Chapter Two :Algorithm Analysis Concepts
D.S.A Chapter Two _ Part 1

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Chapter Two :Algorithm Analysis Concepts
D.S.A Chapter Two _ Part 1

© All Rights Reserved

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- D.S.A Chapter Two _ Part 2
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Analysis of Algorithms

Analysis of Algorithms

Quick Mathematical Review

Running Time

Pseudo-Code

Complexity of Algorithm

Asymptotic Notations

Asymptotic Analysis

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Analysis of Algorithms

* What is Algorithm?

In English

As a computer program

As a pseudo-code

* Data structures

* Data Structures are a Methods of organizing data so a Program is = algorithms + data structures

Writing a working program directly is not good enough So by that The program may be inefficient!

If the program is run on a large data set, then the running time becomes an issue.

Step 1- Start.

Step 2- Creating Objects.(A,B,C)of A,B and C. ( Getting Inputs)

Step 4- check the first number A wether if its the greatest.

Check if A>B and A>C then if True Display A otherwise go to next step.

Step 5- check the Second number B wether if its the greatest.

Check if B>A and B>C then if True Display B otherwise go to next step.

Step 6- check the Third number C wether if its the greatest.

Check if C>A and C>B then if True Display c otherwise go to next step.

Step 7- Otherwise All numbers are equal.

2|Page

In Algorithm Analysis:

An algorithm is correct only: If, for every input instance, it halts with the correct output

* Incorrect algorithms:

Might halt with other than the desired answer.

Resources include

Memory

Communication bandwidth

Computational time (usually most important)

computer type

compiler type

Algorithm used at that time.

input to the algorithm

typically, the input size (number of items in the input) is the main consideration

For Example:

l E.g. sorting problem the number of items to be sorted

l E.g. multiply two matrices together the total number of elements in the two matrices

3|Page

A Quick Math Review

We need to have a knowledge to be able to create algorithms for various problems and situations

that requires mathematical skills in order to implement such programs.

Example:

Find out the capacity of auditorium hall of specific given size or even the opposite.

logb(xy) = logbx + logby

logb(x/y) = logbx logby

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- properties of exponentials:

a(b+c) = abac

abc = (ab)c

ab/ac = a(b-c)

b=a

bc = a

logba=

logab

c*logab

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Summations

- general definition:

- where f is a function, s is the start index, and t is

the end index

Geometric progression: f(i) ai

- given an integer n 0 and a real number 0 <a

- geometric progressions exhibit exponential growth

f ii = s

t= f s+ f s + 1+ f s + 2++ f t

7|Page

Note:

Primitive Operations: Low-level computations that are largely independent from the

programming language and can be identified in pseudo code,

e.g:

- calling a method and returning from a method

- performing an arithmetic operation (e.g. addition)

- comparing two numbers .etc.

Finding the average case can be very difficult, so typically algorithms are measured by

the worst-case time complexity.

Also, in certain application domains (e.g., air traffic control, surgery) knowing the

worst-case time complexity is of crucial importance.

8|Page

Measuring the Running Time?

Usually by Experimental Study by using available data inputs used at the domain area.

- Run the program with data sets of varying size and composition.

- Use a method like System.currentTimeMillis() to get an accurate measure of the

actual running time.

What is Pseudo-Code?

but less formal than a programming language.

Input: An array A storing n integers.

Output: The maximum element in A.

currentMax A[0]

for i 1 to n 1 do

if currentMax < A[i] then

currentMax A[i]

return currentMax

Note:

Pseudo-code is our preferred notation for describing algorithms.

However, pseudo-code hides program

design issues.

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What is Pseudo-Code?

A mixture of natural language and high-level programming concepts that describes the

main ideas behind a generic implementation of a data structure or algorithm.

expressions

- use = for the equality relationship (== in Java)

- Method Declarations:

- Programming Constructs:

- while-loops: while ... do

- repeat-loops: repeat ... until ...

- for-loop: for ... do

- array indexing: A[i]

- Methods:

- calls: object method(args)

- returns: return value

By inspecting the pseudo-code, we can count the number of primitive operations executed by an

Algorithm.

Example:

Algorithm arrayMax(A, n):

Input: An array A storing n integers.

Output: The maximum element in A.

currentMax A[0]

for i 1 to n 1 do

if currentMax < A[i] then

currentMax A[i]

return currentMax

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