Q.2 A] Give Reasons

1. Food, clothing and shelter are the basic needs of man. To earn money and satisfy these needs and
other wants man has to work. Hence various occupations are required for a living.

2. Konkan is the coastline of Maharashtra. Indented (cut) coastline, wide continental shelf, cooperative
societies and government financial help, etc. are favourable factors due to which fishing is carried out
in Konkan. Important fishing centres are Alibag, Ratnagiri, Malvan, Versova, etc.

3. Farmers cut wood to make agricultural tools. Other uses of wood are to make furniture, house
building, paper production and fuel. Forests have been destroyed to get wood. Hence lumbering
activity has decreased because cutting of trees is legally banned.

4. In Maharashtra 35% area gets very low rainfall as it falls in the rain shadow area. Mountain Ranges
like Sahyadri, Satpuda, less rainfall, drought prone areas and shortage of underground water are
reasons for less average productivity of agriculture in Maharashtra.

5. Cows, bull, sheep, goat, etc are reared in livestock activity. Number of crossbreed livestock is
increasing because these cross breed animals give more production of milk than other animals.

Q.2 B] Short Notes

1. Tribal people in the forests collect forest products for their living like fruits, honey, medicinal plants,
roots, gum, flowers, leaves, wood, grass, etc. Some of them earn money through hunting. But hunting
is now legally prohibited hence it is not a practiced activity.

2. The activity of extracting minerals from the earth’s crust is known as mining. Distribution of
minerals is uneven in Maharashtra. Minerals like bauxite, manganese, iron-ore, etc are extracted in
eastern districts of Maharashtra. Quarries of laterite and basalt rocks are also found in some areas.

3. Rearing of animals and birds to earn money is called livestock. Milk, meat, bones, hide (skin), wool,
etc are obtained from animals. Cows, bull, sheep, goat, etc are reared in livestock activity. Number of
crossbreed livestock is increasing because these cross breed animals give more production of milk
than other animals. Government gives financial help to buy cross breed animals.

4. The activities that process the raw materials obtained from primary activities are called secondary
activities. The main features are –
The nature of material changes after processing. Importance, utility and value of material increases.
Economic, social factors and Government policies affect these activities. Large number of persons is
engaged in these activities in developed regions.

5. Service activities are tertiary activities. Produced goods need to be distributed to customers. Thus
main tertiary activity is distribution. For example wholesale market, retail shopping, transportation (by
road, railway, water and air), banking, insurance, films, radio, television, tourism, hospitals and health
services, school education, etc. They also help in other activities.

Q.3 ] Answer in detail

1. In text book

2. Primary occupations are basic occupations. Industries get raw material from agriculture, minerals,
forest, livestock, etc.
The materials obtained from nature cannot be used directly by customers. They require some
These processes are carried out in secondary occupation. You get the final product by secondary
activities. Thus primary occupations are basic occupations and secondary occupations depend on
primary occupations.

The produce from the crops is sold in the market and farmers get cash from these crops. cash crops. cashewnut. They are cultivated only for commercial purpose. Hence these are called cash crops. Rice needs high temperature. it requires high temperature and dry weather. Cultivation of fruits is called horticulture. moderate rainfall and deep soils. Sugarcane needs a good amount of water supply for its growth.Pune is known as the IT hub. 4. Government of Maharashtra gives saplings free of cost and provides subsidies to develop horticulture in this area. As soil in the river basins is alluvial in nature. 3. orange. etc. Cotton crop needs a lot of water during growing period and dry weather during harvest due to which these soils are best for cotton. Fertile alluvial soil or black cotton soil are the best for rice. etc. fruits (Group wise) . food crops. Ratnagiri. rice is the main crop of Konkan. tobacco. loamy and sandy soils. Rice can grow very well in these conditions. The main cash crops are sugarcane. 5. Table for types of agriculture. The amount of rainfall in Central Maharashtra is low as this area comes under the rain shadow area or drought prone area and the climate is suitable for the growth of fruits. Hence. Plucking of cotton requires many people or a large labour force. Fruits. 3.2 A] Give Reasons 1.2 B] Short Notes 1. vegetables and flowers also help farmers to get cash. As Solapur has all these climatic conditions it is leading in jowar production Q. Palghar. grapes. water holding deep soils are also needed. chickoo. The Government of Maharashtra has started Rice Research Institute at Karjat. etc. All the favourable factors such as hot climate. AGRICULTURE Q. 2. sugarcane is grown in these areas. high rainfall. Jowar needs high temperature. heavy rainfall and laterite (loose and sandy) soils are found in Konkan. Mango orchards are found in Konkan. Rice is mainly grown in Konkan districts like Thane. cotton. Raigad. banana. Black cotton soils or regur soils are best for cotton as these soils have a high moisture retaining capacity (water holding capacity) and they are rich in nutrients. Khopoli and Ratnagiri. moderate rainfall and black cotton or regur soil. Maharashtra produces short staple cotton. 4. As it needs a lot of water. Cotton requires high temperature. Climate of Maharashtra is suitable for growing mango. It requires moist weather during growing period and when the cotton balls burst open in the harvest season. 2.