Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:7183–7188

DOI 10.1007/s13369-014-1279-0

RESEARCH ARTICLE - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

Gravitational Search Algorithm for Optimal Distributed
Generation Operation in Autonomous Network
J. J. Jamian · M. W. Mustafa · H. Mokhlis ·
M. A. Baharudin · A. M. Abdilahi

Received: 17 July 2013 / Accepted: 30 November 2013 / Published online: 10 July 2014
© King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 2014

Abstract The gravitational search algorithm (GSA) has
been used in this research to optimize output of the multi-
ple distributed generator (DG) units in autonomous distribu-
tion network. With the optimal operation of DGs, the voltage
profile can be improved, thus reducing the power losses in
the system. The performance of GSA is compared with an
established paper, which uses the genetic algorithm (GA) in
analysing similar problem. The results show that the GSA
has superior performance in finding the optimal DG output
compared to the GA technique, either in terms of power loss
as well as the voltage profile. Furthermore, the consistency
of the proposed GSA method is proven by the small stan-
dard deviation value obtained from 20 repetitions of the same
analysis. 1 Introduction

The introduction of distributed generation (DG) technolo-
Keywords Autonomous network · Distributed generation · gies into the power system has been very popular among the
Gravitational search algorithm · Power loss minimization · power industry as well as in its related research field. This
Standard deviation recent trend is mainly due to restructuring of the power sys-
tem industry. In addition, DG installation at the distribution
systems is also widely favoured as a means to cater the ever-
increasing demand [1,2]. It also serves to improve existing
reliability issues and system performances in general [3].
J. J. Jamian (B) · M. W. Mustafa · M. A. Baharudin ·
A. M. Abdilahi In the literature, many different types of techniques vary-
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Malaysia ing from meta-heuristic approaches [4–7] to the analytical
e-mail: jasrul@fke.utm.my approaches [8–10] have been used in solving the optimal DG
M. W. Mustafa output problem, either for single DG [8,9] or multiple DG
e-mail: wazir@fke.utm.my units [11,12]. Moradi et al. [13] have used genetic algorithm
M. A. Baharudin (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques as
e-mail: mariff@fke.utm.my the means to optimize the size and the locations of the DGs,
A. M. Abdilahi respectively, in which each of them solves each of the corre-
e-mail: abdirahmaan11@gmail.com sponding problems. On the other hand, Mistry et al. [14]
H. Mokhlis
used three different optimization techniques to determine
University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia the optimum capacity and location of DGs. The power loss
e-mail: hazli@um.edu.my minimization and voltage profile improvement were the two

123

05 p. G = gravitational constant the system will be minimized. will consider all these constraints in In this study. tem to be lowered. F = gravitational force. the DG output is set as the object (xi ) Q DGi = PDGi tan cos−1 (P F) (2) and the performance of GSA is measured by the power loss 123 . By doing so. heuristic techniques. On the other hand. ing the buses based on sensitivity factor in descending order. shown in Eq. The authors have developed the algorithm based on the law of gravity. The DG must operate within the minimum and max- tions and sizes of the DGs. However. The lists of constraints. The certain power factor (PF). which are However. network to operate safely. the minimum power The voltage value at each bus in the system after the DG losses could be achieved that will in turn lead to lower DG connection must be within the acceptable limit. [16] in 2009. by DG is limited by Eq. the portional to the product of their masses and inversely propor- DG unit will be fully utilized to supply the whole demand. Thus. the gravitational force formula for two objects is directly pro- For the autonomous system that has a single DG unit. k = no. In general. are shown below: problem. The analysis was performed using used to determine the optimum distributed generation output MATLAB 7. Therefore. In this paper. which output and hence causing the total generation costs of the sys.u (4) to operate the DGs at their optimal output to realize the opti- mum system operations. for the multiple DG unit case. it is important values. the power loss in where. which is one of the meta- the DGs. is in between ±5 % from the rated value. of DG (3) However. the gravitational search algorithm (GSA) is the optimization process. the operation of The total power generated by all DG units must be equal remotely located distribution network that has no grid con. that will minimize the power loss in the system. pattern compared to without DG unit in the system. however.7184 Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:7183–7188 factors that are considered in order to determine the best loca. most of the above literatures focus on the deter. PDG < PLoad + PLosses . it is. the reactive power supplied authors used the sensitivity factors in their analysis.95 p. ending the paper with concluding remarks of the study in the final The GSA was first introduced by Esmat et al. tional to the square of distance between these two objects as including the power loss in the network. after several investigations on optimization included in this paper. Different approach has been used imum DG output range. it is unmistakable to reduce the power losses to achieve the minimum costs incurred through generation of Therefore. Even though the self-sufficiency of the system is the ultimate objective. to the summation of the total demand and the power loss nection is considered. section. several constraints Mi = mass of object i. (5). [15] to find the optimum locations of DG. Furthermore. where the power of (a) Active and reactive power DG constraint: distance in GSA has been set to 1 as shown in Eq.00 GHz and with 2 GB RAM.8 on a computer with a Core2Duo processor.u ≥ Vbus new ≥ 1. also important 0. the authors in [16] have proposed some modifi- cation on the gravitational force formula. in this study. Since the DG is operating at by Dias et al. i=1 mination of optimal DG capacity and location for a grid- connected distribution system. In the fourth section of the paper. This change is necessary to improve the GSA in finding the opti- mal solution. the total demand of all the consumers that are served by the (c) Voltage constraint: distribution system. This is due to the fact that total generation the DG should also give better overall voltage profile of DG is the summation of its load demand and the losses. is formulated in the next section followed by the explanation of the GSA implementation. It is very important to ensure that the supply– to ensure that the DG output is sufficient enough to support demand balance can be achieved. The problem clocked at 2. By rank. R = distance have to be considered in order to ensure that the distribution between objects i and j. (6). indirectly improving the distribution network perfor. 3 GSA Implementation the results with its detailed discussions are presented. R2 mance. where the gravity that exists between the objects 2 Problem Formulation will cause them to accelerate towards each other. (b) Supply–demand balance constraint: the priority lists for DG location is obtained. for the GSA implementation on optimal Pimin ≤ PDGi ≤ Pimax (1)   DG output’s problem. M j = mass of object j. Thus. (2). The top-ranked  k buses in these priority lists are taken for the placement of DG. For this kind of a system. by optimizing the DG output. the GSA. the harmonization of the out- put from each DG unit can help to reduce the power loss Ma j M pi Fi j = G (5) value.

(Lower Ploss) iv.Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:7183–7188 7185 Step 1 Randomize N number of DG output (object . The harmoniza- tion of the output from these 3 DGs will be determined using Therefore. the “bad” solution (light mass object) only single DG unit is installed to fulfil the demand of the will have a larger movement towards the better solution in network. x = Object posi- value (fitness) as shown in Eq. (7). 2. 3. N .85.…. and the result are compared to the GA system analysis will be presented as heavy mass object. when objects. 2 The illustration on the relationship between object mass and the vidnew = randi × vidold + aid (13) distance xidnew = xidold + vidnew (14) where.xi). However. respectively. the optimization process as shown in Fig. the DGs are operated at PF 0. d = dimension. where 123 . The gravitational constant value used in this analysis Table 2 shows the active power and reactive power given varies for each iteration process where the G0 is initial by GA and GSA analysis. this proved that the harmonized G(iter ) = G 0 e iter max (8) DG output from several DG units is capable to give minimum power loss in the system. method that has been done by [17]. several formulae are required as shown below: operated in the system. steps required to solve the optimization problem. iii. 1 The pseudo code for optimal DG output in autonomous system analysis value (lowest power loss) from the current set. 2. both techniques gravitational constant value and α is the decay coeffi. Ma j M pi 4 Result and Discussion Fi j = G (6) R  max line Figure 3 shows the 33-bus distribution network with 3 DGs Ploss = I L2 R L (7) that are connected at buses 3. Table 1 shows the comparison between power loss value In order to relate the object position (xi ) to the mass value in the system when single DG and multiple DG units are (M). has given better DG combination output in the system. ii. Acceleration. From the results. the lowest power loss (Ploss ) value in the power the GSA technique.85). The L=1 locations of the DGs are obtained from [17]. best = The best fitness Fig. worst = The worst fitness value (highest power loss) from the current set. regardless of the DG location. velocity and new position f id Δ X2 aid = (12) Δ X1 Mi Fig. (10) and (11) mi = (9) Step 5 Calculate the acceleration and velocity for the object using (12) and (13) best − worst Step 6 Update the DG output value from the acceleration result as shown in (14) mi if iteration number>iter max then Mi =  (10) Stop and show the DG output result all (m i ) else end Continue to Step 2 where. j=i Object 1 F12 Object 2 Smaller Mass Larger Mass (High Ploss) where. a = acceleration. Gravitational mass and mass (M) for each object at cur- Step 2 Calculate the Power Loss value for all objects rent set are: Step 3 Update the Gravitational coefficient . Therefore. best and worst power loss results from the initial sets of DG output value using (8) and (9) fiti − worst Step 4 Calculate the total force in different direction for objects using (6). From the figure. Figure 1 shows the GSA tion (Ex: DG output). 9 and 31. fit = Fitness (Ex: power loss ___________________________________________________________________________ in this study). The difference between these analyses in giving the minimum power loss   −α iter value is very large. i = 1. Total force that act on object i  N f id = rand j f idj (11) j=1. The gravitational constant loss value compared to multiple DG results. The analysis will also which caused the slow movement compared to the lighter cover the power loss value that exists in the system. are able to fulfil the PF constraint (0. the GSA cient. the single DG unit is not able to give lower power i. In other words. In this study. v = velocity.

002 p. 3 The Autonomous DG 33-bus distribution network with 19 20 21 22 3 DG units 31 32 33 27 29 28 30 26 DG 17 18 10 13 15 11 14 16 12 1 7 8 9 2 3 5 4 6 DG 23 24 25 Table 1 Comparison single and multiple DG performance given Single DG analysis Multiple DG analysis by GSA technique DG at bus 3 DG at bus 9 DG at bus 31 GA [17] GSA DG1 (bus 3) 3.56 kW 275.02 1.1209 1.5884 0.97 0.035 p.01 Voltage (p.692 1.9984 MW DG3 (bus 31) – – 4.27 kW Table 2 Comparison optimal multiple DG output in GA [16] PSO GSA autonomous system P (MW) Q (MVar) P (MW) Q (MVar) P (MW) Q (MVar) DG1 (bus 3) 1.75 kW 56.9376 0.1857 MW 1. 4 The voltage profile in 1.9497 MW 0.99 0.9910 MW – 0.00 0.10 kW 27.1797 1.5811 Power loss 56.03 Vmax = 1.981 p.987 p.8885 1.8490 MW – – 1.u Vmin = 0.10 kW 27.9376 0.7186 Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:7183–7188 Fig.96 0.8056 1.9376 MW Power loss 134.04 GSA & PSO GA Vmax = 1.8885 MW 1.2675 kW 27.6188 DG3 (bus 31) 1.9497 0.9984 0.u 0.98 Vmin = 0.9984 0.6188 0.8056 MW DG2 (bus 9) – 3.8056 1.u) 1.u autonomous 33-bus distribution system 1.u 1.0399 0.95 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 Bus Number 123 .5811 0.1209 DG2 (bus 9) 0.97 kW 470.2675 kW Fig.6920 MW 0.

26749 two techniques (i. 0.69 s.26770 27.26745 27. the power 20 times PSO performance GSA performance loss in the system is 27. In contrast. In terms of consistency. From the figure. the convergence results nomous operation of a standard distribution system with for GSA can be seen after the iteration number is nearly to DG installations at certain bus locations.26749 27. the maximum voltage value for GA analysis has values that are very close to the maximum limit.26755 27.26760 27.26749 27. 9 and 31. more. It has been shown mal result for every time the algorithm is being used (if we that the GSA is capable to give the best DG output com- limited to 9 decimal places and below. respectively. the standard deviation bination with the least power loss in the system. The optimization 40. From the Standard deviation 4. due to the superiority of the algorithm loss value. the net- work voltage given by GSA technique is more stable and Therefore. it can be said that far from the minimum or maximum limits. which DG.4 % lower than Power loss value (kW) the GA results.5 27.).26740 27.26749 of the system are obtained when the system is operated using Mean 27. 4. Table 3 shows The analysis involved two parts. the GSA gives better voltage profile compared to the 123 . which is 51. the problem is 42. it also provides the better voltage profile of the in achieving lower power loss. Thus.26775 28. in order to test the robustness and the effi.3 27.27 kW.26750 27. better voltage profile and network.9984 and 0.69 are still within the limit (0. Further- value is zero). the use of multiple DGs (in this case 3 is 1. from the whole discussion. Best 27. Figure 5 shows the exam- ple of the convergence curve obtained by GSA in the 20 5 Conclusion runs. of Iteration the lower power loss value is achieved by GSA analysis Table 3 The performance of GSA and PSO after 20 independence runs (Table 1). the paper has also presented a comparison analy- gives an indicator that the GSA will always give similar opti.68927 × 10−11 Fig.3 GSA 27. by the algorithm.7 27.26765 28. The smaller standard deviation value Besides. 5 The convergence curve 28.68 × 10−11 and the average computing time to solve DGs).05 p.26735 104 109 114 119 124 129 134 139 64 69 74 79 84 89 94 99 27.76 42. regardless of the initial random value that is generated process has been achieved through the use of GSA technique.95 p.26749 27. Bear in mind that new random number is used for each run time. the GA and GSA techniques).u < Vbus < 1.u.8056.9 27.26749 27. and secondly. Hence. consistent analysis result in solving the optimal DG output Since the GSA is one of the meta-heuristic methods.5 given by GSA and PSO PSO algorithms 27. The work presented in this paper has introduced the auto- ciency of the GSA. by operating the DG at 1. sis between the GSA and GA methods. the use of a single that the standard deviation for GSA is very small.1 1 9 17 25 33 41 49 57 65 73 81 89 97 105 113 121 129 137 145 153 161 169 177 185 193 No.95169 × 10−8 1. it problem.9376 MW for buses 3. even though the voltage obtained by both techniques Average computing time (s) 110.26749 It is also worth mentioning that different voltage profiles Worse 27.Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:7183–7188 7187 Fig. firstly. is important to know the performance of this algorithm in solving the DG output analysis. it can be the GSA provides an interactive solution to the autonomous said that the GSA does not only give the minimum power distribution network.e.1 Power Loss (kW) 27.

: A methodol- ference.. Res.K. Kirthiga.M. Mistry.C. Jasmon. Nema. Appl.. R. Oliveira. Saryazdi. IEEE Trans.: GSA based optimal capacity and issues. B.: GSA: a gravita- algorithm for optimal distributed generation sizing and allocation tional search algorithm.. G. IEEE Trans. H.B. Sustain. K.. E. J. 31– optimization method for distributed generation placement in order 41 (2012) to optimize voltage profile. Energy Convers. In: International Conference on approach for optimal sizing and placement of distributed gener.: Analytical expres- the convergence results.: A combination of genetic algorithm index and line losses. A. Bakar. Harrison. pp.. Mokhlis..A. L.. Environment and Electrical Engineering. M. pp.W. J. Nezamabadi-pour. Syst. H.. Power Energy Syst. S. 1–9 (2009) ogy for transforming an existing distribution network into a sustain- 7.. Gözel. Power Syst. S. and OPF. J. In: International Conference on Energy Automation and Generation placement and sizing.: PSO based multiobjective tion system for loss minimization. M. Daniel. Silva. Piccolo. Res.K. Aghaebrahimi. El-Hawary. pp. S.: A comprehensive survey Compon. Pepermans.H.C. Energy 4. Zahiri.K. the smaller number of iteration to reach 8. A. Patidar N. Energy Policy 33. Emerg. Bavafa. M.R. 66– 3. pp..A.R. 1–7 (2012) generation capacity evaluation using combined genetic algorithm 2. In: IEEE Power and Energy Soci- Signal. H. Driesen. M.: An immune-based able autonomous micro-grid. R. Dias. 37.H. Int. M. 79. F.: Opti. 912–918 (2009) 10. Akbarimajd. N. In: Proceedings of IEEE Southeastcon. W. 2232–2248 (2009) in distribution systems. M. S. Power 1. F. M. Electr. Electr.. Sci. S.: Optimum siting and sizing of distrib- uted generations in radial and networked systems.: Distributed generation: definition benefits and 14. I.7188 Arab J Sci Eng (2014) 39:7183–7188 GA results. 1–6 (2012) 6. Lastly.. J. G. Power Energy Syst.. R. G. J. Amiri. V. 1–13 (2007) mal placement and sizing of a DG based on a new power stability 13.... R. Oliveira.H.. Aman.. Wallace. M. Power autonomous distribution network. 828–831 (2011) ety General Meeting.V. Paliwal P. Electr. Gurunathan.S. Technol. Bhavsar. Abu-Mouti. Electr.H..H. 513–518 (2012) ation.E. P.P.. 1620–1628 (2008) References 11.: 5..D. pp. 179. D. 832–837 (2011) 15. fast computing time and consistent sions for DG allocation in primary distribution networks. R. Eng. 17.. Goswami. Mithulananthan.. Venkata. Mohammadi. IEEE Trans. 127–145 (2009) of optimization techniques used for distributed generator siting and 12. Quoc. M.: An analytical method for the sizing interesting approach to solve the optimal DG operation for and siting of distributed generators in radial systems... 1296– and particle swarm optimization for optimal DG location and sizing 1304 (2012) in distribution systems. Syst. Hocaoglu. Electr. Nasab. T. 814–820 (2010) result (based on standard deviation value) makes the GSA an 9.: A method for placement of DG units in distribution networks.. Hedayati. 787–798 (2005) location determination of distributed generation in radial distribu- 4.: Modified artificial bee colony 16. 23.J... 34. Nabaviniaki.: Distributed sizing. In: International Conference on Sus- tainable Power Generation and Supply. Bansal. E. Siano. Abedini...: A new method of evolutionary programming in DG Hybrid heuristic optimization approach for optimal Distributed planning. Gomes. Rashedi. Belmans. Int. 1–7 (2009) 123 . H. 25. 8.A.. 3. Haeseldonckx. 74 (2012) D’haeseleer. pp. Power Deliv. M. A. A. Singh. In: IEEE Electrical Power and Energy Con. Roy... Sci. 43. S. M.P. Inf. Int. Moradi.. A.

or email articles for individual use. and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However.V.Copyright of Arabian Journal for Science & Engineering (Springer Science & Business Media B. . download. ) is the property of Springer Science & Business Media B. users may print.V.