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Objectives: The objective of this paper is to analyze the unsteady hydrodynamic
squeeze film lubrication between rough parallel plates with changed boundary
conditions.Methods/Statistical …Full description

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Volume 8, Issue 3, March 2017, pp. 01–12 Article ID: IJMET_08_03_001

Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=8&IType=3

ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359

© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed

**HYDRODYNAMIC SQUEEZE FILM
**

LUBRICATION BETWEEN ROUGH PARALLEL

PLATES: HIP-JOINT REPRESENTATION WITH

MODIFIED BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

Hemangini R. Jani

Ph.D. Section, Gujarat Technology University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Prof. H. C. Patel

Department of General, L.D. Engineering College, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Dr. G. M. Deheri

Department of Mathematics, Sardar Patel University, Anand, Gujarat, India

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The objective of this paper is to analyze the unsteady hydrodynamic

squeeze film lubrication between rough parallel plates with changed boundary

conditions.

Methods/Statistical analysis: The stochastic model of Christensen and Tonder has

been deployed here to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. Also the effect of

roughness parameters on different moments is numerically modelled. The associated

stochastically averaged Reynolds equation is solved to obtain the pressure

distribution. The results obtained here are presented in graphical forms.

Findings: It has been conclusively establish that in general the transverse surface

roughness effects the bearing performance adversely. Out of the three roughness

parameters the standard deviation influences the bearing system significantly. Further

a better situation is registered with reference to X3 axis.

Application/Improvements: This theory can be developed to manufacture a

suitable design for hip-joint.

Key words: Squeeze film, roughness, hydrodynamic lubrication, hip-joint, Reynolds

equation, pressure.

Cite this Article: Hemangini R. Jani, Prof. H. C. Patel and Dr. G. M. Deheri.

Hydrodynamic Squeeze Film Lubrication between Rough Parallel Plates: Hip-Joint

Representation with Modified Boundary Conditions. International Journal of

Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 8(3), 2017, pp. 01–12.

http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=8&IType=3

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 1 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hydrodynamic Squeeze Film Lubrication Between Rough Parallel Plates: Hip-Joint

Representation with Modified Boundary Conditions

1. INTRODUCTION

Bio-tribology, the study of lubrication, wear and friction within the body has become a topic

of encountered debilitating disease and trauma that destroy function of the joints. The hip-

joint is a complex joint system which carries much of the weight of the body. It has

sophisticated interaction between cartilage, bone, synovial fluid and other connected tissues.

Due to degeneration of the joints, the use of artificial hip-joints has become necessary. With

an increasing number of the ageing population requiring total hip replacements at a younger

age, it is necessary to try and improve the design and longevity of the implant. A highly

successful surgical procedure has been to replace the joint with an artificial equivalence which

alleviates dysfunction and pain.

The tribological performance of an artificial hip-joint has become a strong topic of

discussion. The principle causes for failure are adverse short and long term reactions to wear

debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of

the implant. Thus, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been

developed to evaluate lubricate on performance under standardized conditions.

In1 studied lubrication mechanism of hip joint replacement prostheses. A laboratory study

has been made of the lubrication and friction characteristics of a plastic on metaland a metal

on metal total hip joint replacement prostheses. The results established the effect of lubricant,

speed, and load on the performance of the joints. Under a 560 lb load the coefficient of

friction of the plastic to metal joint was lower than that of the metal to metal at speeds up to

the equivalent of fast walking. Bovine serum and synovial fluid, as well as human serum

albumin were found to be good lubricants of both types of prostheses. The frictional force

produced by the metal on metal prosthesis increased linearly with load, in both the dry and

lubricated states. The results proceed that at low physiological loads the effort required to

articulate the prostheses were comparable while at higher loads the friction force of the metal

to plastic was significantly lower.

In2 analyzed the effects of proteins on the friction and lubrication of artificial joints. The

tribological testing of artificial hip and knee joints in the laboratory has been ongoing for

several decades. This work has been carried out in an attempt to simulate the loading and

motion conditions applied in vivo and, therefore, the potential for the success of the joint.

However, several different lubricants have been used in these tests. The work documented in

Scholes et:al paper2 compared results obtained using different lubricants and made

suggestions for further works in this direction.

In3discussed graphitic tribological layers in metal-on-metal hip replacements. Arthritis is a

leading cause of disability, and when nonoperative methods have failed, a prosthetic implant

is a cost-effective and clinically successful treatment. Metal-on-metal replacements are an

attractive implant technology, a lower-wear alternative to metal-on-polyethylene devices. This

paper dealt with the evidence for graphitic material in the tribological layer in metal-on-metal

hip replacements retrieved from patients. As graphite is a solid lubricant, its presence helped

to explain why these components exhibited low wear and suggested methods of improving

their performance; simultaneously, this raised the issue of the physiological effects of

graphitic wear debris.

In4 deals with the observation of model synovial fluid lubricating mechanisms. This paper

examined the fundamental mechanisms of synovial fluid lubrication in artificial joints. The

results indicated that two types of film were formed; a boundary layer of adsorbed protein

molecules, which were augmented by a high-viscosity fluid film generated by hydrodynamic

effects. The high-viscosity film was due to inlet aggregation of protein molecules forming a

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 2 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hemangini R. Jani, Prof. H. C. Patel and Dr. G. M. Deheri

**gel which was entrained into the contact preferentially at low speeds. As the speed increased
**

this gel appeared to shear thin, giving much lower lubricant film thickness.

In5 discussed the matter of synovial fluid lubrication: implications for metal-on-metal hip

tribology. This which they reviewed the accepted lubrication models for artificial hips and

presented a new concept to explain film formation with synovial fluid. The implications of

this new mechanism for the tribological performance of new implant designed and the effect

of patient synovial fluid properties were discussed.

In6 studied synovial fluid lubrication: the effect of protein interactions on adsorbed and

lubricating Films. In this work examined how the protein content of six model synovial fluids

affected film formation under static and rolling conditions and if the changes in properties

could be correlated.

In7 viscous oscillatory fully developed flow of stratified fluid in a long vertical narrow

rectangular channel with one side being pervious and the other side being impervious is

considered. The outcome of this investigation reveals that the stratification effects reverse the

flow near the center of the channel while magneto hydrodynamic effects make the flow linear

closer to the plates.

In8 non dimensional equation of resistance coefficient with Reynolds number of porous

medium flow has been studied recently. Experimental results were compared with Darcy’s

equation and the validity of this equation was established. The derived equations were

suggested to be applied in porous medium flow such that the velocity of flow could be

determined from which discharge through porous medium can be estimated.

In9 investigated the squeezing hydrodynamics of a lubricant between two rough parallel

plates: hip-joint representation.The stochastic model of Christensen and Tonder was deployed

here to evaluate the effect of surface roughness. Also the effect of roughness parameters on

different moments was numerically modelled. The results established that the standard

deviation associated with roughness had significant impact. Further it was observed that the

situation remained relatively better in the case of negatively skewed roughness. This effect

advanced when variance (-ve) occurs.

Here it has been proposed to study the hydrodynamics squeeze film lubrication between

rough parallel plates in the context of hip joint. A new set of boundary conditions has been

introduced.

**2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
**

With usual assumptions of fluid film lubrication the velocity profiles are governed by the

equations as presented in10. Besides, following boundary conditions are adopted in10 there is

2 2 2

u , , on x3 0

4 4 4

(1)

2 2 2

u U1, , U 2, , U3 on x3 h

4 4 4

**where h is the film thickness, the distance between surfaces. In the present situation it has
**

been sought to investigate the equations

p 2u

21

x1 x3

and

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 3 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hydrodynamic Squeeze Film Lubrication Between Rough Parallel Plates: Hip-Joint

Representation with Modified Boundary Conditions

p 2u 2

2

x2 x3

the resulting velocity profiles are obtained after integrating with respect to x3 ,

p x32 x3 h U 1 x3 2

u1

x1 2 h 4

p x32 x3 h U 2 x3 2

u2

x1 2 h 4

(2)

Conservation of mass is now taken into account by integrating equation

u1 u 2 u3

0

x1 x2 x3

across the layer, resulting in

h ( x1 , x2 , t ) h ( x1 , x2 , t )

u 3 u1 u 2

0

x3

x 3

0

x1 x 2

x3

(3)

The film thickness is dependent on x1 , x2 and t .Applying Liebnitz’s theorem of

integration and also using boundary conditions one arrives at

h ( x1 , x2 ,t ) h

u1 h

x1 u ( x , x , x , t )x x

0

1 1 2 3 3

0 1

z u1 ( x1 , x2 , h, t )

x1

(4)

h ( x1 , x2 ,t ) h

u 2 h

x2 u2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 , t )x3

0 0

x2

z u 2 ( x1 , x2 , h, t )

x2

(5)

**But the integrals on LHS of above equations are,
**

h ( x1 , x2 ,t )

p h3 U1h 2 h

0 u1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 , t)x3 x1 12 2 4

h ( x1 , x2 ,t )

p h3 U 2 h 2 h

0 u2 (x1 , x2 , x3 , t)x3 x2 12 2 4

(6)

11,12,13

In view of the stochastic model of Chirstonsen and Tonder these equations

transform to

h( x1 , x2 ,t )

p G(h) U1h 2 h

0

u1 ( x1 , x2 , x3 , t )x3

x1 12

2

4

h( x1 , x2 ,t )

p G(h) U 2 h 2 h

0

u2 ( x1 , x2 , x3 , t )x3

x2 12

2

4

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 4 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hemangini R. Jani, Prof. H. C. Patel and Dr. G. M. Deheri

where G(h) h

3

3 2 h 3 2 h 3h 2 3 2 3

: standard deviation, : variance, :skewness, h : film thickness

Putting these values in equation (3), with the help of equation (4), (5) and resorting to

modified boundary conditions,

2

u1 x1, x2 , x3 , t U1

4

and

2

u2 x1, x2 , x3 ,t U2

4

one is led to

2 U 1 h U 2 h G ( h ) p G ( h ) p

U3

4 2 x1 2 x 2 x1 12 x1 x 2 12 x 2 (7)

Rewriting this relation using Kinematic boundary conditions on the surface x3 h one

gets

h h h 2

U3 U1 U2

t x1 x2 2 (8)

Making use of (8) in (7), one arrives at,

G ( h ) p G ( h) p h U 1 h U 2 h 2

x1 12 x1 x 2 12 x 2 t 2 x1 2 x 2 4

In general form, this gets converted to

G ( h) hU 2 h

P

4 t

12 2 (9)

where U is the surface velocity vector.

2.1 Reynolds Equation Applied to a Hip Joint

For modeling the Hip-joint the following assumptions are made,

the fluid is isoviscous (Newtonian)

the cup is positioned horizontally

walking cycle imposed is based on the Bergmann walking cycle

Synovial fluid and blood plasma are known to have non-Newtonian ﬂuid properties. But

studies have concluded that at high shear rates, an isoviscous assumption is valid. The

acetabular cup is anatomically positioned at 45 0 ; however, the contact mechanics model can

be developed in a horizontal position. The Bergmann walking cycle consists of a loading

pattern which is double-peaked. This has resulted from studies conducted by Bergmann et al.

(1995)14 on the inﬂuence of heel strike on the loading of the hip joint. The coordinate system

that best describes the hip joint is the spherical coordinate system. Accordingly, expanding

equation (9) using spherical coordinates, one comes to the conclusion that, for equation (9),

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 5 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hydrodynamic Squeeze Film Lubrication Between Rough Parallel Plates: Hip-Joint

Representation with Modified Boundary Conditions

P ˆ 1 P ˆ 1 P ˆ

P R

R R R sin

since

P

0

R ,

Making use of divergence formula for spherical coordinates one concludes that

G (h ) 1 1 G (h ) P 1 G (h) P

P 2 sin (10)

12 R sin 12 sin 2 12

**For RHS of equation (9), one derives that
**

hU 1 U h U h

hcos U hsin U sin h U

2 2Rsin

(11)

Substituting (10) and (11) in (9), one arrives at

1 1 G (h) P 1 G ( h ) P

2 sin 12

sin

R sin 12

2

1 U h

h cos U h sin U sin

2 R sin

U h h 2

h U

t 4

(12)

where the surface velocity components, U and U are given by

U R x1 sin R x2 cos

U R x1 cos cos R x2 sin cos R x1 sin R x3 sin

Substituting these relations in equation (12) and simplifying, one comes across

p p

sin G (h) sin G (h)

h h h

6R 2 sin x1 sin sin x2 cos sin x1 cos cos

h h h 2

x2 sin cos x3 sin 2 sin 2 sin

t 4

(13)

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 6 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hemangini R. Jani, Prof. H. C. Patel and Dr. G. M. Deheri

**If the axes are shifted and the x1 x3 plane lies in the horizontal position with x 2 in the
**

vertical direction, the last equation can be simpliﬁed with rotation about the x3 axis to obtain

p p 2 2

h h 2

sin G ( h ) sin G ( h ) 6 R sin 2 2

x3

t 4

**Treating and t as constants it is found that,
**

3

h 3 2 h 3 2 h 3h 2 3 2 3

p

6R 2 sin 2 x3

h 2

2

The dimensionless form of the above equation turns out to equation

1 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3

p

6 sin2 x3 3sin2 2

(14)

where,

is the standard deviation in dimensionless form,

is non-dimensional variance,

is the skewness in dimensionless form,

p is non-dimensional pressure,

is non-dimensional rotation.

Theassociated dimensionless boundary conditions are,

P 0 at 2

P x3 sin at

(15)

Integration of (13) in view of (14) leads to the expression for non- dimensional pressure

distribution as

3 sin 2 2

P 2 4 3 2 x x sin

1 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 3

3

2 3

(16)

**3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
**

It is easily noticed that the pressure distribution is governed by the equation (16). It depends

upon various parameters such as , , , , x3 and . This expression makes it clear that

a judicious choice of velocity in the x3 direction may lead to an overall improve situation. A

comparision of equation (16) with that of equation (15) in 9 suggest that nominally increased

pressure is registered here due to the modification of the boundary conditions. In the light of

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 7 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hydrodynamic Squeeze Film Lubrication Between Rough Parallel Plates: Hip-Joint

Representation with Modified Boundary Conditions

the involvement of the factor x3 2 the graphs, which are shown in figure 1-8, are

generated for the pressure distribution.

It is seen that the standard deviation introduces an adverse effect by lowering pressure

however negatively skewed roughness results in increased pressure. Same is the trend of

pressure with respect to variance (-ve). The graphical representations indicate that the effect

of rotation along x3 direction remains predominant for this type of bearing system.

4. CONCLUSION

It is clearly observed that the modification of boundary conditions turns in a nominally

increased pressure distribution. This study reveals that for any type of improvement, the

standard deviation is required to be kept in minimum even if the velocity in x3 direction is

suitably chosen. Therefore, while designing the ball-socket bearing system, the roughness

aspects must be given due consideration because even the negatively skewed roughness can

increase the pressure, which may be further augmented due the occurrence of variance (-ve).

Certainly, this study may be of some help particularly when the system has run for a long

time.

It was deemed appropriate to modify the boundary conditions incorporating the roughness

parameter for deriving a better hip-joint system. Therefore, the positive effect of negatively

skewed roughness and variance (-ve) can be channelized while designing the hip- joint

bearing system.

60500

59500

58500

57500

Pressure

ɛ̅=-0.05

56500 ɛ̅=-0.025

55500

ɛ̅=0

54500

ɛ̅=0.025

53500

52500 ɛ̅=0.05

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

σ̅

Figure 1 Variation of Pressure distribution with respect to and

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 8 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hemangini R. Jani, Prof. H. C. Patel and Dr. G. M. Deheri

66000

63000

60000

α̅=-0.05

Pressure 57000

α̅=-0.025

54000 α̅=0

51000 α̅=0.025

48000 α̅=0.05

45000

0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

σ̅

**Figure 2 Variation of Pressure distribution with respect to and
**

333000

323000

313000

303000

293000

283000

273000

263000

253000

243000

233000 ωx3=1

223000

213000 ωx3=2

203000

Pressure 193000

183000 ωx3=3

173000

163000 ωx3=4

153000

143000

133000 ωx3=5

123000

113000

103000

93000

83000

73000

63000

53000

1 2 σ̅ 3 4 5

Figure 3 Variation of Pressure distribution with respect to and x 3

80000

70000

θ=35

60000

Pressure

θ=45

θ=55

50000

θ=65

θ=75

40000

30000

0.02 0.04 σ̅ 0.06 0.08 0.1

Figure 4 Variation of Pressure distribution with respect to and

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 9 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hydrodynamic Squeeze Film Lubrication Between Rough Parallel Plates: Hip-Joint

Representation with Modified Boundary Conditions

290000

270000

250000

Pressure

ɸ̅=240

ɸ̅=250

230000 ɸ̅=260

ɸ̅=270

210000 ɸ̅=280

190000

0.02 0.04 σ̅ 0.06 0.08 0.1

**Figure 5 Variation of Pressure distribution with respect to and
**

355400

305400

255400 ωx3=1

Pressure

ωx3=2

205400

ωx3=3

155400 ωx3=4

ωx3=5

105400

55400

-0.05 -0.025 ɛ̅ 0 0.025 0.05

Figure 6 Variation of Pressure distribution with respect to and x 3

340000

320000

300000

280000

260000

240000 ωx3=1

220000

Pressure

200000 ωx3=2

180000 ωx3=3

160000

140000 ωx3=4

120000

ωx3=5

100000

80000

60000

40000

-0.05 -0.025 α̅ 0 0.025 0.05

Figure 7 Variation of Pressure distribution with respect to and x 3

**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 10 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hemangini R. Jani, Prof. H. C. Patel and Dr. G. M. Deheri

1830000

1730000

1630000

1530000

1430000

1330000

1230000 ωx3=1

1130000

Pressure

1030000 ωx3=2

930000

830000 ωx3=3

730000

630000 ωx3=4

530000

ωx3=5

430000

330000

230000

130000

30000

240 250 ɸ̅ 260 270 280

**Figure 8 Variation of Pressure distribution with respect to x 3
**

and

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors acknowledge with thanks the suggestion and comments of the reviewers/Editor.

REFERENCES

[1] B. Weightman, S. Simon, I. Paul, R. Rose and E. Radin ‘Lubrication Mechanism of Hip

Joint Replacement Prostheses’. J. of Lubrication Tech volume 94 Issue 2(1972), 131-135.

[2] Scholes SC, Unsworth A. ‘The effects of proteins on the friction and lubrication of

artificial joints’. ProcInstMechEng H. 2006 Aug;220(6):687-93.

[3] Y. Liao, R. Pourzal,M. A. Wimmer,J. J. Jacobs1,A. Fischer, L. D. Marks ‘Graphitic

Tribological Layers in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements’. Science 23 Dec 2011:Vol.

334, Issue 6063, pp. 1687-1690.

[4] Connor Myant, Philippa Cann ‘In contact observation of model synovial fluid lubricating

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[5] Connor Myant, Philippa Cann ‘On the matter of synovial fluid lubrication: Implications

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[6] Maria Parkes,ConnorMyant,Philippa M. Cann,Janet S.S. Wong ‘Synovial Fluid

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Biotribology Volumes 1–2, March–June 2015, Pages 51–60.

[7] L. PrasannaVenkatesh, S. Ganesh, K. B. Naidu,“Magnetohydrodynamic Viscous

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10.17485/ijst/2015/v8i3/59975.

[8] M. Thiruvengadam, G. N. Pradeep Kumar, D. Sivakumar, C. Mohan,“Non-Dimensional

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[9] 9. Hemangini R. Jani, H. C. Patel,G. M. Deheri ‘A study on the squeezing

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International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, Volume 24, Issue 2,June

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[10] ShatishRamjee ‘Numerical Analysis of Lubrication in an Artificial Hip Joint’ PhD thesis,

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**http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 11 editor@iaeme.com
**

Hydrodynamic Squeeze Film Lubrication Between Rough Parallel Plates: Hip-Joint

Representation with Modified Boundary Conditions

**[11] Christensen H. and K. Tonder, ‘The hydrodynamic lubrication of rough bearing surfaces
**

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[12] Christensen H. and K. Tonder, ‘The hydrodynamic lubrication of rough journal bearings’.

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http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 12 editor@iaeme.com

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