2.

LITERATURE REVIEW ON SWEET ORANGE (CITRUS SINENSIS L Osbeck)
2.1. Introduction

The pattern of fruit crops cultivation differs considerably in different places owing to physical
properties of land, climate, rainfall, temperature, hours of sunlight, cultural practices of the
inhabitants etc. The technology and financial management along with the marketing management
plays pivotal role in the production of any crop in a given context.

The sub-genus Citrus (Swingle), family Rutaceae and subfamily Aurantioideae is of three types:
Citrus, Fortunella (Kumquat) and Poncirus Trifoliata. There are three genera and eighteen
defined species, but other natural mutations exist resulting to numerous hybrids, which are
widely spread throughout the world (Guo and Deng, 2001). Citrus is widely grown in Nigeria
and many other tropical and subtropical regions (Piccinelli et al, 2008). In terms of volume in
production, citrus ranks after banana as the world second fruit crop with more than 108 million
tons (FAO Statistics 2006). Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) commonly called orange is
a member of this family and a major source of vitamins, especially vitamin C, sufficient amount
of folacin, calcium, potassium, thiamine, niacin and magnesium (Angew, 2007). Economically,
oranges are important fruit crops, with an estimated 60 million metric tonnes produced
worldwide as at 2005 for a total value of 9 billion dollars. Of this total, half came from Brazil
and the United States of America (Goudeau et al, 2008; Bernardi et al 2010). The global citrus
acreage according to FAO statistics in 2009 was nine million hectares with production put at
122.3 million tons, ranking sweet oranges first among all the fruit crops (Xu et al, 2013).

Today, it is grown almost all over the world as a source of food for humans because of its high
nutritional values, source of vitamins and other uses. Propagation through seed is associated with
problems like poor pollen production, self-incompatibility and muscular embryo (Mortton,
1987). Therefore budding onto appropriate rootstocks is the common means of assuring the
reproduction of cultures of known quality. Arsingrin (2011), posited the use of tissue culture to
produce good quality plantlets, but are highly susceptible to root diseases, and this limits
production (Katzer et al, 1999). This paper reviews the importance of oranges to human health,

the impact of diseases on its production and control measures that should be adopted to realise its maximum benefits in the promotion of human health. South Africa’s production is forecast . Mexico’s production is forecast down slightly. Production in the European Union is forecast down 190.2 million tons based on expected higher yields due to favorable weather resulting in good bloom and fruit set.S. Consumption is down on lower production and tighter supplies with more fruit used for processing. Fruit for processing is down due to the smaller crop in Florida. Exports are down slightly While consumption is forecast 8 percent higher. Oranges for processing are up over one-third to 12.9 million as citrus greening continues to reduce area in Florida. Citrus: World Markets and Trade. Fruit for processing is up 2.1 million on unfavorable dry weather and the Citrus Tristeza virus in parts of Italy.United States’ production is forecast down 470. Florida accounts for nearly 60 percent of U.6 million as a larger Brazilian crop more than offsets smaller crops in China and the United States.( US Department of Agriculture January 2017). Overall.4 million metric tons from the previous Year to 49. Imports and oranges for processing are relatively flat while fresh consumption is down on lower supplies.000 tons to 4. however. Global orange production for 2016/17 is forecast up 2. 2. Most orange production in Florida is used for Processing whereas California produces mainly for the fresh market. production and California about 40 percent.1.9 million tons.000 tons to 6. fresh consumption is also up on greater supplies. Brazil’s production isforecast up a whopping 27 percent to 18. Exports.8 million tons on higher production in Brazil. are up only slightly as most of the expanded supplies will be used for processing.

The nutritional importance of foods is due to the presence of these functional food ingredients and antioxidant nutraceuticals or phytochemicals. Di Majo et al. . 2005). The European Union and Russia remain top markets for South African oranges. 1995). It is scientifically proven that oranges being rich in vitamins and minerals have many health benefits. carotenoids and flavonoids. Phytochemicals are present in edible fruits and vegetables and when eaten potentially modulate human metabolism in a favourable manner. 2005). Multiple dietary sources of these compounds are present virtually in all plant material (Di Majo et al. yield. thereby prevent chronic and degenerative diseases (Tripoli et al. 1993. Oranges.000 tons on higher area.2. and improved irrigation. Citrus fruits are the main source of important phytochemical nutrients and for long have been valued for their wholesome nutritious and antioxidant properties. Exports are little changed.6 million tons. Human Health And Nutrition The human diet contains important micronutrients namely vitamins C and E. Morocco’s production is forecast up 4 percent to 960. essential for maintenance of human health.. But still account for nearly 25 percent of global trade. Exports are forecast up nearly one-third on greater supplies while consumption is flat. 2007).unchanged at 1. 2. as epidemiological surveys had shown an inverse relationship between dietary flavonoid intake from citrus and cardiovascular diseases (Hertog et al. Increase in fruits and vegetables consumption protect against degenerative pathologies such as cancer and therosclerosis (Keys.

4 g Fat 0. as well as flowers. punches. soluble and insoluble dietary fibres are known to be helpful in reducing the risk for cancers. many chronic diseases like arthritis. 1999).94 g Water 86. Oranges can be processed into juice.12 g Protein 0. Table 1: Nutrient composition of sweet orange Composition Amount Energy 197 kJ (47 kcal) Sugars 9. or from a combination). as well as cookies. obesity and coronary heart diseases (Crowell.Moreover. which can be consumed directly or further processed into concentrate. candied peels. it is now appreciated that other biologically active. leaves. jams and marmalades. 11 μg (1%) . and twigs is used as an essential oil in perfumes. orangeades. orange seed oil may also be used in cooking or as a component in plastics. non-nutrient compounds found in citrus fruits such as phytochemical antioxidants. oranges. both used in numerous soda and cocktail drinks.75 g Vitamin A equiv.35 g Dietary fibre 2. rather than sweet. Oil derived from orange peels. and liqueurs (although many orange liqueurs are made from sour. and candies. Orange fruits and peels are used in numerous desserts. cakes.

087 mg (8%) Riboflavin (vit. B1) 0.Thiamine (vit. B3) 0. B2) 0.04 mg (3%) Niacin (vit. B9) 30 μg (8%) Choline 8.06 mg (5%) Folate (vit.2 mg (64%) Vitamin E 0.25 mg (5%) Vitamin B6 0.282 mg (2%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.18 mg (1%) Calcium 40 mg (4%) Iron 0.4 mg (2%) Vitamin C 53.1 mg (1%) Magnesium 10 mg (3%) Manganese 0.025 mg (1%) Phosphorus 14 mg (2%) Potassium 181 mg (4%) .

Chinese literature written as early as 2200 BC refers cultivation of some citrus in china ( mallik. but the ancient relatives of citrus are native to China. Every single navel orange originates from it because they do not produce seeds and propagation is through graft cuttings. 2011). particularly Southern China. Taxonomists disagreed the origin of citrus as specific place however they genereally agreed that Oranges probably originated from south East Asia. . the Malay Archipelago. although it is believed to be derived from the interspecific hybridization of some primitive citrus species (Xu et al. 2012). 2013).Zinc 0. The Centre of origin of most citrus cultivars is perhaps unknown. its many cultivars are grouped into four major categories or varieties according to origin (Mediterranean and Spanish oranges) and taste. ORIGIN OF CITRUS. New Caledonia and Australia (Atta et al. 2008). (segmented skin looks like a human navel) originated as a single mutation in a Brazilian monastery in 1820 (Ehsani et al.shamir Ahmed) Citrus widely grows in all suitable subtropical and tropical climates and consumed worldwide. The genetic origin of sweet orange is not clear. the Southeast Asia. some references stated that oranges were cultivated in China by 2500 BC (Nicolosi et al. Northern and East India. where it was referred to as ‘’Chinese’’ apple (Ehler. 2007). The navel oranges named because of its shape.07 mg (1%) Source: USDA Nutrient Database (2014) 3. Hence.

END OF THE CHAPTER .