
teaching in response to in relation to provincial
formative assessment standards

34 • SCIENCE GRADE 8

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

For more information about assessment for, as, Criteria are the basis for evaluating student
and of learning, refer to the following resource progress. They identify, in specific terms, the
developed by the Western and Northern Canadian critical aspects of a performance or a product that
Protocol (WNCP): Rethinking Assessment with indicate how well the student is meeting the
Purpose in Mind. prescribed learning outcomes. For example,
weighted criteria, rating scales, or scoring guides
This resource is available online at (reference sets) are ways that student performance
www.wncp.ca can be evaluated using criteria.

Wherever possible, students should be involved in
Criterion-Referenced Assessment and Evaluation
setting the assessment criteria. This helps students
In criterion-referenced evaluation, a student’s develop an understanding of what high-quality
performance is compared to established criteria work or performance looks like.
rather than to the performance of other students.
Evaluation in relation to prescribed curriculum
requires that criteria be established based on the
learning outcomes.

Criterion-referenced assessment and evaluation may involve these steps:

Step 1 Identify the prescribed learning outcomes and suggested achievement indicators (as
articulated in this IRP) that will be used as the basis for assessment.

Step 2 Establish criteria. When appropriate, involve students in establishing criteria.

Step 3 Plan learning activities that will help students gain the attitudes, skills, or knowledge outlined
in the criteria.

Step 4 Prior to the learning activity, inform students of the criteria against which their work will be
evaluated.

Step 5 Provide examples of the desired levels of performance.

Step 6 Conduct the learning activities.

Step 7 Use appropriate assessment instruments (e.g., rating scale, checklist, scoring guide) and
methods (e.g., observation, collection, self-assessment) based on the particular assignment
and student.

Step 8 Review the assessment data and evaluate each student’s level of performance or quality of
work in relation to criteria.

Step 9 Where appropriate, provide feedback and/or a letter grade to indicate how well
the criteria are met.

Step 10 Communicate the results of the assessment and evaluation to students and
parents/guardians.

SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 35

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT

KEY ELEMENTS means of self-assessment and ways of defining
how they can improve their own achievement.
Key elements provide an overview of content in
each curriculum organizer and suborganizer. They Achievement indicators are not mandatory; they
can be used to determine the expected depth and are suggestions only, provided to assist teachers in
breadth of the prescribed learning outcomes. assessing how well their students achieve the
prescribed learning outcomes. Achievement
Note that some topics appear at multiple grade indicators may be useful to provincial examination
levels in order to emphasize their importance and development teams and inform the development
to allow for developmental learning. of exam items. However, examination questions,
item formats, exemplars, rubrics, or scoring guides
ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS will not necessarily be limited to the achievement
indicators as outlined in the Integrated Resource
To support teachers in assessing provincially Packages.
prescribed curricula, this IRP includes sets of
achievement indicators in relation to each learning
Specifications for provincial examinations are
outcome.
available online at
www.bced.gov.bc.ca/exams/specs/
Achievement indicators, taken together as a set,
define the specific level of attitudes demonstrated,
skills applied, or knowledge acquired by the The following pages contain the suggested
student in relation to a corresponding prescribed achievement indicators corresponding to each
learning outcome. They describe what evidence a prescribed learning outcome for the Science 8 to 10
teacher might look for to determine whether or curriculum. The achievement indicators are
not the student has fully met the intent of the arranged by curriculum organizer and
learning outcome. Since each achievement suborganizer for each grade; however, this order
indicator defines only one aspect of what is is not intended to imply a required sequence of
covered by the corresponding learning outcome, instruction and assessment.
teachers should consider students’ abilities to
accomplish all of the aspects set out by the entire
set of achievement indicators in determining
whether or not students have fully met the
learning outcome.

In some cases, achievement indicators may also
include suggestions as to the type of task that
would provide evidence of having met the
learning outcome (e.g., a constructed response
such as a list, comparison, analysis, or chart; a
product created and presented such as a report,
drama presentation, poster, letter, or model; a
particular skill demonstrated such as interpreting
graphs).

Achievement indicators support assessment for
learning, assessment as learning, and assessment of
learning. They provide teachers and parents with
tools that can be used to reflect on what students
are learning. They also provide students with a

36 • SCIENCE GRADE 8

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT Grade 8 .

precision. experiment. thermometers.. control. conclusion. observation. ray boxes. and diagrams to extract and convey information • deduce relationships between variables given a graph • use models to demonstrate how systems operate • apply given criteria for evaluating evidence and sources of information • identify main points.g. lenses. independent variables. responsible. and bias in a science-related article or illustration • demonstrate ethical. variable Knowledge • metric system (SI units) • angle measured in degrees • elements of a valid experiment • dependent and independent variables • appropriate scale • application of scientific principles in the development of technologies Skills and Attitudes • recognize dangers • demonstrate emergency response procedures • use personal protective equipment • use proper techniques for handling and disposing of lab materials • use safe dissection techniques • use microscopes. pie charts. balances. and knowledge essential for an understanding of science. skills. validity. rulers. line graphs. but should be integrated with activities related to the other three curriculum organizers. supporting or refuting information. mirrors • make accurate measurements using a variety of instruments (e. scientific literacy. and the environment 38 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . These learning outcomes should not be taught in isolation. Vocabulary accuracy. triple-beam and electronic balances. prediction.STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT• Grade 8 GRADE 8 KEY ELEMENTS: PROCESSES OF SCIENCE Estimated Time: integrate with other curriculum organizers The prescribed learning outcomes related to Processes of Science support the development of attitudes. hypothesis. graduated cylinders) • use the Internet as a research tool • communicate results • use the appropriate type of graph to represent a given type of data • use bar graphs. dependent variables. principle. society. cooperative behaviour • acquire and apply scientific and technological knowledge to the benefit of self. procedure. compound light microscope. tables.

g. hotplate) ‰ identify and use appropriate personal protective equipment (e. no loose clothing. no horseplay) ‰ use proper techniques for handling and disposing of lab materials (e. how to use a fire extinguisher/blanket.. describe appropriate emergency response procedures (e. waste receptacles to handle and dispose of chemical or biological materials) ‰ with teacher support. measure. Bunsen burner vs.. burns from heating devices.formulate an hypothesis . STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PROCESSES OF SCIENCE PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for each corresponding prescribed learning outcome. first aid for cuts. knowing who to contact and how) ‰ describe safe dissection techniques involved in an actual (or virtual) dissection A2 perform experiments using the ‰ describe the elements of a valid experiment: scientific method ... cuts from sharp objects.g..g.g.g.observe.interpret data . investigations. shocks from misuse of electrical equipment) ‰ identify appropriate equipment for an lab activity (e. hair tied back. and record using appropriate units .draw conclusions ‰ use information and conclusions as a basis for further comparisons.make a prediction . clear work area. or analyses ‰ communicate results using a variety of methods SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 39 .identify controlled versus experimental variables . It is expected that students will: Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: A1 demonstrate safe procedures ‰ identify a variety of dangers in procedures (e. eye wash station.. hand and eye protection) and procedures (e.g. using tongs.

. identify supporting or refuting information and bias) ‰ explain how science and technology affect individuals. line graphs. the eye.. using appropriate units as applicable.STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT• Grade 8 PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS A3 represent and interpret ‰ identify the most appropriate type of graph to represent a information in graphic form given type of data (e..awareness of assumptions (their own and authors’) .. and tables A4 use models to explain how ‰ give examples of how various processes could be modelled systems operate (e.g.ability to separate fundamental concepts from the irrelevant or unimportant ..pie charts (e. in . bar.recognizing that scientific knowledge is continually developing and often builds upon previous theories ‰ use given criteria for evaluating evidence and sources of information (e. mass versus volume) .diagrams (e.g. of systems) ‰ distinguish between dependent and independent variables in a graph ‰ draw a best fit line or curve given a set of data points on a graph ‰ extrapolate and interpolate points on a graph ‰ use appropriate scale and axis to create a graph ‰ extract relevant information from pie charts. a cell.. line graph) ‰ convey information. percentages of water distribution) .g.tables .respect for precision . refraction.g.. variables in aquatic environments) .g. bar graphs. table.g. such as . wave components) ‰ describe the relationships between components of the model and what it represents A5 demonstrate scientific literacy ‰ identify the main points in a science-related article or illustration ‰ describe the qualities of the scientifically literate person.g. pie. wave action..bar graphs (e.g. society. of a cell. diagrams or demonstrations of energy transfer. and the environment 40 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .line graphs (e. phase change) ‰ construct a variety of models (e.

including use of technologies specific to .respect for the contributions of others A7 describe the relationship ‰ give examples of scientific principles that have resulted in the between scientific principles development of technologies (e.. cooperative .g..ray boxes.balances and other measurement tools (e.g. headlights. lenses.g.willingness to question and promote discussion . optics—lasers. mirrors ‰ proficiently use the Internet as a research tool SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 41 . fairness. STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT • Grade 8 PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS A6 demonstrate ethical. research thermometers) . honesty. eyeglasses. mirrors) ‰ identify a variety of technologies and explain how they have advanced our understanding of science (e. vacuum cleaners.ethical behaviour (e. pressure—diving and technology equipment. reliability) behaviour .g..g. ongoing examination and reassessment of own beliefs) .microscope investigative procedures and .open-mindedness (e.. pumps. microscopes for observing cell structure) A8 demonstrate competence in the ‰ select and carefully use appropriate technologies.skills of collaboration and co-operation . ‰ describe and demonstrate responsible.

and exchange gases • pathogens and toxins • immune system: primary. tertiary defence system. viruses. immune. tissues. reproduction. pathogen. and interdependence of cells. mitochondrion. phagocytic white blood cells. nutrients. cell membrane. mucus. chloroplast. excretion. vacuole. students will have a basic understanding of the characteristics. respiratory system. and organ systems • basics of various systems of the human body (i. organs. digestive system. metabolism. gas exchange. cytoplasm. nucleus. diffusion. osmosis.e. respiratory. circulatory system. organisms.. organelles. white blood cells Knowledge • characteristics of living things • cell theory • structure and function of cell organelles • osmosis and diffusion • relationship between cells. circulatory. needs. tissues. secondary. and organ systems. bacteria. antigen. organ. cells. organs. cell wall. ribosome. organ system. remove wastes. Vocabulary antibody. toxins.STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT• Grade 8 GRADE 8 KEY ELEMENTS: LIFE SCIENCE Estimated Time: 20-25 hours By the end of the grade. gastric juice. tissue. digestive. and tertiary defence systems Skills and Attitudes • use scalpels safely • use a microscope • demonstrate safe dissection techniques by doing an actual (or virtual) dissection • create diagrams or models of cells and organ systems • show respect for living things 42 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . and excretory) • how organ systems work together to obtain and transport nutrients.

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT • Grade 8

GRADE 8 LIFE SCIENCE: CELLS AND SYSTEMS
PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS

The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement
for each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.
It is expected that students will: Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to:
B1 demonstrate knowledge of the ‰ identify various characteristics of living things (e.g., require
characteristics of living things energy, respond to the environment, perform gas exchange,
excrete waste, reproduce)
‰ relate characteristics of living things to viruses, bacteria,
plants, and animals
B2 relate the main features and ‰ summarize cell theory (e.g., recognize that all living things are
properties of cells to their composed of cells, and all cells come from pre-existing cells)
functions ‰ accurately list similarities and differences between cell types
(plant, animal, and bacteria)
‰ describe the structure and function of cell organelles (e.g., cell
membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion, cell wall,
chloroplast, vacuole, ribosome)
‰ recognize and name parts of a cell using a microscope
‰ relate the concepts of osmosis and diffusion to transport of
materials across cell membranes
B3 explain the relationship ‰ define the terms tissue, organ, and organ system
between cells, tissues, organs, ‰ distinguish between cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems,
and organ systems based on structure and function
‰ identify the main components of the human organ systems
(e.g., respiratory, circulatory, digestive, and excretory
systems)
‰ describe how organ systems work together to obtain and
transport nutrients, remove wastes, and exchange gases
B4 explain the functioning of the ‰ identify components of the primary defence systems,
immune system, and the roles including skin, tears, ear wax, saliva, gastric juice, cilia, mucus
of the primary, secondary, and ‰ identify phagocytic white blood cells as the major component
tertiary defence systems of the secondary defence system
‰ identify white blood cells that produce antibodies as the major
component of the tertiary defence system
‰ describe how each of the defence system components works
(e.g., skin prevents bacteria from entering the body,
phagocytic white blood cells engulf and destroy viruses and
bacteria, and white blood cells produce antibodies that
combine with antigens)
‰ describe factors that can have a negative effect on body
systems, including pathogens (e.g., E. coli, influenza viruses,
HIV) and toxins (e.g., botulism)

SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 43

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT• Grade 8

GRADE 8

KEY ELEMENTS: PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Estimated Time: 40-48 hours
By the end of the grade, students will have a basic understanding of forces and the properties of waves,
light, and fluids.

Optics (estimated time: 20-24 hours)
Vocabulary
amplitude, angle of incidence, angle of reflection, angle of refraction, blind spot, concave, converging,
convex, cornea, crest, diverging, electromagnetic radiation, energy, focal point, frequency, gamma rays,
infrared, iris, lens, microwaves, normal, opaque, optic nerve, pupil, radio waves, refraction, retina, sclera,
spectrum, translucent, transparent, trough, visible light, ultraviolet, wave, wavelength, X-rays

Knowledge
• waves: reflection, refraction, and energy transfer
• light: properties, transmission, reflection, absorption, refraction
• electromagnetic spectrum
• types and applications of electromagnetic radiation
• parts of the eye
• cornea-lens-retina system
• human vision and optical systems

Skills and Attitudes
• use dissection equipment safely
• use a ray box
• use a microscope
• use mirrors and lenses
• show respect for living things

44 • SCIENCE GRADE 8

STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT • Grade 8

KEY ELEMENTS: PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Fluids and Dynamics (estimated time: 20-24 hours)
Vocabulary
area, compression, condensation, convection, density, evaporation, expansion, force, friction, gravitation,
hydraulic, magnetic, mass, melting, pneumatic, pressure, solidification, sublimation, volume, weight

Knowledge
• types of forces
• pairs of objects that apply forces on each other
• relationship between mass and weight
• balanced and unbalanced forces on a single object
• kinetic molecular theory
• solids, liquids, and gases
• changes of state
• mass, volume, and density
• relationship between pressure, temperature, heat (energy transferred due to a temperature difference),
force, and area in fluids
• nature of fluids
• natural and constructed fluid systems (hydraulic and pneumatic)

Skills and Attitudes
• use balances, graduated cylinders, thermometers, spring scales
• demonstrate appropriate behaviour with syringes
• calculate density

SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 45

types of electromagnetic ultraviolet. visible light.g. optic nerve and blind spot. translucent.. It is expected that students will: Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: C1 demonstrate knowledge of the ‰ define waves and describe their characteristics. contact lenses. telescopes) 46 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . bending of rays. and amplitude. opaque. X-rays.. binoculars) ‰ identify similarities and differences between the eye and another optical system (e.g.g.. diverging and converging lenses) C3 compare visible light to other ‰ differentiate radio waves. radiation frequency. cornea. infrared.g. far-sighted) ‰ describe several ways of correcting or extending human vision (e. and energy transferred ‰ relate different types of electromagnetic radiation to their daily lives C4 explain how human vision ‰ illustrate the parts of the eye. relate angle of incidence and angle of reflection for curved and plane mirrors) ‰ demonstrate how visible light is refracted (e. and pupil ‰ describe the cornea-lens-retina system ‰ describe common defects in human vision (e. microwaves. near-sighted.g. microscopes. and gamma rays in terms of wavelength.g. iris.STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT• Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: OPTICS PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for each corresponding prescribed learning outcome.g. retina.. creation of shadows) ‰ demonstrate how visible light is reflected (e. transparent. pinhole camera to demonstrate how light travels in a straight line) ‰ show how light is transmitted and absorbed by different materials (e.... both light waves and light reflect and refract) ‰ identify and describe properties of visible light (e. prism to demonstrate spectrum of colour. including sclera. with corresponding explanations ‰ describe how waves are reflected off a barrier and refracted when passing from one medium to another C2 explain the properties of visible ‰ connect the behaviour of waves to visible light (e. laser surgery.g. works lens.. frequency. using examples behaviour of waves and sketches ‰ demonstrate wavelength. changes of speed.

.g. STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: FLUIDS AND DYNAMICS PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for each corresponding prescribed learning outcome. compression and expansion) ‰ conduct experiments to calculate the density of regularly shaped objects [D= m/V] and irregularly shaped objects [D = m/(V2-V1)] C8 explain the relationship between ‰ explain pressure with reference to force and area (i.. friction. temperature. elastic..g. electrical) ‰ differentiate between mass and weight ‰ describe the movement of objects in terms of balanced and unbalanced forces C6 describe the relationship between ‰ outline the kinetic molecular theory solids.g. pressure. liquids. circulatory and natural and constructed fluid respiratory system) and constructed fluid systems (e. using the ‰ distinguish between solids. high/low blood pressure) SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 47 . gravitational. heat. and pressure. with reference to the kinetic molecular theory C9 recognize similarities between ‰ give examples of natural fluid systems (e. hydraulic.. area. area. and gases (e. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able It is expected that students will: to: C5 explain the concept of force ‰ define force (push or pull of one object on another) ‰ list different types of forces (e. and gases based on kinetic molecular theory particle arrangement and motion ‰ define terms related to changes of state (e. pressure differences can cause movement) ‰ identify possible problems in natural or constructed fluid systems (e.g.. evaporation.g. systems (e. fluids can be compressed and flow.e.. liquids. liquids.. describe the differences substances between volume and density for each of the states of matter ‰ describe the effects of changes in temperature on the density of solids..g. melting.g. solidification. sublimation) C7 determine the density of various ‰ for a fixed mass and temperature.. and gases. hydraulic and air brakes) pneumatic) ‰ recognize the scientific principles involved in fluid systems (e.g. condensation. and compression and expansion) force in fluids ‰ describe the relationship between temperature. magnetic. temperature.

weathering (chemical. biological. salinity.STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT• Grade 8 GRADE 8 KEY ELEMENTS: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE Estimated Time: 20-22 hours By the end of this grade. convection. hanging valley. eskers. fiord. identify supporting or refuting information and bias) • relate cause to effect • assess human impact • show respect and sensitivity for the environment 48 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . climate. tsunami. turbidity currents. moraines.g.. hydrologist. deposition. horns. outwash. gravity. density. tides. melting. glaciers. landslide. Vocabulary arêtes. and water flow on surface features • productivity and species distribution in aquatic environments • diversity of aquatic life forms Skills and Attitudes • use the Internet for research • use given criteria for evaluating evidence and sources of information (e. ocean current. erratics. crevasse. physical) Knowledge • sources of fresh water • properties of salt water and fresh water • effect of ocean currents and winds on regional climates • effect of water and ice on surface features • weathering and erosion • evidence and effects of glaciation • impact of waves. erosion. ground water. striations. students will have understood the properties of water and its effect on the biosphere and surface of the Earth. tectonic processes. freezing point. iceberg.

.g. fiords.61% groundwater.. icebergs. dams) ‰ describe how changes in aquatic environments are monitored (e. hanging valleys. tides. freezing point. horns. environments pollutants. waves: wind action.. 2. tides: gravitational pull) ‰ describe the impact of water movement (e.g. erratics) ‰ describe how waves and tides are generated (e. harvesting technologies. preservation techniques.g. through the use of satellite imagery) ‰ relate human activities to the distribution of aquatic species. STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT • Grade 8 GRADE 8 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: WATER SYSTEMS ON EARTH PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for each corresponding prescribed learning outcome. with specific reference to First Nations peoples in BC (e. density) ‰ define ocean currents ‰ describe how winds and ocean currents influence regional climates (e. eskers.g. crevasses.01 lakes and rivers.g.g.. deposition) D3 describe factors that affect ‰ identify various factors that affect productivity and species productivity and species distribution in aquatic environments (e. weathering..001% atmosphere) ‰ identify similarities and differences between salt water and fresh water (e. resource extraction. waves..g. outwash. moraines. use of resource) SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 49 .2% ocean. moderating effects) D2 describe how water and ice ‰ define weathering and erosion shape the landscape ‰ describe how gravity directs the movement of water and ice and transports weathered materials through slow processes (rivers and glaciers) and fast processes (landslides) ‰ identify and illustrate various alpine and continental glacial features (e. arêtes. distribution in aquatic nutrients in the water.. tsunamis: tectonic processes. salinity.8% salinity and temperature in the fresh. river flow) on surface features (e. striations. 0. sunlight. world’s oceans 0. turbidity. temperature. 0. cirques. water depth.. erosion. 2. currents.g.g.. It is expected that students will: Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: D1 explain the significance of ‰ describe the world distribution of water (97.15% ice.

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CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL .

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multiple Positive Classroom Climate in the Introduction to choice. and scoring guides in Science 8 to 10.. then that information cannot be information. and scoring guides classroom climate in which students feel • peer assessment tools such as checklists. For more information. kept confidential. respecting 8 to 10. parents. why the information linear means of course delivery. see the section on Inclusion. For more risk for harm. Teachers are is being collected. to meet the needs of their students and to respond administrators. CONSIDERATIONS FOR INSTRUCTION Classroom Assessment and Evaluation AND ASSESSMENT IN SCIENCE 8 TO 10 Teachers should consider using a variety of assessment techniques to assess students’ abilities It is highly recommended that parents and to meet the prescribed learning outcomes. • Physical Science • Promote critical thinking and open- • Earth and Space Science mindedness. short answer) this IRP. what the information will encouraged to address the learning outcomes in be used for. Some students with special kept). Tools guardians be kept informed about all aspects of and techniques for assessment in Science 8 to 10 Science 8 to 10. rating scales. • worksheets • portfolios Teachers may also wish to consider the following: • student-teacher conferences • Involve students in establishing guidelines for group discussion and presentations. For suggested strategies for can include involving parents and guardians. information that may be collected as part of students’ work for the purposes of instruction This organization is not intended to prescribe a and/or assessment (e. and scoring guides • self-assessment tools such as checklists. other three organizers. who can access it—students. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Science 8 to 10 T he Classroom Assessment Model outlines Guidelines might include using appropriate a series of assessment units for Science listening and speaking skills. where the information will be any order. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 53 . rating comfortable learning about and discussing topics scales. how safely it will be to local requirements. rating Teachers are responsible for setting a positive scales.g. and agreeing to curriculum organizers: maintain confidentiality if sharing of personal • Life Science information occurs. These units collectively • Develop and discuss procedures associated address all of the prescribed learning outcomes for with recording and using personal Science 8 to 10. and to combine and organize the units kept. oral tests (true/false. needs may have learning outcomes set for them • Ensure students are aware that if they disclose that are modified and documented in their personal information that indicates they are at Individualized Education Plan (IEP). Guidelines that may help • journals or learning logs educators establish a positive climate that is open • video (to record and critique student to free inquiry and respectful of various points of demonstration) view can be found in the section on Establishing a • written tests. These units have been structured students who are reluctant to share personal by grade level and according to the information in group settings. checklists. Introduction to this IRP. refer to the • teacher assessment tools such as observation Introduction to this IRP. and refrain from taking sides on issues where there may be more than one Processes of Science are integrated throughout the point of view. see and Accessibility for All Learners in the the section on Confidentiality in the Introduction to this IRP. Equity.

to use these resources. The corresponding achievement indicators provide For more information about student assessment. designed to The Assessment Overview Table provides provide guidance for teachers in planning and teachers with suggestions and guidelines for carrying out assessment to meet the prescribed assessment of each grade of the curriculum. activities such as of hours needed to address the prescribed learning • case studies and simulations outcomes identified in that unit.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Science 8 to 10 Assessment in Science 8 to 10 can also occur while Suggested Timeframe students are engaged in. activities has been included to address a variety of learning and teaching styles. This information is often found on and set of corresponding achievement indicators. The assessment CONTENTS OF THE MODEL activities describe a variety of tools and methods for gathering evidence of student performance. degree of student performance and can be used as the basis for assessment. models. This learning outcomes. • role plays • charts and graphs Prescribed Learning Outcomes and • posters. Science indicated by the order and arrangement of these 8 to 10 teachers should consider how students will activities. collages. additional information about the expected level or refer to the section on Student Achievement. or they may use other locally approved resources. web sites Suggested Achievement Indicators • oral and multimedia presentations • peer teaching Each set of prescribed learning outcomes identifies • personal pledges or contracts the content standards for that unit. Information and Communications Technology Suggested Planning and Assessment Activities The Science 8 to 10 curriculum requires students to be able to use and analyse the most current Planning and assessment activities have been information to make informed decisions on a included for each prescribed learning outcome range of topics. Criteria identified are likewise table identifies the domains of learning and suggested only and may not always be directly cognitive levels of the learning outcomes. The resources This section includes a brief description of the listed do not necessarily relate to the suggested unit. Teachers may choose skills. knowledge. it does not • group and class discussions necessarily indicate the time required to • brainstorms. and based on the product The suggested time indicates the average number of. the Internet as well as in other information and Each suggested assessment activity directly communications technology resources. webs implement the suggested instructional and • research projects assessment activities listed. See the section on 54 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . along referenced in a prescribed learning outcome. When corresponds to a particular planning activity as organizing for instruction and assessment. best be able to access the relevant technology. with a listing of suggested assessment activities and a suggested weight for grading for each Recommended Learning Resources curriculum organizer. This section lists the Science 8 to 10 recommended Key Elements learning resources that relate to the specific learning outcomes in each topic. instruction and assessment. Assessment Overview Table These strategies are suggestions only. identifying relevant vocabulary. clusters. and ensure that students are aware of school district A wide variety of planning (instructional) policies on Internet and computer use. and attitudes.

gov. These instruments contain criteria specifically keyed to one or more of the suggested assessment activities contained in the unit. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 55 . information will be posted on the ministry web site: http://www.ca/irp_resources/ lr/resource/consub. These criteria are suggested only and may not always be directly referenced in a prescribed learning outcome. As new resources are recommended.htm Assessment Instruments Sample assessment instruments have been included at the end of each unit. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Science 8 to 10 Recommended Learning Resources in this IRP for more information.bced. and are provided to help teachers determine the extent to which students are meeting the prescribed learning outcomes.bc.

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CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL Grade 8 .

Suggested Number Curriculum Organizers/ Suggested Assessment Weight for of Number of Outcomes by Domain* Suborganizers Activities Grading Outcomes K U&A HMP AFF • integrated throughout – assessed in relation to PROCESSES OF SCIENCE performance tasks associated with each of the 25% 8 1 5 1 1 other organizers • demonstrating • role playing • summarizing • problem solving • comparing • written test LIFE SCIENCE • diagramming & 20% 4 2 2 0 0 illustrating • observing/reporti (e. AFF = Affective domain. .g. U&A = Understanding and Application. lab report) ng PHYSICAL SCIENCE • demonstrating • researching • experimenting • problem solving • diagramming & • modelling 35% 9 2 6 1 0 illustrating • observing/reporti (e.. GRADE 8: ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW TABLE The purpose of this table is to provide teachers with suggestions and guidelines for formative and summative classroom-based assessment and grading of Grade 8 Science.. lab report) ng EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE • explaining • researching • diagramming & • modelling illustrating 20% 3 1 2 0 0 • observing/reporti (e.g. field study) ng TOTALS 100% 24 6 15 2 1 * The following abbreviations are used to represent the three cognitive levels within the cognitive domain: K = Knowledge. HMP = Higher Mental Processes.g..

hypothesis. tables. line graphs. but should be integrated with activities related to the other three curriculum organizers. precision. variable Knowledge • metric system (SI units) • angle measured in degrees • elements of a valid experiment • dependent and independent variables • appropriate scale • application of scientific principles in the development of technologies Skills and Attitudes • recognize dangers • demonstrate emergency response procedures • use personal protective equipment • use proper techniques for handling and disposing of lab materials • use safe dissection techniques • use microscopes. thermometers. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PROCESSES OF SCIENCE KEY ELEMENTS: PROCESSES OF SCIENCE Estimated Time: integrate with other curriculum organizers The prescribed learning outcomes related to Processes of Science support the development of attitudes. pie charts. and knowledge essential for an understanding of science. scientific literacy. observation. procedure. lenses.. society. principle. mirrors • make accurate measurements using a variety of instruments (e. cooperative behaviour • acquire and apply scientific and technological knowledge to the benefit of self. skills. triple-beam and electronic balances. control. validity. rulers. and bias in a science-related article or illustration • demonstrate ethical. compound light microscope. and diagrams to extract and convey information • deduce relationships between variables given a graph • use models to demonstrate how systems operate • apply given criteria for evaluating evidence and sources of information • identify main points. independent variables. These learning outcomes should not be taught in isolation. ray boxes. dependent variables.g. prediction. and the environment SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 59 . Vocabulary accuracy. experiment. conclusion. responsible. balances. supporting or refuting information. graduated cylinders) • use the Internet as a research tool • communicate results • use the appropriate type of graph to represent a given type of data • use bar graphs.

g.g. or analyses ‰ communicate results using a variety of methods 60 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .. cuts from sharp objects. first aid for cuts. hand and eye protection) and procedures (e.draw conclusions ‰ use information and conclusions as a basis for further comparisons..CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PROCESSES OF SCIENCE PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for each corresponding prescribed learning outcome. burns from heating devices.g. clear work area.. hotplate) ‰ identify and use appropriate personal protective equipment (e. shocks from misuse of electrical equipment) ‰ identify appropriate equipment for an lab activity (e. Bunsen burner vs. describe appropriate emergency response procedures (e.g. knowing who to contact and how) ‰ describe safe dissection techniques involved in an actual (or virtual) dissection A2 perform experiments using the ‰ describe the elements of a valid experiment: scientific method . hair tied back. investigations.interpret data .identify controlled versus experimental variables ..observe. using tongs.. no horseplay) ‰ use proper techniques for handling and disposing of lab materials (e.g.g.formulate an hypothesis . waste receptacles to handle and dispose of chemical or biological materials) ‰ with teacher support. It is expected that students will: Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: A1 demonstrate safe procedures ‰ identify a variety of dangers in procedures (e. no loose clothing. how to use a fire extinguisher/blanket.. measure.make a prediction . eye wash station. and record .

in .g. using appropriate units as applicable. pie. the eye.g. of systems) ‰ distinguish between dependent and independent variables in a graph ‰ draw a best fit line or curve given a set of data points on a graph ‰ extrapolate and interpolate points on a graph ‰ use appropriate scale and axis to create a graph ‰ extract relevant information from pie charts.respect for precision . refraction. society. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS A3 represent and interpret ‰ identify the most appropriate type of graph to represent a information in graphic form given type of data (e.. bar.tables .recognizing that scientific knowledge is continually developing and often builds upon previous theories ‰ use given criteria for evaluating evidence and sources of information (e.pie charts (e.g. and the environment SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 61 . mass versus volume) . wave components) ‰ describe the relationships between components of the model and what it represents A5 demonstrate scientific literacy ‰ identify the main points in a science-related article or illustration ‰ describe the qualities of the scientifically literate person. a cell. line graphs.ability to separate fundamental concepts from the irrelevant or unimportant . wave action..g.g. bar graphs.awareness of assumptions (their own and authors’) .bar graphs (e. percentages of water distribution) . of a cell. diagrams or demonstrations of heat transfer.g.g. and tables A4 use models to explain how ‰ give examples of how various processes could be modelled systems operate (e. variables in aquatic environments) . table.line graphs (e. such as .. identify supporting or refuting information and bias) ‰ explain how science and technology affect individuals.. phase change) ‰ construct a variety of models (e....g.. line graph) ‰ convey information.diagrams (e.

ongoing examination and reassessment of own beliefs) .g.respect for the contributions of others A7 describe the relationship ‰ give examples of scientific principles that have resulted in the between scientific principles development of technologies (e. eyeglasses. optics—lasers. cooperative .balances and other measurement tools (e.open-mindedness (e.g.skills of collaboration and co-operation .CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 PRESCRIBED LEARNING OUTCOMES SUGGESTED ACHIEVEMENT INDICATORS A6 demonstrate ethical.ethical behaviour (e.g.microscope investigative procedures and . pressure—diving and technology equipment. headlights.ray boxes. reliability) behaviour .willingness to question and promote discussion . pumps. honesty. ‰ describe and demonstrate responsible. fairness.. mirrors) ‰ identify a variety of technologies and explain how they have advanced our understanding of science (e.. including use of technologies specific to . mirrors ‰ proficiently use the Internet as a research tool 62 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .. research thermometers) .g.g.. lenses. microscopes for observing cell structure) A8 demonstrate competence in the ‰ select and carefully use appropriate technologies. vacuum cleaners.

tissues. pathogen. circulatory system. nucleus.e. students will have a basic understanding of the characteristics. excretion. organelles. organs. diffusion. digestive. mucus. respiratory system. organs. and organ systems. tissues. gas exchange. bacteria.. antigen. reproduction. white blood cells Knowledge • characteristics of living things • cell theory • structure and function of cell organelles • osmosis and diffusion • relationship between cells. and tertiary defence systems Skills and Attitudes • use scalpels safely • use a microscope • demonstrate safe dissection techniques by doing an actual (or virtual) dissection • create diagrams or models of cells and organ systems • show respect for living things SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 63 . organisms. and interdependence of cells. and organ systems • basics of various systems of the human body (i. and exchange gases • pathogens and toxins • immune system: primary. cell membrane. organ system. phagocytic white blood cells. organ. metabolism. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 LIFE SCIENCE KEY ELEMENTS: LIFE SCIENCE Estimated Time: 20-25 hours By the end of the grade. tissue. remove wastes. cells. ribosome. circulatory. nutrients. chloroplast. osmosis. cell wall. Vocabulary antibody. digestive system. gastric juice. cytoplasm. respiratory. and excretory) • how organ systems work together to obtain and transport nutrients. mitochondrion. needs. vacuole. viruses. secondary. toxins. immune. tertiary defence system.

complete and scientist’s perspective? Explain. respond to the environment. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ identify various characteristics of living things (e. . It includes evidence of higher-order thinking. and animals PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Using a Think-Pair-Share strategy. paramecia. plants. respond to the environment. excrete waste. composed of cells. according to a 4 The response is correct.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 LIFE SCIENCE: CELLS AND SYSTEMS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: B1 demonstrate knowledge of the characteristics of living things Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. require energy.g. have • Have students write down answers to the students first discuss and answer the question question. 3 The response is correct and complete.g. reproduce. It may contain minor errors. bacteria. reproduce) ‰ relate characteristics of living things to viruses... It contains no examples or elaboration to support the answer.Is fire a living thing. information into categories in a chart form (see Sample Characteristics of Living Organisms Chart at the end of this unit). perform gas exchange. Have students classify the Living Organisms Chart at the end of this unit. It contains examples and/or elaboration to support the answer. It contains examples and/or elaboration to support the answer. Student answers should show “What characteristics are shared by living appropriate classification of characteristics. 1 The response is partially correct but is incomplete and /or contains errors. checking for correct characteristics of plants. It contains examples and/or elaboration to support the answer. require energy. detailed. Score Criteria . according to a Rubric scientist’s perspective? Explain. produce wastes). perform gas exchange.Is a virus a living thing. classification using the Sample Characteristics of and humans. things?” Then classify responses into categories (e. • Ask students to answer the following • Use the accompanying rubric to evaluate student questions: responses. • Provide students with information on • Assess student charts. viruses. 64 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . 2 The response is generally correct and complete.

• Carefully place cover-slip on top. medicine dropper. pond . ensuring that no air bubbles form. glass slide and cover. illustrating all the different organisms observed under the microscope. list and describe the signs of life that are observed. • Referring back to the list of characteristics of living things. identify. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Using compound microscopes.If you were to observe your slide on the • Ensure that lens. cover.Procedure: . “characteristics of life.” and response to the . glass slide.Which life processes were not evident on the water slide? Explain why. • Observe the slide under low power. following day. at a 45 degree angle. what changes might have slip are clean prior to usage.Purpose: to identify signs of life in a following discussion questions: sample of pond water . have students • Assessment will be based on a lab write up. They should then write up the results of their observations. • Place a drop of pond water on the clean glass slide. of life that are observed in a pond water identification and description of the viewed sample. which work in pairs to identify organisms and signs will include diagrams of the organisms viewed. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 65 . lens paper. occurred? Explain why.Materials: microscope. from the non-living things on the slide? slips.What characteristics distinguished the living . .

the organelle and the factory section/job used to replace it . cell wall. nucleus.the reason why this factory job or section works like the organelle 66 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .Poster: all organelles included and clearly part of the production of the product.g.Legend: organelle’s replacements and reason poster paper to make an imaginary model of for choosing replacement how a cell works. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ summarize cell theory (e.g. cell membrane. recognize that all living things are composed of cells. mitochondrion. The organelles that need replacing are . and all cells come from pre-existing cells) ‰ accurately list similarities and differences between cell types (plant.chromosomes . Then ask students to use a piece of . ribosome) ‰ recognize and name parts of a cell using a microscope ‰ relate the concepts of osmosis and diffusion to transport of materials across cell membranes PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Inform students that the cell is a centre for • Use the following to assess student models: production. just like labelled a factory.. cytoplasm.. students should make a legend explaining . chloroplast. Replace all the organelles with production line sections.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 LIFE SCIENCE: CELLS AND SYSTEMS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: B2 relate the main features and properties of cells to their functions Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above.mitochondria On a separate piece of lined paper.vacuole .ribosomes . and bacteria) ‰ describe the structure and function of cell organelles (e.nucleus .cell membrane . if it were a factory. It has special divisions for each . animal. vacuole.cytoplasm .

osmosis.indication of the power of magnification used when viewing a slide • Have students develop a list of similarities • Have students create job advertisements that and differences between plant cells. as well as a live .identify which substance diffused in this highest concentration of students. and bacteria. . and bacteria.apply the concepts of diffusion and osmosis to explain the movement of materials into and out of a cell SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 67 . The job description is not realistic. students should be able to concentrations. Use a rubric such as the following to assess their work: Rubric Score Criteria 3 The advertisement includes all key features of plant cells. experiment and explain why . animal cells. It includes realistic job description 2 The advertisement includes the majority of the key features of plant cells.clear labels that connect to the object with a indicate organelles visible and magnification straight line used for each diagram. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Have students view and diagram prepared • When assessing students’ diagrams. animal cells. .titles specimen of a plant cell. Ask students to experiment identify which part of the room has the . animal cells. It includes a realistic job description 1 The advertisement includes some of the key features of plant cells. • To demonstrate the concepts of high and low • For each experiment. and bacteria. and bacteria. cells. have a group of students . and diffusion across a cell observations membrane. look for the slides of a generalized plant cell and a following: generalized animal cell. and bacteria. Ask students to . The remaining students can be water and/or substances used in this spread throughout the room.use the words high concentration and low stand close together in one corner of the concentration. and explain the movement of classroom. animal cells.explain the concept of equilibrium and Then have students conduct experiments on support their answers with evidence from diffusion. animal incorporate a job description for plant cells.

levels of organization . and excretory systems. In the four sections of circulatory: heart. bladder. remove wastes. organ. tissues. respiratory.Groups of tissues form organs that work together to perform a particular function (e. heart cells). organs. heart . respiratory. and organ systems Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above.Groups of different systems work together in an organism to perform all life processes. and organ systems.Cells have a particular structure and . their page.g. colon). individuals and groups . as they can remember about each system.g.. • Give student an unlined piece of paper.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 LIFE SCIENCE: CELLS AND SYSTEMS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: B3 explain the relationship between cells.an overall goal or function perform a specific function (e. circulatory. . etc. Look for indications Example: that student analogies address . and exchange gases PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Show students slide or pictures of cells. school groups. page into four sections. capillaries.. Assess students use a ruler and pencil to divide the drawings for accuracy and completeness (e. excretory: kidney. veins.. Possible analogies could involve team system. arteries. tissues. digestive: four body systems: digestive.roles of differing components function (e. tissues. • Determine students’ prior knowledge of the • Have students write and possibly draw as much human body and review as necessary.. have students write one name of the respiratory: lungs. stomach. and organ system ‰ distinguish between cells..g.g. heart). organs. Have without referring to a textbook. sports. . 68 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . Emphasize the for the levels of organization from cells to organ progression in levels of organization from cell to systems. and systems.means of communication among tissue). circulatory.Groups of different organs work together in organ systems to perform a specific function (e. • Have students develop and describe an analogy organs. digestive.. and excretory systems) ‰ describe how organ systems work together to obtain and transport nutrients.g.g. diaphragm. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ define the terms tissue. small intestine. circulatory system). based on structure and function ‰ identify the main components of the human organ systems (e.Groups of similar cells form tissues that . .

have students consolidate their concept maps Assess student work using the Concept Map into a group concept map. systems. and gas exchange.” have students map out the exchange gases. remove wastes. and “All about my Body. preparing a personal concept map for one of the being sure to indicate where cross-links or body systems studied. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • To help students review and reflect on how • Provide each group with a sheet of white poster organ systems work together to obtain and paper. taking note of similar Rubric. assign each student the task of concepts of the major body systems studied. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 69 . connections between different systems occur. waste removal. Look particularly for their ability to concepts and terms that appear in the different highlight the functions of nutrient transport. Then working around the central topic transport nutrients. Using a jigsaw strategy.

HIV) and toxins (e. tears. and tertiary . cilia.symptoms caused underlined . tears. cilia. and immune components studies..complete information for each factor . and white blood cells produce antibodies that combine with antigens) ‰ describe factors that can have a negative effect on body systems. gastric juice. botulism) PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Brainstorm • Have students create a concept map or web . and tertiary defence systems Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. E. Avian flu) and toxins (e. secondary. including skin. secondary.what is meant by primary defence system showing primary. harmful substances such as drugs...g.g.provided descriptions of functions .all sections neat. ear wax. legible with headings . students have saliva. coli. look for page will have the following format: .what body structures might be considered defence systems.components of these defences and their functions • Ask students to research print and electronic texts for information on how factors such as pathogens (e. alcohol. HIV. botulism. saliva.g.. phagocytic white blood cells engulf and destroy viruses and bacteria. ear wax.g.how these components might work . E.identified the important components . toxins. coli.description of pathogens and toxins . skin prevents bacteria from entering the body. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ identify components of the primary defence systems.. gastric juice. 70 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . Look for evidence that part of this defence (skin. nicotine) can have a negative effect on each of the body systems. mucus ‰ identify phagocytic white blood cells as the major component of the secondary defence system ‰ identify white blood cells that produce antibodies as the major component of the tertiary defence system ‰ describe how each of the defence system components works (e.g. • Have students create a booklet in which each • When assessing student booklets.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 LIFE SCIENCE: CELLS AND SYSTEMS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: B4 explain the functioning of the immune system.systems affected • Have students take a test to determine their knowledge of the pathogens. and the roles of the primary.what is meant by secondary and tertiary defence systems . influenza viruses. including pathogens (e.identified interrelationships correctly and • Have students in a Think-Pair-Share activity completely identify . mucus) .

their game. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Have students create a board game that • Assess student work on the board game using incorporates information about the body’s the Board Game Assessment Tool (at the end various systems and how they interact with of this Grade 8 Classroom Model). have them different ways) describe strengths and weaknesses.making a sketch of the game Following the game. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 71 .identifying materials needed and steps to follow . . have students identify ways to improve the game or justify the original design. including • If students suggest modifications to their design . Have evaluation tool to have students evaluate their them create a plan before they make and play own work.brainstorming ideas (what are all the or justify their original design. Use the same each other to maintain a healthy body.

radio waves. refraction • electromagnetic spectrum • types and applications of electromagnetic radiation • parts of the eye • cornea-lens-retina system • human vision and optical systems Skills and Attitudes • use dissection equipment safely • use a ray box • use a microscope • use mirrors and lenses • show respect for living things 72 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . blind spot. translucent. X-rays Knowledge • waves: reflection. sclera. electromagnetic radiation. transparent. refraction. absorption. ultraviolet. students will have a basic understanding of forces and the properties of waves. visible light. spectrum. and energy transfer • light: properties. wave. infrared. concave. lens.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE KEY ELEMENTS: PHYSICAL SCIENCE Estimated Time: 40-48 hours By the end of the grade. angle of refraction. reflection. and fluids. energy. crest. convex. converging. wavelength. iris. pupil. angle of reflection. light. microwaves. transmission. Optics (estimated time: 20-24 hours) Vocabulary amplitude. trough. frequency. cornea. angle of incidence. focal point. retina. diverging. normal. opaque. optic nerve. refraction. gamma rays.

force. pneumatic. and gases • changes of state • mass. thermometers. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 KEY ELEMENTS: PHYSICAL SCIENCE Fluids and Dynamics (estimated time: 20-24 hours) Vocabulary area. and area in fluids • nature of fluids • natural and constructed fluid systems (hydraulic and pneumatic) Skills and Attitudes • use balances. and density • relationship between pressure. compression. solidification. magnetic. density. gravitation. friction. hydraulic. volume. force. spring scales • demonstrate appropriate behaviour with syringes • calculate density SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 73 . pressure. condensation. weight Knowledge • types of forces • pairs of objects that apply forces on each other • relationship between mass and weight • balanced and unbalanced forces on a single object • kinetic molecular theory • solids. convection. graduated cylinders. sublimation. evaporation. melting. liquids. mass. volume. temperature. expansion. heat (energy transferred due to a temperature difference).

heart rate).rate of motion on frequency and relationship between wavelength and wavelength frequency. and using the formula frequency = # reps/time interval. frequency.the time taken for these repetitions to occur counting repetitions. . and wavelength. . assess students on their ability to measure long rope. merry-go-round. flashing traffic lights. oscillations or dial clock). These effects should include side-to-side motion (perpendicular to the . amplitude. frequency and amplitude. Ask students to students should use the appropriate equation to suggest how frequency can be observed and perform specific calculations of frequency. and amplitude. They can then use this formula to determine the frequency of other items (e. Have students sketch and on height of a crest or depth of a trough label the component parts of a wave: crest. trough. measured in a pendulum and other devices given (e. use • Have students prepare lab reports describing back-and-forth arm motion (parallel to the qualitatively the various effects on wave motion slinky) to generate compression waves and in a rope/slinky. have them tie a slinky to a string and attach the string to a fixed object. spring.g..g. 74 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . They . • Have two students stretch out a slinky. Have students snap a sizes.the magnitude of different wavelengths. old turntables. with corresponding explanations ‰ describe how waves are reflected off a barrier and refracted when passing from one medium to another PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Use a ripple tank and oscillating motor to • Given diagrams of different wave shapes and generate waves in water. refraction and reflection) and reflecting back from the fixed end. based on the distance between successive corresponding points of motion • Use a pendulum to demonstrate the concepts of • Using everyday phenomena as examples. measuring time.the size of various wave amplitudes based shape and motion. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ define waves and describe their characteristics. Then. or slinky to observe wave ..number of repetitions. using examples and sketches ‰ demonstrate wavelength. observing the effects of a wave passing from slinky to string (i.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: OPTICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C1 demonstrate knowledge of the behaviour of waves Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. Have students measure the repeated motions of a device frequency of different lengths of a pendulum by .refraction and reflection through different should vary the rate of side-to-side motion.reflection from a fixed end slinky) to generate transverse waves. and media observe the effects on as well as the inverse ..e.

reflecting to a focal point off a concave reflect or refract in each situation. This could be done as a lab report or a problem-solving assignment in which frequency of rotation as well as wheel circumference are provided. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 75 . barrier . information to determine the distance travelled per second (speed) based on the number of tire rotations per second (frequency).reflecting off a flat barrier at the same but and shallow water in the tank.becoming longer and changing direction correctly when refracting into deep water • As an extension. Have students opposite angle as the approaching waves sketch the change in pattern of waves as they .becoming shorter and changing direction correctly when refracting into shallow water . have students formulate ideas • Consider the student’s ability to determine the on how the frequency of wheel rotation can be circumference of a bicycle tire and use this used to determine a cyclist’s speed. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Use a ripple tank and a straight-wave generator • Assess students on their ability to sketch simple to push parallel waves toward flat and curved patterns of waves (parabolic) barriers as well as regions of deep .

prism to demonstrate spectrum of colour. . translucent.. milk material Have students create a table listing those materials that are opaque.. opaque. Assess the transmit light. high wavelength and frequency for the light frequency). changes of speed. violet – short wavelength.. including ability of students to differentiate the terms by .a block of wood performing a lab quiz where they .g. translucent.e. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ connect the behaviour of waves to visible light (e. bending of rays. translucent. 76 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . and opaque in their own words/diagrams.. diverging and converging lenses) PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Use a spectroscope or prism to demonstrate • Assess the ability of students to sketch the how visible light from the Sun can be broken component colours of visible light into component colours (red..g. Explain that these .indicating relative size of wavelengths for colours represent different light wavelengths each colour and frequencies (i.clearly indicate the relative opacity of each . spectrum • Place various materials on an overhead • Determine if the materials were correctly projector to demonstrate their abilities to arranged according to their opacity. transparent. orange.describing the inverse relationship between low frequency.aim a light source (such as a ray box) at .CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: OPTICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C2 explain the properties of visible light Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. creation of shadows) ‰ demonstrate how visible light is reflected (e. and different materials clear glass or Plexiglas . violet).rectangular prisms of tinted.g.in the correct order green. pinhole camera to demonstrate how light travels in a straight line) ‰ show how light is transmitted and absorbed by different materials (e. After completing the table.petri dishes of water. red – long wavelength.. and transparent. blue.g. .g. frosted.thin and thick blocks of paraffin wax . indigo. yellow. both waves and light reflect and refract) ‰ identify and describe properties of visible light (e. have students define: transparent. relate angle of incidence and angle of reflection for curved and plane mirrors) ‰ demonstrate how visible light is refracted (e.

the correct orientation of the image relative about 50 cm apart.explain the inverted nature of images happens. incident and travelling from one material into another. . Such hole in the centre of one. then convergence and divergence of refracted slowly increase the distance between the rays for the respective lenses instrument and their face and describe what . • Ask students to explain how contact lenses and • Students should be able to prepare glasses help people with limited vision to see presentations on refraction that include objects more clearly. Use clamps object through pinhole to screen to attach both cardboard pieces to a metre stick.explain that no image is produced when the onto a screen. Ask image occurs. and that this image cannot be them to repeat this procedure for a diverging projected onto a screen (concave) lens. have students height for a pinhole camera. produced by a convex lens when an object Demonstrate how a convex lens can project is placed beyond the focal point of the lens an inverted image of a lit candle (or lightbulb) . .make accurate drawings to illustrate students to hold the glass up to their eye. Explain to • Assess students on their ability to students that this shape is convex. Instruct . as well as thereby changing direction and refracting. have students compare the ratio of object/image distance to object/image • Given appropriate values. that is.explain that although concave lenses produce smaller images. and aim the apparatus (foil to the object piece in front) directly toward the Sun until its They should be able to infer from their image appears on the second cardboard piece. given object size. an erect lens and observe the pattern of refraction. . Have students perform a simple object is placed at the focal point of the lens lab exercise.concluding statements comparing angles of semicircular prism at various angles to observe incidence and refraction for light travelling refraction from air to glass and glass into air. normal line.accurate drawings showing boundary light changes speed (like a wave) when between the two materials. equivalence of these ratios. using a ray box to send several . Discuss with the class how . Have incident and refracted angles students use ray boxes to send a light ray into a . and cut a 3 cm-wide images produced by pinhole cameras.that light travels in straight lines showing how the Sun’s image appears on the . those images cannot be projected onto a screen SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 77 . from air into a denser medium and vice • Have students examine a magnifying glass and versa ask them to describe the lens shape.the relative height of the image compared to the object As an extension.that the image produced is upside-down second cardboard piece. Tape a piece of diagrams should include aluminium foil over the hole and carefully poke .explain that when an object is placed within parallel light rays into a converging (convex) the focal length of a convex lens. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Have groups construct pinhole cameras: take • Have students draw accurate ray diagrams of two pieces of cardboard.straight lines to indicate paths of light from a hole in the middle with a needle. refracted rays. diagrams Have students construct simple diagrams . Explain the calculate image height. distance from the camera and length of camera d(object)/d(image) = h(object)/h(image) (image distance).

cannot be projected onto a screen Students are also expected to make concluding statements correlating patterns of reflection and refraction for both converging and diverging lenses and mirrors. object is placed at the focal point of the Demonstrate how a concave mirror can mirror project an inverted image of a lit candle (or .reflecting surface predictions. an erect a simple lab exercise.normal line .make accurate drawings to illustrate vehicles. those images for a diverging (convex) mirror.explain that no image is produced when the happens.reflected angle (equal to incident angle) • Ask students to explain the purpose of anti-theft • Assess students on their ability to store mirrors and side-view mirrors in large .) . to send image occurs. (These are convex mirrors that convergence and divergence of reflected produce small erect images and allow the rays for the respective mirrors observer to gain a larger view of an area. . 78 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . Accurate drawings should be Have students design a simple experiment constructed and include the following: using a ray box and a plane mirror to test their .explain the inverted nature of images Provide students with a concave mirror. their experiment.explain that although convex mirrors refraction. Ask them to repeat this procedure produce smaller images.incident ray .reflected ray . and that this image cannot be several parallel light rays into a converging projected onto a screen (concave) mirror and observe the pattern of . Have students perform the focal length of a concave mirror. using a ray box.explain that when an object is placed within lightbulb) onto a screen.incident angle . produced by a concave mirror when an Instruct them to hold the mirror up to their face object is placed beyond the focal point of then slowly increase the distance between the the mirror instrument and their face and describe what .CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Ask students to predict how a beam of light will • Students should be able to prepare reports on act when it hits a plane mirror at various angles.

greenhouses (infrared) . After mentioning spectrum in order from lowest to highest energy visible light. microwaves. radiation and its component parts . heat. frequency. infrared. visible light. and are part of a Students should explain that we can only detect broader range of energy types called the small portions of the spectrum without special electromagnetic spectrum. ultraviolet. transferred.g..telecommunications (radio waves) . from radio waves up to gamma radiation.devices/materials linked to the type of radiation they detect SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 79 . and energy transferred ‰ relate different types of electromagnetic radiation to their daily lives PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Ask students to consider what forms of energy • Students should be able to list all forms of the are given off by the Sun. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: OPTICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C3 compare visible light to other types of electromagnetic radiation Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. including .telescopes (all types) • Have students construct concept maps linking • Assessment of the maps should include the different forms of electromagnetic energy with following criteria: the devices/materials used to detect or emit .devices/sources linked to the type of radiation they emit . Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ differentiate radio waves. Discuss with instruments (e.Crooke’s Radiometer (infra-red) . and describe how wavelength and explain that visible light and heat transmit frequency changes with increasing energy. and corresponds with increasing frequency and decreasing wavelength. and possibly ultra-violet.radar detection . energy our bodies can detect.x-ray photographs . and gamma rays in terms of wavelength.black light source on laundry soap and other phosphorescent materials (ultra- violet) .infra-red scanners .the central theme of electromagnetic them.ovens. X-rays. we can detect visible light students that this spectrum of energy ranges with our eyes and feel infrared on our skin).portable radio with antenna Discuss other sources/uses of electromagnetic energy. • Demonstrate instruments/materials that can emit or detect different electromagnetic spectra: .

80 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . that in the eye. end of the Classroom Model for this grade to including: sclera. also provided at the end of the Classroom Model for this grade • Ask students to refer to their notes on convex • Assess student notes to determine if the notes lenses. microscopes..g. lens.. iris.. retina.a labelled diagram of the eye students to research the function of each part. binoculars) ‰ identify similarities and differences between the eye and another optical system (e. laser surgery. explain the process and its importance in allowing magnifying glass-screen system is similar to light to focus on the retina. Ask .g. optic include the following criteria: nerve and blind spot. lens.g. have them describe how a candle. telescopes) PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Have students perform an eyeball dissection • Have students prepare a lab report.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: OPTICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C4 explain how human vision works Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above.information on how the individual parts work Assess using the Lab Report Scoring Rubric. retina. and where this light must be focused. Have them identify the main parts. cornea. optic nerve and blind spot. Provide a task either as a classroom lab or a virtual online definition by adapting the sample provided at the exercise. ask students to explain how the lens focuses light. and pupil ‰ describe the cornea-lens-retina system ‰ describe common defects in human vision (e. including sclera. . Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ illustrate the parts of the eye. contact lenses. far-sighted) ‰ describe several ways of correcting or extending human vision (e. cornea. near-sighted. iris and pupil. In particular.

SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 81 . demonstrations.explain the methods used to correct or limit the defect .. reports. and/or forums. cornea. one to take • Assess group work according to the following apart an old microscope and/or telescope. eye: sclera. and pupil). citing sources • Divide the class into two groups.demonstrate the skills of cooperation .demonstrate attributes of scientific literacy .describe the mechanics that produce the defect . Then create a T-chart. retina. Look for sightedness and far-sightedness. optic nerve. microscope: all lenses and mirrors.use models to explain how the systems operate . the criteria: other to examine the parts of a model of the .g.displays and labels are relevant and accurate board.list obvious similarities and differences parts of the microscope and eyes on poster . iris.describe relationships between scientific principles and technology . body tube. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Have student groups conduct research on a • Assessment should be based on the presentation particular vision defect.demonstrate thorough and relevant research. focus adjustment knob(s).groups work cooperatively parts. (e.define the defect . which may include posters. and describe the function of the major . evidence that presentations . with choices of ideas.describe the functions of the major parts eye. asking students to identify the similarities and differences. formal including (but not limited to) near. Groups should display and label the .

measure definition of force to state why and when they the force observed forces.using a magnet and nail objects are pushing or pulling on other objects. of the various demonstrations. and change shape). . electrical) ‰ differentiate between mass and weight ‰ describe the movement of objects in terms of balanced and unbalanced forces PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Brainstorm with students a definition of force • Ask students to write the definition of force in (push or pull). “What are the effects of a force?” (answer: change motion—start motion. push speed. gravitational.pulling a cart with a spring scale. Then demonstrate different their science journals and record all observations types of force (magnetic. electrical attraction and repulsion.. stop motion. gravitational.rolling a ball (push it from the side. friction. and electrical). and push it question “What do these forces do? (they all cause from the part farthest from you) motion to change—push away or pull toward).pushing a book repulsion. . show it attracts small bits of paper and arrows should indicate the force and .g.dropping a ball friction and gravity (both for vertical and .rubbing a vinyl strip with polyester to Diagrams should be carefully drawn and labelled. magnetic. Report conclusions should address the question. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ define force (push or pull of one object on another) ‰ list different types of forces (e. 82 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . Demonstrations • Have students write reports containing diagrams could include of observations of magnetic attraction and . friction.bouncing a ball horizontal movements. elastic. slow down motion. Diagrams should show what .) They should use the .CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: FLUIDS AND DYNAMICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C5 explain the concept of force Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. Student reports should answer the it from the part closest to you.squeezing a ball or balloon motion—longer arrow means greater force or . change direction. speed up motion.

they should indicate the relationship between weight and mass. Then ask students to out of 22) containing observations. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 83 . Ask them to explain object (wheels and no wheels) at a steady what happens to the motion of an object when motion and a changing motion and measure forces are balanced (motion remains the same) the forces with a scale.sliding block and ice (5 points).follow procedures mass and weight.use equipment safely • Ask students to write reports containing data of mass. diagrams. For example. and weight-to-mass ratio (three columns).gravity—let a ball fall vertically. They could also versus unbalanced (motion changes). slide why? a ball across a table. etc. Which takes longer? Why? (2 points) Conclusions should contain the definition of friction and list the types of friction (4 points). Using the ratio. • Have students conduct an experiment where • As students conduct experiments. students could slide an arrow means a greater force). including . . and conduct an experiment to show answers to questions. question: to the floor Which takes longer and goes further and .sliding book and ball (4 points). conduct activities that involve holding an object with a scale. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Define friction as a force that opposes motion • Ask students to prepare reports (can be marked (include air resistance). They should also include units. • Ask students to conduct activities • Have students draw diagrams that use arrows of (demonstration or experiment) showing various lengths to illustrate balanced and balanced and unbalanced forces on a single unbalanced forces on a single object (a longer object. describe their further and why? paths and measure the time it takes to fall . ensure that known masses are weighed with a spring they scale to determine the relationship between .collect and organize appropriate data .friction—slide a book across a table. questions: wood then ice across the table (ensure Which takes longer and goes further and that the initial speed for each slid object is why? Which is easier to walk on—a sidewalk the same) or a sheet of ice? Why? (3 points) .Drop a sheet of paper then crumple it and drop from the same height.time to fall (4 points). slide a 10g block of . question: Which goes a ball from same height. weight. then toss .

liquid. solidification. Students should move (solid). and gases. temperature. using the kinetic molecular theory Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. liquid. place the same number of marbles in a large tank (gas). and gas. and gases using kinetic molecular and gas in their science journals. Student should then draw diagrams showing how the particles move. condensation. or gas. liquid. and gas). evaporation. marbles in a larger Petri dish. Ask students to look around to identify types of matter in the classroom. using arrows to indicate motion and spacing of particles for a specific substance. Then.g. Assess for accuracy.. and gases based on particle arrangement and motion ‰ define terms related to changes of state (e. place the same number of be able to indicate which model represents solid. and restate in theory and identifying each state (phase). sublimation) PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Define for students the terms solid (fixed • introductory activity (no assessment required) volume and shape). their own words the relationship between the three states (solid. so that they liquid. liquids. melting. 84 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . • Place the maximum number of marbles on a • Ask students to describe what is happening to the small Petri dish so that the marbles cannot marbles in each of the situations.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: FLUIDS AND DYNAMICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C6 describe the relationship between solids. Brainstorm and list on the board these objects and state whether they are solid. heat. liquids. move around (liquid). Finally. • Have students create drawings of solids. liquids. • Ask students to write definitions of solid. liquid (fixed volume and shape of container) and gas (volume of container and shape of container). Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ outline the kinetic molecular theory ‰ distinguish between solids.

definitions of temperature. and .. introduce the Concept maps should identify concepts of endothermic and exothermic. condensation.processes that link states . . solidification.g. heat (energy evaporation. melting. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Define for students the terms related to • Ask students to write in their science journals changes of state (e. condensation.states of matter explain their meaning. temperature. sublimation) and give examples for evaporation. kinetic molecular theory. and sublimation. • To help students more fully appreciate the • Have students construct concept maps to show significance of changes of state in relation to how the terms and processes are connected.whether energy is added or removed for the process to take place SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 85 . solidification. melting. transferred due to a temperature difference). each. heat.

density before and after a temperature change. Then have students each.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: FLUIDS AND DYNAMICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C7 determine the density of various substances Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. watch a bag of popcorn in a • Using sample data. have students calculate microwave).measurements or calculations are clearly of other shapes can be found by measuring demonstrated water displacement.work is done collaboratively • Demonstrate for students how volume • Ask students to describe in their journals what changes as temperature and/or phase changes they see during the experiments in terms of (e. puts chunks of dry ice in a balloon and change in volume.g. cubes). Look for evidence that calculate the mass and volume for various .proper units are used .calculations show proper methodology substances (e.g. Volume . Look for evidence that student watch it over time. compression and expansion) ‰ conduct experiments to calculate the density of regularly shaped objects [D= m/V] and irregularly shaped objects [D = m/(V2-V1)] PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Define volume and density. freeze it. rocks. where they are expected with the formula for calculating volume to measure or calculate mass and volume of a (length x width x height). describe the differences between volume and density for each of the states of matter ‰ describe the effects of changes in temperature on the density of solids. Provide students • Give students a lab quiz. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ for a fixed mass and temperature. and the formula for variety of objects. place water does volume (except for water changing from in a pop bottle to a certain level.. 86 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . and calculate the density of density (mass/volume). Calculations should clearly indicate as volume increases density decreases.g. and vice versa. blocks. and then solid to liquid). place a balloon outside in journals show that as temperature increases so cold weather and watch it shrink..answers are well organized and correct regular and irregular materials and/or . . liquids. and gases (e..

Why does pressure increase when an . theory. thus it is necessary to add more air to the tire to maintain proper tire pressure SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 87 . Students should clearly students to explain what is happening. with reference to the kinetic molecular theory PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Define pressure (force/area) and give several • Ask students to explain (using detailed diagrams) examples: balloon. and pressure. Then have them conduct the experiment. describing what happened and relating it to their predictions. • Have students half fill a balloon. Ask solids. indicate that compression or expansion cause an describing it in terms of kinetic molecular increase or decrease in pressure. area. and these constant volume: collisions cause the pressure to increase . and force in fluids Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above.the particles go faster and make more between temperature and pressure at a collisions with their container. thus it is necessary to remove air summer and over-inflated in the winter? from a tire to maintain proper tire pressure. in the winter particles move slower and pressure decreases. area.Why should tires be under-inflated in the increases. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ explain pressure with reference to force and area (i. liquids and gases. conversely. and predict what will happen if they squeeze the balloon (pressure will increase). compression and expansion) ‰ describe the relationship between temperature.e. squirt gun. temperature. what happens when a force is exerted against football (deflated and blown up). object is heated? the particles go faster and the pressure . squeeze bag. • Ask students a series of questions to explore • Answers to questions should clearly indicate that their understanding of the relationship .when the temperature is high in the summer. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: FLUIDS AND DYNAMICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C8 explain the relationship between pressure..

. posters.g. Look print and Internet sources to complete their for evidence that presentations research. . hydraulic.demonstrate attributes of scientific literacy .g.g. high/low blood pressure) PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Ask students to research examples of natural • Have student groups prepare presentations (e.demonstrate thorough and relevant research. citing sources 88 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .use models to explain how the systems operate .g. hydraulic and air brakes) ‰ recognize the scientific principles involved in fluid systems (e.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 PHYSICAL SCIENCE: FLUIDS AND DYNAMICS Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: C9 recognize similarities between natural and constructed fluid systems (e. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ give examples of natural fluid systems (e...demonstrate the skills of cooperation . and human-made fluid systems and where models.g. compression.. pneumatic) Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above.describe relationships between scientific principles and technology .explain expansion.. Students should use a variety of fluids system and constructed fluid systems. and possible problems associated with these systems .g. PowerPoint) that show natural they occur.. fluids can be compressed and flow. fluid flow. pressure differences can cause movement) ‰ identify possible problems in natural or constructed fluid systems (e. circulatory and respiratory system) and constructed fluid systems (e.

convection. and water flow on surface features • productivity and species distribution in aquatic environments • diversity of aquatic life forms Skills and Attitudes • use the Internet for research • use given criteria for evaluating evidence and sources of information (e. horns. tides. landslide. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE KEY ELEMENTS: EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE Estimated Time: 20-22 hours By the end of this grade. biological. outwash. turbidity currents. density. melting. freezing point. iceberg. ocean current. hanging valley. identify supporting or refuting information and bias) • relate cause to effect • assess human impact • show respect and sensitivity for the environment SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 89 . erratics. weathering (chemical. eskers. deposition. salinity. climate. physical) Knowledge • sources of fresh water • properties of salt water and fresh water • effect of ocean currents and winds on regional climates • effect of water and ice on surface features • weathering and erosion • evidence and effects of glaciation • impact of waves. ground water.. moraines. tsunami. students will have understood the properties of water and its effect on the biosphere and surface of the Earth. striations. tectonic processes. glaciers. hydrologist. crevasse. fiord. gravity.g. erosion. Vocabulary arêtes.

g.understanding differences in buoyancy and in a blender).. .demonstrating differences in boiling point Follow with a class discussion about the implications of these findings for the water cycle and aquatic environments.think. .anticipation guide (e. .number of examples of implications table salt) . relevant graphics. freezing point. ground water. fresh .8% fresh. moderating effects) PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • To assess the state of students’ background • Have each student label and annotate (with knowledge of the distribution of water.g. 0.001% atmosphere) ‰ identify similarities and differences between salt water and fresh water (e. lakes and rivers.01 lakes and rivers.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: WATER SYSTEMS ON EARTH Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: D1 explain the significance of salinity and temperature in the world’s oceans Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above.comparing the buoyancy of the same samples of water – one fresh and one salt. density) ‰ define ocean currents ‰ describe how winds and ocean currents influence regional climates (e.15% ice. • Ask students to record predictions of what will Consider using a commercial convection happen when the demonstration is conducted.understanding differences between freezing . use icons and words) a world map to indicate water strategies such as distribution.. Ensure they include: oceans.g. pair.. Assess their work using the following rubric: Score Criteria 4 includes detailed observations with clear. or simple . some true/false atmosphere. glassware tube or similar apparatus to Then have them record observations and demonstrate how dye moves when water is generate an explanation of what they saw. ice. heated. floating object in containers of each type of Assess their work for water . 2.comparing temperatures of two identical point and boiling point samples of slush (e.g. • Discuss with students the term convection. one of which has an added density quantity of salt (calcium chloride. questions and discussion) • Demonstrate the differences between fresh and • Have students produce a T-chart or Venn salt water by diagram to compare properties of two given . made by crushing ice .2% ocean. share water. 2. explanation uses the kinetic molecular theory to explain density differences and account for convection 90 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .61% groundwater.. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ describe the world distribution of water and illustrate the water cycle (97.

two cities at different points on the gyre Students should also find a way to represent the . where relevant . and have students read materials their journal entries.identify supporting details..the gyre’s location . North Pacific. locate and label South Pacific.the currents .the cities .share knowledge of all the gyres. CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 3 includes full details of observations. may be incomplete or unclear. and their (10) cities with reference to currents and gyres .noticed any discrepancies in the data that have about each city’s climate (temperature cannot be easily explained with reference to and rainfall) ocean currents and gyres (e. South Indian gyres) and identify . jigsaw activity by reconstituting groups. the activity produce a world map on which they North Atlantic. or an effect caused by atmospheric conditions such as a prevailing wind) SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 91 .the currents that make up the gyre . South Atlantic.explained the differences in their city data currents. .highlight key points (main ideas) . conduct a similarities. looking at the extent to dealing with currents and gyres (including how which these and why ocean currents form). Each consider how well each group new group needs to .g. though labelling or presentation of graphics may be unclear.describe cause and effect relationships (determining factors) • Assign students in groups to find out • Have each of the final groups from the jigsaw information about a particular gyre (e.develop explanations for the data that they .. To assess student understanding. and generate an for each of their cities explanation for the differences and or Once the information is assembled. Discuss own words the material they have read. explanation refers to both falling of cool water and rising of heated water 1 includes basic description of events. their . Assess these briefly. explanation to account for convection movement refers to both falling of cool water and rising of heated water and refers to kinetic molecular theory 2 includes some details of observations.the gyres . explanation may identify heat as cause of movement) • Provide notes on ocean currents and their • Have students use a journal to record in their relationships to winds and climate.created a map that is correct and complete . a periodic effect such as El Niño.g.g. explanation is minimal or lacking (e.mean temperature and precipitation data city data on their maps. with poorly drawn graphics..

along with a separate list of striations. weathering. tsunamis: tectonic processes. hanging valleys. fiords. eskers. icebergs. moraines. arêtes. erosion.g.g. and annotate each feature.. horns. crevasses. take students for a walk outside the diagrams. • Give students a list of terms related to glaciation • Give students a picture or diagram of a glacier (e.g. point form notes) what they have school to examine the effects of different types seen.water and ice can break apart rock in place exposure of aggregate. using Then. and/or ice (erosion) • Demonstrate erosion by using a sand table or trough filled with sand and running water. and explain how it was formed (i.. cirques. striations. deposition).e. moraines. label. eskers. find thorough that they are able to identify. staining of concrete by (weathering) metal. 92 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: WATER SYSTEMS ON EARTH Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: D2 describe how water and ice shape the landscape Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above.g. till. tides: gravitational pull) ‰ describe the impact of water movement (e. correctly examples.. waves: wind action. and determine causes of formation. tides.. or glaciated region.. arêtes. erratics). Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ define weathering and erosion ‰ describe how gravity directs the movement of water and ice and transports weathered materials through slow processes (rivers and glaciers) and fast processes (landslides) ‰ identify and illustrate various alpine and continental glacial features (e. erratics) ‰ describe how waves and tides are generated (e. Student research should be sufficiently research to identify the meanings of terms.g.weathered material is transported by water pavement). .. cracks.. deposition) PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Introduce the terms weathering and erosion. plants growing through cracks in . river flow) on surface features (e.. Ask students to conduct features. outwash. waves. erosion vs. Student explanations should include how of weathering on various objects (e.g. Have students brainstorm ideas on how water and ice cause weathering and erosion. • Ask students to describe and explain (e.g. horns.

Presentations should You are a geologist assigned to study a BC town . CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 • Brainstorm how waves are generated (see • Ask students to describe what they have seen Physical Science—Optics).. “What is happening” and as a followl-up. . Students should suggest why position of the moon and Sun in relation to high tides go up and down. earthquakes. Students shallow water elevated on legs..blow on the surface of the water In each demonstration. landslides. and the differences between rotates and the moon revolves around the those tides (with reference to their positions).. “What are you simulating?” • Brainstorm how tides are generated (effect of • Ask students to indicate on a diagram the moon and Sun). . danger of surface features.g. reinforcing unstable banks on a cliff. create early warning systems) . (Point out that the Earth and low tides.separate fundamental concepts from the irrelevant or unimportant (e.g. Earth. have students should .g. a tsunami warning might not be important to an interior town) SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 93 .. The town council wants to know tsunamis) and predict potential what they must do to limit the adverse impact of consequences weathering and erosion.) • Give students the following case study: • Ask students to develop a presentation to the town council.drop a marble in the water .point out the tectonic processes involved. building breakwaters. tides. ask students.g. Using a glass tank of during the wave demonstration.tap carefully on the bottom of the tank with falling into a body of water (e. and/or river flow are affecting cliffs.identify problem areas (e. outside river banks.push a block of wood back and forth in the including horizontal and vertical processes water .indicate that wind.provide suggestions on how to minimize the effects (e.explain how science and technology can be used and scientific principles applied in this situation . and debris . erosion on where waves. their fingers meteorites) generate waves .

.the scientific principles used in the technology • Provide students with historical and current • Have students do a group self-evaluation of their information on the use of aquatic resources by storyboards and presentations using the First Nations peoples in BC. . turbidity) .explain the interdependence of the various .g. and present their combined information on a poster.What are their predators? .. intertidal). white sturgeon. Give students the rubric in eulachon.author’s assumptions . the self-evaluation.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 GRADE 8 EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE: WATER SYSTEMS ON EARTH Prescribed Learning Outcomes It is expected that students will: D3 describe factors that affect productivity and species distribution in aquatic environments Suggested Achievement Indicators The following set of indicators may be used to assess student achievement for the prescribed learning outcome above. salmon. resource extraction. oysters.g. or more methods by which aquatic identifying environments are monitored. nutrients in the water. turbidity. which includes a diagram of the aquatic environment (e.g. Information should cover the following topics: . mussels.g. and advance so they are familiar with the criteria for abalone).. with specific reference to First Nations peoples in BC (e. use of resource) PLANNING FOR ASSESSMENT ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES • Have students research a given aquatic • Assess the extent to which students are able to species (e.How abundant are they? . • Have students read articles dealing with one • Have students evaluate the article they read.How do they obtain nutrients? . temperature.show interrelationships among species .Where does each species live? environments (e. dams) ‰ describe how changes in aquatic environments are monitored (e. through the use of satellite imagery) ‰ relate human activities to the distribution of aquatic species. otter. whitefish.g.How would each species respond to species and their environments changes in their aquatic environment? . salmon. seals.g. water depth. . harvesting technologies.the main points of the article . temperature.. currents. preservation techniques.. Evaluation Scale. salinity.connect information about species to Ask students to answer questions such as: previously learned information on aquatic . sunlight.season and location obtained 94 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . Resources could Storyboard and Oral Presentation: Group Self- include information on whales. duck).identify factors that would affect productivity . shellfish (clams. sea urchins. Students who have fully met the prescribed learning outcome are able to: ‰ identify various factors that affect productivity and species distribution in aquatic environments (e. pollutants. kelp..How would this environment be affected if their species disappeared? • Have students share research on related organisms.

CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 .4 to put together a ‘storyboard’ of several frames that outlines the sequence of events that occur during the capture and use of the resource.concerns with this resource today • Have students work in groups of 3 . perhaps by contacting the nearest First Nations community. Students should include in their presentations the significance of the resource for one or more Aboriginal communities.method of capture . • Students could supplement the information with their own research. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 95 .uses .preservation techniques .

excreted through through transpiration urea. residues of foods gives off carbon dioxide response to swims to catch food grows toward light nervous system is used to environment receive external stimuli and send messages to parts of the body 96 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 SAMPLE CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING ORGANISMS CHART Characteristics Paramecium Plant Human cellular composition only one cell multi-cellular multi-cellular retrieval/ food funnels down oral photosynthesis ingests food in the mouth and use of energy groove into gullet processes it in the digestive system production of waste wastes and extra water gives off extra water gives off carbon dioxide. and non-nutritious contractile vacuoles.

the secondary defence system .all primary defence systems . CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 BOARD GAME ASSESSMENT TOOL Teacher Evaluation Pre-game assessment Use the following to evaluate student board game plans. Did students .each of the body systems studied Constructive Comments: SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 97 . Did students .identify practical problem and criteria? .vaccines and antibodies .justify the original plan or include suggestions for further revisions to the game? Peer Assessment Board Game Developers: Peer Assessors: Criteria Scoring • all major components of board game are present and clearly 1 2 3 4 5 labelled • game instructions are clear and easy to follow 1 2 3 4 5 • game shows creativity 1 2 3 4 5 • game is aesthetically pleasing 1 2 3 4 5 • game content includes reference to 1 2 3 4 5 .the tertiary defence system .clearly identify and arrange all steps in a logical sequence? .include a sketch of the planned board game? Post-game assessment Use the following to evaluate student board game analyses after peer assessment has taken place.provide required materials and reasons for selection? .identify strengths and weaknesses of the game? .

uses an image stands out image distinguish catching that relates to the attracting from other info key idea attention. with memory connections concept map memorable Main ideas have no illustrations some key ideas concept map images are clear appropriate are illustrated. but clearly relate to and indicate phrases they don’t truly some could the concepts understanding link the ideas improve Ideas are coded little or no use colour or coding colour or coding for the use of colour with colour of colour or is used to link sections of the or coding is other code to sections of the concept map is effective in connect concept map. illustrates all the and lead to an illustrations some images are key ideas and some understanding of irrelevant of the supporting content details The concept map is out of 20 marks and is due ____________________. but clear and will help making the sections of the is confusing. lack of are sometimes connected and connected and title image with detail confusing. uses symbolism or humour Ideas branch little logical ideas branch but ideas are logically ideas are logically down from the order. clear. but show are obvious and are appropriate words or there are few or understanding. hard to clear. some show more detail accurately give increasing detail supporting detail as they branch more detail as is provided they branch Connecting few linking connecting works connecting words connecting words words or phrases connecting are present. but not eye. 98 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 .CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 CONCEPT MAP RUBRIC Criteria Performance Indicators Does not meet Minimally meets Fully meets Exceeds expectations expectations expectations expectations 1 mark 2 marks 3 marks 4 marks Title and title unclear.

CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 STORYBOARD AND ORAL PRESENTATION: GROUP SELF-EVALUATION SCALE Use this checklist to determine areas of strength and weakness in your group project. Names:_____________________ Never Sometimes Usually Always _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ TOPIC interesting to us interesting to the audience PREPARATION We were able to find sufficient information use appropriate information to produce a complete storyboard produce a logical storyboard sequence use an effective introduction use an effective conclusion use captions to explain the storyboard PRESENTATION We were able to speak clearly and confidently speak with expression use appropriate vocabulary speak fluently with few pauses or hesitations make eye contact with the audience explain the storyboard sequentially and logically answer student questions following the presentation Next time we would: SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 99 .

Have you learned a new skill. page number and procedure numbers. 2) Other experiments will require you to enter the complete procedure. for example: Could what you learned help you predict something? 5. 4. You must answer these in this section. What other instruments (apparatus) might one have used in this experiment? 3. The table is completed in pencil. Try to generalize: Would this procedure work for other materials? If so. what? 6. 100 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . e) It was observed that : (complete the sentence) the object was seen to ___________ the object sounded like ___________ the object felt like _________ the object smelled like _________ (use caution when smelling) (Note: Most of the above would not be used for any one procedure) Questions: At the end of each experiment you will find a question set that may be assigned. listing the steps to follow in conducting the experiment. How accurate do you think your results are? Explain. b) Tables are drawn with a ruler and include all data. Try to answer the following question: What was done for each procedure? What was seen/ heard/ felt/ smelled/ when you did the procedure? For example: a) Measurements of (length/mass/volume) were taken and recorded. The (mass/length/volume) of _____ was ________. may be stated as a question Materials: list of things you used in the experiment Procedure: 1) Some experiments will just require you to list the textbook – name. How could you use what you learned in your daily life? Has this experiment changed your attitude about something? 7. Name and describe any new terms and procedures you may have learned. c) Observed objects were drawn. A title for the table is included. Conclusions: Try to answer some of the following questions for each experiment: 1. d) Equipment used and its set up were diagrammed. Observations: These would come in the same order as the procedures. Correct symbols for units are used. Does what you learned have any value to you? (other than. How do you interpret your observations? 9. What are the connections and relationships that you have learned (more) about? Remember: not all of the above can be answered for every experiment. “because I have to remember it for the test”) 8.CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 LAB REPORT: PERFORMANCE TASK DEFINITION Name Block Lab Number Date [ACTIVITY NAME] Purpose: something that one sets out for oneself as an objective. but # 8 is always answered. (Did you do what you said you wanted to in the purpose?) 2. the aim of the experiment.

CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT MODEL • Grade 8 SCORING RUBRIC FOR LAB REPORT Beginning Developing Accomplished Exemplary Score 1 2 3 4 Purpose is not Purpose is Purpose is stated Purpose is stated. written. diagrams are diagrams are diagrams are included and are Data and not included. included but are included and are and are complete. written in personal person passive. Procedure is Procedure is Procedure is Procedure is written. included but is included and is included. Observations. written in 3rd person passive. mostly complete. It is Conclusion incomplete or has complete in 3rd complete. been used when required. data. determined and not stated. neat. opinions such as and includes “It smelled suggestions for yucky” or “I future experiments. other options to pursue. Conclusion is Conclusion is Conclusion is Conclusion is not included. included but are included and are complete and neat. to follow.” Total Score = SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 101 . A Diagrams incomplete complete and pencil and ruler have and/or messy. data and data and data. written but the written and the The processes to be Procedure processes to be processes to be used are easy to followed are not followed are easy follow and include clear. Observations. Observations. liked this lab. Questions and Questions and Questions and Questions and answers are answers are answers are answers are included Questions not included. written but the identifying the clearly identifying Purpose desired relationship to be the relationship to be relationship is determined. and Answers incomplete. Observations. and and diagrams are Observations. not written. 3rd person passive.

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LEARNING RESOURCES .

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Collection? The Grade Collection charts list the recommended Prior to selecting and purchasing new learning learning resources by media format. Please check this site for the most current list of recommended learning resources in the Grade What Are Recommended Learning Resources? Collections for each IRP. and ordering web site: information for the recommended www. OR • resources that have been evaluated through a What Kinds of Resources Are Found in a Grade local. Teachers may also wish to Teachers must use either supplement Grade Collection resources with • provincially recommended resources locally approved materials. board-approved process. What Are the Criteria Used to Evaluate Learning Resources? The Ministry of Education evaluates learning resources that support BC curriculum. In www. They are generally materials suitable for student The ministry updates the Grade Collections on a use. continue to support this reformatted IRP. games and the 1996 version of the curriculum.htm many cases.gov. Recommended learning resources are resources that have undergone a provincial evaluation Science 8 to 10 Grade Collections process using teacher evaluators and have The Grade Collections for Science 8 to 10 list the Minister’s Order granting them provincial recommended learning resources for these recommended status. that are easy to access. enabling teachers to select How Can Teachers Choose Learning Resources to resources that best suit different teaching and Meet Their Classroom Needs? learning styles. showing links resources. Teachers should check with centres.T his section contains general information The ministry updates the Grade Collections for on learning resources. descriptions. and provides a link each subject on a regular basis on the ministry to the titles. evaluated. but may also include information aimed regular basis as new resources are developed and primarily at teachers. Information about the recommended resources is Information about the recommended Grade organized in the format of a Grade Collection. an inventory of those resources that are to the curriculum organizers and suborganizers. Most suppliers maintain web sites various learning resources.ca/irp/esg/esgtoc.bc. valid. already available should be established through Each chart is followed by an annotated consultation with the school and district resource bibliography. . A Collection resources for Science 8 to 10 is Grade Collection can be regarded as a “starter set” maintained on the following ministry web site: of basic resources to deliver the curriculum. These resources may include courses.bc.bced.htm Collections. the Grade Collection provides a choice of more than one resource to support curriculum organizers.bced. instructional design. Evaluation criteria focus on content. video.ca/irp_resources/ learning resources in the Science 8 to 10 Grade lr/resource/gradcoll. Resources previously recommended for print.gov. The ministry also works with school suppliers for complete and up-to-date ordering districts to negotiate cost-effective access to information. and that will be used by teachers and/or students for instructional and assessment purposes. where still manipulatives. software and CD-ROMs. and other multimedia formats.

bc.ca/irp/resdocs/esm_guide. Learning Resources? As part of the selection process. is provided to school districts. Evaluating. including the purchase of learning Guide (Revised 2002) resources. Learning www. LEARNING RESOURCES technical considerations. 106 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . available for their needs. and social What Funding is Available for Purchasing considerations.pdf resource selection should be viewed as an ongoing process that requires a determination of needs.bced.gov. as well as long-term planning to co-ordinate individual goals and local priorities. teachers should be Additional information concerning the review aware of school and district funding policies and and selection of learning resources is available procedures to determine how much money is from the ministry publication. Funding for various Selecting and Managing Learning Resources: A purposes.

GLOSSARY .

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containing the elements: lithium. antigen A foreign material that enters an organism. It is provided for clarity only. neutrons and electrons that make up an atom. measured between the incident ray and the normal. adaptive radiation The process by which members of a species adapt to a variety of habitats. antibody A protein produced by B lymphocytes that complexes with invading antigens. sodium. acid A compound containing hydrogen. atomic number The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. and francium. GLOSSARY T his glossary includes terms used in this Integrated Resource Package. measured between the refracted ray and the normal. arête A sharp crested ridge that separates opposing alpine glaciers. magnesium. angle of incidence The angle of a ray of light approaching the boundary between two materials (such as from air into glass). atomic mass The total mass of the protons. barium. abiotic A The non-living parts of the environment such as water. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 109 . angle of refraction The angle of a ray of light emerging from the boundary between two materials (such as from air into glass). calcium. rubidium. alkali metal A chemical family of very reactive metals sharing similar chemical properties. and in which all the offspring are identical to each other and to the parent. air. rocks. strontium. which when it reacts with a compound containing a hydroxide ion. containing the elements: beryllium. atom The smallest particle of an element that can exist by itself. asexual reproduction A form of reproduction in which only one parent is involved. measured from its middle. defined specifically in relation to how they pertain to Science 8 to 10 topics. produces a salt and water. amplitude The height of a wave crest or depth of a wave trough. or equilibrium point. alkaline earth metal A chemical family of reactive metals sharing similar chemical properties. and is not intended to be an exhaustive list of terminology related to Science 8 to 10 topics. Alpha radiation A type of radiation resulting from the emission of helium nuclei from the nuclei of atoms. and radium. cesium.

cancer C A disease in which uncontrolled cell division results in the growth of malignant tumours in the body. by biological agents. centriole An organelle found in pairs in animal cells. binary fission A method of asexual reproduction in which the cell or organism splits into two equal parts. cell wall A structure in plant cells (and some other types of cells) made of cellulose and other materials. which when it reacts with an ionic compound containing a positive hydrogen ion. plants. Beta particle A high speed electron that is emitted by a radioactive nucleus in beta decay.g. biome A large area of the Earth that has characteristic climate. biotic All of the organisms in the environment. bromothymol blue A type of acid-base indicator that turns yellow when added to an acid. Bohr diagram A diagram that shows the arrangement of an element’s subatomic particles. catalyst A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed itself. Bohr Model The current model of the atom. boiling point The temperature at which a liquid undergoes a phase change to become a gas. produces a salt and water. which organizes the spindle for chromosome division. especially bacteria. animals and soil (e. until it drops off and becomes an independent organism. Desert). bioaccumulation The accumulation of a substance.GLOSSARY bacteria B Small (1 – 100 μm) prokaryotic cells. and electrons in electron shells. which describes the arrangement of the element’s subatomic particles: neutrons and electrons in the nucleus.. in various tissues of a living organism. biodegradation The process by which a product can be broken down naturally. base A compound containing hydroxide. budding A method of asexual reproduction in which the offspring develops as a bud on the parent. such as a toxic chemical. 110 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . which provides support for the plant cell.

covalent bonding The formation of a chemical bond through the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons. condensation The change of state of a substance from gas form to liquid form. convection A type of heat transfer in fluids (liquid or gas) where hot. Wegener in the early 20th century that proposed that continents moved around on the Earth’s surface and were at one time joined together. undersea plain stretching off the coast of a continent. climate Weather conditions in an area. compression The decrease in size (volume) of an object. including rainfall and temperature. Conservation of mass A scientific law that states that in a chemical reaction. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 111 . compound A pure substance that is made up of two or more elements that have been chemically combined. such as from steam to water. where a stable group of two or more species is able to survive and reproduce indefinitely in the same habitat. continental drift theory Theory put forth by A. climax community The final stage of succession. circulatory system The system that distributes nutrients and oxygen to the cells as well as removing wastes and carbon dioxide from the cells. and where heat is produced. combustion A type of chemical reaction in which oxygen is one of the reactants. commensalism A type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected. GLOSSARY chloroplast An organelle in plant cells that converts carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and glucose. caused by an increased external pressure acting on the object. This causes heat to be distributed evenly throughout the fluid. converging A description of light rays coming to a focal point after reflecting off a converging mirror or refracting through a converging lens. covalent compound A compound that is formed when non-metallic atoms share electrons to form a covalent bond. less dense fluid rises and cold. continental shelf A shallow. conductivity The ability or power of a substance to conduct or transmit heat or electricity. the total mass of the reactants always equals the total mass of the products. concentration The amount of solute present in a specific volume of solution. denser fluid sinks.

It is often thought of as the amount of movement or potential movement. energy The capacity for applying a force to effect motion. ecological succession E The process of gradual change that occurs when organisms colonize a habitat. drumlin An elongated (oval) hill formed by glacial movement. erratic Large rocks carried to a new location by a glacier and left behind after the glacier melts. digestive system The system that allows organisms to take in. break down and absorb nutrients. decomposition A type of chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into two or more elements or simpler compounds. AB + CDÆ AD + CB). eukaryotic cell A cell with a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. modify it. and are forced out by a new species better adapted to the now altered environment.g. cytoplasm The aqueous material and suspended organelles between the nucleus and cell membrane. deposition Phase change of a gas to a solid. diverging A description of light rays spreading apart after reflecting off a diverging mirror or refracting through a diverging lens. density The amount of mass contained in a given volume. that is composed of four different types of nucleotides arranged in a chain. The erratic differs from the rock types surrounding it. double replacement A type of chemical reaction during which elements in different compounds exchange places (e. erosion The movement of weathered materials. ecosystem A network of interactions linking the biotic and abiotic things. embryonic development The stages through which the developing offspring progresses from fertilization until about 8 to 10 weeks. electromagnetic radiation The total range or spectrum of energy in the form of waves that extend from the longest radio waves to the shortest gamma and cosmic rays. usually measured in joules (J).GLOSSARY crest The highest point in a wave amplitude as measured from its middle or equilibrium point.. decomposer D An organism that feeds on waste and dead organisms. 112 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . usually measured in kg/cm3. DNA The genetic material of the cell.

expansion The increase in size of an object. Gamma rays The highest energy or frequency and shortest wavelength portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.. usually measured in cycles/second or hertz (Hz). focal point The point at which converging light rays meet or from which light rays diverge. frequency The number of repetitive motions. usually measured in newtons (N). freezing point The characteristic temperature at which a liquid solidifies. It is usually involves the release of a large amount of energy. evaporation The change of state of a substance from liquid form to gas form. the cell contains only half the number of chromosomes. fusion The joining of two small atomic nuclei to make a larger one. gamete G A reproductive cell of a sexually reproducing organism. food pyramid A diagram used to illustrate relationships between an organism’s population size and its place in a food chain. or oscillations. fission The process by which a large nucleus splits into two pieces of roughly equal mass.(e. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 113 .g. food chain A series of organisms. fertilization F The process in which a male and female gamete fuse to form a zygote. fragmentation A type of asexual reproduction in which a large or small fragment of an organism can break off and develop into a new organism. For example. a magnet applies a pulling force on a piece of iron. that occur in a given time. food web Food chains linked together within a particular ecosystem. SunÆgrassÆ rabbitÆfox). caused by a decreased external pressure acting on the object. each of which relies for its food on the organism before it in the chain. friction A type of force that acts to oppose the motion of one object in contact with and relative to another object. accompanied by the release of large amounts of energy. GLOSSARY excretory system The system that allows organisms to remove wastes. force A push or pull acting on an object. Gamma radiation Electromagnetic radiation emitted from the nuclei of atoms. Produced through the process of meiosis.

such as the earth and a baseball. halogen A family of reactive non-metals sharing similar chemical properties. half-life H The amount of time required for half the nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay. immune system The system that allows organisms to defend against disease. gas exchange Carbon dioxide enters the blood and oxygen leaves the blood at the body cells. hot spot Location of excess radioactivity. chlorine. gene A segment of chromosome. causing magma to rise from the mantle through the lithosphere to the surface. gravitation A type of pulling force that acts between two or more objects. ionic bonding The bond that forms as a result of the attraction between positively and negatively charged ions. genetic engineering The alteration of the genetic material of an organism through the addition or substitution of certain genes. has a longer wavelength and lower energy/frequency. ion An atom or group of atoms that is positively r negatively charged as a result of either gaining or losing one or more electrons. and astatine. and their accumulation over time in the bodies of mammals can cause serious illness.GLOSSARY gastric juice A fluid with a pH of 2-3 produced by the walls of the stomach. It is also referred to as heat radiation. The process is reversed in the lungs. heavy metals Metals such as mercury. lead and cadmium which have no known vital or beneficial effect on organisms. which codes for a specific protein. relative to light. inorganic The chemistry of compounds that do not contain carbon. iodine. horn A sharp peak formed by the movement of two or more opposing glaciers. that contains the elements fluorine. bromine. hydraulic A term that describes a device that is operated by the action of water or other liquid. infrared I A type of electromagnetic radiation that. glaciation The condition or result of being covered with a thick sheet of ice. 114 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . ionic compound A compound that forms as a result of positive and negative ions being held together by an ionic bond.

molecule A particle that consists of two or more atoms that are joined together. also called a spreading ridge. mantle convection Thermal energy transfer in the mantle where hot. keystone species K A particular type of organism that exerts great influence on an ecosystem relative to its abundance. similar charges repel each other. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 115 . light magma rises and cold. mass The amount of matter that makes up an object. litmus paper A type of acid-base indicator that turns one colour when added to a base. GLOSSARY isotopes Atomic nuclei having the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. magnetic M A type of force that acts on the elements iron. and a different colour in an acid. melting point The temperature at which a substance changes from a sold to liquid state. mid-ocean ridge Undersea mountain range that marks a divergent plate boundary. lens A curved piece of transparent material that refracts light in such a way as to converge or diverge parallel light rays. mirror A device or surface that reflects light. laws of electrical charge L Opposite charges attract each other. melting The change of state of a substance from solid form to liquid form. metabolism The chemical reactions that take place in a living organism to provide energy. mass number The total number of protons and neutrons found in the nucleus of an atom. Lewis diagram A representation of the element’s atom showing only the outer valence electrons. utilize materials and carry out vital processes. dense lithospheric plate material sinks. microwave A type of electromagnetic radiation that has a longer wavelength and lower energy/frequency than infrared radiation. nickel or cobalt. charged objects attract neutral objects. mitochondrion An organelle in eukaryotic cells that converts oxygen and glucose into cellular energy (ATP) carbon dioxide and water. usually measured in kilograms (kg). light The form of energy that can be detected by the eye.

which directs the production of proteins. mutualism A type of symbiotic relationship in which organisms interact for mutual benefit. wind friction.GLOSSARY multiple ion charge Some metallic elements can form two different ionic charges depending on what type of chemical reaction they undergo (e.. ocean current O A large stream of moving water produced by gravity. harmful or neutral affect on the organism. which is deposited at the edges or end at the glacial flow. opaque A description of a material’s ability to prevent any light from passing through it. and water density. organelles A part of a eukaryotic cell that performs an essential life function. or under a glacier. which may have either a beneficial. 116 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . on. neutralization A chemical reaction in which an acid and a base combine to produce a salt and water. where the environment acts to select fit individuals. radon. nucleus A membrane-bound structure in eukaryotic cells that contains the genetic material and regulates the cell’s activities (i. argon.e. organ A group of tissues that perform a function. mutation A change in the genetic material of the cell. xenon. noble gases A family of non reactive element sharing similar chemical properties. neon. that contains the elements: helium. organic The chemistry of compounds that contain carbon. nutrient A material that organisms need to live and grow. moraine Material carried in. organ system A group of organs and tissues that perform a function to keep an organism alive.. The nucleus is also the control centre that contains the cell’s genetic material. krypton. Fe+2 or Fe+3).g. proposed by Darwin. growth and metabolism). natural selection N The process. nervous system The system that allows the various parts of an organism communicate and work in concert. normal An imaginary line that is perpendicular to the boundary between two materials (such as air and glass) and intersects the point at which the incident ray reaches the boundary. organism A living being that could be single-celled or multi-celled.

GLOSSARY osmosis The movement of water from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. proliferation To grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissues. dead tissue cells. polyatomic ion A group of atoms that collectively carry a charge. pneumatic A term that describes a device that is operated by air or other gas. phenolphthalein A type of acid-base indicator that turns pink when added to a base. and are poisonous environmental pollutants which tend to accumulate in animal tissues. but with a nucleoid region and molecules that perform the functions of the organelles of eukaryotic cells. usually measured in Newtons/cm2. pesticide A substance used to control populations of plant or animal pests. phagocytic white blood cells Specialized white blood cells that act to remove foreign substances within the body (e. plate boundary Location where two plates meet and move relative to each other.g. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 117 . bacteria. cells. prokaryotic cell A cell with no nucleus and membrane bound organelles. They are called phagocytic because they engulf and absorb the foreign substance. or other harmful material that can cause damage to an organism. and small mineral particles) and thus fight infection. predation A situation wherein one organism [the predator] kills and consumes another organism [the prey]. pH A symbol denoting the concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. plate tectonic theory Theory explaining that the Earth’s surface is made up of several lithospheric plates that move around relative to one another. toxin. or offspring.. sliding over the semi-fluid asthenosphere. paleoglaciation P A term describing past periods of extensive glaciation that covered most of the continents. potassium An element that is considered an nutrient. parasitism A type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is harmed. pathogen A bacteria. and needed to live and grow. pressure The amount of force acting over a given area on an object. PCBs Any of several compounds that are produced by replacing hydrogen atoms in biphenyl with chlorine.

It controls what enters and leaves the cell. selectively permeable membrane The type of membrane that surrounds cells. liquid or gas. the first cell of an offspring. spreading ridge Undersea mountain range that marks a divergent plate boundary. solidification The change of state of a substance from liquid form to solid form. The fusion of the two gametes produces the zygote. also called a mid-ocean ridge. such as from water to ice. the visible spectrum contains a range of several colours or frequencies of white light. single replacement A type of chemical reaction in which one element replaces another in a compound. respiratory system The system responsible for acquiring oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the body. state A phase of matter. may be solid. while the weight of the ridge being formed along a spreading mid-ocean ridge pushes the rest of (the same) tectonic plate away from the ridge. subducting plate material pulls the rest of the attached plate toward the subduction zone and down into the mantle. often towards a subduction zone salinity S The amount of salt in ocean water expressed in parts per thousand salt A compound formed by the reaction of an acid and a base. ribosome An organelle in eukaryotic cells that converts oxygen and glucose into cellular energy (ATP) carbon dioxide and water. sexual reproduction The type of reproduction that requires the involvement of two parents. ridge push and slab pull A process that facilitates plate movement whereby dense. reproductive system The systems that allow organisms to produce offspring. each of whom contributes a gamete. refraction The bending or changing direction of a wave or light ray as it passes from one material into another.GLOSSARY radioactive decay R The process in which the nuclei of radioactive parent isotopes emit alpha. beta. spectrum A range of frequencies for a given type of radiation. For example. radio waves A type of electromagnetic radiation that has the longest wavelength and lowest energy/frequency compared to all other types. 118 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . or gamma radiation to form decay products.

and electron that make up the atom. transform fault A type of plate boundary where two plates slide past each other horizontally in opposite directions relative to each other. surface area The extent of a two dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary. trench A long narrow depression in the ocean floor that marks a convergent plate boundary and is part of a subduction zone. Such materials do not allow objects to be seen distinctly. transparent A description of a material’s ability to allow light to pass through it freely. trophic level The number of energy transfers an organism is from the original solar energy entering the food chain. tissue A group of structurally similar cells that perform a common function. SCIENCE GRADE 8 • 119 . Objects can be clearly seen through such materials. symbiosis A relationship in which two different organisms live in a close association. divergence and transform movement of the earth’s lithospheric plates. subatomic particle A particle that is smaller than an atom. translucent A description of a material’s ability to partially allow light to pass through it in such a way that it becomes diffused. GLOSSARY stem cells The self –regenerating cells found in the marrow of the long bones that give rise by differentiation and cell division to different types of cells. neutron. trough The lowest point in a wave amplitude as measured from its middle or equilibrium point. It is a term that usually refers to the proton. synthesis A type of chemical reaction in which two or more elements or compounds combine to form a single compound. By combining with the foreign substance (antigen). where one plate subducts beneath and is destroyed by the other overriding plate sublimation The change of state of a substance from solid form to gas form or vice versa. tectonic processes T The convergence. subduction zone Zone representing a convergent plate boundary. striations Parallel grooves in rocks or bedrock formed by glaciers scraping rocks over other rocks. tertiary defence system A component of the immune system that involves the creation of antibodies – proteins created by specialized white blood cells in response to foreign substances (antigens). the antibodies may themselves neutralize it or alternatively flag it to bring it to the attention of other white blood cells that will attack and destroy it.

relative to light. wave W A transfer of energy as a disturbance from one point in a material to another without causing any permanent displacement of the material. wind action The processes or results of wind. corn syrup has a higher viscosity than water. It is composed of the following component colours: red. volume the amount of space taken up by an object. has a shorter wavelength and higher energy/frequency. relative to other forms. blue and violet. For example. has an average wavelength and energy/frequency. usually measured in liters or cubic centimeters (cm3). chemical or biological means. white blood cell Cells produced by red bone marrow and found in the blood or lymph. orange. weathering The breaking down of rock by physical. in which an offspring develops from a part of the plant other than the flower. until it divides. virus A small (10 – 100nm) non-cellular particle that reproduces inside of other cells viscosity A description of a fluid’s resistance to flow. These cells fight pathogens in several different ways. ultraviolet U A type of electromagnetic radiation that. X-rays X A type of electromagnetic radiation that has a shorter wavelength and higher energy/frequency than ultraviolet.GLOSSARY turbidity Cloudiness in water caused by suspended materials. weight The amount of pulling force that gravity from earth or another celestial body exerts on an object. 120 • SCIENCE GRADE 8 . yellow. wavelength The distance between successive crests or troughs in a series of waves. green. zygote Z The cell formed by the fusion of a male and female gamete. vacuole V A membrane bound sac that holds fluids or other materials vegetative reproduction A method of asexual reproduction in plants. visible light A type of electromagnetic radiation that.