International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET

Volume 8, Issue 2, February 2017, pp. 271–277 Article ID: IJMET_08_02_033
Available online at
ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359
© IAEME Publication

T. Madhusudhan and M. SenthiL Kumar
Research Scholar, PRIST University, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu, India

The popularity of composite materials usage is increasing due to its superior strength
characters racing the traditional materials in strength to weight ratio. The developments of new
materials are on the anvil and are growing day by day. In this work, two-body abrasive wear test
with different loads and abrading distances were performed at room temperature by using a pin on
a disk apparatus to determine the surface hardness strength of SiC filled Glass fiber reinforced
with epoxy resin hybrid composites. The results showed that the wear volume increased with
increasing abrading distance and the specific wear rate decreased with increasing abrading
distance and increased with load for SiC particle filled Hybrid composites. Among the filled Hybrid
composites tested, composites with 10% SiC by weight showed a better tribological behavior result.
Also, a taguchi’s experimental design approach to make a parametric analysis of wear behavior of
10% SiCG-J-E, 10%SiCG-S-E and 10% SiCG-R-E.hybrid composites were studied. The systematic
experimentation leads to identification of significant process parameters and material variables
that predominantly influence the specific wear rate.
Key words: SiC, Taguchi Method, Hybrid Composites.
Cite this Article: T. Madhusudhan and M. Senthil Kumar. Experimental Study on Wear Behaviour
of SiC Filled Hybrid Composites Using Taguchi Method. International Journal of Mechanical
Engineering and Technology, 8(2), 2017, pp. 271–277.

Polymer matrix is one of those matrices which have the advantage of least weight and higher strength
which are establishing their applications in aerospace, automobiles; household articles e.t.c. Polymer
composites have the other advantage of tailor able properties promoting application. The decision of
material for a specific application depends on the variables like material expense, thickness, quality and
working conditions. Polymer composites which are used in sliding conditions are normally employed in
low energy transfer. The reason behind sudden increase in rate of wear may be due to material frictional
temperature reaching temperature of the model behind melting temperature under condition of load [1].
Wear is one of the important issues which will affect the shelf life of the component hence it need to
handled to enhance the life of ht e component. The frictions between the parts results in higher temperature
which will enhances the wear and leads to faster replacement of parts [2] & [3]. Polymer matrix
composites which have the advantage of light weight are the most suitable materials for weight sensitive
application in aerospace and automobile industries. Deuis et al. (1996) [3] explained the impact of volume 271
Experimental Study on Wear Behaviour of SiC Filled Hybrid Composites Using Taguchi Method

percentage, sliding conditions (time, distance, speed, etc.) and applied load that impacts the dry sliding
wear of the composites. Biswas and Satapathy (2010) [4] concluded that the particulate filled polymer
composites are encouraging building materials because of their reasonable determination of lattice and
fortifying strong molecule stage. It develops a composite a composite with a mixture that possesses a
material with better modulus than those of traditional monolithic material. Polymer composites have
replaced the traditional metal and ceramic materials in making high strength and low conductivity
applications like pump wear ring, bushings, line shaft bearings, inter-stage bushings and pressure reducing
bushings. Laguna-Camacho et al., (2015) [5] suggested that unreinforced epoxy polymer composites were
not satisfactory because of its high fragility. Use of ceramic filler materials like SiC or WC which increase
the wear properties. The consideration of ceramic fillers into polymers for commercial application rises,
and it enables good mechanical properties and good aesthetic sense . Silica assumes an imperative part in
enhancing electrical, mechanical and thermal properties of the material.. Fly ash has been used earlier as a
reinforcing material in polymeric materials, but a few investigations have been carried out on tribological
properties of the material by varying different parameters of pin on disc sliding wear. Xu et al. (2015) [6]
described that the sliding is mainly influenced by contacting parts and tribological behavior of the
materials. To make a suitable wear resistant composite, one has to evaluate the relation between varying
parameters and wear rate. This technique has effectively sought parametric evaluation in different wear
procedures of an extensive variety of polymer composites [7–10]. The use of SiC and WC as the filler in
epoxy polymer composites imparts good wear resistance and strength [11-14].In our investigation,
tribological behavior of the SiC reinforced epoxy polymer composite is measured to find out he factors
which influence the wear predominately

2.1. Matrix, Reinforcement and Filler Details
Material composition used for preparation of hybrid composites are; Epoxy Resin (LAPOX L12) a high
viscous semi solid material chemical known as Diglycidyl Ether Bisphenol (DGEBA) having density of
1120 gm/cm3 and a room temperature curing hardener K-6 chemical called as Tryethylel tetramine (TETA)
having density of 954 gm/cm3 was used. Epoxy resin has established itself as suitable matrix material
exhibiting good mechanical properties, significant thermal stability, lower shrinkage, high corrosion &
moistures resistance, good wet ability e.t.c. As a filler material silicon carbide (SiC) is used in this
experiment has density of 3.21 gm/cm3. SiC silicon carbide a ceramic abrasive material, has higher thermal
stability. Glass fiber of 360gsm with density 2.54 gm/cm3 was used. Glass fiber is easily available and has
higher tensile modulus when compared to other fibers used as reinforcements. Glass fibers were used in
the form of woven glass fabric which is bi directional. Sisal fibers are the natural fibers which are recently
finding their application in composite material as they are less harmful to the environment as well for
human usage. In the present study uni-directional sisal fibers are used which has the density of 1.4gm/cm3.
Jute fiber is another natural fiber which is finding application in polymer composites. In the present study
treated bi-directional woven jute fabric is used, which has the density of 1.46 gm/cm3. Rubber particles are
also used as the reinforcement along with other fiber in this study. The density of the rubber particles used
in the experiment is 0.83gm/cm3.

2.2. Fabrication of Composite Specimens
The most common method used for fabrication of polymer composites is hand-layup technique.
Fabrication process is done in three stages (i) preparation of resin by adding filler material to it and
mixing it uniformly by using mechanical stirrer. (ii) Removing the moisture content in the fabric by
placing on floor under hot sun (iii) mixing of hardener to the filled epoxy resin. To start with the filler
material i.e. SiC 10% of total weight of the composites is mixed with resin by using mechanical stirrer. In
second stage the moisture content in the fabric is removed for proper bonding between the matrix and the 272
T. Madhusudhan and M. SenthiL Kumar

fiber. In third stage the hardener is added to the epoxy in the ratio 100:38 on weight basis. The hardener
mixed epoxy resin is applied on the glass fabric. Using roller the excessive resin and entrapped hole or air
bubble is removed from the adjacent layer. The layer is built up till the thickness of 3mm and tabs are used
for maintaining uniform thickens throughout the laminate. The laminates are cured at room temperature
and pressure of 14bar for 24-48 hours.
The fiber to matrix ratio is 60:30:10 for 10% SiC filled composites. The laminates are fabricated to the
dimension of 150mmx150mmx3mm and specimens are cut using wire saw machine as per the required
The raw material used for fabrications of composites by hand layup technique are, glass fabric, jute
fabric, rubber particles and sisal fiber, epoxy resin. Glass-jute fabric with epoxy resin in 60% fiber, 30%E,
10%SiC). Other different material combinations used in present studies are Glass fabric -sisal with epoxy
resin in the ratio 60:30:10 and Glass fabric- rubber powder with epoxy resin in the ratio 60:30:10 was used.
The specimens used for wear test are cut to the standard dimension of 10 mmX10mmX3mm. Two body
abrasive wear test was conducted on a pin-on-disc apparatus at normal room temperature.

As the name indicates it deals with study of wear behavior and parameters affecting it. The composites
materials which are fabricated by land layup technique are subjected to different kinds of tribological test.
To analyses the wear properties of the composites two body abrasive wear test was conducted using the pin
on disc apparatus. Wear test doesn’t have any standard dimension as there are no imposed constraints..
Two body abrasive wear test is conducted based on the L9 orthogonal array as per taguchi design. The
specimen is attached to the flat surface of the pin and 100 grit SiC sand paper is used on the surface of the
disc. For each trail the fresh sand paper is used. The different test parameters used in two body abrasive
wear test are material combination, sliding distance, speed of rotation of disc, and loading condition.

Table 1 Operating Conditions
Control factors
Material 1 2 3
Speed Rpm 300 400 500
Load N 20 30 40
Distance(m) 25 50 75
Materials are: 1-10%SiCG-J-E, 2-10%SiCG-S-E, 3- 10%SiCG-R-E.

3.2. Analysis of Wear by Taguchi Technique
The experiments were conducted as per the standard orthogonal array. The selection of the orthogonal
array was based on the condition that the degree of freedom for the orthogonal array should be greater than
or equal to sum of those wear parameters.
In the present investigation an L9 orthogonal array was chosen. The parameters chosen for wear test
are; speed, load, material and abrading distance. The experiment consists of 9 tests and was assigned as
shown in table 2. The experimental results are analyzed using taguchi method and the influential
parameters affecting wear have been identified. 273
Experimental Study on Wear Behaviour of SiC Filled Hybrid Composites Using Taguchi Method

Table 2 Standard orthogonal L9 array with output results for normal specimens.

Experiments Material Speed Load Distance Wt.Loss SNRA
1 1 300 20 25 0.1798 14.9042

2 2 300 30 50 0.2120 13.4733
3 3 300 40 75 0.3061 10.2827
4 2 400 20 75 0.1177 18.5845
5 3 400 30 25 0.1024 19.7940
6 1 400 40 50 0.2416 12.3381
7 3 500 20 50 0.2001 13.9751
8 2 500 30 75 0.3271 9.7064
9 1 500 40 25 0.2417 12.3345
Materials are: 1-10%SiCG-J-E, 2-10%SiCG-S-E , 3- 10%SiCG-R-E.

3.3. Taguchi Analysis: Wear Versus Speed, Load, Material, Distance
Table 3 Wear Response for Signal to Noise Ratio
Level Material Load N Speed Rpm Distance m
1 12.86 15.81 12.31 15.66
2 16.91 14.28 14.76 13.24
3 12.05 11.60 14.69 12.82
Delta 4.95 4.13 2.47 2.81
Rank 1 2 4 3
Signal to Noise Ratios Smaller is better

Main Effects Plot for SN ratios
Data Means
material load speed distance

Mean of SN ratios





1 2 3 20 30 40 300 400 500 25 50 75

Signal-to-noise: Smaller is better

Figure 1 Plots of SN ratio 274
T. Madhusudhan and M. SenthiL Kumar

Analysis was made using minitab--17 17 software in order to find statistical significance of various factors like
speed, load, material and abrading distance on wear loss analysis of variance performed on the
experimental data.
In this work, an experimental investigation has been conducted to evaluate the mechanical and
tribological properties of fiber reinforced Hybrid, epoxy matrix filled with different proportions of Silicon
carbide (SiC) particles. The following main conclusions can be drawn from the experimental data.
From Taguchi wear response it is evident that material plays a significant role followed by load,
distance and speed of rotation of disc plays least role. From the main effects plot for SN ratio, material 3
(10%SiCG-R-E), ), load 40N, speed 300
3 rpm and distance 755 m gives minimum wear loss.

4.1. SEM Analysis

ure 2 SEM images of taguchi experimental trials
IJMET/index.asp 275
Experimental Study on Wear Behaviour of SiC Filled Hybrid Composites Using Taguchi Method

SEM images for taguchi experiment were conducted for wear specimens. The figure 3.2A shows the
result of 10%SiC-G-J-E with load of 20N, at a speed of 300rpm & at 25mm abrading distance. Wear test
for the specimen was conducted on pin on disc using SiC sand paper of 100 grit size. The figure shows
worn out glass and sisal fibers. Figure 3.2 B shows the results of 10%SiC-G-S-E with speed of 300rpm,
load 30N and abrading distance of 50m. Images reveal the presence of voids and wear out of the top layer
of the laminate. Figure 3.3 C shows the results of 10%SiC-G-R-E with speed of 300rpm, load 40N and
abrading distance of 75m. The results show the wear out of glass fibers and rubber particles on its surface
is the reason behind maximum wear loss. Figure 3.3 D shows the results of 10%SiC-G-S-E with speed of
400rpm, load 20N and abrading distance of 75m. Here the results shows the wear of sisal fibers on its
surface. Figure 3.3 E shows the shows the results of 10%SiC-G-R-E with speed of 400rpm, load 30N and
abrading distance of 75m. Results show the wear out of rubber particles on its surface no fiber is exposed
on the wear surface, which could be the reason for least wear. Figure 3.3 F shows the results of 10%SiC-G-
J-E with speed of 400rpm, load 40N and abrading distance of 50m the images reveal broken fibers and few
layers of worn-out fibers. Figure 3.3 G shows the results of 10%SiC-G-R-E with speed of 500rpm, load
20N and abrading distance of 50m. The images reveal presence of few voids and distribution of rubber
particles on the surface of the polymer composites. Figure 3.3 H shows the results of 10%SiC-G-S-E with
speed of 500rpm, load 30N and abrading distance of 75m the images reveal few voids and fibers layer after
worn-out of the top surface. Figure 3.3 I show the shows the results of 10%SiCG-J-E with speed of
500rpm, load 40N and abrading distance of 25m. Images show the presence of many voids and the
deposited debris on the surface of the voids.

The taguchi wear test conducted on the polymer composites for different materials reveal that; material
was predominantly influencing the wear character, followed by load on the material, later abrading
distance and then by speed of rotation of disc. The least wear rate was the found for the material with
10%SiCG-R-E with load of 40N speed 300rpm and abrading distance of 75m. Taguchi material analysis is
best suited to minimize the number experiments.

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