Ch.

9 Review Packet Answers - 1

Chapter 9 Review Packet

1. The hybridization of the central nitrogen of N2O is:
a) not hybridized.
b) sp
c) sp2
d) sp3
e) dsp3

2. The hybridization of the central atom, sulfur, in SF4 is:
a) sp
b) sp2
c) sp3
d) dsp3
e) d2sp3

3. The hybridization of sulfur in the sulfate anion, SO42, is:
a) sp3
b) sp2
c) sp
d) s2p3
e) not hybridized

4. In the BeF2 molecule the Be valence orbitals are:
a) sp hybrids
b) sp2 hybrids • •• •• •
c) sp3 hybrids • F — Be — F •
d) dsp2 hybrids •• ••
e) none of the above

5. The hybridization of the centra1 atom, Al, in AlBr3 is •• ••
•Br • • Br••
a) sp • • •
b) sp2
c) sp3 Al
d) dsp3
e) d2sp3
• •
6. The hybridization of Se in SeF6 is • Br •
a) sp
b) sp2
c) sp3
d) dsp3
e) d2sp3

Consider the molecule H—N—N—H •• •• The hybridization of each N atom is: a) sp b) sp2 c) sp3 d) dsp3 e) d2sp3 • 11.2 7. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (6  2)/2 = 2 d) It has two pi bonds.O.O. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  8)/2 = 0 e) 2 9. Which of the following molecules or ions is not paramagnetic in its ground state? a) O2 b) O2+1 O2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)2 unpaired electrons = paramagnetic c) B2 O2+1 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)1 unpaired electrons = paramagnetic d) NO B2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)2 unpaired electrons = paramagnetic 2 * 2 4 2 * 1 e) F2 NO (σ 2s) (σ 2s ) (π2p ) (σ 2p ) (π2p ) unpaired electrons = paramagnetic 2 * 2 2 4 * 4 F2 (σ2s) (σ2s ) (σ2p) (π2p) (π2p ) paired electrons = diamagnetic . = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (5  2)/2 = 1½ e) 2 H H | | 10. (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4 c) The total number of electrons is 12. Atomic numbers of B is 5 and N is 7 for a total of 12. e) All of these are true. 12. Which of the following statements about the molecule BN is false? B ≡ N• a) It is paramagnetic.O. The hybridization of Br in BrF3 is a) sp b) sp2 c) sp3 d) dsp3 e) d2sp3 8. so it is diamagnetic. All electrons are paired. What is the bond order of Ne2? a) 0 b) ½ (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)4(σ2p*)2 c) 1 d) 1½ B. What is the bond order of C2+1? a) 0 b) ½ (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)3 c) 1 d) 1½ B. B. b) Its bond order is 2. Ch. 9 Review Packet Answers .

i. How many pi bonds does the molecule contain? a) 0 b) 2 c) 4 d) 6 e) 7 15. d) B22 e) C2 17. after: b) C2 electrons before: electrons after: c) P2 B2 = 6 B2+1 = 5 (4  2)/2 = 1 (3  2)/2 = ½ d) F2 C2 = 8 +1 C2 = 7 (6  2)/2 = 2 (5  2)/2 = 1½ e) Na2 (8  2)/2 = 3 (7  2)/2 = 2½ +1 P2 = 10 P2 = 9 (8  6)/2 = 1 (8  5)/2 = 1½ +1 F2 = 14 F2 = 13 Na2 = 2 Na2+1 = 1 (2  0)/2 = 1 (1  0)/2 = ½ 16. consider the skeletal structure shown below: N—C—C—N Draw the Lewis structure and answer the following: 13. 9 Review Packet Answers . if the molecule is converted to the positive ion in its ground state? a) B2 Valence Valence B.O. b) Be2 B2 is the only answer choice that c) B2 has six valence electrons.O. The configuration (2s)2(2s*)2(π2py)1(π2px)1 is the molecular orbital description for the ground state of: a) Li2+1 The configuration has six electrons. before: B.. Ch. How many of the atoms are sp hybridized? a) 0 b) 1 c) 2 • • • N≡C—C≡N• d) 3 e) 4 14. Which of the following species is paramagnetic? a) C2 C2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4 paired electrons = diamagnetic b) B2 B2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)2 unpaired electrons = paramagnetic c) N2 N2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4(σ2p)2 paired electrons = diamagnetic d) H2 H2 (σ2s)2 paired electrons = diamagnetic e) none of these .e. For which of the following diatomic molecules would the bond order become greater if an electron is removed.3 For questions 13 and 14.

P2.O. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  3)/2 = 2½ 1 2 * 2 2 4 * 3 d) two of these O2 (σ2s) (σ2s ) (σ2p) (π2p) (π2p ) B. N2 a) H2. Which charge(s) of O2 would give you a bond order of 2.4 18. C2. N2 N2 < C2 < B2 = H2 e) none of these H2 (2  0)/2 = 1 N2 (8  2)/2 = 3 19. What is the hybridization of the carbon orbitals? a) sp b) sp2 c) sp3 d) dsp3 e) d2sp3 .O. are 120. B2.O. B2 Bond Length: B2 (4  2)/2 = 1 d) C2. H2. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  4)/2 = 2 c) +1 O2+1 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)1 B. F2 a) 0 b) 1 Valence Valence B. The C — C — H bond angles in ethylene. after: c) 2 electrons before: electrons after: d) 3 B2 = 6 B2+1 = 5 (4  2)/2 = 1 (3  2)/2 = ½ (6  2)/2 = 2 (5  2)/2 = 1½ +1 e) 4 C2 = 8 C2 = 7 P2 = 10 P2+1 = 9 (8  2)/2 = 3 (7  2)/2 = 2½ F2 = 14 F2+1 = 13 (8  6)/2 = 1 (8  5)/2 = 1½ 21. For how many of the following does bond order decrease if you take away one electron from the neutral molecule? B2. C2 (6  2)/2 = 2 c) C2. C2. 9 Review Packet Answers . H2.O. N2. B2 Bond Order b) N2. H2.5? a) 2 b) 1 O2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)2 B. C2H4. C2. ↑. Order the following from shortest to longest bond: C2. B2. N2. H2 As B. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  5)/2 = 1½ e) none of these 20.O. bond length ↓. Which of the following e1ectron distributions among the molecular orbitals best describes the NO molecule? 2s 2s* π2py = π2px 2pz π2py* = π2px* 2pz* a) 2 2 4 2 4 2 b) 2 2 4 2 4 1 c) 2 2 4 1 3 0 d) 2 2 4 2 2 0 e) 2 2 4 2 1 0 22.O. B2. Ch. before: B.

= (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  4)/2 = 2 c) O21 O2+1 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)1 B.5 23. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (2  1)/2 = ½ c) 1 d) 1½ e) 2 24.O. Experiments on B2 find that the molecule is paramagnetic. bond length ↓. Ch. What is the bond order of He2+1? a) 0 b) ½ He2+1 (σ1s)2(σ1s*)1 B. . Which of the following has the shortest bond length? a) O22 b) O2 O2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)2 B.O. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  5)/2 = 1½ As B.O. Explain how this result is consistent with the π2p molecular orbital being lower in energy than the σ2p molecular orbital. Bond length: O2 +1 < O2 < O2 1 25. ↑.O. 9 Review Packet Answers . = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  3)/2 = 2½ d) O2+1 O2 1 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(σ2p)2(π2p)4(π2p*)3 B.O.

8 % nitrogen. What is its Lewis structure if H is bonded to O? c. 29.1% hydrogen. What is the hybridization of the orbitals around the N atom? e. What is the molecular formula of the compound? b.6 26. A compound composed of 2. Ch.1% oxygen has a molar mass of approximately 50 g/mol. and 68. How many σ and how many π bonds are there in the molecule? . 9 Review Packet Answers . a. What is the geometry of the molecule? d.

O. . Write the complete electron configuration for N2 using molecular orbitals. B. B.O. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  2)/2 = 3 d. Explain why N2 will be paramagnetic or diamagnetic. Write the complete electron configuration for N21 using molecular orbitals. N2 will have a greater bond energy than N21 because N2 has a greater bond order than N21. Compare the bond energy of N2 to that of N21. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  3)/2 = 2½ e. It will be diamagnetic because all electrons are paired. N sp3 C1 sp3 C2 sp2 b) What is the total number of bonds in the molecule? 10 total bonds c) What is the total number of π bonds in the molecule? 1 π bond 28. Explain why N21 will be paramagnetic or diamagnetic. Calculate the bond order of N2. f. a. Calculate the bond order of N21. 9 Review Packet Answers .7 27. N21 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4(σ2p)2(π2p*)1 c. g. It will be paramagnetic because one electron is unpaired. Ch. N2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4(σ2p)2 b. Answer the following questions about N2 and N21. Consider the structure of glycine. the simplest amino acid: H H O | | || H—N — C — C — O—H •• | H a) Indicate the hybridizations at each N and C atom in the molecule.

and C22. Answer the following questions about C2. C21 will be paramagnetic because it has an unpaired electron.8 29. bond energy ↑. C2 and C22 will be diamagnetic because they have paired electrons. Place the species in order of least to greatest bond energies. (Remember that carbon is placed at every vertex where an element is not shown and hydrogens are not shown if needed to make up the fourth bond. 30. Explain the expected magnetism in these species. Place the species in order of greatest to least bond order.O.O. Bond Energy: C2 < C2 1 < C22 f. As B.O. Lone pairs have not been added. Answer the following questions regarding caffeine. C2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4 b. Write the complete electron configuration for C2 using molecular orbitals. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (6  2)/2 = 2 C21 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4(σ2p)1 B. C21.) . Write the complete electron configuration for C21 using molecular orbitals. C2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4 B. Ch. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (7  2)/2 = 2½ C2 2 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4(σ2p)2 B.O. Write the complete electron configuration for C22 using molecular orbitals. a. 9 Review Packet Answers . C21 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4(σ2p)1 c. C22 (σ2s)2(σ2s*)2(π2p)4(σ2p)2 d. = (bonding  antibonding)/2 = (8  2)/2 = 3 C2 2 > C2 1 > C2 e. ↑.

How may  bonds are in the molecule? 4 c. What is the OCN bond angle? 120 . What is the hybridization on each oxygen? sp2 g. Ch. What is the hybridization on each nitrogen? sp3 f. How many  bonds are in the molecule? 25 b. What is the hybridization on each carbon shown bonded to the nitrogens? sp3 d. What is the hybridization on each carbon assumed to be at the vertices of the hexagon? sp2 e. 9 Review Packet Answers .9 a.