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**Differentiation allows us to find rates of change. For example, it allows us
**

to find the rate of change of velocity with respect to time (which is

acceleration). It also allows us to find the rate of change of with respect

to , which on a graph of against is the gradient or slope of the curve.

**There are a number of simple rules which can be used to allow us to
**

differentiate many functions easily.

**If some function of (in other words if is equal to an expression
**

containing numbers and 's), then the derivative of (with respect to )

is written , pronounced "dee by dee " .

Differentiating to the power of something

1) If , then ∙ .

2) If ∙ , then ∙ ∙ .

**Therefore to differentiate to the power of something you bring the power
**

down to in front of the , and then reduce the power by one.

Examples

If , 4 .

If 2 , 8 .

If 2 , 5 6 .

Example

**Find the derivative of:
**

5 3

3

**This looks hard, but it isn't. The trick is to simplify the expression first: do
**

the division (divide each term on the numerator by 3 ) and then use the

rules of exponents to simplify. We get:

1

2 This means that if then the derivative of with respect to is 2 . Finding the Gradient of a Curve at a Point The gradient or slope of a curve can be found by differentiating the equation of the curve. 2 . (3) If . Notation There are a number of ways of writing the derivative. They are all essentially the same: (1) If . on the curve of the function : Step 1 Differentiate the function to find Step 2 Substitute the value of the point into Example What is the gradient of the curve 2 at the point 3.Differentiating term by term we get . This says that if then the derivative of with respect to is 2 . (2) 2 This means that the derivative of with respect to is 2 . 6 3 54 which is the gradient or slope at the point 3. 54 ? 6 and when 3. To find the gradient at a particular point . 2 . 54 .

Example Find the gradient of the function 3 at the point 1. the formula can be used to find the equation of the tangent. Finding the Equation of the Tangent to a Curve Once the gradient of a tangent to a curve has been found. 24 Differentiating 2 5 then we substitute 3 to find the gradient 3 2 3 5 11 . 3 .Tangents and Normals The tangent to a curve at a point is the straight line which ‘grazes’ the curve at that point. 2 Differentiate 2 3 Gradient at 1 is 1 2 1 3 1 The diagram shows this answer. This will allow us to find the tangent at any point on the curve. By differentiating and finding the derived or gradient function we obtain an equation which will give the gradient at any point on the curve. Example Find the equation of the tangent to the curve 5 at the point 3.

1 2 1 4 6 The gradient of the normal is Using 5 1 6 30 1 Equation is: 6 31 0 The equation of the normal is 4 . Re-arranging 11 9 The equation of the tangent is Finding the Equation of the Normal to a Curve The normal to a curve at a point is the line perpendicular to the curve at that point. ( 1 so 1 ) Example Find the equation of the normal to the curve 4 at the point 1. 5 Differentiating 2 4 Substitute 1 to find the gradient of the tangent.Using the equation is 24 11 3 24 11 33 .

4. travelled by a car can be described by the following 75 where is the time. Find in each of the following cases. The distance. Find in each of the following cases. a b 3 4 5 1 1 c d √ 3 e ⁄ f 3245. Find .Differentiation of Polynomials Exercises 1. a 10 b 5 1 c d 2. s. a Find the velocity where b At what time is the velocity zero? c At what time is 20 m/s 5 .2 1 g 1 h 2 √ 2 3 10 i 2 3. If 2 3 and 12.

7 (1. Function Point a f(x) = x2 .75) 2.2x .7 (1.4 (-2.5x + 6 7 b g(x) = x2 .4 (-2. -9) b g(x) = x3 + 3x2 .7 ( 2. 4) d y = 2(x2 + 2x . 4) d y = 2(x2 + 2x . -9) b g(x) = x3 + 3x2 . (Use the gradients from question 1 to help. Find the coordinates of the points on the curves below with the given gradients.) Function Point a f(x) = x2 . 0. -5) c h(x) = 2x2 .1) (4. -5) c h(x) = 2x2 .3x + 8 5 d y = (x .1) (4.3x . 46) e y=√x (4.4 3 c h(x) = 2x2 .3x . Leave the answer in the form ax + by + c = 0.Tangents and Normals Exercises 1.7 ( 2. Find the equation of the tangent to the curves of the functions below at the points indicated. Function Gradient a f(x) = x2 .2x . 2) 6 . Find the gradients of the following functions at the points indicated. 2) f (2.4)(x + 3) -3 e y=√x 1/ 8 f 1 3. 46) e y=√x (4.

(Use the gradients from question 1 to help. f (2. 0. Find the equation of the normal to the curves of the functions in the table from question 3 at the points indicated. Leave the answer in the form ax + by + c = 0.75) 4.) 7 .

1) 3x + 4y . a 75 3 .9 = 0 16x . b 5 or 5.4 = 0 4x + y . a 3 b 15 8 1 c d e f 0 g 4 4 h 6 4 3 1 1 3 i 5 2 9 2 1 2 5 2 2 4 4 2 3.Differentiation of Polynomials Answers 1.5.23 = 0 8 .75 (-2. 10) 8x + y + 12 = 0 x . -0. a 0 b 5 c d 2 1 2.12y .28 or 4. 20 (-1. 1 (6. - b. 12) -x + y + 11 = 0 x + y + 7 =0 (1. 4. 21 6 8 .25 (16. 2. 7 -7x + y + 12 = 0 x + 7y + 34 = 0 1. 0.8y + 34 = 0 d. -10) -20x + y + 34 = 0 x + 20y .28 . a. Tangents and Normals Answers 1. 4. c 4. -8 (2.18 = 0 f.75) c.924 = 0 e. 3. 4) -x + 4y .

3 2 15. 5 8 19. 4 2 20. 6 14.MORE DIFFERENTIATION EXERCISES Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Differentiate these functions by Differentiate these functions by sight: sight: 1. 2. 3 6 7. 1. 8 6. 2 15. 3 4 9. 3 6 23. 8 2 13. 5. 2. 1 18. 10 16. 3. 2 1 23. 1 14. 2 5 6 7. 4 2 8. 3 6 12. 8 22. 2 19. 4 1 4. 3 3. 1 12. 4 2 25. 22. 1 21. 2 6 10. 3 9 . 5 6 5. 2 1 11. 3 4 20. 2 1 6. 5 1 16. 8 1 8. 2 10. 4 8 24. 3 17. 10 4. 2 17. 3 24. 4 2 21. 8 3 18. 4 2 13. 3 3 9. 25. 3 6 11.

14. 2. Exercise 5 1-14 Differentiate and evaluate the derived functions for the given values: 1. 8 6. . 1 10. 2.Exercise 3 By expanding out or dividing first. 21. 5. differentiate these expressions: 1. 18. Exercise 4 Differentiate each expression. 8. 3 2 9. 3 12. 5 19. 4 7 14. 17. 8. 11. 16. 3. 3 1 13. 2 3 11. 2 13. 20. 6. Calculate: (a) 4 (b) 1 (c) 0 2. 5 15. 7. 4. 2 4 3 7. 2 3 4. 5. 22. 3. 7 4. 10. giving answers in the same form they are given here: 1. 3 1 2 12. 9. Calculate for: (a) 2 (b) 0 10 .

4. 4 8 Solve 3 13. Calculate for: (a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 5 6. 4 Calculate: (a) 1 (b) (c) 2 17. 2 3 . 2 5 9. 4 8 Solve 0 7. 10 3 Solve 8 9. Give all answers in integer. 4 3. Calculate: (a) 2 (b) 1 (c) 11 . Calculate: (a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 5. fraction or mixed number form. 3 Solve 0 10. 6 24 Solve 9 12. 5 3 Solve 1 8. Calculate: (a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 0 16. 10 Solve 2 11. 2 3 17 Solve 0 14. 15. Calculate 5 . (c) 3 3. 12 6 8 Solve 30 15-17 Evaluate the derived functions for the given values.

12 . (a) when 1 (b) 4 1 when 8 (c) 2 when 3 (d) 3 5 4 when 5 (e) 2 1 when 4 (f) 3 2 5 when 1 (g) 3 2 when (h) 3 2 1 when 2. Find the equations of the tangents to the curve 3 10 at the points where the curve cuts the -axis. -1) (d) to the curve 2 3 5 at the point (1. 0) (e) to the curve 4 at the point (-3. Find the gradient of the tangent to the following curves at the points indicted.11) (b) 8 at the point (2. Find the gradient of the following curves at the points indicated: (a) 2 3 at the point (-2.-5) (c) to the curve 3 at the point (-2.-6 2.-5) 3. Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve 8 when 1 Exercise 7 1. (a) 8 1 at the point (4. Find the equation for each of these tangents: (a) to the curve 4 7 at the point (2.-15) (b) 2 3 at the point . 1 4.0) (c) 3 5 at the point (-3.-15) (f) to the curve 2 3 at the point (0.Exercise 6 1. What is the equation of the tangent to the curve 3 5 at the point where 2? 3. What is the equation of the tangent to the curve 2 12 at the point where 3? 4. Find the gradient of the tangent to the following curves at the points indicated. What is the equation of the tangent to the curve 3 9 at the point where 4? 5.5) (b) to the curve 2 4 at the point (1.

What is the equation of the tangent to the curve 7 2 at the point where it cuts the -axis? 7. What is the equation of the tangent to the curve 2 8 at the point where the gradient is 4? 13 .6.

6 3 7. 0 2 5. 2 5 20. 3 11. 8 12. 3 24. 16 2 12. 6 5 4. 8 12 4. 3 16.ANSWERS Exercise 1 Exercise 2 Exercise 3 1. 2 25. 3 6. 8 5. 3 2 18. 3 4 14. 10 6 4 3 9 6. 2 15. 6 6 2. 15 6 10. 12 2 23. -8 25. 2 1 14. 1 11. 4 5 6. 3 8. 13. 1 13. 6 6 21. 2 2. 12 2 21. 32 7. 6 16 22. 8 12. 14 . 8 2. 2 2 10. 6 8. 13. 12 24 5. 5 16 20. 4 6 16. 24 12 8. 3 14. 4 4 18. 4 4. 1 11. 6 6 9. 5 1. 16 21 10. 16 2 7. 4 4 23. 19. 20 15. 5 4 24. 40 3. 6 1 22. 2 1 3. 4 9. 18 2 9. 6 3. 3 1. -1 17. 2 17. 8 12 19.

(a)-5 (b)5 (c)-4 6.3 17.6 (b) 18. 1. 3 16. (a) -6 14. 32 (c) 21. 3 22. 17. or 4. 1 13. (a) 0 14. 7 (c)undefined 16. 13. 10 5. 10 3. 15 15. 2 2. 1 (h) 3 12. (a)48 (b)3 (c)0 1. (c) -3 12. 1 (b) 12 15. 4 (c) 12 5. 11. (a) (b) (c)-8 15 . 6. 7. or 3. 2 1.Exercise 4 Exercise 5 Exercise 6 1. (a)5 (b)29 (e) 50 8. (a)11 (b)7 (c)1 3. (a)12 (b)192 20. 9. 15 (b) 12 4. (c) -475 (f) 4 9. 2. (a) (b) 19. 4 2. 2 (g) 3 10. 10 4. (a) 2 2. 8. 5. 5 (d) 25 7. 2 11. 10.

7 9 or 7 9 0 3. 4 18 or 4 18 0 16 . 7 35 0 6. 7 35 or 7 14 0. 7 2 or 7 2 0 7.Exercise 7 1. (a) 8 11 or 8 11 0 5 or 5 0 (c) 3 7 or 3 7 0 (d) 7 7 or 7 7 0 (e) 23 54 or 23 54 0 (f) 6 or 6 0 2. 7 14. 15 48 or 15 48 0 5. 4 3 or 4 3 0 4.

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