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Open well submersible pumps are relatively new product in the family of centrifugal pumps. These pumps are immersed in the working fluid unlike the conventional centrifugal pumps. Optimizati…Full description

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Volume 8, Issue 2, February 2017, pp. 56–69 Article ID: IJMET_08_02_008

Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=8&IType=2

ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

© IAEME Publication

**DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF SUBMERSIBLE
**

PUMP IMPELLER

A. Joe Ajay

Scholar, Department of Mechanical Engineering,

Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

**S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen
**

Associate Professor, Department of Mathematics,

Karunya University, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India

ABSTRACT

Open well submersible pumps are relatively new product in the family of centrifugal

pumps. These pumps are immersed in the working fluid unlike the conventional centrifugal

pumps. Optimization of the design of the impeller without changing the diameter is one

difficult task as it would not allow much increase in the head, hence the diameters are kept

constant and the objective was formulated to improve the head claimed by the industry, by

minimising the head losses that are particular to the impeller. The impeller design parameters

are optimized using optimization algorithms such as GA,SA,PS etc and the optimized values

are used for design of new impeller. This design is then tested using commercially available

CFD package Ansys CFX with k-epsilon, k-epsilon EARMS and SST turbulence models.

Key words: Non-traditional optimization, Shape optimization, Turbo machinery, Centrifugal

pump.

Cite this Article: A. Joe Ajay and S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen. Design and Optimization

of Submersible Pump Impeller. International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and

Technology, 8(2), 2017, pp. 56–69.

http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=8&IType=2

1. INTRODUCTION

General methodologies to improve design of conventional systems are: inverse design and

optimization. Inverse design involves by defining the pressure distribution along the blades of the

impeller. In any pump system, there are always losses which are added to the overall performance of

the system [1]. These losses can be categorized as: Electrical, Hydraulic and Mechanical losses. An

attempt has been made in this research work to improve the head of the pump, by minimizing the

hydraulic losses. Another way of defining the optimizing the design is by reducing the losses involved

in the system. Evolutationary mathematical optimization techniques such as Genetic Algorithm,

Particle swarm optimization etc., are used for design optimization [2]. Which involve non-linear

mathematical model and found to be effective in terms of time, accuracy & maximixed result.

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 56 editor@iaeme.com
**

A. Joe Ajay and S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen

**2. LITERATURE AND INFERENCES
**

There has been numerous work carried out on optimization of impeller design of the pump. [1] uses,

Theoretical model is described to predict the centrifugal pump performance when its impeller is

equipped with splitters. Methodology used compares the constructional differences of the pump

equipped with splitter blades as compared with the conventional pump. Hydraulic loss analysis were

done to predict the performance of centrifugal pumps. [3] has found the losses associated with the

performance of the pump and used to theoretically estimate the head of the pump and validate with

experimentation. [4] uses, artificial bee colony algorithm for optimization of the impeller and has

shown an improvement of 3.59% in efficiency. [5] has done study on the performance of the pump by

varying the outlet angle as the design parameter. [6] has used trial and error method and optimized the

head of the pump using CFD analysis.[7] has used orthogonal array and varied the design parameters

and found their effectiveness in the head of the pump through CFD.

**2.1. OBSERVATIONS FROM LITERATURES
**

• 1-D study is used for vane design.

• Larges radius makes more head.

• Changes in the outlet vane angle changes the efficiency of the impeller.

• Optimum vane angle is achieved step by step with different CAD models

• Rotational momentum equation has to be solved for turbo machines in CFD

3. METHODOLOGY

From the research gap postulated in section 2, The procedure to optimize the pump design is discussed

in the following section. A market available pump of 5HP rating was taken for study and it was found

that the submersible pump has a delivery head of 25m, Hence objective was formulated to improve

this delivery head. First and foremost the head formulation for the pump with losses will be done. This

is followed by CFD analysis of the existing design. The second part was to choose the optimization

technique to use for optimization, those chosen techniques will be used for optimization. The final part

involves the CFD analysis of the optimized design of the impeller.

Study on existing design

CFD of existing impeller design

Head Optimization using Matlab

CFD study on optimized impeller

Figure 1 Methodology

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 57 editor@iaeme.com
**

Design and Optimization of Submersible Pump Impeller

4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1. Head Formulation

In order to optimize the head, the head of the pump has been formulated. From Euler's equation for

turbo machinery the head of the centrifugal pump without whirl is given as [4]:

Hth = (1)

The head losses identified are:

Circulation head Loss: As described in [1], circulation is caused by increase in relative velocity at inlet

and decrease in relative velocity at the outlet of the impeller ,

Hc = (2)

Inlet incidence loss: has been calculated as described in [1]

.

Hi = (3)

Impeller friction loss: A s described in [5] due to surface of the impeller and vanes the there would be

emery dissipation and this would be given as

Hf = × ×

(4)

Where

The hydraulic radius Hr =

Hence the net total head with losses will be:

Hnet = Hth − Hc − Hi − Hf (5)

4.2. CFD Analysis

In the process of design, the pre final step would be the simulation process that would be CFD analysis

of the impeller to find the head for the duty point discharge. In order to validate the optimized model

the initial step would be to simulate the existing design and check with the mathematical model

prepared. Initially the existing design impeller was measured for the design parameters and is follows:

• Inlet diameter(D1) : 76mm

• Outlet diameter(D2) :160.4mm

• Inlet blade angle(β1) : 300

• Outlet blade angle (β 2): 300

• Inlet impeller width (b1): 18mm

• Outlet impeller width(b2) : 10.2mm

• No.of vanes(Z) : 6

The pre processing was done with the rotational velocity of 2810rpm (motor rated) and boundary

conditions were

• Inlet : 1 atm

• Outlet: Duty point mass flow rate (6.05kg/s )

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 58 editor@iaeme.com
**

A. Joe Ajay and S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen

Studies show there has been few turbulence models that are to be used for centrifugal pump

simulation [6]. Hence most popular turbulence models are selected, they are:

• K-epsilon

• K-epsilon EARMS

• Shear stress Transport model (SST)

These models were tested using Ansys CFX and their results were found.

4.4. Optimization Methods

For the proposed problem, design optimization would be to performed to improve the duty point head

(25m). As described in Section 3.2, since Eq-5 involves nonlinear terms it would be of choice to use

non-traditional optimization techniques. According to the work done in [2], it was identified to use 3

popular solvers namely:

• Genetic algorithm (GA)

• Particle swarm optimization (PSO)

• Pattern search (PS)

4.4.1. Genetic Algorithm

Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a search algorithm based on the conjecture of natural selection and

genetics. The algorithm is a multi-path that searches many peaks in parallel, and hence reducing the

possibility of local minimum trapping. GA works with a coding of parameters instead of the

parameters themselves. The coding of parameter will help the genetic operator to evolve the current

state into the next state with minimum computations. GA evaluates the fitness of each string to guide

its search instead of the optimization function. There is no requirement for derivatives or other

auxiliary knowledge. GA explores the search space where the probability of finding improved

performance is high.

**4.4.2. Particle swarm Optimization
**

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based stochastic approach for solving continuous

and discrete optimization problems. In particle swarm optimization, simple software agents, called

particles, move in the search space of an optimization problem. The position of a particle represents a

candidate solution to the optimization problem at hand. Each particle searches for better positions in

the search space by changing its velocity according to rules originally inspired by behavioral models

of bird flocking. Particle swarm optimization belongs to the class of swarm intelligence techniques

that are used to solve optimization problems.

4.4.3. Pattern Search

Pattern search finds a local minimum of an objective function by the following method, called polling.

In this description, words describing pattern search quantities are in bold. The search starts at an initial

point, which is taken as the current point in the first step:

1. Generate a pattern of points, typically plus and minus the coordinate directions, times a mesh size,

and center this pattern on the current point.

2. Evaluate the objective function at every point in the pattern.

3. If the minimum objective in the pattern is lower than the value at the current point, then the poll

is successful, and the following happens:

3a. the minimum point found becomes the current point.

3b. the mesh size is doubled.

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 59 editor@iaeme.com
**

Design and Optimization of Submersible Pump Impeller

**3c. the algorithm proceeds to Step 1.
**

4. If the poll is not successful, then the following happens:

4a. the mesh size is halved.

4b. if the mesh size is below a threshold, the iterations stop.

4c. Otherwise, the current point is retained, and the algorithm proceeds at Step 1.

5. RESULTS & DISCUSSION

5.1. Existing Design Performance Evaluation

With the dimensions of the impeller measured the losses were estimated. The duty point mass flow

rate was given as the outlet boundary condition, CFD analysis was done for the three specified

turbulence models. Following are the result by theoretical and CFD analyses.

**Table 1 Losses developed in the impeller
**

Head Losses

Discharge Theoretical Net Head Head claimed by

(m3/s) Head (m) Circulation Inlet Incident Frictional (m) the industry (m)

head (m) Loss (m) head (m)

**0.00605 38.29 14.8634 0.2121 0.0179 23.1967 25
**

It can be seen that the circulation head contributes to the maximum this is due to the fact that the

speed is taken is constant [8]. Inlet incident loss contributes less, this is because of the fact that, the

whirl velocity involved in the loss (Eq-3), is dependent on the discharge and the same is applicable for

the frictional loss (Eq-4).

**5.2. Simulation of Existing Design
**

From literature [6], it could be found that there are few most common turbulence models used for

centrifugal pump simulation. The existing design was tested for accurate models listed in [6].

**Table 2 Turbulence model comparison
**

Turbulence model Head (m)

K-epsilon 38.22

K-epsilon EARMS 38.15

SST 38.6

From table 2 we find that the K-epsilon model is much closer to the net theoretical head (38.29m),

hence it would be convenient to use the same for simulation purpose of the optimized model.

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 60 editor@iaeme.com
**

A. Joe Ajay and S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen

**Figure 2 Simulation of existing design
**

From fig 2, it is evident that the solution has converged properly, And that the head has converged

to the value of 38.22m at the outlet.

5.4. Optimization Computation

The problem described in section 4 is coded in MATLAB and the above mentioned algorithms were

used for optimization. Twenty trails were performed as described in [2]. and the average for each

parameter were taken as the design parameters from the each solver. The net head was calculate for

each parameters from the solvers.

**Table 3 GA result table
**

Trial .No b1 (m) b2 (m) B1 (deg) B2 (deg) Z

1 0.01971 0.011205 32.22278 27.00377 6.99811

2 0.0198 0.011219 31.72584 27.03114 6.998719

3 0.01979 0.011193 32.23771 27 6.994889

4 0.019032 0.011217 32.97973 27.0132 6.999988

5 0.019741 0.011195 29.51032 27.0003 6.99833

6 0.019677 0.011184 30.28991 27.00998 6.997203

7 0.019786 0.011215 32.99356 27 6.998972

8 0.018781 0.011204 32.42831 27.00353 6.989807

9 0.01979 0.011193 32.98755 27.00222 6.992399

10 0.019737 0.011216 32.9468 27.00058 6.998951

11 0.016839 0.011172 32.87619 27.01357 6.999877

12 0.019782 0.011174 32.99054 27.0041 6.990989

13 0.01978 0.011118 32.45682 27.01457 6.99466

14 0.019654 0.011168 32.73113 27 6.999756

15 0.019784 0.011205 32.02996 27.04251 6.996918

16 0.019771 0.011202 32.96209 27.02306 6.998907

17 0.019768 0.011148 32.51205 27.00315 6.997679

18 0.019154 0.011216 32.99998 27.12727 6.998472

19 0.019762 0.011144 32.77239 27 6.99693

20 0.019592 0.011178 31.64257 27.00767 6.998228

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 61 editor@iaeme.com
**

Design and Optimization of Submersible Pump Impeller

0 10 20

7 .0 0 0

6 .9 9 5

Z

6 .9 9 0

2 7 .1 5

B2(deg)

2 7 .1 0

2 7 .0 5

2 7 .0 0

34

33

B1(deg)

32

31

30

29

0 .0 1 1 2 5

b2(m)

0 .0 1 1 2 0

0 .0 1 1 1 5

0 .0 1 1 1 0

0 .0 2 0

b1 (m)

0 .0 1 9

0 .0 1 8

0 .0 1 7

0 10 20

T r a i ls

**Figure 3 Performance of Genetic algorithm
**

From the fig 3 we see that there are not much variations in inlet width and outlet angle parameter

but No.of vanes, outlet width and inlet angle show considerable variations during trail runs.

**Table 4 PS result table
**

Trial. No b1(m) b2(m) B1(deg) B2(deg) Z

1 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

2 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

3 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

4 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

5 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

6 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

7 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

8 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

9 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

10 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

11 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

12 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

13 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

14 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

15 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

16 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

17 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

18 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

19 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

20 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 62 editor@iaeme.com
**

A. Joe Ajay and S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen

0 10 20

7

6

Z

5

B2(deg) 3 3 .0

3 1 .5

3 0 .0

2 8 .5

2 7 .0

3 3 .0

B1(deg)

3 1 .5

3 0 .0

2 8 .5

2 7 .0

1 .0

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

b2(m)

0 .2

0 .0

-0 .2

-0 .4

-0 .6

-0 .8

1 .0

0 .8

0 .6

0 .4

b1(m)

0 .2

0 .0

-0 .2

-0 .4

-0 .6

-0 .8

0 10 20

T r a ils

**Figure 4 Performance of Pattern Search algorithm
**

From Fig 4, it is evident that there has not been any change in the existing design that the Pattern

Search solver identifies and there has not been any change in the head of the pump.

**Table 5 PSO result table
**

Trial. No b1(m) b2(m) B1(deg) B2(deg) Z

1 0.0198 0.01122 32.99999 27 7

2 0.0198 0.01122 33 27 6.999999

3 0.0198 0.01122 33 27 7

4 0.0198 0.01122 32.97518 27 7

5 0.0198 0.01122 32.99998 27 7

6 0.0198 0.01122 32.99998 27 7

7 0.0198 0.01122 32.98641 27 7

8 0.0198 0.01122 33 27 7

9 0.0198 0.01122 32.99998 27 7

10 0.0198 0.01122 32.99999 27 7

11 0.0198 0.01122 33 27 7

12 0.0198 0.01122 32.99837 27.00047 7

13 0.0198 0.01122 32.99995 27 7

14 0.0198 0.01122 33 27 7

15 0.016914 0.011219 33 27 7

16 0.016914 0.01122 32.99999 27.00002 6.999999

17 0.0198 0.01122 32.99998 27 7

18 0.0198 0.01122 32.99999 27 7

19 0.0198 0.01122 33 27 7

20 0.0198 0.01122 32.99992 27.00016 7

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 63 editor@iaeme.com
**

Design and Optimization of Submersible Pump Impeller

0 10 20

7 .0 0 0 0 0 0 0

6 .9 9 9 9 9 9 5

6 .9 9 9 9 9 9 0

2 7 .0 0 0 6

2 7 .0 0 0 4

B2(deg)

2 7 .0 0 0 2

2 7 .0 0 0 0

3 3 .0 0

B1(deg)

3 2 .9 9

3 2 .9 8

3 2 .9 7

0 .0 1 1 2 2 0 0

0 .0 1 1 2 1 9 8

0 .0 1 1 2 1 9 6

0 .0 1 1 2 1 9 4

0 .0 2 0

b1(m)

0 .0 1 9

0 .0 1 8

0 .0 1 7

0 10 20

T r a ils

**Figure 5 Performance of Particle swarm Optimization algorithm
**

From Fig 5, it is identified that there is not been much variations in any of the parameter and the

solver solves more evenly than that of GA and PS, The head for these parameters the head of the pump

increases significantly.

Table 6 Optimized parameters

**Inlet Inlet Outlet
**

Outlet No.of

Method width-b1 angle-β1 angle-β2 Head (m)

width-b2 (m) blades-Z

(m) (deg) (deg)

Existing Design 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6 23.2

GA 0.0195 0.011 32 27 7 29.36

PS 0.018 0.0102 30 30 6 23.2

PSO 0.0195 0.011 33 27 7 29.37

From table 6 it is identified that the parameters by PSO gives the maximum head of 29.37m which

states that there has been an improvement of 26.6% in the head. Hence these parameters are taken for

simulation purposes.

**5.4. Theoretical Characteristics of Optimized Design
**

The parameters from the optimization were used on the mathematical model developed and the losses

are estimated.

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 64 editor@iaeme.com
**

A. Joe Ajay and S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen

Table 7 Theoretical head of optimized design

Head Loss

Discharge Theoretical

Net Head (m)

(m3/s) Head (m) Circulation Inlet Incident Loss Frictional head

head (m) (m) (m)

0.00605 41.103 11.5677 0.1428 0.0181 29.37

Circulation Loss

Optimized Design

Existing Design

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Loss (m)

**Figure 6 Circulation Loss comparisons
**

From fig 6, it is understood that there is has been significant decrease in the circulation head for

the pump by 22.17%. The decrease is due to the increase in the slip developed in the flow at outlet.

Inlet Incident Loss

Optimized Design

Existing Design

0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Loss (m)

**Figure 7 Inlet incident loss comparison
**

From the fig 7, it is seen that there has been decrease in the inlet incident loss, at duty point the

decrease is 32.67%. This is due to the fact that the outlet whirl velocity is dependent on the discharge

and so it is observed as in Eq-3.

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 65 editor@iaeme.com
**

Design and Optimization of Submersible Pump Impeller

Frictional Loss

Optimized Design

Existing Design

**0.01780.017850.01790.01795 0.018 0.018050.01810.01815
**

Loss(m)

**Figure 8 Frictional head loss comparison
**

From the fig 8, it is found that there has been an increase in the friction head, this is due to the fact

that there is a decrement in the outlet angle and at duty point the increase is 1.11%.

**5.5. Simulation of the Optimized Design
**

As described in the section 3.4 k-epsilon turbulence model was used to simulate the model. and it was

found that there is 2.36% improvement in the head.

**Figure 9 Simulated result of optimized impeller
**

This improvement of 2.36% in the head of the pump is mainly due to increased number of vanes

and the increased slip of the flow at the impeller outlet.

The work is wrapped up by comparing the improvement in the performance and the changes in the

parameters. It could be shown in table 8 that the changes in the parameters are within the ±10%

variation [3]. All the means of evaluating the performance has shown the improvement and is listed in

table 9.

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 66 editor@iaeme.com
**

A. Joe Ajay and S. Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen

**Table 8 Design parameters of the impeller
**

Parameters Existing dimension Optimized dimension

Inlet width (m) 0.018 0.0195

Outlet width (m) 0.0102 0.011

Inlet angle (deg) 30 33

Outlet angle (deg) 30 27

No.of blades 6 7

**Table 9 Optimized Head
**

Method Percentage improvement (%)

Theoretical 17.48

Simulation 2.36

6. CONCLUSION

The pump selected had a power rating of 5HP , it was observed that the existing pump can give a duty

point delivery head of 25m and discharge of 0.00605m3/s. It was desired to improve the delivery head

of the pump, hence design optimization was adopted. The impeller dimensions were noted and used in

mathematical model to theoretically calculate the head of the pump. The mathematical model

developed was used as objective function and constrains were the five design parameters with ±10%

from the existing dimensions. Most popular algorithms as specified in [2] were used include: Genetic

algorithm (GA), Particle swarm optimization (PSO), Pattern search algorithm (PS). These algorithms

were run for 20 trails as in [2] and the average of these runs were taken as the optimized value of

design parameters. Among three PSO algorithm gave maximum head of The head was calculated for

these parameters and theoretically it was improved by 17.48%. The changes in losses were:

• Circulation loss decreased by : 22.17%

• Inlet incident loss decreased by 32.67%

• Frictional loss increased by 1.11%

The increase in frictional loss is due to the fact that there is decrease in the outlet angle. Simulation

of the head was done for the pump with K-epsilon model and it was found that there was an

improvement by 2.36% .

Figure 10 Existing impeller

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 67 editor@iaeme.com
**

Design and Optimization of Submersible Pump Impeller

Figure 11 Optimized impeller

Figure 12 Existing and optimized impeller cut section

REFERENCES

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With Splitter Blades," Mansoura Engineering Journal, Pp. M50-M70, 2009.

[2] R. M. S. J. A. S.Elizabeth Amudhini Stephen, "Optimization Of Thermal Comfort In Office

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[3] M. P. E. A. A. R. A. O. Shahram Derakhshan, "Numerical shape optimization of a centrifugal pump

impeller using artificial bee colony algorithm," Computers & Fluids, pp. 145-151, 2013.

[4] W. C. K. W. H. F. J. P. M. Igor J.Karassik, Pump handbook, 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill Book Company.

[5] M. M. K. a. K. M. A. Khin Cho Thin, "Design and Performance Analysis of Centrifugal Pump,"

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, pp. 366-373, 2008.

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[15] J. F. Guilich, Centrifugal pumps. Springer, 2010.

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and Improving it’s Efficiency Using CFDA Through Theoretical Analysis, International Journal of

Mechanical Engineering & Technology (IJMET), 6 (5), 2015, pp. 51-55

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Models for Flow Simulation of Double Suction Centrifugal Pump. International Journal of Civil

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