Volume 1


Managing Editor

M. Hazewinkel

Scientific Board

J. F. Adams, S. Albeverio, J. B. Alblas, S. A. Amitsur, I. J. Bakelman, J. W. de Bakker,
C. Bardos, H. Bart, M. Bercovier, M. Berger, E. A. Bergshoeff, E. Bertin, F. Beukers,
A. Beutelspacher, K.-D. Bierstedt, H. P. Boas, J. Bochnak, H. J. M. Bos, B. L. J. Braaksma,
A. E. Brouwer, M. G. de Bruin, R. G. Burns,Bums, P. Cartier, J. M. C. Clark, Ph. Clement,
A. M. Cohen, J. W. Cohen, R. F. Curtain, M. H. A. Davis, M. V. Dekster, C. Dellacherie,
G. van Dijk, H. C. Doets, I. Dolgachev, A. Dress, L. P. D. van den Dries, J. J. Duistermaat,
D. van Dulst, H. van Duyn, H. Dym, A. Dynin, W. Eckhaus, J. Eells, P. van Emde Boas,
H. Engl, G. Eskin, G. Ewald, V. I. Fabrikant, A. Fasano, M. Fliess, R. M. Fossum,
M. Freidlin, B. Fuchssteiner, G. B. M. van der Geer, R. D. Gill, V. V. Goldberg, J. de Graaf,
J. Grasman, P. A. Griffiths, L. Gross, P. Gruber, E. J. Hannan, K. P. Hart, G. Heckmann,
A. J. Hermans, W. H. Hesselink, C. C. Heyde, K. Hirsch, M. W. Hirsch, A. T. de Hoop,
P. J. van der Houwen, N. M. Hugenholtz, C. B. Huijsmans, A. Isidori, E. M. de Jager,
P. T. Johnstone, D. Jungnickel, M. A. Kaashoek, V. Kac, W. L. J. van der Kallen,
D. Kanevsky, Y. Kannai, H. Kaul, M. S. Keane, E. A. de Kerf, W. Klingenberg, T. Kloek,
C. Koeman, J. A. C. Kolk, G. Komen, T. H. Koornwinder, Koomwinder, S. Kotz, L. Krop,
B. Kuperschmidt, H. A. Lauwerier, J. van Leeuwen, J. Lennox, H. W. Lenstra Jr.,
J. K. Lenstra, H. Lenz, M. Levi, J. Lindenstrauss, J. H. van Lint, A. Liulevicius, M. Livshits,
W. A. J. Luxemburg, R. M. M. Mattheij, L. G. T. Meertens, P. Mekenkamp, A. R. Meyer,
J. van Mill, I. Moerdijk, H. Neunzert, G. Y. Nieuwland, G. J. Olsder, F. van Ostayen,
B. Pareigis, K. R. Parthasarathy, I. I. Piatetskii-Shapiro, H. G. J. Pijls, N. U. Prabhu,
G. B. Preston, E. Primrose, A. Ramm, C. M. Ringel, J. B. T. M. Roerdink, K. W. Roggenkamp,
G. Rozenberg, W. Rudin, F. H. Ruymgaart, S. N. M. Ruysenaars, A. Salam, A. Salomaa,
P. Saunders, C. L. Scheffer, R. Schneider, J. A. Schouten, A. Schrijver, F. Schurer,
I. A. Segal, J. J. Seidel, A. Shenitzer, V. Snaith, T. A. Springer, J. H. M. Steenbrink,
J. D. Stegeman, F. W. Steutel, P. Stevenhagen, I. Stewart, L. Streit, K. Stromberg,
L. G. Suttorp, D. Tabak, F. Takens, R. J. Takens, N. Temme, S. H. Tijs, B. Trakhtenbrot,
N. S. Trudinger, L. N. Vaserstein, M. L. J. van de Vel, F. D. Veldkamp, W. Vervaat,
P. M. B. Vitanyi, H. A. van der Vorst, J. de Vries, F. Waldhausen, B. Wegner,
J. J. O. O. Wiegerinck, J. Wiegold, J. C. Willems, J. M. Wills, B. de Wit, S. A. Wouthuysen,
S. Yuzvinskii, L. Zalcman, S. I. Zukhovitzkii

Volume 1

An updated and annotated translation of the Soviet
'Mathematical Encyclopaedia'

Science and Technology Division
Dordrecht / Boston / Lancaster / Tokyo

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Matematicheskaia entsiklopediia. English.
Encyclopaedia of mathematics.

1. Mathematics- - Dictionaries. I. Hazewinkel, Michie!. II. Title.
QA5.M3713 1987 510'.3'21 87-26437

Published by Reidel
an imprint of
Kluwer Academic Publishers,
P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, Holland.

Sold and distributed in the U.S.A. and Canada
by Kluwer Academic Publishers,
101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061, U.S.A.

In all other countries, sold and distributed
by Kluwer Academic Publishers Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, Holland.

ISBN 978-90-481-8235-0 ISBN 978-94-015-1239-8 (eBook)
DOI 10.1007/978-94-015-1239-8
All Rights Reserved
© 1988 by Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Holland
Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1988
No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or
utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical
including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and
retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright owner



I. M. Vinogradov

Editorial Board

S. 1. Adyan, P. S. Aleksandrov, N. S. Bakhvalov, A. V. Bitsadze, V. 1. Bityutskov (Deputy
Editor-in-Chief), L. N. BOl'shev, A. A. Gonchar, N. V. Efimov, V. A. Il'in, A. A. Karatsuba,
L. D. Kudryavtsev, B. M. Levitan, K. K. Mardzhanishvili, E. F. Mishchenko, S. P. Novikov,
E. G. Poznyak, Yu. V. Prokhorov (Deputy Editor-in-Chief), A. 1. Shirshov, A. G. Sveshnikov,
A. N. Tikhonov, P. L. UI'yanov, S. V. Yablonskii

Translation Arrangements Committee
V. I. Bityutskov, R. V. Gamkrelidze, Yu. V. Prokhorov

'Soviet Encyclopaedia' Publishing House


This ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF MATHEMATICS aims to be a reference work for all parts of mathema-
tics. It is a translation with updates and editorial comments of the Soviet Mathematical Encyclo-
paedia published by 'Soviet Encyclopaedia Publishing House' in five volumes in 1977 - 1985.
The annotated translation consists of ten volumes including a special index volume.
There are three kinds of articles in this ENCYCLOPAEDIA. First of all there are survey-type
articles dealing with the various main directions in mathematics (where a rather fine subdivision
has been used). The main requirement for these articles has been that they should give a reason-
ably complete up-to-date account of the current state of affairs in these areas and that they
should be maximally accessible. On the whole, these articles should be understandable to
mathematics students in their first specialization years, to graduates from other mathematical
areas and, depending on the specific subject, to specialists in other domains of science, en-
gineers and teachers of mathematics. These articles treat their material at a fairly general level
and aim to give an idea of the kind of problems, techniques and concepts involved in the area in
question. They also contain background and motivation rather than precise statements of pre-
cise theorems with detailed definitions and technical details on how to carry out proofs and con-
The second kind of article, of medium length, contains more detailed concrete problems, re-
sults and techniques. These are aimed at a smaller group of readers and require more back-
ground expertise. Often these articles contain more precise and refined accounts of topics and
results touched on in a general way in the first kind of article.
Finally, there is a third kind of article: short (reference) definitions.
Practically all articles (all except a few of the third kind) contain a list of references by means
of which more details and more material on the topic can be found. Most articles were specially
written for the encyclopaedia and in such cases the names of the original Soviet authors are
mentioned. Some articles have another origin such as the Great Soviet Encyclopaedia (Bol,' shaya
Sovieticheskaya Entsiklopediya or BSE).
Communication between mathematicians in various parts of the world has certainly greatly
improved in the last decennia. However this does not mean that there are so-to-speak 'one-to-
one onto' translations of the terminology, concepts and tools used by one mathematical school
to those of another. There also are varying traditions of which questions are important and
which not, and what is considered a central problem in one tradition may well be besides the
point from the point of view of another. Even for well established areas of mathematical inquiry,
terminology varies across languages and even within a given language domain. Further, a concept,
theorem, algorithm, ... , which is associated with one proper name within one tradition may
well have another one in another; especially if the result or idea in question was indeed disco-
vered independently and more-or-Iess simultaneously. Finally, mathematics is a very dynamic
science and much has happened since the original articles were finalized (mostly around 1977).
This made updates desirable (when needed). All this, as well as providing additional references
to Western literature when needed, meant an enormous amount of work for the board of



experts as a whole; some indeed have done a truly impressive amount of work. I must stress
though that I am totally responsible for what is finally included and what is not of all the mate-
rial provided by the members of the board of experts.
Many articles thus are provided with an editorial comment section in a different and some-
what smaller typeface. In particular, these annotations contain additional material, amplifica-
tions, alternative names, additional references, .... Modifications, updates and other extra
material provided by the original Soviet authors (not a rare occurrence) have been incorporated
in the articles themselves.
The final (lO-th) volume of this ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF MATHEMATICS will be an index volume.
This index will contain all the titles of the articles (some 6600) and in addition the names of all
the definitions, named theorems, algorithms, lemmas, scholia, constructions, ... , which occur
in the various articles. This includes, but is by no means limited to, all items which are printed
bold or italic. Bold words or phrases, by the way, always refer to another article with (precisely)
that title.
All articles have been provided with one or more AMS classification numbers according to
the 1980 classification scheme (not, for various reasons, the 1985 revision). So have all items
occurring in the index. A phrase or word out of an article which is included in the index always
inherits all the classification numbers of the article in question. In addition, it may have been
provided with its own classification numbers. In the index volume these numbers will be listed
with the phrase in question. Thus e.g. the Quillen - Suslin theorem of algebraic K-theory will
have its own main classification numbers (these are printed in bold; in this case that number is
18F25) as well as a number of others, often from totally different fields, pointing e.g. to parts of
mathematics where the theorem is applied, or where there occurs a problem related to it. In this
case e.g. 93D15. The index volume will also contain the inversion of this list which thus for each
number will provide a list of words and phrases which may serve as an initial description of the
'content' of that classification number (as far as this ENCYCLOPAEDIA is concerned). For more
details on the index volume, its structure and organisation, and what kind of things can be done
with it, d. the (future) special preface to that volume.
Classifying articles is a subjective matter. Opinions vary greatly as to what belongs where and
thus this attempt will certainly reflect the tastes and opinions of those who did the classification
work. One feature of the present classification attempt is that the general basic concepts and de-
finitions of an area like e.g. 55N (Homology and Cohomology theories) or 601 (Markov proces-
ses) have been assigned classification numbers like 55NXX and 60JXX if there was no finer clas-
sification number different from ... 99 to which it clearly completely belongs.
Different parts of mathematics tend to have differences in notation. As a rule, in this
ENCYCLOPAEDIA in a given article a notation is used which is traditional in the corresponding
field. Thus for example the (repeated index) summation convention is used in articles about
topics in fields where that is traditional (such as in certain parts of differential geometry (tensor
geometry)) and it is not used in other articles (e.g. on summation of series). This pertains espe-
cially to the more technical articles.
For proper names in Cyrillic the British Standards Institute transcription system has been
used (cf. Mathematical Reviews). This makes well known names like S. N. Bernstein come out
like Bernshte'in.
In such cases, especially in names of theorems and article titles, the traditional spelling has
been retained and the standard transcription version is given between brackets.
Ideally an encyclopaedia should be complete up to a certain more-or-Iess well defined level of
detail. In the present case I would like to aim at the completeness level that every theorem,



concept, definition, lemma, construction which has a more-or-Iess constant and accepted name
by which it is referred to by a recognizable group of mathematicians occurs somewhere, and can be
found via the index. It is unlikely that this completeness ideal will be reached with this present
ENCYCLOPAEDIA OF MATHEMATICS, but it certainly takes substantial steps in this direction.
Everyone who uses this ENCYCLOPAEDIA and find items which are not covered, which, he feels,
should have been included, is invited to inform me about it. When enough material has come in
in this way supplementary volumes will be put together.
The ENCYCLOPAEDIA is alphabetical. Many titles consist of several words. Thus the problem
arises how to order them. There are several systematic ways of doing this of course. For inst-
ance using the first noun. All are unsatisfactory in one way or another. Here an attempt has
been made to order things according to words or natural groups of words as they are daily used
in practice. Some sample titles may serve to illustrate this: Statistical mechanics, mathematical
problems in; Lie algebra; Free algebra; Associative algebra; Absolute continuity; Abstract
algebraic geometry; Boolean functions, normal forms of. Here again taste plays a role (and us-
ages vary). The index will contain all permutations. Meanwhile it will be advisable for the read-
er to tryout an occasional transposition himself. Titles like K-theory are to be found under K,
more precisely its lexicographic place is identical with 'K theory'. I.e. '-' = 'space' and comes
before all other symbols. Greek letters come before the corresponding Latin ones, using the
standard transcriptions. Thus X2-distribution (chi-squared distribution) is at the beginning of the
letter C. A * as in C* -algebra and *-regular ring is ignored lexicographically. Some titles involve
Greek letters spelled out in Latin. These are of course ordered just like any other 'ordinary'
This volume has been computer typeset using the (Unix-based) system of the CWI, Am-
sterdam. The technical (mark-up-Ianguage) keyboarding was done by Rosemary Daniels,
Chahrzade van 't Hoff and Joke Pesch. To meet the data-base and typesetting requirements of this
ENCYCLOPAEDIA substantial amounts of additional programming had to be done. This was done by
lohan Wolleswinkel. Checking the translations against the original texts, and a lot of desk edit-
ing and daily coordination was in the hands of Rob Hoksbergen. All these persons, the mem-
bers of the board of experts, and numerous others who provided information, remarks and
material for the editorial comments, I thank most cordially for their past and continuing efforts.
The original Soviet version had a printrun of 150.000 and is completely sold out. I hope that
this annotated and updated translation will turn out to be comparably useful.

Bussum, August 1987 MICHIEL HAZEWINKEL


A -INTEGRAL - One of the generalizations of the countable intersection, and is idempotent. With respect
Lebesgue integral, given by E. Titchmarsh [1] for the to ~ -operations, the Haire property (of subsets of an
integration of functions conjugate to summable ones. A arbitrary topological space) and the property of being
measurable function f(x) is called A -integrable over Lebesgue measurable are invariant.
[a, b] if
m{x: If(x) 1>n} = 0 !
[ ) References
[IJ Al.EKsANDRov, P.S.: c.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 162 (1916), 323-325.
[2J Al.EKsANDROV, P.S.: Theory offunctions of a real variable and
and if the theory of topological spaces, Moscow, 1978 (in Russian).
b [3] KOI.MOGOROV, A.N.: 'P.S. Aleksandrov and the theory of as-
I = lim j[f(x)ln fix operations', Uspekhi Mat. Nauk 21, no. 4 (1966), 275-278 (in
n~oo a
exists, where [4] SusLIN, M.YA.: c.R. Acad. Sci. Paris 164 (1917),88-91.
[5] LUZIN, N.N.: Selected works, Vol 2, Moscow, 1958, p. 284.
f(X) if 1 f(x) 1 "';;n, [6J KURATOWSICI, K..: Topology, Acad. Press, 1966-1968 (translated
[f(x)ln = {0 if 1 f(x) 1 >n. from the French). A. G. El'kin
The number I is called the A -integral. It is denoted by Editorial comments. The d -operation is in the West
b usually attributed to M.Ya. Suslin [4], and is therefore also
(A) jf(x)dx. called the Suslin operation, the Suslin d -operation or the
Suslin operation d. d -sets are usually called analytic sets.
References AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 04A15
[IJ 1iTcHMARSH, E.G.: 'On conjugate functions', Proc. London
Math. Soc. 29 (1928),49-80.
[2J VINOGRADOVA, IA.: 'Generalized integrals and Fourier series', A POSTERIORI DISTRIBUTION - A conditional
ftogi Nauk. Mat. Anal. 1970 (1971),65-107 (in Russian).
probability distribution of a random variable, to be
LA. Vinogradova contrasted with its unconditional or a priori distribu-
AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 26A42 tion.
Let 8 be a random parameter with an a priori den-
.s;/-oPERATION, operation ~ - A set-theoretical sity p(8), let X be a random result of observations and
operation, discovered by P.S. Aleksandrov [1] (see also let p(x 18) be the conditional density of X when 8=0;
[2], [3D. Let {E", ... lit} be a system of sets indexed by then the a posteriori distribution of 8 for a given
all finite sequences of natural numbers. The set X = x, according to the Bayes formula, has the density
P = U nEil, ...... ' p(fJ 1x) = +}(8)p(x 18)
" .. ___ ..... __ k=J
j p{fI)p(x l8)dfJ
where the union is over all infinite sequences of natural -co
numbers, is called the result of the ~ -operation If T(x) is a sufficient statistic for the family of distribu-
applied to the system {E", ... lit}. tions with densities p (x I 8), then the a posteriori distri-
The use of the ~-operation for the system of inter- bution depends not on x itself, but on T(x). The
vals of the number line gives sets (called ~ -sets in asymptotic behaviour of the a posteriori distribution
honour of Aleksandrov) which need not be Borel sets p(Olx), ... ,x,,) as n~oo, where Xj are the results of
(see ~ -set; Descriptive set theory). The ~ -operation is independent observations with density p(x I(0 ), is
stronger than the operation of countable union and 'almost independent' of the a priori distribution of 8.


V. 1973. set. not Borel sets. North-Holland. Prokhorov Editorial comments. Moscow-Leningrad. This terminology is. tional probability of the same event under certain addi- References tional conditions. V. sequence of natural numbers is called a chain of this 1967. [A2] MOSCHOVAKIS. T. · . 1.A continuous image of a Borel set. 214ft. Moreover. The Luzin separability principles hold for d -sets.' I . Let (8.: Probability theory. in a complete separable metric space . According to the Bayes 1980. Acad.} of subsets of a set X.: The axiom of chOice. and the set of conditional probabilities Po of the ran. a pair of random variables (random vectors or more B. 1.A. i. and the union of all kernels of all 2 . North-Holland.The proba- the theory of statistical decisions. p. The random variable 8 is Editorial comments.A POSTERIORI DISTRIBUTION For the role played by a posteriori distributions in A PRIORI PROBABILITY of an event . Prokhorov Ani' . AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 60A 15 References [A1] SVERDRUP. sI-SET. A-system.J.. Efimov general random elements). e. S.A 'countably-ramified' system of sets. North-Holland.: Laws and chance variations. Any d -set is Lebesgue-measurable.N.N. 214ft. the set of Bayes fonnula. the result of an observation to be used for estimation of Cd-set) by 111. distribution' is used in the following way. Y.: Laws and chance variations. E. Usually the term 'a priori (translated from the French). an d -set can be defined as a continuous A POSTERIORI PROBABILITY of an event .. while X is considered to be is denoted by }.. 1. used in con- (in Russian).The image of the set of irrational numbers. 1946 probability. operation). d - posteriori'. No or A PRIORI DISTRIBUTION . for a set to be an d -set it is tion itself is hypothetical and is not directly observed in necessary and sufficient that it can be represented as the course of the experiment.: Top%gy. as a rule. A countable conditional probability of an event taking place under intersection and a countable union of d -sets is an d- certain conditions. see Bayesian bility of the event. N.1. Prokhorov Borel. fonnula. to be contrasted with the References conditional distribution of this random variable under [1] KURATOWSKl.Ani "·n. In statistical problems. North-Holland. see Bayesian by all finite sequences of natural numbers. but is not Yu. analytic set. Nowadays the class of analytic sets considered to be unknown. and to d -operations (cf. An A- approach. Since any AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 62F15 Borel set is a continuous image of the set of irrational numbers.: Lectures on analytic sets and their applications. system {Ani" .. v V. and the class of co-analytic sets (cf. P rokh orov nection with the Bayes fonnula. p. Yu. assumption on its existence is not sufficiently founded). nJ IS called regular if Yu. Ani' . in the space 21 of all closed sub- ity is connected with the a priori probability by the sets of the unit interval I of the real numbers. The former term is employed if the condi. Press. There is no difference of being an d -set is invariant relative to Borel- between the meaning of the terms 'conditional' and 'a measurable mappings. ~u. Moscow. There are examples of d -sets which are question is actually observed. n. bution of a random variable. X) be [2] LUZIN.e.The probability distri. one can calculate the conditional probability AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 04A 15. 1967. The a posteriori probabil.n CAn n. The intersection of all elements of a chain is AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 62F15 called its kernel. indexed For the use of the a priori distribution.. the a priori distribution is often unknown (and even the A -SYSTEM . to be contrasted with its uncondi. Any uncountable d -set topologically contains a AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 62F15 perfect Cantor set. 1953 (in Russian). 1966-1968 certain additional conditions. The latter term is the result of an d -operation applied to a family of employed if it is desired to stress that the condition in closed sets. considered in contrast to the condi- approach. 54H05 of 8 with respect to X (which is now called the a pos- teriori distribution of 8). all closed uncountable sets is an d -set.'··" of elements of an A-system References indexed by all segments of one and the same finite [A1] SVERDRUP. d -sets 'realize' the contin- uum hypothesis: their cardinality is either finite. Thus. V. a family {Ani'" n. E. The property tional or a priori probability. The joint distribution of e and X is given by the References distribution of 8 (now called the a priori distribution) [A1] JECH.: Descriptive set theory. thus. K. A sequence HI Editorial comments.N. 2No. dom variable X given e=o. The latter is called the a posteriori [1] BERNSHTEiN.

or the . b). El'kin which depend on a parameter x EX. J. fz and h ECI(a.2. ferential equations of the first kind represent a natural References generalization of the Riccati equation. Abel d-set. a References modern approach can be found in [A1]. Abel's dif- Editorial comments. gO(X)+gl(X)yi=O. system. then the kernels of the A -system composed from n=1 the elements of At are called the .The ordinary frame was subdivided into strips. from the French). equations arose in the context of the studies of N.1) A calculating frame used for arithmeti- cal calculations in ancient Greece. x)b(n.D. Abel's differential equation of the first ABEL CRITERION . Kuptsov AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 40A05. 1974. . 1977 (in Russian). Dover. E. kind can be reduced to the normal form 01A20 dz / dt=z3 +cI>(t) by substitution of variables [2]. The Abel criteria can be strengthened (see. BSE-3 Abel [1] on the theory of elliptic functions. 1960. pebbles. logical space are called the .: A short account of the history of If fl EC(a. is convergent. P. and WATSON.s. A.: Differential und Integralrechnung.1) Abel's criterion for series of kind cannot be integrated in closed form. Dedekind criterion (convergence of series». [A 1] ROUSE BALL.: An introduction to set theory and general the uniform convergence of integrals topology. L. in Western Europe. See called a Sus/in (Souslin) scheme. ancient Rome and later. OOA25.G. 123-125. n = 1. also Dirichlet criterion (convergence of series).: Mathematical analysis. Verlag Wissenschaft. an A-system is also ple. W./-sets generated by At . These so-called net chart nomogram).b) and gl(X)i=O.gIECI(a. form a monotone sequence that is uniformly bounded on X An Abel criterion for References [1] ALEKSANDROV. as well as their further generalizations 3 ./ -set generated by this A -system.was (Abel's differential equation of the first kind) or used in the Far East. [go(x)+gl(X)Y}y' = !O(X)+!I(X)y+/2(x)y 2+/J(X)y 3 2) In nomography an abacus is a special sketch (the (Abel's differential equation of the second kind). though this is numbers. 00 [2] KURATOWSKI. ···n'). b].T. while the 'schety' was employed in Russia. 1-2. transformation.P. or the result of the .: Topology. Acad. In the general case. If gO. for exam- Suslin. 04A 15 analysis. hence it is also known as the Sus/in operation (also So us/in operation). L.: Topology and Borel structure. x E[a. etc. Deutsch. The y' = !O(X)+!I(X)Y +/2(x)y 2 +!3 (x)y 3 Chinese equivalent of the abacus .. Thed-operation is an important in a similar manner. If At is a system of sets. The series A -system. 1966 (translated ja(n. 1952. x)dn. then Abel's differential equation of the first AMS 1980 Subject Classification: OOA08. for any x EX. then the series go(x)+gl(x)y= 1 / z.M. Abel's differential equa- n=l tion of the second kind can be reduced to Abel's dif- is convergent and if the numbers an form a monotone ferential equation of the first kind by substituting bounded sequence. If the series possible in special cases [2].: A course of modern AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54H05. Moscow. G..P. W.s. tool in descriptive set theory. I. =AI n '" nAn. [1] FICHTENHOLZ. b) and h(x)i=O for mathematics.S. ABEL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION chains of an A -system is called the kernel of this A. Moscow. converges uniformly on X and if the functions an(x). [3] WHITTAKER. The ABEL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION . Holland. 1964. Every A-system can be regularized without changing n=l the kernel (it suffices to put converges uniformly on a set X if the series A~. 40A10 ABACUS ./ -operation applied to this 2) Abel's criterion for series offunctions. Press. reprint. While [2] is the standard reference for classical results. I. In this connection. See also d-operation.N.s.s.Ya.swan-pan . References [2] KUDRYAVTSEV. 1. Press. North- (in Russian). 1973 [A 1] CHRISTENSEN.R. can be formulated Editorial comments. The d-sets generated by the closed sets of a topo./-sets of this space. . K. Cambridge Univ. G. "'n.. It was introduced by M. pp. up to the 18-th century.H. inside which the differential equation counters (bones. Abel's differential equations of the first and second kinds.) were moved.

O<p< 00.... Deutsch. lim I a" Illn :E.. . Goncharov prob. [1]).'1. but one has obtained the A function 1 (z) is put in correspondence with the bounds 0. the more general statements lem .M. J<n)(~n)=O.: 'Precis d'une th60rie des fonctions elliptiques'.=0 f(z) = ~(n!)-"a"zn. By definition.. is to determine conditions under which there exists a If ).. n=O. .. The problem tity ~~:~ I ~k+ I . the bound 01 convergence for Reine Angew.. "" I tions 1 (z) representable by a series (*) is called the con...: Vorlesungen iiber Differentialgleichungen im series (*). is called the bound 01 uniqueness.} are Thus.. as the Whittaker con- stant and the Goncharov constant. where l(n) is a slowly increasing function l(z)"O. The infimum W of the r-values for which /I( Komplexen. E.=0 j=O . N. n=O n-+oo for example. Here {An} and {). k=O.Goncharov problem for the "" ~j<n)(An)Pn(z).. . .Goncharov convergence classes for entire func.H. 1.. 1]. 4 (1829).Goncharov a. the Abel. such thatj<n)(). .. O<r < 00../(z)EAi. the The Abel. tions 1 (z) from some class satisfying the relations have also been proved [5]. l....A problem in the theory of functions of a com- plex variable. ... cal value is not known. Other was solved for various subclasses of the class of func- Abel. Pn(z) = -\-(z-a)(z-a-nhr.. nk N. j<n)(). [7].ABEL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION n m n Let A~ be the class of functions 1 (z) of the form y' = ~(x>'y. which the Goncharov polynomial defined by the equalities satisfy the condition P~k)(At) = 0. Let the in terms of bounds on the order and the type of entire sequences {Jlk } and {p.n-I.. for any number b>O there n. . This problem was generalized 4 ... the following has been the Abel-Goncharov interpolation series... V. 1.Goncharov convergence ing the conditions f r.f natural numbers (h=j=O) (cf. It has been shown ABEL . Here numbers... 1.7378 [9]. be the class of all pos- References sible sequences {). the equatIons f (~k)-O. r- [I] ABEL..GoNCHAROV PROBLEM. j(z) = ~a •• z·· mials were obtained for some classes of interpolation k=O nodes... . Abel gave a formal treatment of the case k~1A.Goncharov problem. [6]). depending on {Jld [3].. [2] K. In the case when limn . satisfy- function.I • imply l(z)=O.} such that I)"" I ~(n + 1 I .. n=O. . p~n)(z) . I An n .. ). J.. exist a sequence {~n} The series (*) is used to study the zeros of the succes- Jim_n_ =b sive derivatives of regular functions.. is the supremum S of the values of r for /I( LOsungen..}EA.. have been studied in detail in the complex domain (see. where a and h are real where {nk} is an ~creas~~ ~ence ::. Chelsea. y'~gj(x>'yj = ~(x>. The set of func.Goncharov convergence class has been expressed two-point problem posed by J. 1. . and let Aa. [10].)=O.f = 0. The resulting tions of finite and infinite order have been identified in conditions.} = {n} and {Jld {p.L. that S I = WI (cf. n =0..y. I ~ I.} = 0. T. are expressed terms of various constraints on the indicators of the in terms of various bounds imposed on the coefficients respective classes of functions. Whittaker [12]. tions regular in the disc I z I<R (R> 1). This problem class has. Goncharov [2]. Moreover. . of the expansions problem has also been studied for entire functions of 00 several variables. = WI> W. in a sense. The Abel..Kh.." =nl/Pl(n). 1. 309-348..uoo!.. l(z)"O. } be such that functions I(z). n {Jld U {p. O. S ...1 and such that I( 00) = 0. N. which every function 1 (z) EA~ can be represented by a [3] GoLUBEV. and a function l(z) .. re~ar on the segment [0.Goncharov problem includes the so-called Abel. The quantities WI AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 34AXX and Wo are known. Math. . r)(O) =0. Its precise numeri- class. if {~n}EA. [3]). depending on the growth of the quan..V.7259< WI <0. oo I ~n I = 00. = WI> O:E. Rozov {). .. .: Differentialgleichungen: LOsungsmethoden und the class Aa.. 1. O~a< 00.. 1971.a<oo. been exactly determined [6]. Exact estimates of Goncharov polyno... the Abel-Goncharov problem is sequences of complex numbers admissible for the given reduced to finding the constant WI..)(1) =0.~k I [2]. )""=a+nh. consisting of finding the set of all func. which are in a sense precise. 1958 (translated there exist a function I(Z)EA~ and a sequence from the Russian). co _ .. Verlag Wissenscbaft. where Pn(z) is shown: For any set of numbers {~}. .H. reprint. 1.)=A n (n=O. The problem was posed by V... series Relative to the Abel. n =0. for which vergence class of the Abel. respectively.. k-O. (*) class A'i of functions which are regular in the region n=O I z I ..

Abel's inequality is proved by means of the Abel tems of linear equations [4]. 1-78. 1 (1963).A. Ser. S. Ann. [10] SUETIN. The equa- [6] EVGRAFov.: 'On convergence of certain interpolation series'. [4] DZHRBASHYAN. M..K. 219-229. Cambridge which is the same thing. Mekh. References ABEL INEQUALITY . given by formula (5). Soc. ABEL INTEGRAL EQUATION and solved using methods of the theory of infinite sys. An Abel [5] DRAGILEV. see also [6]. M. Formula (5) also gives the Univ. Thus. B V. Bal' Editorial comments. [7] KAz'MIN.M. 1 (1973). . 225-252 (in Russian). [4].H.n . O. of Math. [2] GoNTCHAROFF. Ecole Norm. N. Yu.: 'Ueber die Abelsche Integralgleichung mit kon- Bk=b) + . YU. where 5 . Univ. Sci.An estimate for the sum of [1] BOCHER. Acad. Ja(x-sf cp(s) ds = f(x). a~x~b. . integral equation belongs to the class of Volterra equa- 287-294 (in Russian)..: 'Uniqueness and representability a known function and <p(x) is the unknown function. theorems for analytic functions'. no. Math. Akad. 1%6 has the simpler estimate: (translated from the Russian). tions of the first kind (d. 92.I. to which the solution of the Abel problem is reduced. 26-34 (in Russian). M. Yu. J. S. Univ. I x cp(s) ds = f(x). Vestnik 'IT dx a (x-t)l-a' Moskov. V.e. where the sequence {pd forms an arithmetic progres. Amer. the derivatives of which vanish in two points'.Liouville fractional integral. Ann. .P. Sup. veue I ze Ik~lakbk I. 19. or [11] OsKOLKOV. B(I al 1+21 an I).241-251. M. then Vestnik Moskov.D. Vestnik Moskov. Volterra equation). p(s) ds = f(x).: 'On integrable solutions of Abel's integral Ik~lakbk I. . Math. no. products of two numbers. Sb. L.Ibragimov'.M.. 4. Kudryavtsev sion and one is dealing with entire functions of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 26015 exponential type. no.: Boundary value problems. Trans. the two-point problem has.. 55-59) [I2] WHITTAKER.x ~b. the Abel integral equation (2) has the unique References solution in the class of Lebesgue-integrable functions [A1] BoAS. I Bk I ~B. 1954. Z. USSR-Sb..s) . are given such that the absolute values of all sums [2] CARLEMAN. Mekh.. I Math. Ann. 1839. 547-560 (in Russian). A. Mat.A. in a cer- tain sense.: 'Su un problema di Abel'. (3) 47 (1930). no. For the solution of the Abel AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 30E05 integral equation (3) see [2]. ABEL INTEGRAL EQUATION .1. (2) [3] GEL'FOND. f(x) is SSSR Ser.111-120. are bounded by a stanten Integrationsgrenzen'. 15 (1922). I Math.. the Abel integral equation (2) has a unique continuous [9] MAcINTYRE.: 'Sur les fonctions generatrices et leurs determinants'. 1935. no. Yx-s (1) pp. Edition de Holmboe. Akad. Oskolkov general assumptions [3]. The left-hand side of (2) is also known as a Riemann . (2) 31 (1930). 77-88. 16 (1952). If the ak are non-increasing and non-negative.: 'On functions..A. Press. 183-199. RP.L.: The Abel-Goncharov interpolation problem.. For an introduction to the general that if f (x) is absolutely continuous on the interval area. If f (x) is a continuously-differentiable function. I. W. tion b falx-sla Moscow. +bko k=l. 1960 (translated from the Russian). 2 (1963). T. number B.: Entire functions. Math.A. [A 1].. Mat. been solved completely [8].n.: Interpolatory function theory. ai ~ai + J. Nauk where a>O and O<a<l are known constants.. and if either ai . then [4] TAMAllKIN. If sets of numbers ak and bk Amer.271-278. LD.O.: 'On the zeros of successive derivatives of solution given by the formula integral functions'. Christiania. Press.L. no.. it has been shown [3] Editorial comments. Abel integral equation..A. Mekh. (3) lytic functions'.M. is called Abel's integral equation with fixed limits.: 'On zeros of sequences of derivatives of ana. 11 (1947). 6 (1965). 21. Kh -1 l'd .: Linear integral equatiOns. 99 (1928).: 'On a problem of Gel'fond. 10 (1909). Pergamon. Izv. J. Sibirsk. Univ. The expression (x . Vol. Math. in Oeuvres completes. a'.S. 2. [V. 67 (1949).: 'On the regions of convergence of power-series which represent two-dimensional harmonic functions'. I Math. Zh. [8] KAz'MIN. and CHuIrnLOVA.. solution of an Abel integral equation (2) under more V.. Izv. cf. SeT.The integral equa- References tion [1] ABEL. Generalisation The generalized Abel integral e~tion is the equation de la serie d'Abel'. 37-44 (in Russian). Comp. 1 'IT (x-a)l-a a (x-t)l-a ' (1973)..:'ai +) or [3] ToNELU. F. i. and IBRAGIMOV.. In the particular case transfonnation. or Abel kernel. [a. GoNCHAROV]: 'Recherches sur les derivees successives des fonctions analytiques. 16-25 (in Russian). 57-62. Soc. Ser.: 'On estimates for Gonwov polynomials'.: 'Coincidence of constants of uniqueness and cp(x) = sina'IT ~fx (t)dt (4) convergence of certain interpolation problems'. 21. [5] MnrnuN. 1954 (in Russian). one [6] GAKHOV. cp(x) = sina'IT [ (a) +fx «t)dt ] (5) Math.. Delhi. Nauk SSSR Ser. Trans. 5 (1966). i = 1.G. Hindushtan Publ. (Mat. b].a is called the kernel of the Mat.D. equation'.

References [A3] MOISEIWITSCH.G. H.J. cp) as the point M(p.2. M. Sect. 129-130. V2g(x -s) sinw. S. Vol. </>0) non-tangentially inside the 00 and replaces x . is the case SL(2. bounding circle not by a radial or by a tangential but Grondahl and Son.One integral equation .K. B.p2 dt 2(1-2pcost+p2)' (*) f p(s)ds o Vx-s = j(x) If fEC(O. 1881. Wiley (Interscience).Poisson method at a point cp to a number S if ~ =. as has been shown by S. Abel in 1823. pp. </»-->(1. Press. 1-2. if w of the methods for summing Fourier series. pp. Longman. and the integral (*) was named the Poisson integral.One of the theorem stated above is Fatou's theorem: If fEL[O. F.</>o/(p. 1959. Bourbaki.1_ = <t>(s). .: Potential theory in modern function theory. </» = j(</>o) References irrespective of the path along which the point M(p. Vol. [A1]. Selberg'. who showed that this curve is then a cycloid.</>~.ABEL INTEGRAL EQUATION Rea<1.L. and TRIcOMl.K. in a curve such that a material point moving along it sem.: Trigonometric series.: Tables of integral transforms. simple Lie group.: Introduction to integral equations with applica- approaches the point P(l. Integralgleichungen. A theorem related to Schwarz' ABEL SUMMATION METHOD . The solution of the equation intro- applied to Fourier series was therefore named the duced above is: Abel. then the famous tautochrone problem first solved by Chr. [A2] HOCHSTADT.x. this is continuous at a point </>0. starting from a point with [A3] FENYO. 271"). Cambridge Univ. </» approaches P(1. A. 13. A. A A Z kh AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 70D05. rather along an arbitrary path. The for al most all </>0 series lim (p. Sect. then the integral on the right-hand side for the unknown function cp(s). lim j(p. = 2+ ~(akcosk</>+bksink</»l. N. BARI]: A treatise on trigonometric series. Christiania. F. and its solution involves one of the first integral equations .H. and STOLLE. sides which are known as Abel transform and Weyl frac. </>0) as long as that path tions. 1964 (translated from the Russian). in a vertical plane (s.j" ji("'+ t) '1T _" 'I' 1. I. a arov Editorial comments. in Oeuvres completes. R. V Khvedelidze Schwarz theorem applies: If fbelongs to L[O. MAGNUS. 1954.4. 1979. If one integrates in (1) and (2) from x to as M(p. R) of the Abel transform on a real semi.W.271"] is summable by the sought with the r-axis. References AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 40G 10 [A1] ERDELYI. then one can consider the limit of References [1] ABEL. which makes it possible to find the equation of the chlet problem for the disc.: Integral equations. The Fourier is the angle formed by the tangent of the curve being series of a function fEL[O. cp) are polar coordinates of a point inside the disc of radius one.: Integral equations. M. cf. . II.. nouvelle Iid. 1973. A general source for integral equations is [A3]. A. (P. </» = f(</>o) 6 . which is. 13. cp) approaches a point on the d'integrales defines'. [N. 1984. H. This Abel transform [A1] ZYGMUND.: 'Introduction aux travaux de A. under gravity from rest. 45E10 . 1977. will meet the r-axis after a time T = f (x).Poisson summation method. respectively. The Abel summation method curve being sought. where the function f (x) is given in advance. References tional integral (ct. Birkhauser. In fact. then methods for the summation of series of numbers. The prob- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 45E10 lem was posed by N. 11-27. 3. 1957.3. 00 j(p. [A2]. 144. 2. </» = S. In this situation the B. r). [A2]. N. Huyghens. <t>(x) =~ '1T [1(Ql+ f ((T)dr].the Abel ABEL .</» smw k=i one obtains the integral equation ji( "') = p. then Abel. In the case that f(x)=const.s by s . Dekker. 271"] and is Editorial comments.. [A2] GoDEMENT.which was also solved. Poisson.POISSON SUMMATION MEfHOD . 1985.: Theorie und Praxis der linearen ordinate x. where p-->i-O Integrating this equation between °and x and putting aO _. cp) [A 1] JERRI. a solution of the Diri. 'I' 1. [I] BARY.To find. </>0) f(p. then one obtains left-hand disc. Vx VX-T 0 If (p. the determination of is a harmonic function for I z I I pe i </> I <1. W. cf. OBERHETINGER. McGraw-Hili. [A2] Tsun. remains within the disc with radius one..H. Chapt.: 'Solutions de quelques problemes Ii l'aide f(p.-y2g<I>(x) = j(x). Per- gamon. 2'1T]. [A1)). cf. ABEL PROBLEM . Maruzen.

The theorem number.H. Moreover n.K.I +g(s) cients whose roots cannot be expressed in terms of rad- if 0:*-1. z are complex numbers. . The Abel summation z-+zo.. ABEL THEOREM can be summed by the Abel method (A -method) to the number R E[O..H. half-plane o>c. where z J.2. BARI]: A treatise on trigonometric series.B (_u_l)!ss-si 'i'\S (_l}-a ( ns-si )+ gs )-a-Il ( () Algebraic equation.1) Abel's theorem on algebraiC equations: Formulas expressing the solution of an arbi. The name 'Abel are located inside the disc of convergence. The Abel summation convergence joining the points b and z o. on the continuity of power series. Here g (s) is a regular function for 00 0>{3. It is a generaliza- where z~ 1 along any path not tangent to the unit cir. .p(s) = B f(u+ l)s(s -sd. This theorem method is used in conjunction with Tauberian theorems is used. . series which converges at the boundary points of the A closely related summation method is the A·- disc of convergence. the Riemann zeta-function t{s) (An =n. to calculate the sum of a power to demonstrate the convergence of a series. put e -s = z). Per. is convergent and 3) Abel's continuity theorem: If the power series (*) converges at a point z 0 on the boundary of the disc of convergence. tion of Abel's theorem on power series (take An =n and cle. )=1 7 . then it converges absolutely and uniformly has a first-order pole with residue 1. In particu- summation method' originates from the Abel theorem lar lim S(z) = S(ZO). . 0: =0. S(z) = ~ak(z-bt.b I <R is known as the disc of convergence of the series (*). s 1 . 1949. ZET method belongs to the class of totally regular summa- This limit always exists along the radius: The series (*) tion methods and is more powerful than the entire set converges uniformly along any radius of the disc of of Cesaro summation methods. of the series. s 1 = I. 00] such that if I z . 01-1<{3<01. It follows from the theorem that the domain of convergence of a Dirichlet series is some References [I] HARDy.b I <R the series is number S if. see AJ) -. The theorem was established by N. and the function cp(s) can be may also be obtained as a corollary of Galois theory. regularly extended to the half-plane (3<0 with the from which a more general theorem follows: For any exception of the point s = s I.g. (3 is a real using radicals do not exist for any n . I z I < 1. for any real x. N. s=a+it. if with centre at b.. +an of the coefficients of the series: If ABEL THEOREM . -2. For a modern formulation of Abel's theorem for equations over an arbitrary field.: Divergent series. G. then it converges in 00 lim ~akzk = S.1. . B = 1. [N. Clarendon. Let z be a complex number. then the Dirichlet was proved by N. converges at 0>0. O<x < 1.K. Z 1 . Euler and G. method. in particular.. a arov chlet series (when An =lnn) with a known asymptotic AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 40G10 behaviour for the sum-function An =al + . .b I > R the series is divergent. Abel's theorem series converges for 01 <0. 1964 (translated from the Russian). .:'5. . z 2 works of L. (3)0) is regular at least in the half-plane k=O where ab b..g. The number R is called the radius of convergence of the series (*). z 2. E. (*) E. This theorem can within any disc I z -b I ~p of radius p< I Zo -b I and be generalized in various ways. 01 =Resl.. trary equation of degree n in terms of its coefficients where B. with the exception of the point s = 1 at which it z = z 0.H.a . the half-plane 0>00 and converges uniformly inside k=O any angle I arg(s-so) I ~O<7T /2.:' 5 there exist algebraic equations with integer coeffi. while the disc I z . Abel in 1824 [1]. k Abel [2]. It follows from the theorem that there exists a An = ~B)nSj(lnntj +O(n P). then it is a continuous function in any This summation method can already be found in the closed triangle T with vertices z 0.0: are complex numbers. A A Z kh The following theorem is valid for an ordinary Diri- . where c is the abscissa of convergence [2] BARY. the series convergent. k=O n=1 is summed by the A • -method to the number S if converges at the point So =00 +ito. gamon. An>O. Leibnitz. the 4) Abel's theorem on Dirichlet series: If the Dirichlet series 00 series ~ak .and icals of rational numbers. An = B nSI(lnn)a +O(n P).p(S) = ~ane-'###BOT_TEXT###quot;s. while if I z .. 2) Abel's theorem on power series: If the power series if 0: = .

. '. !f. category). summation by parts .) .k). +bb k=I.+bk =Bo+b. [3] WHITTAKER.H. with diagram teria of convergence of series of numbers and functions scheme 'tI over an Abelian category ~. y) with y=a/3.B o .. Bo is arbitrarily selected.m) = D(l/. then subcategories of the above type of categories R we of the Abel transformation can be applied to the series unitary left modules.1)+".N.=(!f. each epi- l+mx /2+m(m-l)x 2 /(2. Kuptsov functors from 'tI into ~ (cf. plane. E. It is also regularly used to obtain of paths CP=(CP1. Bk = Bk-. ~Bk(ak+. that k=' k=' is.P. A functor F: '1)~~ will then be called normalized if ABELIAN CATEGORY .. is an Abelian category. Abel [1]. Each monomorphism is a normal monomorphism. A product and a coproduct exist for each pair of 1. L.. the following 00 00 Mitchell theorem is valid: For each small Abelian ~akbk = ~(ak -ak+. 30830.. all Abelian groups. then the corresponding sub- analysis..H. D(l/. Math. 21). Product of a family of objects in a category). formula for integration by parts.: Theory offunctions of a complex variable. .'" ..j:S. and phisms also the kernel and cokernel of that morphism.g.ABEL THEOREM where Bj . Accordingly. G. Abelian categories were introduced chlet series converges for 0>0J. [1] ABEL.4) that ~ is a locally small category (d.. and WATSON.. 12AXX.. Reine Angew.) . category and if the set C consists of all pairs of the I. Math.. In particular. 1977 (translated from the Russian).: 'Untersuchungen tiber die Reihe so that it occurs as the kernel of a morphism. based on the asymptotic behaviour of An.H. 1) The dual category 12E12.: 'Untersuchungen tiber die Reihe D(</» = D(</>. <01. D : 'tI~~ that satisfy References [I] ABEL. Examples of Abelian categories. A3.Sk at which it has algebraic or logarithmic satisfies the following axioms: singularities. In the scheme 'V one may distinguish the set often yields a series with an identical sum. 30815. 2) The category R we of all unitary left modules over ABEL TRANSFORMATION.. are arbitrary complex some of the characteristic properties of the category of numbers. can be found in [A 1]. Sj' aj (l:S. 1-2.m) in 'tI with a certain estimates (cf. reprint. !f.e. Kuptsov In defining an Abelian category it is often assumed Editorial comments.I.CPn). Each morphism has a kernel (d.+ . ~akbk = aNBN-a. 1977 (translated from the Russian). i.T. 311-339. Abel inequality). Theorems of this type yield information AO. N.H. and that contains for each pair of objects A and B also The Abel transformation is the discrete analogue of the their product and coproduct. More on Abel's theorems 2) . Functor). Clarendon. then the Diri. ••. Chelsea. I (1826).) I+mx /2+m(m-1)x 2 /(2'1)+'" '. Null object of a on the behaviour of the Dirichlet series in a given half. Small category). the category of all Abelian groups). objects (cf. The complete 8 . 1.J. Abel criterion). AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 65810 Suppose that a null object exists in a small category 1). Kernel of a References morphism in a category) and a cokernel.)Bk -a. [3] MARKUSHEVICH. A2. [2] ABEL.311-339. A. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 10HXX. The Abel transformation of a series category. Reine Angew.N. 1881. A null object exists (cf.. is an Abelian category. Vol. if 1) is a small [2] MARKUSHEVICH. in particular. N.: Theory offunctions of a complex variable. The coproduct of two objects A and B of an Abelian References category is also know as the direct sum of these objects [A1] HARDY. .: A course of modern form (a/3. is an Abelian (cf. and is denoted by A EB B. but with a C of commutativity relations. Then the complete subcategory investigations on the rate of convergence of a series.40G10 of an Abelian category is also an Abelian category. The Abel transformation is used to prove several cri- 4) Any category of diagrams i5{'tI.'" . N.. 1952. Cambridge Univ. G.!f.I.: Oeuvres completes. ~) generated by all those diagrams was introduced by N. category is the Abelian category of one-place covariant L.: Divergent series. . the set of pairs (cp.-ak)' 3) Any full subcategory of an Abelian category.A an arbitrary associative ring R with a unit element and transformation all R-module homomorphisms is an Abelian category N N-' (e. 1949. for common begin and end.l.H. Chelsea. A category ~ is said to be Abelian [2] if it S 1. and Ok -1 <{3<Ok < . A. D(</>n) = D(l/. and <Pes) is regular in as the basis for an abstract construction of homological the domain 0> {3 with the exception of the points algebra [4].. a subcategory that contains for each one of its mor- where ak> bk are given. Christiania.. 1(1826).Bo· category there exists a full exact imbedding into some k=' k=' category R we. morpliism is a normal epimorphism. Press.!.P.) better convergence. A liB or A -+ B. It of the category i5{'tI.. The small Abelian categories are exhausted by the If aW"~O and if the sequence {Bk} is bounded. AI.A category that displays it takes a null object into a null object.

V. additive category. 1968. one distinguishes three kinds of products or coproducts. 9 (1957). Acad. is an Abelian category.: Abelian categories: An introduction to the theory of be co-universal (i. 8. France 90 (1962). sa en 0 sists of the equivalence classes of ~I-subobjects. i. the ~-subobjects basis for the development of homological algebra. Kerj3E~I' [3] GABRIEL. # denotes the com- position of <jl: A~B. These sions I clI CIII. "'~(-1)~O~1~2~'" The Mitchell theorem quoted above constitutes the underlying principle of the so-called 'diagram-chasing' in which dndn + 1 =0. plete univalent right-adjoint functor Q: ~ / ~I -'?~. agbg be the cycles of a canonical are identical.e. = V. meromorphic differential on a compact. (A. The subobject functors. II and III. and DELEANU. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 18EXX 6) For any topological space X the category of left G-modules over X. Let instance. R ---'> A References /L'172 ~ ~a [1] BUCUR. P.. By definition. a co-fibred product). 1973. respectively. Bull. J. B n . Differential on a Riemann sur- ~ a partial sum of morphisms so that A becomes an face). and if for the exact sequence O~A~B---. N. It is possible to introduce into any Abelian category Riemann surface S (d. H n of n-dimensional cycles. -+-2. Any Abelian category is a Abelian differentials: I. category).... with values in~. A. . then the corresponding subcategory generated by the normalized method in an Abelian category: Any proposition about functors is called the category of complexes over ~.: Introduction to the theory of B ---'> X categories and functors. A dense subcategory is more makes it possible to construct the quotient category often called a Serre subcategory.: 'Des categories Abeliennes'. if ~ is a category the objects of kernel and can be decomposed into a product which are all integers and the null object is N. If pro- ducts (or coproducts) of any family of objects exist in 5) A complete subcategory ~I of an Abelian category ~. Acad. These conditions are satisfied. >J. with proper inclu- bicategory with a unique bicategorical structure. in which () is an isomorphism. and modules. The faithful functor T: ~~~ / ~I is defined by assigning to each References [A 1] MITCHELL. morphism ex:A-'?B its graph in A EBB.Popescu theorem). fJ [2] FREYD.: Theory of categories. The usual multiplication of binary relations is compatible Editorial comments. Two ~I-subobjects are equivalent if they contain some [4] GROTHENDIECK. Quotient object) of and if the coproducts its objects.: 'Sur quelques points d'algebre homo1o- ~I-subobject. non-null non-identity morphisms form a sequence L. -+-1. gique'. 119-221. J. Genus of a coproduct of any pair of objects in an Abelian category surface).: B~C. let alb I . A subcategory [A2] POPESCU. Soc. n=O. Abelian differentials of the first kind properties characterize an Abelian category: A category are first-order differentials that are holomorphic every- 9 .t] be a subobject of the direct sum A EB B with pro.e. do d. CEOb~I' The quotient exist for any set I. (R.: Abelian categories with applications to rings ~I is said to be a localizing subcategory if T has a com. which are equivalent to the quotient jections '171. Wiley.t] is called an ~I-subobject if Cokeq.A holomorphic or element over X. '172 and let the square categories of the category of modules by a localizing subcategory (the Gabriel.>C~O II iEJ Vj. the set H iJI / iJI . known to be met if there is a generating object U in ~ Subobject) and quotient objects (d. Grothendieck (R. Harper and Row. exactness of certain sequences of morphisms. BEOb~1 if and only if A. 323-448. On commutative diagrams that is valid for all categories of the category of complexes there are defined the additive left modules R fIR and that is a consequence of the functors zn. Composition of morphisms is writ- with the equivalence relation thus introduced. in defining an Abelian basis of the homology of S. B) con. These conditions are ~ is said to be dense if it contains all subobjects (d. where G is a sheaf of rings with unit ABELIAN DIFFERENTIAL . . 1965. Moreover. of an arbitrary object form a Dedekind lattice. I. ABELIAN DIFFERE]\iTIAL subcategory of the category of functors generated by ~ with finite products is Abelian if and only if it is the normalized functors will then be an Abelian additive and if any morphism ex has a kernel and a co- category. by Grothendieck categories (d. is valid in dimensional boundaries and n-dimensional homologies. Math. For this reason the product and the Let g be the genus of the surface S (d. J. or closed. Press. A. Depending on the nature category it suffices to assume the existence of either of their singular points. ~ / ~I' which is an Abelian category. These constitute the In a locally small Abelian category. which ten from left to right in this article.L'17I. 1964. n. M Sh T. all Abelian categories. . In particular. I k . for category ~ / ~I is then constructed as follows. P. while the a = Coker(Kera) 8 ker(Cokera). this lattice will be complete. Press. Tohoku Math.

. (3) point POES. "iT) = ±(A. the space 21 becomes a Hilbert particular.. Let w be an arbitrary Abelian differential Aj = fw. ferential of the second kind is a meromorphic differen- tion are defined by natural rules: If tial all residues of which are zero.. a_I] +-+f(z) dz.A I </>1 . then w = O.. in a neighbourhood U of each a_ n [. where f (z) is a regular function. Bilinear relations of a similar type also exist between in general. bk do not pass through the poles of BIj = f<l>l b. an arbitrary representations Abelian differential of the third kind also has polar 10 .) = 1.. 'TT) = f f w*"iT.. a canonical basis </>1. The matrix (B.I l'j Abelian differentials of the second and third kinds are. can construct a normalized Abelian differential wI. ..Ag.. B I. and let WI be an arbitrary Abelian dif- space 21... and the matrix of the imaginary let L j be a path from Po to Pj' One then obtains bi- parts (1m B. can be chosen so that ferential of the first kind: Aij = f<l>l = B.e. analytic dif. or regular. periods A I. .g. j=l. 'TT = qdz.n. Q) Qk hk where 8. . = 1 and 8ij =0 if )=I=i. then w can be represented as a linear j=\ combination of a normalized Abelian differential of the If A'I. a = a(z). +cn=O.. which is known as a normal Abelian differential of integrals the third kind. . i.'" . . the with the singularities (1 / z)dz in PI and (-1/ z)dz in P 2 . and basis Abelian dif- ferentials of the first kind </>k: i(w.o + ±Ak<l>k' The relations (1) and (2) are known as the bilinear j = \ k =\ Riemann relations for Abelian differentials' of the first Let W3 be an Abelian differential of the third kind with kind. If all the periods of an Abelian differential of the first kind w ±(AkB~-BkA~) =I = 27Td>JWl' are real. . . B'I. . If analytic function of z in U.Pn . . of the B-periods Ok hA.A~.. where the cycles ak. where zn z z = x + iy is a local uniforrnizing variable in U.g. . .. Bj = fw..). the pole is said to be simple. i. meromorphic differentials.and B-periods Ab Bb singular points that are poles and which have local k = I. . then. ferentials which have on S not more than a finite set of In addition to the A. CI + . II w 112 = (±(A)ij-BjA. An Abelian differen. The addition of Abelian n = 1.ABELIAN DIFFERENTIAL where on S and that..e.. one space. Let w be an arbitrary Abelian differential with A- (w.BjA)) = O. and a . . . O... </>g of the ) = 1. (1) ) = 1. . i. a finite number of normal Abelian dif- Abelian differential of the first kind 'TT. . .. A canonical basis of the Abelian differentials of only simple poles with residues Cj at the points Pj' the first kind.g. . always. and p(z) is a holomorphic. zn Z2 The Abelian differentials of the first kind form a g- An Abelian differential of the third kind is an arbitrary dimensional vector space 21. Bg be the A. known as the cyclic periods.. with residues c I.I is the residue of the pole.and B-periods of the Abelian differential of the first kind w..) . the Abelian differential s w' = w . k . An Abelian dif- differentials and multiplication by a holomorphic func. In conjugate differential 7i. . .. differential with local representation then w+'TT = (p+q)dz. a meromorphic w = pdz.g. .O.e.+ .j) is positive definite. . n is the order of the dz =dx +i dy.w. n. (2) j=\ w = W2 + ±c.. pole (if a -n=l=O). Ak = fW\. + a-2 +f(Z)]dZ..Ag. if PI and P 2 are any two points on S. W3' Let the point Po ES not lie on the cycles ab bk and IS then symmetric.. i.e. . .2 Let A I. i.. . If Po is The following relation then holds: any arbitrary point on S such that Po=l=Pj ... linear relations for Abelian differentials of the first and tial of the first kind for which all the A-periods or all third kinds: the B-periods are zero is identically equal to zero. .Ag</>g then has zero A -periods where w*7i is the exterior product of w with the star- and is known as a normalized Abelian differential.. A~ = fW3' B~ = fW3' k=l. aw = (ap)dz.B) . . .. . then one has ferentials of the third kind Wj. . B~ are the periods of another second kind W2. Abelian differentials of the first and second kinds.. [ a_ n + . Bk = fW\.. have the form w=pdz=p(z)dz.Cn at the respective points aJ hJ PI. After the introduction of the scalar product Abelian differential.

be a given system of sums in which the lower integra- Addison-Wesley. and let L(a) denote degenerate if there exists a linear transformation of the the vector space of meromorphic functions f on S of variables z]. Zj = fdu. Degenerate Abelian on the dimension of these spaces is contained in the functions are distinguished by having infinitely small Riemann . A function f (z) trary cycle 'I..e. .: The theory of algebraic functions. Other important information non-degenerate Abelian function.. .. .xp ' the latter 11 .=1 an Abelian function if there exist 2p row vectors in a where h. y k=1 . Let n(a) denote the com. [1].. S. [3] CHEBOTAREV. the quotient space a/ r (cf. are called the the type (w) = p~l .e. which is known as the the divisor of the Abelian differential w depends only period group (or the period module). constructed on a Riemann [I] SPRINGER.. i.A generalization of the con.. An Abelian function fez) is said to be the divisors (w) are multiples of a.+ . p=I... group is known as a basis system of periods of the Let a be some given divisor. is called fW3 = ±(lkA k+ lg+k B k)+27Ti±m/j. 19+k' and mj are integers. If p = I. or also as a system of basic (or primi- plex vector space of Abelian differentials w of which tive) periods.)= fez) for all the Abelian differential w. is [A1]. . . Another good reference. . U1 c] Cp Moscow-Leningrad.: Uniformisierung. only such pact Riemann surface S... A basis of this on the genus of S. All periods of the Abelian function f (z) form an plicities or orders. and one always has d[(w)]=2g-2. rational function in z and w.: Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. w)dz is an Abelian differential.e. . coordinates of the upper limits x].p. for which is valid for any divisor a.8 (in Russian). sometimes. Quasi-Abelian expressed as w=R(z. functions were considered to be Abelian functions.e.. meromorphic function cannot have a single simple pole. which is meromorphic in the complex space a. w) = O... +an of Abelian group r under addition. . with a meromorphic function on the complex torus Any arbitrary Abelian differential on S can then be a/ r. 1948. a II wp II = Vk~1 I wkp 12 < {. i. P~'. 30F30 surface F. in earlier work. )=1. .5. Then tion of fewer variables. • . up = f dup' [2] NEVANLINNA. It follows from the above. (w) is an expression of ZEa. The vectors w. tion limits c 1.lO. . . for example. i. Important properties of Abelian differentials are which are linearly independent over the field of real described in terms of divisors. Chapt. for an arbi. i. replacing XI Xp [3]. E.G. . . fR(z. 1953.Zp which converts f (z) into a func- which the divisors (f) are multiples of a.3. Let See also Algebraic function. I. in the variables z 1. . Chapt. the case of several complex variables. The degree d[(w)]=a] + . Let (w) be the divisor of numbers and are such that fez +w. otherwise f (z) is said to be a dimQ(a)=dimL(a / (w)). that if g = 1. Abelian function.D. .. w)dz = fw Jacobi inversion problem. Solomentsev and let Editorial comments. p. N. . . . This means century in connection with the inversion of Abelian that an arbitrary Abelian integral integrals (cf. .cp are considered as fixed on the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14H05.2p. w) is some function).. 1972.up be linearly independent normal Abelian References integrals of the first kind. R. . The Abelian func- tions obtained in solving this problem are called speCial is the integral of some Abelian differential on a com- Abelian functions.. It is then possible to define the special Abelian functions as all rational functions in the p ABELIAN FUNCflON . Abelian integral) of the first kind (cf.. Each Abelian which there are meromorphic functions z and w which function with period group r is naturally identified satisfy an irreducible algebraic equation F(z. Springer. + fdu.. on the surface of a torus. 1957. the expression The study of Abelian functions began in the 19-th w=R(z. for any number £>0 it is possible to find a dimL(a -I )-dim~(a) = d[a]. surface F: x x = f du I. Chapt.Zp' Z =(z 1.Roch theorem: The equality periods. [2]). the non-degenerate Abelian functions are ellip- Let S be an arbitrary compact Riemann surface on tic functions of one complex variable. Cl Cp References [A1] LANG.. u]. . .zp). Addison- Wesley.g + 1 period w. . w)dz where R(z. G. where the Prs are all the periods or the system of periods of the Abelian function zeros and poles of wand where the ars are their multi.: Introduction to Riemann surfaces. f (z). conversely.. ABELIAN FUNCTION periods of the form 27Ticj along zero-homologous cycles cept of an eUiptic function of one complex variable to which encircle the poles Pj' One thus has. .

tions. function at the point a + b E a may be rationally All Abelian functions corresponding to the same expressed in terms of the values of a certain (p + 1)- period matrix W form an Abelian function field Kw.. It must be a Riemann Special Abelian functions can be represented as the matrix.: Theorie der Abelschen Funk- tionen. metry of the matrix. 1956. P. 1957. i. of II ajk II. A basis system of periods is also form known as a period basis. . 1866.L. . In addition to the Riemann relations there are in f (z). Leipzig. .. Addison- then K w is isomorphic to the field of rational functions Wesley. N. [8] CONFORTO.e. . D. A. e. F..zp) = matrix "ajk .: Abelsche Funktionen und algebraische For special Abelian functions.I. . . Gbttingen. Solomentsev always be brought . where WT is yield a number of properties of special Abelian func- the transposed matrix of W. ABELIAN FUNCTION being in turn considered as functions of p points wi z 1. . These representations order 2p. regarded partial derivatives of the first order. quotient of two entire theta-functions with half-integral degenerate square matrix M with integer elements. and inequalities respectively. and GORDAN. 1958.. .: The theory of algebraic functions.zp)]. as many as the number of conformal The matrix W whose columns form a period basis of moduli for the Riemann surface F on which the inver- the Abelian function f (z) has dimension p X 2p and is sion problem is solved (cf.Frobenius conditions). any special Abelian function Al(z) o may be represented as The Riemann relations between the elements of the Al(z) = Al(zb . Riemann. all Abelian functions of Kw are degenerate. Teubner. c. and Kw varieties of certain types. Instead of [5] one can also con- 12 ... 1896. define the satisfy the addition theorem.: Automorphe Funktionen in mehrerer Variablen. the field Kw contains a non-degenerate Abelian func. 1975. G.e. [5] MUMFORD. The complex tori a / r corresponding to special j. Univ. there must exist an anti-symmetric non. Her- mann. for a the matrix to satisfy the following conditions (the review of subsequent advances in the field see [5]. ajk =akj' and the positive definite- ness of the matrix of real parts II Re ajk II. If. also Quasi-Abelian function. . any Abelian function can be rationally is obtained. If tuple of Abelian functions at the points a. E.by means of a linear transforma- tion of the independent variables z 1.D. [3] SIEGEL. its degree of transcendence over the field C is p. H.. the matrix W can Geometrie.zp). transcendental theta-functions (d.e. However. Inst.G. [6] STAHL. Moscow-Leningrad. In the symbolic notation introduced W= by K. geometry as a means of uniformization of algebraic the torus 0' / r is then an Abelian variety. Moduli of a Riemann sur- known as the period matrix of the Abelian function face). Thus. and 2) the matrix tions which generalize many properties of elliptic func- iWMW T defines a positive-definite Hermitian form [3]... the value of an Abelian period parallelotope of f (z). The number p is called the genus of the expressed in terms of some p + 1 Abelian functions. a system of p (p . . [1] SPRINGER.: Curves and their Jacobians. Theta-function). .zp on F. for p>3 there will be only Abelian functions are the Jacobi varieties of algebraic 3(p . . any Abelian func. k = 1. . on an Abelian variety of dimension lower than p. . The columns w v = Re w v + i 1m w v of W.1) / 2 Riemann inequalities braic equation.1) / 2 any p + 1 Abelian functions are related by some alge- Riemann equations and p (p . matrix W and of the corresponding Abelian function by means of an arbitrary Abelian function and its p f(z).1) independent elements among the elements ajk curves. Zp . . 1948 (in Russian)..p.to the Editorial comments.3) / 2 transcendental relations matrix W of dimension p X 2p to be the period matrix between the ajb the explicit form of which for the case of some non-degenerate Abelian function f (z) is for p =4 was first found by E. of Michigan which in turn can be represented as theta-series..: Introduction to Riemann surfaces. b EO'. Math. Springer. A. field Kw can be constructed. and such that 1) WMW T =0. See [2] CHEBOTAREV.g. of characteristics of a special kind.p. tion can be represented as the quotient of two entire [4] WElL. .2)(P . A Press. derivatives of an Abelian function f (z) If the conditions 1) and 2) are expressed as equations with respect to any argument Zj are Abelian functions. turns out to be its field of rational functions.XP(Zb . As in the case of elliptic functions. . Weierstrass. Abelian functions as vectors in the real Euclidean space R2p. Schottky in 1886. 1955. on the References other hand. k = 1. j. i.. A necessary and sufficient condition for a given such a case (p . i.: Introduction a l'hude des varihes kahleriennes. given Riemann matrix W determines a class of theta. series by means of which all Abelian functions of the [7] CLEBSCH. now ensure the sym- = R[X\(Zb .: Theorie der Abelschen Funktionen. Abelian functions are very important in algebraic tion.

Finally. who used such groups in the theory of solv. named zero (in multiplicative nota. the groups of type p 00 it is the union of an increasing sequence of subgroups (or the quasi-cyclic groups Zp~ ). Abel. and the zero sign (0) for there is a necessary and sufficient condition for the the neutral element. Group of type poo. The cardinality of all group in which the order of every element is a power of maximal linearly independent collections of elements is a fixed prime number p is said to be primary with the same and is called the rank (Profer rank) of the respect to p (the term p-group is used in general group given Abelian group. and HARRIs. ABELIAN GROUP .e. The indecomposable (non- coincides with the direct sum. i. Each element many non-split cyclic subgroups some of which are fin. coincides with the cardinality of a set of free generators tinct prime numbers. L. to use the plus sign (+ ) for that infinitely many) cyclic groups. but any two space of matrices satisfying the Riemann conditions. . of elements of A is said to be linearly dependent if sion of a torsion-free group by a torsion group. of it. in particular. of an Abelian group without torsion determines a 13 . This there exists a finite linearly dependent subcollection. Abelian group is itself finitely generated. For primary groups operation. nk. such that part) of the Abelian group. the additive element of infinite height in A if for any integer k the group of integers. 1. Every torsion group splits uniquely into a considered to be zero. every Abelian group is an exten. CORNALBA. All cyclic groups (cf. . Direct sum) of equation p k X = a is solvable in A. . invariants. These numbers AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 33A25. which is called the torsion subgroup (periodic n I. E.e. tomary to write the operation in an Abelian group in Not every Abelian group is a direct sum of (even additive notation. not all equal to zero. group is called linearly dependent if there exist integers group. existence of such splittings. It is cus. do not depend on the splittings chosen. Fro- tions are also known as the Riemann bilinear relations or benius. the torsion group is An Abelian group that is not a torsion group has maxi- usually not a direct summand. The rank of a torsion group is theory). . not unique. number p. GRIFFITHS. ite and primary. Jacobi variety.. i. rational numbers.H. The Kulikov citerion states that a primary Abelian cyclic group. The rank of a free Abelian group direct sum of primary groups that correspond to dis. If such numbers do not exist. It has splittings of a finitely generated Abelian group into recently been solved. while the others are infinite (G. Abelian group that is a direct sum of cyclic groups The free composition in the variety of Abelian groups itself is such a direct sum. Thus. References so that the number of infinite cyclic summands and the [A1] ARBELLO. and a is called an ele- cyclic groups are Abelian. terion. Springer.. i. They constitute a complete system of invariants. called 'addition'. There exists a complete description itely generated Abelian group is a direct sum of finitely of such groups in the language of types. Every torsion-free Abelian group of rank 1 is iso- erated Abelian groups. A non-zero element a of A is said to be an Cyclic group) are Abelian.A group whose operation is in the sense that two (finitely generated) Abelian commutative (cf. All direct sums (cf. Commutativity). the set is Abelian group by its torsion subgroup is a group said to be linearly independent.. M. This is given by the fundamental morphic to some subgroup of the additive group of theorem of finitely generated Abelian groups: Every fin. such that the set of heights of the elements in each one trary prime number. Also the additive group of ment of height n if this equation is solvable for k ~n rational numbers Q is Abelian. Each subgroup of a finitely generated ing algebraic equations by means of radicals. finite Abelian simply as the Riemann relations. 1985. 32A20 are called invariants of the finitely generated Abelian group. . A complete classification is known for finitely gen. cerns the description ot the space of all Jacobians in the Such splittings are. ABELIAN GROUP suit the more recent [A 1]. An arbitrary collection without torsion. are Abelian (cf. In particular. the so-called Kulikov cri- tion it is called the unit element). The Riemann . Every subgroup of the primary cyclic groups and the group Zp~. a group in which all finitely generated group A is a direct sum of cyclic groups if and only if subgroups are cyclic. of these subgroups is bounded. The quotient group of an ~~=lnigi=O. A free Abelian group is a splittable) into direct sums primary Abelian groups are direct sum of infinite cyclic groups.A.e. . They are named after groups are isomorphic if and only if they have the same N. ct. extension does not always split. Any subgroup of an Quasi-cyclic group). The set of all ele. in general. gk in an Abelian ments of finite order in an Abelian group forms a sub.: collection of the orders of the primary cyclic summands Geometry of algebraic curves.Frobenius condi. a free Abelian group is free Abelian. A finite set of elements gl. 1. An Abelian torsion mal linearly independent sets. groups split into a direct sum of primary cyclic groups.. P. direct sums of non-split cyclic groups are isomorphic. The Schottky problem con. Let A be a primary Abelian group for a prime Examples of Abelian groups. where p is an arbi. it is moreover a locally only. Stickelberger).

P2. reprint. w that are related by an algebraic equation reduced Abelian torsion groups. To equation (2) there corresponds a com- of characters for finite Abelian groups has been consid. Springer. the duality theory j = 0. no. Press. Springer.. and the k-th element is equal firmed. Notes in Math. E. i Tekhn. I. This of modules is closely connected with Abelian groups sequence is constructed in the following manner. non-isomorphic groups having dif. L. 1982.. w) is some rational function in variables theorem ([ I]) gives the classification of all countable z. sequence whose k-th element is equal to Sk if the equa. For countable torsion-free Abelian groups since the publication of the second volume [A2] of [3] in one can to construct a complete system of invariants. To each torsion-free Abelian group of rank I there 1955-1956 (translated from the Russian).): Abelian groups can be isomorphically imbedded in Abelian groups and modulus. [A2] FUCHS. isomorphic to Q and the groups Zp~ . an integral of the divisible Abelian group and a so-called reduced group. Chelsea. CISM courses and lectures. ities of the sets of components isomorphic to Q. Springer. The divisible Abelian 287. .e. sum of groups of rank I is said to be completely split.): Abelian group theory. for anyone of its elements a and for any integer m the References equation mx =a has a solution in the group. 3 Not every subgroup of a completely split group is (1974). [6] MiSHINA. w. w).): Abelian group dent system of invariants of the divisible group. as to Zp~ (for each p). The charac. 1983. modern mathematical theories. Notes in Math. Thus. Budapest. [A1] ARNOLD. [A3] GOBEL. 1984. Sup. (EDS. or divisible. pact Riemann surface F which is an n-sheeted covering erably extended to the duality theory of locally com. AP. Two characteristics tary theory of Abelian groups). as well Lect. Therefore. LADY.. n. . Algebra Topol. 1970. A (EDS. Springer. such as classifying the set The integral (1) is then given as the integral w of i 14 . which is a countable sequence consisting of all extensions of one group by another.e. 239-263... L.An it. if of recent results and current research in Abelian groups.M. problems in Abelian groups. VIm's where R(z. 1981. Soviet Math. [A5] GOBEL. L. regarded as modules over the ring of integers. [A1]..ABELIAN GROUP characteristic. w) . jR(z. and WALKER. Michigan Univ.: Infinite Abelian groups. [4] KAPLANSKY. 2. Sci. (Itogi Nauk. algebraic integral . [I] KUROSH. 874. The development of homological and consequently also R(z.. References A class of equivalent characteristics is said to be a type. An element a determines the to the case of modules over a principal ideal ring. L. corresponds a uniquely determined type. Abelian groups serve fInite number of places and if the symbol 00 occurs in as a constant source of examples in various fields of exactly the same places in both sequences. teristics of two linearly dependent elements are equal. [A4] GOBEL.: The theory of groups. Academic Press. ao(z)w n +al(z)w n -I + . A classification of reduced Abelian groups is Zo known only in certain special cases.: Infinite abelian groups. A and SALCE. . Many pose that the prime numbers are enumerated in increas. of the Riemann sphere. The proceedings [A3] . For (1972). a group that contains no non-trivial divisible sub. called the type 1958.: Infinite abelian groups. form z] i. The theory of Abelian groups has its origins in F(z. Notes in Math. Owing to their relative simplicity and to the fact that tion a =I'i: x is solvable in the group but the equation they have been very thoroughly studied (which is con- a = pi: + x is not solvable. A torsion-free Abelian group that splits into a direct [5] Itogi Nauk. 931. Lect.. Algebra Topol. c. Lect. and is now extensively applied in many with coefficients a/z) that are polynomials in z. 1973 cf. Every theory. Geom 10 completely split. of the given group. ORSAITI. for instance. J. Acad. [2] FUCHS. [3] FUCHS. and MADER. an Abelian group is a direct sum of a integral of an algebraic function.5-45) v ~u. 2. can be considered as algebra has made it possible to solve a whole series of single-valued functions of the points on F. 1006. 1-2. by the solvability of the elemen- to 00 if a =PkX is solvable for all s. Thus. Hungarian Acad. results in the theory of Abelian groups can be applied ing order PI. (1) groups.. and to the availability are equivalent if they are equal except possibly for a of a sufficient variety of objects.. 1954. L. AG. 1973. On this Riemann surface z. Press. ferent types. Geom 1965 (1967).[A5] give a good idea An Abelian group is called complete.: 'Abelian groups'. from a complete and indepen. A divisible Abelian group is a direct summand of each Abelian group containing ABELIAN INTEGRAL. R. L E hrs ov each integer n there exists a torsion-free Abelian group Editorial comments.. For an introduction to the theory of of rank n that cannot be decomposed (or split) into a finite rank torsion-free Abelian groups as it has developed direct sum. groups and only they are the injective objects in the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 20KXX category of Abelian groups. (EDS. pact Abelian groups. R.: Finite rank torsion free abelian groups and ble Abelian groups turn out to be direct sums of groups rings.. I. though every direct summand is. 9-44. +an(z) = 0 (2) number theory. All divisi. i. some divisible Abelian group. The theory of non-negative numbers and the symbol 00. METELLI. R. D. .. mathematics.: Abelian groups. and the cardinal. w)dz.

Abelian integrals of the first kind are integrals on the same Riemann surface F. These constitute the Historically. Abelian differential). If function if and only if there exists a chain L with the surface F is cut along the cycles alb 1 . . are the basis of the transcendental construc- tion of the Jacobi variety of a Riemann surface. An Abelian integral of a normal Abelian dif- the surface F (cf. P 4 : of the first kind on non-compact Riemann surfaces. w)dz on F taken along the second kind is said to be an Abelian integral of the some rectifiable path L. beside the A. usually multi-valued. in particu.cf>i only by an integral linear combination of an Abelian function. Polar periods are taken along w 2 =aoz 2 +alz +a2' cycles which are homologous to zero. Such a characterization may be used. Jacobi inversion problem). of the path L. in particular. an Abelian integral of the third kind holds for all for example. integral i w is called an Abelian integral of the first A number of relations depending on the topological and conformal structure of F exist for arbitrary Abelian kind if w is an Abelian differential of the first kind. In other words. w) _ w 2 . it has no singularities anywhere on F except for completely determine the value of the Abelian integral poles. Theta-function. An Abelian integral of a normalized Abelian (1). integrals of the first. 15 . agbg of a canonical basis for the homology.. Unlike ables z and w can be rationally expressed in some Abelian integrals of the first and second kinds.and B-periods (which for example. question of the inversion of an Abelian integral as a pletely described by the fact that it differs from the function of its upper bound also leads to the concepts integrals i. Abelian integral. ABELIAN INTEGRAL the Abelian differential w=R(z.. which is the same.n + 1. This will happen. In terms of divisors. on the topological structure of F. They form of a linear combination of elementary functions are caused by the poles of the Abelian differential w and canonical Abelian integrals of the three kinds. which satisfies the from the consideration of a surface of genus g = 1. in the elementary cases w 2 =aOz+al and are called cyclic periods). Considered as a function of the upper initial and end points z 0 and z 1 of the path L does not bound. Abelian L * CF* with fixed initial point Zo and fixed end point z I.cf>g that constitute a canonical form: A divisor a on F is the divisor of a meromorphic basis for the Abelian differentials of the first kind. on the permutation of the parameters and the bounds of function on F. called polar periods. an elliptic function. for example. the differentials of the first kind. If bilinear Riemann relations (cf. . a simply-connected i aL = a and w = 0 for all Abelian differentials of the domain F* is obtained. the theory of Abelian integrals followed period matrix of dimension g X 2g. Abelian integrals and. The integrals i. Thus. . P 2. one writes the corresponding equation in the form iL An integral w where w is an Abelian differential of F(z. For g = 0 the vari. Any Abelian integral can be number of branch points II (counted with multiplicities) represented as a linear combination of normal Abelian by the relation g = (II / 2) . An Abelian integral of the third kind is an arbitrary The behaviour of an Abelian integral on F depends.cf>i are single- first kind on F. P 3. and theta- of the A-periods Aij and the B-periods Bij of a basis of functions (cf. such singularities can only occur in lar on the topological invariant called the genus g of pairs. but encircle the If g:? 1. on F. the integral (1) turns out to differential of the second kind is known as a normal be a multi-valued function of the initial and end points Abelian integral of the second kind.fez) = 0. Abelian parameter t. The multi-valuedness of the integrals Ui = i cf>i along theorems. The genus g is ferential of the third kind is called a normal Abelian connected with the number of sheets n and with the integral of the third kind. The with non-zero residues. second and third kinds. and the Abelian integral becomes the integrals of the third kind usually also have the so- integral of a rational function in t.P J characterized by the fact that for a fixed initial point z 0 is a normal Abelian differential of the third kind with of the path L they are a function of the upper bound simple poles in Pi and Pi' then the following theorem z 1 that is an everywhere finite. P2 P4 Any Abelian integral of the first kind can be f PI WP J P 4 == f PJ WP1P2' represented in the form of a linear combination of g linearly-independent normal Abelian integrals of the first Relations which connect Abelian integrals with kind rational functions on F are known as Abelian theorems. any Abelian integral can be expressed in the logarithmic singularities of the Abelian integral. however. to construct analogues of Abelian integrals points PI. specifying only the second kind. It usually has logarithmic singularities first of all. In general. The an arbitrary path L C F joining z 0 with z 1 is now com. the Abelian theorem for Abelian integrals of the first kind has the following of differentials cf>1. if wP. Genus of a surface). or. . There also exist variants of Abelian theorems for Abelian integrals of the second and third valued functions of the upper bound z 1 for all paths kinds [4].

Intui. Math. 26C15.F. and if S is a normal scheme. the difficulty of the inversion problem can already be an Abelian variety can be imbedded as a closed sub- noticed.H. During the very first stages of development stress was laid on hyper-elliptic integrals. Addison-Wesley. For instance. all varieties X are isomorphic.lO. the moduli variety of all Abelian varieties of given tively. Thus. L.D. of meromorphic functions on X has transcendence [5] STAHL. Fagnano. Springer. Meromorphic functions on X are the same [2] SPRINGER.: Basic algebraic geometry. The theory of Abelian varieties over the field of com- Multi-dimensional generalizations of the theory of plex numbers e is. I. D. is a proper smooth group S-scheme analytic character. where ABELIAN VARIETY . r can be reduced to the form (E IZ).G. thing as meromorphic functions on en that are invari- ant with respect to the period lattice r. [2] RAYNAUD.A smooth group scheme over groups. 1972. Solomentsev compactness of X. The matrix which defines a basis of [A 1] LANG. then one obtains elliptic integrals (d. N. 1948. and it is such that the field of rational functions of this structure coincides with K.: Introduction to Riemann surfaces. Amer. The dimension of the moduli variety is family of Abelian varieties parametrized by the scheme n(n + 1) / 2 (cf. the fibres of which are Abelian true for their analytic or algebraic structures. 1977 braic group. Chapt 5. V Dolgachev century. an Abelian S-scheme may be understood as a dimension n. had been established by e. Gauss early in the 18-th I. Riemann (1851). which varieties (cf. Soc. If the field K Wesley. Moduli problem). but this is not a base scheme S. Here g = 2 and implies severe restrictions on an Abelian variety.9 (in Russian). important results. It should be pointed out that. An interesting and useful additional The algebraic groups formed in this way are Abelian reference is [A 1]. and each Abelian variety over the field e References arises in this way. H. degree n. Euler tackled schemes of Abelian varieties with various auxiliary the addition theorem of elliptic integrals. or an of the period matrix Z shows that its variation has an Abelian S-scheme. This structure is unique by virtue of the (translated from the Russian). the group law on an Abelian variety is commuta- formulated and gave proofs of a large number of tive.ABELIAN INTEGRAL where f (z) is a polynomial in z of the third or fourth S. Jacobi (1827) stated the problem of inver- sion of elliptic integrals and obtained the solution. Inspection equivalent definition: An Abelian scheme over S. Discrete subgroup) of References [I] CHEBOTAREV. integral) as the respective Abelian integrals. 1896. 1933. w)=w2 .J. equivalent to the theory Abelian integrals form the subject matter of algebraic of Abelian functions founded by e.: Unijormisierung.: Geometric invariant theory. The AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 30F30. N.R. M. Abel Abelian varieties (d. a non-singular variety into an Abelian variety is regu- who introduced the concept of Riemann surfaces and lar. A number of fundamental properties of Abelian degree. which is a structures.G. Springer. variety in a projective space. as real Lie ABELIAN SCHEME . Chapt. Abelian variety). geometry and the theory of complex manifolds.: Faisceaux ampIes sur les schemas en groupes et established. A is projective the 18-th century as the result of the rectification of over S. If en denotes n-dimension vec- tor space.: Algebraic functions. E. G. each rational mapping of sion of Abelian integrals are due to B. They first an Abelian S-scheme A is a commutative group S- appeared at the end of the 17-th and the beginning of scheme [1]. complex torus X = en / r is an Abelian variety if and 26E99 only if Z is symmetric and has positive-definite ima- ginary part. 8. Abel and B. Addison. Chapt. The completeness condition or sixth degree without multiple roots. The References beginnings of the theory of elliptic functions were thus [1] MUMFORD.J.An algebraic group that is a F(z. curves of the second order in the studies of Jacob and Abelian schemes are used in the context of moduli Johann Bernoulli and of G. 16 .A.H. 1970. [3] NEVANLINNA. 1953. then the quotient group X = en / r is a com- Moscow-Leningrad. 1965.f(z) with f(z) a polynomial of the fifth complete algebraic variety.: The theory of algebraic functions. Editorial comments. 1957.: Theorie der Abelschen Funktionen. in essence. Elliptic varieties carry over to Abelian schemes. The following is an vary strongly when deforming the lattice r.G. and also in the theory of reduction of special case of a theorem of N. plex torus. varieties. rank 2n.: Introduction to algebraic and abelian functions. Abel (1752). Springer. Springer. [4] BLISS. G. and e. R. then X can be given the structure of an alge- [6] SHAFAREVICH. S. which results in the construction of all fibres of which are geometrically connected. Riemann. Leipzig. Abel and Jacobi dealt with the much more dif- ficult case of inversion of Abelian integrals in the case AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14KXX g> 1. The principal advances in the theory of inver. Jacobi. [2]. Neron model). r c en is a lattice (cf.. some facts concerning this theory les espaces homogenes. where E is the identity matrix and Z is a matrix of order n X n. However.

B. 1971. A =A0 C A Ie· . Kostrikin important role in Diophantine geometry. Riemann hypotheses) and is also the principal ABNORMAL SUBGROUP . J. makes it possible to give a proof of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14KXX the Riemann hypothesis (for algebraic curves over finite fields. the abstract theory of Abelian varieties was originally B. A g > is the subgroup generated by A and its with the Tate module consists of a study of the action conjugate subgroup A g = gAg -1. Albanese variety. Intennediate Jacobian) [4] LANG. on its Tate module.A subgroup A of a instrument in the theory of complex multiplication of group G such that g E <A. Venkov developed. groups was one of the principal achievements of the References theory of Wei!. D.: Introduction a /'etude des varietes kahteriennes. 1974. theory of finite solvable groups (cf. . As an example of an of the Galois group of the closure of the ground field abnormal subgroup of a finite group G one can take on this module.: Abelian varieties. braic curves over a finite field . The determination of the structure of such in [A 1]. 1983. Math. A. and in the theory of automorphic functions. Fin.I. having a reduction to a multiplicative group modulo p.ir abelsche Varietaten uber schemes. Another applica. There resulted the Tate conjectures the normalizer (ct. but only those where Ai is abnormal in Ai + 1. Nowadays. i =0. is proceeding at a fast rate. the situation is more complicated. 20E07 17 . where many important classes of subgroups are abnor- including p-adic fields. [2]. teristic p of the field k and if k is algebraically closed.-P.: Endliche Gruppen. Abelian varieties. Raynaud. C. in particular of the Frobenius endomorphism 1968-1969. G. Sovrem Prob- algebraic varieties. To each 1948. Solvable group). D. A g > for any element g E G. Springer. as n-'HXl. 239-272. structed by D.: }I-Adie automorphic functions'. [6] MANIN. 381) study of the action of endomorphisms of Abelian [A4] TATE. defined over a used. 1959. 129-174.: 'An analytic construction of degenerating curves over complete local rings'. In the module [5]. Wei! [1]. These constructions are [5] MUMFORD. It was also one of the sources of I-adic A. B. 279-333. Oxford Univ. use is made of the concept of a subabnormal sub- analogue of the above-mentioned representation of group A of a group G. [7] SERRE. Inst. 24 (1972). usually subgroups known as uniformization. Unlike the complex case.Honda. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 20D25. tion is the proof of the Riemann hypothesis for alge. Nauk. Vol.. Springer. in the appearance of concepts such as finite group [A3] FALTINGS. Compos. For recent information on the Tate ogy is the Tate module of an Abelian variety. 3 (1976). cations both in algebraic geometry itself and in other [2] WElL. For the theory of Tate-Honda see projective limit. If [A2] MUMFORD. Fonnal group. itely generated.the problem for which Math. J. 20D30. Ag is mostly defined as result is the Mordell. Mumford and M.: Courbes algebriques et varietes abeliennes. I. Its principal Editorial comments. [3] WElL.: Groupes algebrique e{ corps des classes.L. Hermann. [A 1] MUMFORD.: 'Classes d'isoganie des variates aooliennes sur un corps fini (d' apres T. It is the conjectures see [A3]. varieties.N. Hermann. References are uniformizable [6].: Abelian varieties. 21. mann. 24 (1972). of the groups X[ln] of points also [A4]. . [8] SIEGEL. Zahlkorpern'. A. ct. Another circle of problems connected Here <A. [A2]. The simplest example of such a cohomol. over such fields. It has numerous appli. Gottingen. Parshin cohomology. Compos. Varietes abeliennes et courbes algebriques. they were used to obtain one of lemy 3 (1974). 75 (1984). [1] WElL. Instead of 'solvable' also 'soluble' is frequently rational points of an Abelian variety. in sem. (Errratum: ite group scheme. J. 1967. if m is coprime with the charac. which is defined by a series of Abelian varieties as a quotient space en / r. p-divisible group). i Tekhn. and even any maximal Abelian varieties over finite fields in terms of the Tate subgroup NeG which is not normal in G. E. Hermann. Math.Wei! theorem: The group of A9=g-1Ag.n-1.!. ABNORMAL SUBGROUP The theory of Abelian vanetIes over an arbitrary References field k is due to A. then the group X[ m] is isomorphic to (Z / mZ)2dirnX. which describes any Sylow p-subgroup peG. Invent. not all Abelian varieties. 73 (1983). was con. over global (number and function) fields plays an A.: 'An analytic construction of degenerating m =p. Abelian varieties (cf. Her- complete algebraic variety. (Itog. Sur les fields of mathematics.. formal groups and p-divisible groups (cf. C An = G. Math. Picard variety. can be functorially assigned. 349-366. powerful tools in studying the geometric structures of 5. finite extension of the field of rational numbers. In fact. Math. Mumford's theory of uniformization is developed of order In. 1955. Soviet Math. D. p. which resulted Abelian varieties over complete local rings'. The theory of Abelian varieties [1] HUPPERT. Editorial comments.g. is fin. Nonnalizer of a subset) NG(P) of and the theory of Tate .. The study of Abelian varieties over local fields. Yu. Honda)'. A. The Invent. particularly in number theory courbes algebriques et les varietes qui s'en deduisent. 5-93) the solutions of the Liiroth problem. An mal. no.: Courbes algebriques et varietes abeliennes. S.1958.: Automorphe Funktionen in mehrerer Variablen.: 'Endlichkeitssatze fi.. Bourbaki. Press.

If X is a completely regular but completely regular. multi. A better (more precise) definition is: The absolute of a metric space if and only if it is a paracompact feath. topolo- with the class of extremally disconnected spaces. A space X is co-absolute with some cise. If a regular space X is compact. lute of a countable metrizable compactum is an exten. turns out that aX is identical with the Stone-tech dimensional. and is. The abso. by taking the collection of all sets category of regular spaces and perfect irreducible map. The mean. space X is the space aX which is mapped perfectly and Of the numerous ways in which the absolute aX of a irreducibly onto X. then and only then it will called Lindelof spaces and canonical closed set are also be co-absolute with the perfect Cantor set. the class of abso. i. In Western literature finally compact spaces are also and has no isolated points. need not itself be normal. Thus. respective property is also displayed by the absolute of The subspace of the space aX consisting of the conver- this space. regular topological space X given above is slightly impre- absolute spaces. and is perfectly and irreducibly thread if it is inclusion-directed. is called a and completely regular. contains a single point x(~).ABSCISSA ABsassA . such that for sets. the absolute of any non-discrete space is non- metrizable (and does not even satisfy the first axiom of ABsOLUTE . the map. space aX is then simply the Stone space of this Boolean lutes (whatever this may be) of regular spaces coincides algebra (the set of all ultrafilters (cf. The convergent ends in the finally compact or complete in the sense of Cech. However. DA as a basis for the closed sets. ular closed ultra filters. set A the set DA of all threads containing the set A as If a homeomorphism fa: aX~a Y is given. Each regular space X has a unique absolute. A' of the family ~ there exists an element A" 'lTx: aX~x. i. the compactum aX form an everywhere-dense subspace. Each thread is contained in ping f='lTyfa'ITX 1 will be. absolute of a space X is always extremally disconnected of canonical closed sets A of the space X. v. where TTX is a ered space containing a dense a-discrete system of open perfect irreducible mapping of aX onto X.e. in a natural way. all metrizable compacta without isolated points sets). respectively. The space is homeomorphic to it.I. in the general case. if for each two ele- mapped onto X by means of a transformation ments A.e. it strongly paracompact. some maximal thread. The definition of the absolute of a disjoint (pairwise not intersecting) classes of co. it can be shown that for each non-empty /Ca- that f='lTyfa'ITx 1. regular topological spaces are projective objects in the maximal threads). The A family ~= {A} of non-empty canonical /Ca-sets. the formula of commutativity of space. If two spaces X and Y are connected by a contained in A n A '. irreducible and perfect. lk . Ponomarev Thus. The absolute of a paracompact space is even gent ends is at the same time the absolute aX of X. is Hausdorff and compact.Cech compactification of the natural rephrased as follows: The family of regular closed sets numbers. and there exists a homeomorphism fa: aX~a Y such moreover. A ing of this fundamental property is that absolutes of topology is introduced in the set aX of all ends (i. A thread ~ is called a maximal or single-valued or multi-valued perfect irreducible map. The resulting topology pings. the class of regular spaces is subdivided into Editorial comments. contain any convergent sequence of pairwise distinct AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N 10 points. then their absolutes are homeomorphic. Ultrafilter) on it. in the latter case the fect irreducible mappings of regular spaces. regular topological space X is a pair (aX. and is such that any perfect irredu. Conse- called regular closed sets (or sometimes regularly closed quently. absolutes and are elements of a maximal thread ~ is either empty or their homeomorphisms 'control' the entire class of per. then the Stone .One of the Cartesian coordinates of a a non-discrete extremally disconnected space does not point. It can be shown that threads exist. ferent from it. an end thread if it is not a subfamily of any thread dif- ping f : X ~ Y. cible mapping f of Yonto X there is a mapping g of aX onto weight. Thus. every regular topological space Y and every perfect irredu- able compactum if and only if it has a countable 'IT. 7Tx). Two spaces are called co-absolute if their absolutes are aX = paX = apX homeomorphic. The maximal or end threads are commonly called reg- are co-absolute with the perfect Cantor set. The simple construction of ax given above can be sion of the Stone . an element is non-empty. thread ~ is said to be convergent (to the point x(~)). given (regular) space X can be constructed.e. the follow- cible inverse image of the space X is homeomorphic to ing method is one of the simplest. A compact space is co-absolute with some metriz. a complete Boolean algebra. The intersection of all sets which valued. Since gized using the sets OA as a base for the closed sets).Cech compactification of its the operators a and p is valid: absolute is the absolute of any compactification of X. moreover. The absolute of an extremally disconnected forms.l) The absolute of a regular topological countability). the absolute of a normal space compactification paX of ax' If X is not only regular. perfectly zero. aX. If a compact space has a countable 'IT-weight Y such that 7TX= fg.

For instance. Illinois J. tinuous with respect to a measure /L if p is an absolutely absolute of a space (X. their projection spectra and holds. given together with /L on some fixed regular O-mapping f: (X. xE[a. B]. Problems and exercises. '1Tx) consisting of a proximity space X8 and a pro. while F is absolutely continuous on [f (a). where X ~ Y I /L I is the total variation of /L. no. while the function F satisfies a Lipschitz condition on the seg- ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY . Terekhin f is commutative. Any regular O-mapping the theory of measures. true: e.I. Nauk 21. The superposition of two absolutely con- D are the points of intersection of the straight line AB tinuous functions need not be absolutely continuous. For each a finite measure. A. 4 (1968).f (b )]. b].P. V. Lipschitz condition with some constant.: 'Projective topological spaces'.P. p will then be absolutely continuous with proximity equivalence F: X8~ Y 8' such that the respect to /L if it follows from !L(A) = 0. . . The absolute can be used to the function will satisfy an even stronger condition: A introduce a metric on a projective plane (space) (d. l>') there exists a a-algebra G. irreducible. The 0. Emelyanov O-proximity-continuous mapping. with !L(e)<l>. 3) Absolute continuity of a function is a stronger For maximal O-proximities on regular topological notion than continuity. if the function f is absolutely continuous on a AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54C99. Sb. 101-132) the inequality [2) GLEASON. so is their of the double ratio (ABCD) of four points. V. A generalized finite measure (d. Charge) p is Xs ~ Ys' absolutely continuous with respect to a generalized '1Tx~ ~'1Ty measure /L if II{A) = 0. USSR-Sb. 89-119 (in Russian). and PONOMAREV. 1]. 4A (1958). the requirement that the pairwise intersec- infinitely-distant points in the Klein interpretation of a tions of intervals (ab bk ) are empty be discarded. for which n References ~ (bk -ak) < 8.513-536) V V r:' d f(x)=x sin(l / x) if O<x~ 1 and f(O)=O is continu- h k . V. Mat. In the general case the integral with The O-absolute of a O-proximity space (X. Ivanov However. b]. [1) PONOMAREV. b).M. the If two functions f and g are absolutely continuous. 498-508. A. 1984.: 'On spaces co-abolute with metric spaces'. b]. A function f defined on a seg- spaces the concept of a regular O-mapping is identical ment [a. b] is said to be absolutely continuous if for any with that of a perfect irreducible mapping. 60 (102). no.: 'Paracompacta. absolutely continuous on [a. Surveys 21. the function (Mat. l» under regular O-mappings. absolute of a regular topological space. 4 (1968). n. b].g. (Uspekhi Mat. Thus. l»~(Y. 1 (1963). A E G. l» is the maximal inverse image continuous set function with respect to /L. let p be of the space (X. projective measure of a segment AB is defined as a then their sum. 4 (1966). provided that I /L I(A) = 0. no.B. 482-489. The integral is absolutely continuous on [a.: Fundamentals of general topology.V. 4 (1966). VF. . Projective detennination of a metric). 19 . b] and if A~f(x)~B. re orc u ous on the segment [0. ~ Ij(bd-j(ad I< € k=i [3) PONOMAREV. 51 N15 segment [a. Reidel. then the composite function F[f(x)] is an integral as a property of the (Lebesgue) integral.: 'Perfect irreducible mappings and general- implication is not ized proximities'. but is not absolutely continu- 2) The absolute in projective geometry is the curve ous on it. k=i Russian Math. then hyperbolic plane (space). Math. no. in the definition of an absolutely continu- (surface) of the second order constituting the set of ous function. l» is the pair respect to a finitely-additive set function with scalar or (X 8. A.. bk)C(a. Math. Any absolutely continuous function on a seg- continuous images'. jection '1Tx: X8~X which is a regular O-mapping. 2. no. Here A.V. 74 (118). Terekhin O-mapping is a term denoting any O-perfect. 5.. no.1) Absolute continuity of ment [A.I. A measure p is absolutely con- on a O-absolute is a proximity equivalence. ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY References l»0 such that the integral I if d/L I <£ for any set e [A1J AlurnANGEL'SKIT. difference and product are also abso- quantity which is proportional to the natural logarithm lutely continuous and.I. Sb. vectorial for /L is an absolutely continuous function. If a function f. which Let a function f be /L-integrable on a set E. where C and quotient f / g. V. is monotone increas- of f over /L-measurable subsets e CE is an absolutely ing. The opposite [4) FEDORCHUK. if g does not vanish. k = 1. with the absolute. continuous set function (see Subsection 3 below) with then the function F[f (x)] is also absolutely continuous respect to the measure /L if for any £>0 there exists a on [a. A. that diagram F II{A ) = O. If. ment is continuous on this segment. while the £>0 there exists a l»0 such that for any finite system concept of a O-absolute is identical with that of the of pairwise non-intersecting intervals (ak. Any O-proximity 2) Absolute continuity of a measure as a concept in space has a unique O-absolute.87-114.

of a locally compact group).R. I are equivalent. defined on the Borel sets of a i. then the function I integral dp. continuity of a set function can also be defined for finitely-additive functions and for functions with vector References values. 00]. makes sense.+ «p. North-Holland. Nostrand.See Error. (i. as a Lebesgue integral with a variable upper limit of finite-dimensional Euclidean space (or. 1966.I.. I(x) = I(a) + jl(t)dt. tion F(x)=p. such that decreasing functions. Thus. [I) KOI.++p. is (completely) a-finite and the If the derivative of an absolutely continuous function is almost everywhere equal to zero. 5. theorem). Kudryavtsev 4) Absolute continuity of a set function is a concept Editorial comments. more generally. itself is constant. I P(En) I < 00 ] ment [a. n=I.D. able set into a measurable set.. if and only if for any t:>0 there exists a 8>0 of finite variation which maps each set of measure zero such that I p. then lei dp. .: Real and complex analysis.. then there exists on X a finite measurable derivative / (x) is summable over this segment. A non-negative measure p.-.: A course of higher mathematics. = -inf{p. A. XES and there exists a sequence {En}. 1968. S). A.+ and p. H. b]. and BURLEINSHAW.2. =p. On the other hand. there exist uniquely' defined (completely) a-finite meas- absolutely continuous on this segment.A geometry based on the 20 . there exists a set A E S given segment coincides with the class of functions that such that 1"2 I(A)=O.(En) I. " is absolutely continuous with respect to p. 3) measure zero into a set of measure zero. VV(x) = j II (x) I dx. then 1953. If p. b] has a finite variation on this segment and has a finite derivative / (x) at almost every point.Hahn theorem. as the difference of two absolutely continuous non.. P. and " are [A 1] ROYDEN. ABSOLUTE ERROR . The and if "«p. Macmillan. S.C. W. values in the extended real number line [ . McGraw-Hili. + .ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY An absolutely continuous function maps a set of the relations I) " «p. known as the positive and AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 65GXX negative variations of p. McGraw-Hili. 1965. (in symbols [A4] RUDIN.. [2) SMIRNOV. I is the total variation of p.(F): E-:JFES}.e. and FOMIN. I <8 entails I" I <t:o According to the into a set of measure zero is absolutely continuous. and a measur.1 (X\A)=O) (Lebesgue's can be represented as an indefinite Lebesgue integral. -." are (completely) 0'- Any absolutely continuous function can be represented finite.S . C. according to the Jordan . "1 «p.e. I p. a Conversely.L. for any function cp that is summable on [a. two countably-additive functions defined on Shaving [A3] RUDIN. 1957·1961 References (translated from the Russian).. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 26A 15. North-Holland. and "2 is class of functions that are absolutely continuous on a singular with respect to p.. if p..00.(F): E~FES}... A function f that is absolutely continuous on the seg. this is written as "«p. 0.. [I] HALMos. Accordingly.+ = sup{p. Mas- Wesley.MOGOROV. Here I p.. b] the function f cp(t)dt is and " are (completely) a-finite measures on (X.1 =p.{( . I p. x)} is absolutely continuous (as a ized to include both functions of several variables and function of a real variable).: Principles of mathematical analysis.) if I p. 1967. on the Borel sets of the real line is absolutely continu- a ous if and only if the corresponding distribution func- The concept of absolute continuity can be general. is called absolutely con- If f is absolutely continuous on [a. I p. 1950.: Bases mathematiques du calcul des probabilites..«p. a certain summable function plus a constant. 1981.: Elements of the theory offunctions and functional analysis. ~I~ V.: [A6] ALIPRANTZ. azonov L. V.1 (E)=O entails P(E)=O. (i.V.V. the ures "1 and "2 such that "="1 +"2.: Real analysis.00. If the measure " is finite. A measure.: Principles of real analysis. as a function of the set E is absolutely continuous with respect to p. . I " IEO.D. p. Addison.. 1964 (translated from the Russian).e. Radon-NikocJYm theorem. usually applied to countably-additive functions defined References on a a-ring S of subsets of a set X. It turns out that ABSOLUTE GEOMETRY . and function f such that x P(E) = ildp" EES. W.N. J. 2) . Any continuous function "«p. . [A2] ZAANEN. [AS] TAYLOR. Blaisdell. if p.E. The concept of absolute set functions (see Subsection 4 below). A. then its total tinuous if it is absolutely continuous with respect to the variation is b Lebesgue (Haar) measure.: Measure theory. n91En = X. p. 28A 10 p. p.are measures.: General theory of functions and integration. Graylock. [2) NEVEU.p. if p. 1p. v.: Integration. .

for example. of the absolute moments of the sequences {(In} by means of the matrix II ank II : distribution function F(x) and the density p(x). If F(x) is the distribution function of X. = f -co Ix I'p(x)dx. r>O. ABSOLUTE MOMENT of a random variable X . 1965. 60E05. tion method is defined by a transformation of the series dimensional cube In. is a convex function of r. If the summa- retracts for normal spaces: the unit interval I. 1832. Any two (2) into a series 00 mappings of a binormal space into an absolute retract ~ an (3) for normal spaces are homotopic. (I) ordinary summability in that additional restrictions are imposed.. Chebyshev inequality in pro. The function logfir lim an = s. Moment) of order /.A special type of summability of series and sequences. as is any retract (cf. It is usually References [A1] Hu. = EI X I'· AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54C55 The number r is called the order of the absolute moment. A direct product A to the sum s. k=O moment fir and also of the moments (d. It can be proved that a space X is binormal if and only if X is normal and countably paracompact Ccf. respectively.) result of the transformation corresponding to the given f3. ABSOLUTE SUMMABILITY axioms of Euclidean geometry. . Let a summation method A In relation to the equations (I) and (2) one also be defined as a transformation of sequences {sn} into speaks.: Theory of retracts. denoted by fin so that Detroit. Absolute moments often appear The sequence {sn} is then absolutely summable by the in estimates of probability distributions and their method A (I A I-summable) to the limit s if it is A- characteristic functions (d. The 00 existence of fir implies the existence of the absolute an = ~ankSb n=O. The assumptions above is then called an absolute extensor CAE) for normal underlying absolute geometry are common to Euclidean spaces. The term if it is an CAE). (2) summation method must be absolutely convergent (d. A space satisfying the property in the article parallel straight lines (postulate V). mathematical expectation of I X I r. = f -xc I x I' dF(x). In the particular case in which 21 . (1) n=l 60E10 If the Sn are the partial sums of a series ABSOLUTE REfRACf FOR NORMAL SPACES .. and if the sequence {an} is of bounded variation: Yu. then ABSOLUTE SUMMABILITY . the n. if the distribution of X has density ment is that the series and sequences obtained as a p(x).The Paracompactness criteria). 1. In particular. r >0. For matrix summation methods the require- and. Retract ordinary summability. V Prokhorov AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 60A05. Bolyai in defined for any class of spaces (i. Wayne State Univ. i. Absolute retracts and extensors can be 'absolute geometry' was introduced by J. one has + CI. the following spaces are absolute transformations of series into sequences. 00 M.l. f3. A. Usually an absolute retract CAR) for normal spaces is defined to be a normal space which is a then the supplementary restriction is absolute conver- retract of every normal space in which it is imbedded as a gence of the series (3). S. if bability theory. Absolute summability is defined of a topological space) of an absolute retract for normal in a similar manner for methods involving matrix spaces. and the Hilbert cube IW.e.e. Ivanov A binormal space is a space X for which the product X x I AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51-01 is normal. except for the axiom on closed subset. not just for normal spaces). Vottsekhovskit an = ~bnkUk' k=O Editorial comments. Press. Matrix summation method). for 0</ ~r. summable to this limit. Lyapunov theorem). Condition (1) is an additional require- of absolute retracts for normal spaces is an absolute ment which makes absolute summability different from retract for normal spaces. and the function fi~ / r is a n-->oo non-decreasing function of r..T.A (2) topological space X such that every mapping g: A ~ X of any closed subset A of an arbitrary normal space Y then the series (2) is absolutely summable by the method can be extended to the entire space Y.B. while a binormal n=O absolute retract for normal spaces is contractible into a by means of a matrix II bnk II: point. One then proves that a space is an CAR) if and only geometry and to Lobachevskii geometry. which differs from f3.

K.. Springer.H. Thus. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 40F05 A summation method is said to preserve absolute con- vergence of a series if it absolutely sums each absolutely ABSOLUTE TOPOLOGICAL PROPERTY . ~ p-ll IJn-IJn-1 IP < lal-Ibl"'. let an improper integral be given by for each p =0. 1 summability of degree p where p ~ 1. denoted by Ia I. absolute summability was defined and studied series). ~lbnkl'. cf. 1931. Absolute values obey the fol- means of other types of transformations are subject to lowing relations analogous restrictions. must be absolutely convergent.+oo. la+bl". [3] KNopp. but was stated dif. E. Norm on a field. Mat.. modulus.Lorentz theorem). Here the condition lal-Ibl"'. 1970. Ik I)-summability). I a I = -a.: 'Summability theory of series and sequences'. The absolute value (modulus) of a complex n=O n=O number z =x +ry. Clarendon. Math. instance.1. andifb*o* = 1*1. The general definition of absolute summability is more The supplementary requirements are suitably modi..: Sommation des series et integrales diver- I(x) = ~UkXk gentes par les moyennes arithmetiques et typiques. W. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54A05 cient conditions for the absolute regularity of a summa- tion method defined by a transformation of a series ABSOLUTE VALUE... If an improper integral is absolutely convergent. Summation methods by the number + Vx 2 +y2 . W.. A generalization of absolute summability is absolute Ia I = I -a I. (*) series outside the disc of convergence.. i Tekhn.ABSOLUTE SUMMABILITY the method A corresponds to the identity transforma. k) are P. If each such series is summable by obsolete term denoting the properties of a given set as this method to a sum equal to the sum to which it con- a topological space in contrast to properties related to verges. 00 [2] KOGBETLIANTZ. of a real number a - into a series by means of a matrix I bnk I : The non-negative number. 1. lal+lbl... Gauthier- k=O Villars. absolute convergence. and BEEKMANN. say. ~bnk=l... and LORENTZ.s. lal+lbl. if a<O. mability of degree p is distinguished from ordinary summability in the case of. tierung'. 00 . Borel for one of his methods. Volkov Thus. G. INTEGRAL . absolute summability of a series is the same as by the method of Cesaro « IC I.. Anal. -oo<a<b". the Cesaro summation methods (C.: 'Beitriige zur absoluten Limi- is of bounded variation on the semi-interval O:S.5-70 (in Russian). Aleksandrov absolutely regular for k ~O. eLf oe . ABSOLUTELY CONVERGENT IMPROPER ferently from its modem formulation: absolute summa. 12 (1974). 1949.F. absolute convergence of the correspondiong integrals. The Abel method is abso- lutely regular. In the case of integral summation methods. .x I k~O 00 Uk' /!xk I dx < 00 it is also convergent. For an imbedding of it in other spaces.:. is (the Knopp. la-bl"'.. 10-16. (Basel) 2 (1949-1950). 00 00 U Xk References [e-xk~o-h-dx [A1] ZELLER.G.n 00. n:=:: 1 is the supplementary restriction by which absolute sum.: Divergent series. Absolute summability was 101- h ~ tially used in the study of the summability of power fl(x)dx = Iimfl(x)dx.M.An improper integral such that the bility was distinguished by imposing the condition integral of the absolute value of the integrand con- verges. lal=a. To take a concrete example.k=O. summability is distinguished by the requirement of ftogi Nauk. la·bl = lal'lbl. In view of the (J l}-h {1 22 . for the Borel summation method the integral Editorial comments... where x and yare real numbers. Arch.. The following are necessary and suffi.I... AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 26A03 The concept of absolute summability was introduced by E. G. . recent. Ia 12 = Ia 2 = a 2 (a real). problems involved in the multiplication of summable tion of a sequence into a sequence (or of a series into a series. a summation method A generalization of the concept of the absolute value defined by a transformation of a sequence {sn} into a to the case of arbitrary fields exists. absolute [4] KANGRO. and has found extensive application in studies fied for non-matrix summation methods.: Theorie der Limitierungsver- tahren.. which is 00 00 defined as follows: If a~O. 1. G. case of the Abel summation method such a requirement References is that the function [l] HARDy. sequence {on}. then the method is called absolutely regular.An convergent series.x < 1. in the on the summation of Fourier series.

D.G. are both absolutely convergent.: A course of mathematical analysis. If the series tions of multiple improper integrals.1]" <b.(or Lebesgue-) The absolute convergence of the integral then implies integrable on all intervals [a.. a necessary is established with the aid of the comparison criterion and sufficient condition (Cauchy's criterion for the of convergence. 1]( '. it is also domains Gk . E. Since the G series (1) is absolutely convergent. 1. L. exists and if this limit is independent of the choice of the above sequence of domains. 1969. U Gk = G). The integral thus defined is convergent if and only if it and the sum of the series (3) is equal to the sum of the is absolutely convergent. quality [3] NIKOL'sKIi.1]( <b. For example.'O the inequality convergence and absolute convergence. which monotonically convergent. [2] KUDRYAVTSEV.A series o x In order to find out whether or not a given integral is n~1 absolutely convergent it is expedient to use the tests for with (in general) complex terms for which the series convergence of improper integrals of non-negative func. (3) ally called the improper integral be a series consisting of the same terms as the series (1) jf(x)dx. of radius r < + 00 with centre at the origin. 00 tions. Addison-Wesley. Let a function nfluk I< ( f (x) be defined on an open set G in the n-dimensional k=n Euclidean space. its convergence.M..M... the absolute convergence of ~ IUn I (2) f n=i sin\lnx dx converges. 1973 (in Russian). Kudryavtsev is true. and 00 ~4. n=ln k=i where i = v=T. in general. Moscow. References then it is equal to the Lebesgue integral of the (A1] ApOSTOL.A.: Mathematical analysis. so is the series (3).D.. in a different order. 1]( '. 1. 1]]. for a 00 00 function f (x) which is defined on the whole space En ~un and ~vn n= I n= I and which is Riemann-integrable on any n-dimensional sphere Q. absolute convergence of a series) is that for any £>0 For most of the available definitions of multiple there exist a number n( such that for all numbers improper integrals there is a different relation between n >n( and for all integers p. If. .1]' <b. If the improper integral is absolutely convergent. and POZNYAK. the series the limit of the Riemann integrals 00 i=JL ~ jf(x)dx. If a series is absolutely convergent. 23 . but taken. Let as k~oo. .. T. Editorial comments. There are also other defini.. Moscow. k = 1. but the converse proposition is not A necessary and sufficient condition for the absolute true. S. is convergent. for any sequence of cube-filled is true. convergence of the integral (*) (Cauchy's criterion for References the absolute convergence of an improper integral) is [I] IL'IN.1]<b.. L. a'.e.: Mathematical analysis. then it is usu. 1973 that for any 1]' and 1]"..... ABSOLUTELY CONVERGENT SERIES . n=1 n G. ABSOLUTEL Y CONVERGENT SERIES where the function f (x) is Riemann. integrand. 26A42 +00 • j SlllX dx. the ine- (in Russian).. Mos- cow. series (I). V. for example AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 40A 10. 1. The series exhaust G (i. but not absolutely convergent. 1971 (in Russian). Gk C Gk C Gk + I. is absolutely convergent. 2. so is anyone of their one can define the improper integral over En by the linear combinations equation: jf(x)dx = r~ If(X)dx.: Foundations of mathematical that for any £>0 there must exist an 1]0 a '.... There exist improper integrals which are convergent but not absolutely convergent. for example. such analysis. i x For a series (1) to converge absolutely.

• n.D. but the converse statement is not true (d. The function f is then called identical with the class of von Neumann regular rings absolutely integrable on a measurable set E if the (d. integral AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 13C11. The properties of absolutely any segment [a. measurable set E in the n-dimensional space if and only over.. (nJ.. improper integrals are usually so defined that 1969. I. and POZNYAK. . for example. it is con.e. .. the sums of the multiple series (4) and the iterated if its absolute value is Lebesgue-integrable on this set. the existence of the convergent series of numbers discussed above can also improper integral of the absolute value of the function.: Foundations of mathematical convergent improper integral). f(x) dx. . T. b).D. series (5) are identical with the sum of any simple series The following inequality is valid: formed by all terms of the series (4). S. Moscow. is tion such that its absolute value is integrable. [3] NIKOL'SKlI. and its Editorial comments. 1971 (in Russian).nk are absolutely convergent.: Mathematical analySiS. a <b. Regular ring (in the sense of von Neumann». 16A30 jllf(x)lldx E 24 . a<1)<b).. II. the series (1) is said to be absolutely convergent if the series In the case of improper one-dimensional Riemann or Lebesgue integrals on a half-open interval [a. and its sum is equal to the function is Riemann-integrable on the segment [a. should be noted that. but its absolute value is nt=l nl=l integrable. improper integral is equal to the Lebesgue integral.. A useful Western reference is [A 1]. respec- n=i tively. Kudryavtsev exists. verse theorem for Riemann-integrable functions is not lutely convergent... Addison-Wesley. integrable functions: A Lebesgue-measurable function f cessive summation of terms of the series (4) by the is Lebesgue-integrable (Lebesgue-summable) on a indices n 1. L. If a also absolutely convergent. These pro... A similar assertion is also valid for a function of n vari- vergent.: Mathematical analysis.I for irrational values of x (5) is not Riemann-integrable.. £I f(x) I dx. a Banach space. its absolute value is also Riemann-integrable on perties of absolutely convergent series are also this interval. Mos. L. Moscow. if the improper integral [2] KUDRYAVTSEV. (the partial sums of) an absolutely a convergent series in a Banach space converge(s) in that implies the existence of the integral space. If the terms of the series (1) are elements of some I£!(x)dx I . This class is space with norm II· II. . Banach space with norm II . . I.ABSOLUTELY CONVERGENT SERIES The series of all possible pairwise products Urn Vn of the ABSOLUTELY INTEGRABLE FUNCflON . j I f(x) I dx = lim j I f(x) I dx a 'r1-b a cow. more.nk' (4) I[f(X)dX I.. V.A. Absolutely References [I] IL'IN.1)]. In this connection it analySiS. b). .G. particular.A func- terms of these series. all series obtained by suc. E. a <b.M.) If a multiple series is absolutely convergent. The con- same in both cases.A ring over which any Let the values of a function f be in some Banach (right or left) module is a flat module.. I. then f is Lebesgue-integrable on [a. Riemann-integrable or Lebesgue-integrable on is absolutely convergent. product of the sums of the original series. The situation is different for Lebesgue- is absolutely convergent.. be generalized to include the case of absolutely b convergent series of elements of a Banach space. the existence of the improper integral of the absolute AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 40A05 value of a function is equivalent to the existence of the improper integral of the function itself. variables. + 00 (provided that the function f is. If the multiple series (4) is abso.. i. The concept of an absolutely convergent series is b applied in a similar manner to multiple series in a jf(x)dx. arranged in an arbitrary order. References In the case of functions of several (more than one) [A1] ApOSTOL. and [I I displayed by multiple series: ~ Un!> .M. ABSOLUTELY-FLAT RING . In j I f(x) I dx. b]. both in the sense of spherical and ables which is Riemann-integrable on a cube-filled of rectangular partial sums. the iterated series true: The function f which is equal to I for rational values of x and is equal to .: A course of mathematical analySiS. and its sums will be the domain in the n-dimensional Euclidean space. 1973 (in Russian). 1973 b ~ (in Russian).

D. North-Holland.. qih = 0.. i¥=h. p.: Real analysis. E. The partial sums The passage to the limit for I~oo taking into acount Sn =X\ + . hEH. where T(H) = min{1 >0: T(t)EH} is the moment of first hitting the set H. then for the operations V and 1\ the 25 . References [A1) ROYDEN. Besides the term ABSORPTION LAWS . all martingales are related to partial tions. 1966.'O. I. Xn for which p~h(t+1) = llijP~h(t)..E. L. 1981..with the related concept of xA(xVy) = x. h EH. ... and POZNYAK. bilities Blaisdell. Pi} = P{~t+1)=jl~t)=i}. r h EH are absorbing in (I). ABSORPTION LAWS exists. Zubkov examples of absolutely-unbiased sequences are AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 60J10 sequences of independent random variables with mathematical expectation zero. C. . t. 1.M.. then for h EH the proba- [A5) TAYLOR. are fulfilled. if f is integrable on E. hEH..: A course of mathematical analysis.. If one introduces the auxiliary Mar- r [A2) ZAANEN. iES. interconnected as follows: The sequence {Yn } forms a jES martingale if and only if it is of the form qhh = 1. qih = P{«7(H»=h I«O)=i}. 1971 (in Russian). 210. [A4) RUDIN. + Xn +c (n = 1. iES\H. i. 1. Consider the set S of states of a homo- analysis. S. Moscow. also. kov chain (I) differing from «. V. Simple A. and c=E(Y\) is a constant). where {Xn} is an absolutely-unbiased References [1) W. while x Vy is the supremum. hEH. McGraw-HIli. (or equivalently.. i¥=h.Xn) = 0 Phh(t) = 1.. the relationship An example of a Markov chain with absorbing state 0 is a branching process. 1966. H. (*) 1-->00 ABSOLUTELY-UNBIASED SEQUENCE A By virtue of the basic definition of a Markov chain sequence of random variables X\.y~xl\y=x) is AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 60G42 an order relation for which x 1\Y is the infimum of the elements x and y.. [II f(x) II dx The introduction of additional absorbing states is a convenient technique that enables one to examine the is true. . In [A 1] the term 'absolutely fair' is L. if the ordered set (L. II [f(x)dX II.y ~-uVy=y (*) applications.. 1973 geneous Markov chain «. 0. 1965....'s. [1] IL'IN..C: Integration... Yn =X\ + ../) . Wiley. tivity and associativity.) contains an i such that infimum x 1\y and a supremum x Vy for any pair of P{«t)=i I~s)=i} = 1 for any t. for n = 1. A.: Principles of real = P{'T(H)'.: Mathematical analysis. [4] ScHWARTZ. then the relation x ~y defined References by the equivalence [A 1] FELLER. 26A42 qih = limp~h(t). W. McGraw-Hili. + Xn of an absolutely-unbiased sequence (*) gives a system of linear equations for qih: form a martingale. properties of trajectories of a Markov chain that are References associated with hitting some set.. W. On the ABSORBING STATE of a Markov chain «. Thus.G. hEH. is also employed. h EH. Moscow.t. .A.D.. Mos- cow.: An introduction to probability theory and its x. 1967. .: Cours d'analyse.L. by the equivalence x. V. are monotonically non-decreasing for It 00 and AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 26A39. xV(xAy) = x. Wiley...: Foundations of mathematical Example.A state other hand. ~'T(H»=h I~O)=i} analysis. These two types of sequences are qih = llUqih. A. sums of certain absolutely-unbiased sequences. KudryavIsev has to find the probabilities Editorial comments. and BURLEINSHAW. 1968.Identities of the form 'unbiased' the term 'fair' . Prokhorov where 1\ and V are two-place operations on some set Editorial comments.: Principles of mathematical analysis.D. North-Holland. 1968.M. Hennann. in which a subset H is distinguished and suppose one L. hEH... W. the conditions JES E(Xd = 0 and E(Xn+! I Xl> . P~h(t) = 0./) with discrete time and tran- (in Russian). I. A. i. a 'fair play'. If these operations satisfy also the laws of commuta- used instead of absolutely-unbiased. [A3) RUDIN.: Real and complex analysis. sition probabilities [3] NIKOL'sKII./) only in that all states 1953.'. [A6) ALIPRANTZ. 1.FELLER: An introduction to probability theory and its applica- sequence. L. [2] KUDRYAVTSEV. Macmillan. 2. 1967. hEH.. 1973 (in Russian). elements x and y. iES. 2. iES\H. 2...: General theory of functions and integration. .

made it possible which had been previously studied only from the ana. and to connect it even more closely with by Weil [9] made the theory of valuations and field other branches of algebraic geometry. braic geometry was the introduction of the concept of to apply to the 'abstract case' practically all of the the zeta-function of an algebraic curve by E.L.• TIS In abstract algebraic geometry. fields. 1981. commutativity and associativity. with the creation of the the theory of categories was introduced into abstract general theory of schemes by A.The branch Following the definition of an abstract algebraic variety of algebraic geometry dealing with the general proper. Reidel. K-theory. ABSTRACf ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY . in 1924 (cf. The first studies in abstract ideas and the development of the theory of schemes algebraic geometry appeared as early as the nineteenth was initiated in 1960 by A. Artin in known concepts of the classical complex case and. The ideas Riemann hypothesis for algebraic curves of arbitrary and methods developed in this way had their influence genus involves the theory of higher-dimensional in many branches of mathematics (commutative alge- varieties over arbitrary fields. [11 RAsIOWA. In particular. Group scheme). as theory (Weil's 'general points' ('generic points') well as the equivalence (*) apply.: Universal algebra. [8] were brought to bear on . 26 . Zeta-function in algebraic higher-dimensional algebraic geometry over arbitrary geometry). Serre in his study [7] on coherent uses the term absorptive laws. and the It was noted in 1940 by A. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 04A05. which postulated the existence of a was developed at the same time. context of number-theoretical problems and. the theory of analytic spaces and the theory of abstract algebraic varieties (not neces. The theory of alge. topology). to extend the framework of abstract algebraic lytic point of view. was of fundamental cohomology theory in which the Lefschetz formula for importance in this proof. P. 1963. h' commutative algebra [6]. van The concept of a topologized category (a Grothen- der Waerden based abstract algebraic geometry on the dieck topology) found numerous applications. language) to be generally accepted as a base of abstract References algebraic geometry for a long time thereafter. 4. Polska Akad. and many classical constructions in in algebraic geometry over arbitrary fields arose in the the field were radically transformed. abstract algebraic geometry was played by the Weil braic curves over an arbitrary field of constants. in which the language of functors and of back to the nineteen-fifties.ABSORPTION LAWS laws of absorption. Zeta-function in algebraic geometry). is possible. for- in this field are summarized in [4]. the number of fixed points of a mapping would be The general development of the theory of rings and valid. which conjecture (1947). geometry was due to the recognition of the fact that it Very important in the development of abstract alge. The References ideas and methods of homological algebra were here [A 1] CoHN. E. An important role in the development of elliptic curves by H. algebraic sheaves (cf. The subject was further Editorial comments. Nauk. [A1].: The mathematics of In the early nineteen-fifties powerful methods of metamathematics. and the particular. A systematic exposition of these are their generalizations. in the theory of equations with two unknowns. The appearance in 1946 of the book geometry. Interest algebraic geometry. various generalizations of this concept ties of algebraic varieties (cf. 08AXX The development of abstract algebraic geometry paralleled that of the concept of an algebraic variety. and the concept of a scheme proved to arbitrary fields and with schemes (cf. introduced into algebraic geometry for the first time.1938). in the framework of the theory of schemes. mal geometry. 2. Grothendieck. R. Chapt. VN G . category theory. but the main development of the subject dates memoirs [5]. in particu.-P. Coherent algebraic sheaf). Weil that a proof of the theory of group schemes (cf. proposed in the late nineteen-sixties. given by Weil. the theory of polynomial ideals. cf. In his series of articles (1933 . The results of the studies conducted representable functors (cf. Sect. Hasse in 1933. Instead of absorption laws one also modified by J.M. Grothendieck in a series of century. B. and which established an intimate connection of fields in the first two decades of the twentieth century this hypothesis with purely arithmetical problems of prepared the ground for a systematic development of algebraic varieties (cf. the intersection theory for such braic variety to that of an algebraic space. he developed development of which laid the foundations of new the intersection theory on a non-singular projective branches of abstract algebraic geometry: the theory of algebraic variety. He accordingly developed bra. the homology theory of complex-analytic proof of the analogue of the Riemann hypothesis for manifolds. which was varieties. and the general theory of Abelian varieties. the The recent generalization of the concept of an alge- theory of divisors. and SIKORSKI. sarily projective) over an arbitrary ground field. which be the most useful. Algebraic variety) over were proposed. Representable functor). The rapid development of abstract algebraic lar. Scheme). Weil cohomology.

h) = ~/(x +~h)1 [A 1] DELIGNE. pp.-P. Math.e. A power for which the following relation is true: series is a series of the form ~:=oPn(x) where Pn(x) II h . IHES 43 dt f=O (1974). "/(a +h)-l(a)-f)/(a. [A2] DELIGNE. and Pn(x) = 8nf (0. mula (cf. h).(x. [A1].. etc. P. i. In such a case any weakly analytic [2] DOLGACHEV. LV. t!Iese derivatives [9] WElL. Soviet function f (z) in a domain D of the complex plane C is Math.: Methodes d'algebre abstraite en geometrie function f (z) of a complex variable z the Cauchy for- algebrique. i Tekhn. For an abstract analytic [6] SAMUEL. x) / n!. One can also say that a Topol. A function f (x) from D into Y is weakly ana. 103-118. lytic function is based on differentiability according to OED. IHES 52 = ~ ( I(x+~h~-n-l d~. P. pp. Math. concept of a topologized category and its applications was n=O n. (Itogi Nauk. no.: 'Elements de geometrie algebrique'. 1955. 1} belongs to D. Algebra an abstract analytic function. and DIEUDONNE. h)=sup{ I ~ I: where all Pn(h) are continuous in X. . Soc. 273-307. Internat. IRES 4. die domain DeC if and only if f (z) is continuous in D Idealtheoretische Grundlagen. Math. Publ Math. h EX and for all complex t one has ping of Banach spaces . if neighbourhood of all points a ED for each continuous linear functional y' on Y and each element hEX the complex function y'(f(x+~h)) is a holomorphic function of the complex variable ~ in the n=O disc I ~ I<p(x.: 'Algebraic geometry. h) is weakly convergent power series ~:=oPn(x) in a called the Frechet differential of f at a.: 'La conjecture de Weilil'. Cambridge Univ.: 'The cohomology theory of abstract alge. Springer. 237-252. [7] SERRE. J.. in Proc. Ann. then 00 1 Editorial comments. A. 3-93. is such that for any point a ED there where the functions P . for all complex a.-P. when it means a func. Soc. Arner. 197-278. f)n/(x. as a function of abstract algebraic geometry'. and if for any simple closed rectifiable contour LcD [5] GROTHENDIECK. analytic map.-I. no.) from X into Y degree of P (x) is exactly m if Pm(x. 1960. [4] GROBNER. the Vitali theorem. x EX. the uniqueness theorems. 1949. Internat. 2. and the continuity condition principle. Banach space or even in a locally convex linear topo- braic varieties'. if and only if it can be developed in a power series in a lytic in D. J. Let f (x) be a weakly analytic function in a domain [8] ZARISKI.=0 space Y that is differentiable according to Frechet every- where in D. of Math. 0. Congress the complex variable ~.~:O. ABSTRACT ANALYTIC FUNCTION References tion f (z) of a complex variable z with values in a [I] GROTHENDIECK.. domain D converges in norm towards some weakly Another approach to the notion of an abstract ana. analytic functions if suitable changes are introduced. and (cf. W. P. the domain D = {~: x +~h ED}. The converse analytic functions . for all x. Wien.(x. If the 1946. Cauchy integral) is valid. Springer.: Moderne algebraische Geometrie. Congress Edinburgh. 3 (1974). in Proc.: 'Faiseaux algebriques coherentes'.. . The fundamental ideas of D of a Banach space X. 2m Id=l A function y =P(x) from X into Y is called a AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14-XX polynomial with respect to the variable x of degree at ABSTRACf ANALYTIC FUNCflON. h)" = 0. Amer. h) are independent of ~. most m if. References f)n/(x. Publ. no. 1950.such as the maximum-modulus proposition is also true.: 'La conjecture de Weil I'... being abstract analytic functions from D into Y. carried out by Grothendieck. A. . where p(x. Vol. Then f(x + ~h).. (1980). or differentiable according to Gateaux in D. Press. 1952. The exists a bounded linear operator 8f(a. V Dolgachev set {x +~h: I ~ I. 27 . logical space Y.A function f (x) acting from m some domain D of a Banach space X into a Banach P(x+~h) = ~P. (2) 61. hEX. An arbitrary where 11'11 denotes the norm on X or on Y. analytic function f(x) in D.: Foundations of algebraic geometry. J. 264-303. 2 (1955). J. Deligne and many others where the series converges in norm. the integralkf (z) dz vanishes. [A2]).47-112) function f (z) is an abstract analytic function in a [3] SERRE. has derivatives of all orders in Mathematicians Cambridge. Math. 77-89. 10 (1972). 2. I.: Matematika 7.: 'Abstract algebraic geometry'. P.are applicable to abstract according to Baire. x + ~h ED}. Geom. h ). linear space. Math. can be replaced by local boundedness or by continuity the Liouville theorem. are homogeneous polynomials of degree n so that lim II h 11--+0 Pn(ax)=£il Pn(x). The term 'abstract analytic function' is sometimes The set of all analytic functions in a domain D forms a employed in a narrower sense. 5 (1963). A function f(x) is an abstract analytic function Gateaux. Any abstract analytic function in a domain Many fundamental results in the classical theory of D is continuous and weakly analytic in D. Pub!.hW'. h). A. 8f(a. The systematic development of the I(x +h) = ~ -. 1958.

which forms the subject of a special discipline: A. Hermann. A. component of the mental activity aimed at the formula. and 2) the logical apparatus which may be E. ing from one another only in irrelevant aspects are con- perties. 1957. [2] WEYL..A. considering concrete initial objects. A.M. or mental abstraction. imagined pro. Math.A. Trudy Mat. D. H. Real number). Nagornyf eral concept. ers. while other differences that are actually posessed by the initial objects as a result of the regarded as irrelevant are ignored. and are spo- tional mathematical idealizations is the abstraction of ken of as a single object. References cepts of this theory is based. A typical example of mathematical AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03A05 abstraction of this kind is abstraction by identification. Springer. The most typical used in mathematics were made by L. Inst. sequences of rational numbers one arrives at the con- in conjunction with the refusal to use the abstraction of cept of real numbers (cf.J. 1967. This abstraction. sidered as identical.E. which reflect the original properties of the ini. by identifying actual infinity. E.: COUTS d'analyse. Amer. 1973. Banach spaces over problems related to this circle of questions resulted in an arbitrary complete valuation field. at the concept of an abstract letter.: Functional analysis and semi· resulting from the superposition of far-reaching ideali- groups. See Intuitionism. L. Constructive mathematics. One of the most tradi. R. The nature of any mathematical theory is largely See also Abstraction. 58812. R. 67 (1962).: 'Constructive real numbers and constructive The result of such an act of abstraction.J. are relevant to the concept by one's imagination are not only those to the given situation.the abstraction of potential realizability .: Grundlagen der Geometrie. tions (see [5]). one's imagination gen. Linguistically. [4] MARKov. is a significant mathematics. Equivalence. morphism.E. in a cer. and PHILLIPS. 1965. isomorphic groups with each other. Hilbert [3]. Danilevich semantics. 28 . their understanding. firmed in an function spaces'. 2. Markov [4]. or even properties tification is manifested by the fact that two similar ini- altogether absent in reality. tial objects are identified with each other. fact that in a certain situation being considered. with the exclusion of other properties cow. The properties imparted ences are considered that. Another traditional ideal. task. 152-158.: Functional analySiS: theory and applications. word or alphabet ization . A careful consideration of the locally convex topological spaces. etc. [5] SHANIN. Chelsea. which leads to the idea of an actual some suitable term. Soc. Solomentsev applied to any given mathematical theory essentially depends on the nature of the fundamental concepts of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 46G20. References The mental act of 'pure' abstraction consists of the [1] BROUWER. by identifying equivalent fundamental leads to the idea of a potential infinity. Tijdschrift voor Wijsbegeerte 2 (1908). The mental act of idealization means that.. mathematical. only those differ- sidered by one's consciousness.ABSTRACT ANALYTIC FUNCTION The notion of an abstract analytic function can be abstractions is one of the principal tasks of the founda- generalized to wider classes of spaces X and Y. The analysis of such [I] MARKOV. such a development is a difficult [3] ScHWARTZ.. Rinehardt.Abstraction in of these concepts.A manner tain situation being considered.: On the logic of constructive mathematics. concept of an abstract group. alphabets) with each other. L. MATHEMATICAL . (see [l]).: Das Kontinuum. zations requires the development of special means for [2] EDWARDS.: Theory of algorithms. For instance. this theory. Iso- determined by the nature of the mathematical abstrac.D. but also other. atten. one arrives at the tions of mathematics. Sci. when erates a certain concept which becomes the object con. This abstraction is the base of the set-theoretic letters (words. H. Trans!. abstraction by iden- tial objects in a modified manner. and hence on the nature of the 58C10. such as tions of mathematics. N. Weyl [2].A. 15-294 (in Russian). appropriate language. tion is fixed only on certain (essential) features of the [3] HILBERT. reprint. abstractions in mathematics are 'pure' abstractions. forms the base of constructive founda. ABSTRACflON BY IDENTIFICATION . 1972 (in Russian). A. Holt. begins to play the part of a gen. Winston. by identifying similar infinity. Mos- between them.: 'De onbetrouwbaarheid der logische prin- cipes'.A. one arrives development of mathematics. Brouwer [I]. and relationships which are considered as irrelevant. etc. tion on which the formulation of the fundamental con.E. objects being considered and on the interrelationships Appendix VIII. for any reason. after having been assigned actual infinity. Major contributions to the analysis of abstractions tion of basic mathematical concepts. 1913. of forming general abstract concepts in which. N.32A30 mathematical abstractions accepted in the formulation ABSTRACflON. Israel Progr. Steklov.A. Initial objects differ- act of 'pure' abstraction. D. the recognition of the fundamental importance of the References following factors: 1) the evaluation of abstract objects [1] HILLE. and oth- idealizations and their various multi-layered superposi.

in B-ILu = B-Ij. D. Nagornyi The rate of convergence of similar classical iterative AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03A05 methods depends on the condition number v(L) of the matrix L and can be fairly slow for large v(L). and particularly for the solution of systems A mathematical idealization. Markov (d. situations. Also: Trudy Mat. established by G. L = L' > 0.The construction of a modification of tant in the construction of mathematics on the base of the iterative method. have terminated. existence of the natural sequence as an actual 'infinite tive integers starting from zero). tive method) . these can be defined by the fact that they a potential infinity. The resulting sets (objects) are then mentally role in constructive mathematics. The accelera- Abstraction of actual infinity. the generation of successive posi.M. generates objects be solved and on the type of iterative method. the [2] MARKov. viz. Nagornyi object. 42 (1954). H. and to consider each step as potentially realizable. were proposed by L. modifications of these methods are of the concept of infinity in mathematics . be indefinitely extended (e. but for an equivalent system As applied to constructive processes which can. but it does not imply the idea of the infinite duration (e. c. generation of positive integers starting from zero). Constructive mathematics). and may reduce. In such ABSTRACfION OF POTENTIAL REALIZABILITY .: On the logic of constructive mathematics. Logically.g. principle. temporal or material obstacles to AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03A05 the realization of each successive step of the process. A. Mos- cow. N. that the general theory of sets. either to the Richardson method with Chebyshev See also Abstraction.A. are used not for (2). by means of that method. mathematical. particular case of a class of iterative methods contain- cerning such objects meet with certain difficulties. parameters or to the method of conjugate gradients. N. for example. Brouwer (see tions Lu = j. ing free iteration parameters. 29 .E. Kronecker. bert. The ABSTRACfION OF ACfUAL INFINITY . of mathematicians (L.as a mathematical See also Abstraction. The optimization problem mathematical objects met with objections by a number can take various forms. related to a certain form of to the example given above is tantamount to assuming the idea of infinity in mathematics . integers . A application of the abstraction of potential realizability mathematical idealization. mathematical. as a result of which the cases where the iterative method can be considered as a problems involved in understanding propositions con. Weyl.M. especially so when repeatedly employed in varied (see [1] . etc. (1) mathematical construction based on abstraction of potential realizability. ACCELERATION OF CONVERGENCE 1961 (translated from the Russian). to a transition from a method of simple iteration.J. related to a certain form of grid equations.M.the idea of the that a unit can be added to any natural number.g. the successive Steklov. being a far-reaching tion methods (acceleration processes) used are quite idealization.the idea of often used. acceleration of conver- Unrestricted use of abstraction of actual infinity in gence can be reduced to the problem of the optimal mathematics as a legitimate method of generating choice of these parameters. Inst.. abstraction of potential realizability consists in ignoring N. Hil.[6]) and depend both on the problem to conjunction with other idealizations. The application of concerning the existence of constructive objects that the abstraction of actual infinity to the above example satisfy given conditions are regarded as propositions on makes it possible to consider the set of all non-negative the potential realizability of such objects. infinity consists of ignoring the fact that such processes The acceptance of the abstraction of potential real- do not terminate in principle and in considering the izability logically leads to the principle of mathematical results of such processes on the assumption that they induction. abstraction of actual object'. Cantor. (2) Intuitionism) and by A. acceptance of the abstraction of actual AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03A05 infinity leads to the acceptance of the law of the excluded middle as a logical principle. 1972 (in Russian). and others). in which propositions regarded as actual 'finished' objects. Gauss.A.F. without recourse to abstraction for the solution of a system of linear algebraic equa- of actual infinity. Nagornyi any possible spatial. In those whose 'tangibility' is indirect. possesses a greater rate of convergence. that the sets of objects have been Abstraction of potential realizability plays a special generated. is possible to form the sum of any two natural As applied to constructive processes of potentially numbers.the natural sequence . Positive programs of u n+ 1 = un-T(Lun-f). that it so-called actual infinity. ACCELERATION OF CONVERGENCE (for an itera- Abstraction of actual infinity is particularly impor.

for the method M. and [A6]. Linear The operator B.: Methods of computational mathematics.: Methods of solving differ- ence equatiOns. matrix and vector. the error of 1041 (in Russian). G. Further in advance. 3 (1961). Mir. sibility that it offers of comparing the merits of dif- The pre-multiplication by a matrix B. 157-168. acceleration of convergence for methods (1) is the 82 _ [A7] VARGA. VAN DER: 'An iterative solu- tion method for linear systems of which the coefficient matrix (3) is a symmetric M-matrix'. Good references are [A2] . of (1) leads to the relation [A5] MEIJEllINK. North Oxford Academic. 1037- If estimates for FM and kM are available. R. Part I. 1980 (in Russian). and NIKOLAEV. A.A. One of the traditional general methods for the 284-297. Numerical Math. For these same problems acceleration a system of algebraic equations.147-156.can be expressed as the exact solution of a perturbed sian). system (2) [3] MARCHUK.S. Chebyshev II X-XM II. of linear algebra. The quality of the direct method is estimated in terms [4] SAMARSKIl. Akad. Simi. of the matrix A. pp. ACCUMULATION OF ERRORS in the numerical In solving non-linear problems. These 'best' problems.S. Nauk.W. 362-379. E. [A4] MANTEUFFEL.F. 21 (1973). but it [2] BAKHVALOV. 1963 (translated from the Russian). C. modification 307-327. and the principal meaning of (2) is the pos- developments are discussed in [AS]. In the Western literature. H.: 'On iterative methods with saddle opera. E. E.. for example.: 'Conjugate gradients methods for solving systems of linear equations'. methods. 1-66. R. In order to realise these Math. respectively. G.1 of the system (2) ferent methods. Springer.A. linear algebra is the scheme of inverse (or backward) Various methods for the acceleration of convergence analysis. 5.Kantorovich method and others). tors'.solution of algebraiC equations . dients does not need accurate estimates of the largest and In reality. 1977 (translated from the Rus. On the [I] FADDEEV. New Series 292 (1987).: 'The Tchebychev iteration for nonsym- metric linear systems'. numerical methods). and VARGA. Compo 31 (1977). acceleration of con. 0. and LooN. R. Numerical Math. cally by the inequality Richardson's method with Chebyshev parameters is usually called the Chebyshev semi-iterative method.: Matrix iterative analysis. Moscow. some Euclidean space and the rate of convergence of [A2] GoLUB. 28 (1977).G. since. and VORST.K. D.1L is self-adjoint and positive on algebra and its Appl.S. For methods with orthogonal transformations and 30 . successive over-relaxation methods. 34 (1980). II'. modifications it is important to be able to solve the sys. the modifications obtained depends on P(B -1 L). metric and inconsistent systems of linear equations'.TL in (1). 148-162. GJ. 1962. G.S.: Numerical methods for nonlinear variational norms of the matrix FM and the vector k M .: 'Chebyshev semi-iterative lar modifications are also used for more general prob. V.: Numerical methods: analySis.H.::: cond(A) [II FM II + II kM II] 3 iteration is extensively analyzed in [A3] and [A7] . process.: 'Conjugate gradient type methods for unsym- .. Freeman. tems Bv = g effectively. In the sequel some typical estimates for is often called pre-conditioning. Prentice Hall. VAN: Matrix computations. SSSR. References the scheme of inverse analysis is as follows. [A6] STEWART.N. II x II "" I -II A -I II II FM II II A II IfbT I ) A further analysis for the case when L is non-symmetric can Here cond(A) = II A II II A -1 II is the condition number be found in [M]. 1978 (in Russian). 1983. D'yakonov the approximate solution XM can be estimated theoreti- Editorial comments. An up-to-date survey of this the matrix FM are presented. 1984. algebra. the computed solution XM does not satisfy (1). and the matrix norm in (3) is assumed Unlike Chebyshev iteration. It is used along with a whole series of other AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 65F10 acceleration methods (see [1]) in iterative methods for the partial eigen value problem. N. Numerical equation. and second- lems. technique is given in [A 1]. Dokl.H. ordi- nary differential equations. T.[4]). [A3] GoLUB. Applied to the solution of linear algebraic are also used in probabilistic iterative methods of equations Ax = b (1 ) Monte-Carlo type (see [2]). including non-linear problems (see Non-linear order Richardson iterative methods. Mos- cow. Math.ACCELERATION OF CONVERGENCE where B =B* >0 is a specially selected operator (see [2] References [A1] AxELSSON. FM and kM are known as the equivalent perturbation [6] D'YAKONOV. an estimate for II A -1 II is rarely known smallest eigen values of the iteration matrix 1. Chapt.G. and FADDEEVA.A. (see Minimization of the labour of calculation). the method of conjugate gra- to be subordinate to the vector norm II II. The most commonly of convergence is also sometimes realized by the use of employed technique for a priori estimation of the total iterative methods of a higher order (the effect of rounding-off errors in numerical methods of Newton .A.The overall effect of vergence is often achieved by choosing a special initial rounding-off at the various stages of a computation approximation on the basis of methods of continuation procedure on the accuracy of the computed solution to by a parameter.: Computational methods assumption that some direct method M has been used. J. of the best a priori estimate that can be found for the [5] GLOWINSKI.

J. i Mat. Comput. Zh. W. where n is of roundoff errors'. A complete introduction to interval analYSis is given in [A4]. 228-236.: 'Software for roundoff analysis II'. [A2] LARSEN.H.: Large sparse sets of linear equations. Atomic Energy Com· mission Reports. [A3] and [A8]. rather inessential: such as the type of computer arith- no.: 'Conjugate gradients methods for solving the use made of accumulation of inner products. the method of solving and a Moscow. the order of the system. In order to reduce g(A) one resorts to vari... I. In a detailed account of rounding-off error analysis (also called direct computation of AN via the recurrence formula roundoff error analysis) of algebraic processes. Accumulation of rounding-off errors (or of errors) 0us ways of pivoting. Math. step are introduced in the most unfavourable way and tice Hall. one has the sharper estimate the solution of linear or non-linear algebraic problems (see above). tion of differential equations. Moscow. Press.V.. the order in which [7] BROYDEN. D. CB. 3 (1978). A historical analysis of roundoff analysis is given in [A7]. pp. Machinery 8 (1961). one assumes that the errors are random Dniv. G. and Appl. References There are two different approaches to investigating [I] GIVENS. the right-hand side of the inversion'. the arithmetic operations are performed. KH. I. reflecting [A6] WILKINSON. etc. one is most commonly concerned IIFMIIE'. 1969.lkramov floating-point arithmetic with t binary digits. and WILKINSON.281-330. metic (fixed-point or floating-point). 369-390. the computation is being done in a computer with Kh.. in computing the sum of N numbers [9] York. 14. 20-24.: Computer solution of computer. all Editorial comments. 50-63. 21 (1973). no. Math. A. no. W. Oxford second case. no... ACM Trans.D. 1967. estimate (4) involves yet another factor g(A).: 'On the stability of variety of other factors that appear at first sight to be Gauss-Gordan elimination with pivoting'. Suppose that Mat. II A liE = (~at)1 /2 is the Euclidean matrix linear algebraic systems. Commun. The exact values of the con. and MOLER.: 'Error propagation in numerical processes'. IKRAMov. stants C and the exponents k depend on such details of [A3] MILLER. pp. [AS] WILKINSON. 18. In turn.W. ACM Trans. so obtains a majorizing estimate for the error. ACCUMULATION OF ERRORS floating-point arithmetic (A and b in the system (l) are recent developments (interval analysis and automatic error assumed to be real) analysis) can be found in [A2]. I. and SPOONER. intermediate steps of the method in comparison with Math.: Rounding-off errors and stability in direct and obey a certain distribution law. (4) References In this estimate. systems of linear equations'. In the first values of a real symmetric matrix'. the computation procedure as the rounding-off method. and f(n) is a function of type Cnk. These problems display bordering and of conjugate gradients) for which a certain specific features. V. performed arithmetic operations. SIAM Review 13. I. ellA IIE·(' with algebraic problems thai arise from the approxima- There exist direct methods (the methods of Gordan. 1969 (in Russian). tion is the result of a large number of consecutively In the square-root method (or Cholesky method). thus putting bounds on the occurs when one is solving problems in which the solu- increase of the matrix elements. More the majorizing error estimate is of the order 2. CG.1N. Software 5 (1979). Math. k = I or 3/2. V.laws as those governing the accumula- arguments are utilized to investigate the accumulation tion of computational errors.or not yield effective estimates. ACM Trans. Software 4 (1978). methods of linear algebra. [A7] YOHE. G. [A4] STEWART. In the [3] WILKINSON. 284- Most frequently. 297.H. 1977 (in Russian).: 'Error analysis of direct methods of matrix In Gauss-type methods.: The algebraic eigenvalue problem. when analyzing a method for the solution of a problem. Gordan and optimal elimination methods'. 231-254. I. case one assumes that the computational errors at each [2] WILKINSON. their initial level (no such increase occurs in orthogonal methods). etc.: 'Efficient calculation of the effects norm.H. the order of the operations is significant. Software 4 (1978). Reference [3] above contains a numbers lying in the interval 1/2< I an I.D. 2 (1974). J. [8] REID. 1962. 131-140. ACM 18. pp.[9]). I (1975).: Rounding errors in algebraic processes. Pren. Numer. Fiz. I. the problem being solved. direct application of a scheme of inverse analysis does Errors accumulate in accordance with the same . Us. 1574 (1954). +aN Gauss. which is commonly used when the matrix A is positive A significant proportion of such problems arises in definite.V.E. In these cases different even simpler .: 'Numerical computation of the characteristic the accumulation of computational errors.H.: 'The condition for intermediate matrices for AN = aj + . Assoc. I. In addition one can mention [A1]. 531-545 (in Russian). £ is the relative precision of in the [A1] FORSYTHE. Vychisl. and [A5]. For exam- Inst. Prentice Hall. G.H. 87-97.: Computational fundamentals of linear algebra. 1971. and SAMEH. 69-82. But 31 . they may be investigated of errors (see [6] .. [6] PETERS. 1. I. The nature of the accumulation of errors depends on [5] VOEVODIN. the possibility that the elements of A may increase at 548-588. ORNL. [4] VOEVODIN.: 'Modern error analysis'.K.M. Math. Ser.: 'Software for interval arithmetic'. London· New ple.

value problems corresponding to ordinary differential In more complicated cases. [6]). assumes a priori a certain distribution law for the Considerable care is taken to select a method in errors (see [2]). 1977 (in Russian).... the numbers am are computed and so.V. where [3]). or appear consecutively in the operating memory of majorizing estimate for the computational error being the computer. For example. [5]). methods is substantially narrower. the most com- In the numerical solution of differential equations monly used methods are one-step methods of the one may encounter the following cases. the accu- computations without rounding-off but for equations mulation of errors behaves like c 1/ h. If one adopts a the original difference equation with the solution of the probabilistic approach to the investigation of the accu- equation with perturbed coefficients.2m .. ally estimated in the following way. They In many methods. Computations according to one of the methods becomes useless. In the shooting some standard scheme with rounding-off are treated as method for a grid boundary value problem. the small-disturbance equation yield AT =AN.ACCUMULATION OF ERRORS one can proceed otherwise (see [1]).. order 2-I logz N. One constructs an The accumulation of computational errors essentially equation for the perturbation. difference between slightly different solutions of the A~=A!k-1 +A!k> etc. [7]). x X [h(t. one obtains an mulation of errors. y). [9]). [4]). If 2m . This is particularly important in the When measuring the accuracy of the solution of a case of ordinary differential equations. developed in con.: Computational foundations of linear algebra. or they exceed them in either case. relative to the previ. increases according to a similar law. organized that the load on the operating memory is Xo never more than ""' logz N cells. y)1! + S. [5]. the majorizing and probabilistic approaches number of steps in the various cases turns out to be to the estimation of the accumulation of computational very high. solution fall into the category of unstable methods.I <N. when solving the problem on an interval according to formulas. the equivalent perturbations (see [1]. The magnitudes A (h) in these methods computational errors in the solution of differential may differ to such an extent that in a certain situation equations (see [3]. C >0. whether due to the intro. one cannot reckon on the constant A(h) in a las. errors usually yield qualitatively identical results: The The magnitude A (h) can increase strongly as the errors either accumulate in both cases within admissible integration interval is enlarged.. one puts A(h) is therefore dependent on the behaviour of the AJ+I =a2/+1)' Then compute further sums of pairs. in such cases use of the scheme just essentially better than described increases the load on the computer memory. one introduces a measure on which q and A(h) are as small as possible. V. accumulation of errors is basically determined by the where q >0. the principal term of the error are of little practical interest. and then problem.. then m steps differential equation. where the problem. where q nection with the investigation of the accumulation of is the same.Y(I))dl However. I (see [3]. as defined by the small- of pairwise addition using the formulas disturbance equation. the error increases as (a(h)i-'. on the fixed method of solution is being used.Kutta or Adams type (see [3]. the majorizing error estimate is of the has the form . q'. accumulation of errors behaves like A (h)h -q. When solving this problem. The goal is therefore to bounds. (Xo. depends on the method employed to solve the grid duction of rounding-off errors or other errors. therefore. [3]). where the spacing h tends to zero. derives a distribution law for the formulas can usually be transformed in such a way that rounding-off errors (see [8]. use methods with A (h) as small as possible. Al =a2k-1 +a2k (if N=21 + 1 is odd. while for with perturbed coefficients. there are cases in which one estimate for the error. The error in such methods is usu. when solving grid boundary investigates the solution of this equation (see [2]. the rounding-off error at [1) VOEVODIN. as an error in initial data. When deal- References ing with Cauchy problems. the standard basis of this measure. in particular recurrence formu. X). The domain of practical applicability for such li~_o I A (h) I < 00. As the grid Runge. in others. First compute sums ous step. In typical problems. Moscow. Comparing the solution of the double-sweep method this is Ah -q. while limh-->o I a(h) I > 1. Such methods of solution of the small-disturbance equation. When a the space of problems under consideration and. 11 = hex. A2 _ ak> In the numerical solution of an ordinary differential equation y' = f(x. each specific step can be regarded. the sequence of computations can be so fe dx. 32 . AZ = A~-~l +A~-l. while the computa- In stable methods the error will characteristically tional error builds up significantly more rapidly (see increase at the rate A (h)h -q. one uses the method of equations by the shooting or double-sweep method. A lower bound for of pairs.

: The algebraic eigenvalue problem.S. U(q) is the force function of active forces. 1425-1436 (in ones for real motion. are the same as the respective the numerical solution of an ordinary differential equation'. Wiley.R. Oxford Po and P I in space and satisfying certain conditions.S. [A2] HENRIe!. no. The Hamiltonian action [7] BAKHVALOV. Zh.: 'On an estimate of the error at numerical integration of differential equations by Adams' extrapolation 1\ method'.The The concept just defined should be distinguished best-studied case of the general concept of the action of from the concepts of a proximate point and a complete a group on a space. constant energy h. Here T is the kinetic energy ACCUMULATION POINT of a set A . 6 (1971).: Discrete variable methods in ordinaT'/ differential HENRIe!. any point of a set is a space X if to each g E G there corresponds a homeomor- proximate point of the set. N. Mat. and Jacobian actions. but are much more difficult to compute.: 'Optimal convergence bounds for quadratic processes and integral methods of Monte Carlo type for classes is defined in the class of kinematically possible motions of functions'. ordi- nary differential equations. V Arkhangel'skif mapping cp: G XX~X. Moscow.: 'A statistical investigation of roundoff errors in motion between them. Wiley. upon by given active forces. on the other hand. cally possible motions between some two final positions [4] WILKINSON. 1963. no. Jacobi principle. If AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54AXX X and G have supplementary structures. N. i Mat. 10 [8] BAKHVALOV. For example. mulation point of the set of all rational numbers in the For more details see Variational principles of classical ordinary topology. x)=CPg(x) is continuous. if X is a differentiable manifold and 33 . A set can have 1 T = -2 ~ a. 1962.. and have none. 683-686 j(T+U)dt (in Russian).l. of a holonomic system for which the initial and the 399-404 (in Russian). P. 5 (1955). Vychisl. 11. as well as the time of [9] LAPSHIN. Press. and the Jacobian action istic bounds. E. 3 (1964).j=l many accumulation points.Ostrogradski principle. Bakhvalov t Editorial comments. motions of a holonomic conservative system for which the initial and the final positions of the system. Russian).: Error propagation for difference methods. 1962. 5 (1952). Fiz.S. Commun. thus. and for a conservative system topological space X such that in any neighbourhood of x there is a point of A distinct from x. which appear in the correspond- [6] GoDUNOV. Vychisl. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 70-01. no. no set has an mechanics. In a discrete space. 65F35. Fiz. Mir. N. 575. 70BXX tion point of a set contains infinitely many points of the set.: Computational methods and programming.: Prikl. it can where qi are the generalized Lagrange coordinates.H. T. The Lagrangian action N. 108-113.: Numerical methods: analysis. every neighbourhood of an accumula. Lagrangian Vol. Statistical treatment of rounding-off j2Tdt (or roundoff) errors can be found in the references below. Mat.: The theory of difference ing principles of stationary action. S. V V Rumyantsev In a T I-space. are the same as the respective mag- 65LXX nitudes for a real motion. and 3) the A. algebra. References [A 1] P. [5] BAKHVALOV. any real number is an accu. Nauk SSSR 104. pp. M. In particular. and the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 65GXX. ACTION OF A GROUP ON A MANifOLD [2] SHURA-BURA. J. The set of all accumulation points principle. Dokl. ACTION OF A GROUP ON A MANIFOLD ./J. 69-79 (in Russian). 1977 (translated from the Rus. 1964 (translated from the Russian). final positions of the system.qj' . 4.A functional expressed by the definite cial interest. equations. N.A point x in a of the system. 2) for the unit element e E G the discrete space). 1969. no. the stationary values of which 588. i Mekh. One distinguishes between Hamiltonian. [A3] HULL. Mat. Lagrange accumulation point. 16.: 'Tests of probabilistic models are defined in the class of kinematically possible for propagation of roundoff errors'.K. schemes. of a set A in a space X is called the derived set (of A). in the class of kinemati- sian).R. the actions of G which are compatible with such structures are of spe- ACTION . cp(g.A. I. It 10 should be remarked that statistical analyses give more real. ACM 9 (1966). V. Zh. mapping CPe is the identity homeomorphism.S. determine a real motion of a mechanical system acted [3] BAKHVALOV. Hamilton . i Mat. and SWENSON.E. integral of a function. and RYABEN'KIi. Akad. A topological group G acts on a accumulation point. S.S. Univ. North-Holland. while it need not be an phism CPg of X (onto itself) satisfying the following con- accumulation point (a counterexample: any point in a ditions: I) CPg 'CPh = CPgh.

Stiefel cobordism theories [3].E. V. In solving these problems an important part is homogeneous space. transformation groups. then one naturaly obtains the follow- ADAMS METHOD . Press.F.A continuum with trivial typical. (e. lows if gx =x for any x EX. Classical examples include the played by: methods of modem differential topology spheres S n -I = 0(n) / O(n . Lie group [8]. G. 1964. Aleksandrov duct (the slice theorem).: Introduction to compact transformation groups.g. usually 1972. which orbit spaces. the neighbourhoods of an orbit look like a direct pro. 1972. Zarelua If G is a compact group.: Differentiable periodic maps. E. Russian Math. of systems of ordinary differential equations.E. cern: 1) the determination of types of orbits with vari- The set {cpg(xo) }gEG is called the orbit (trajectory) of ous suplementary assumptions concerning the group G the point Xo EX with respect to the group G. [7]. ally inseparable. compact transformation groups. manifold if X is a differentiable manifold and the [31 BUKHSHTABER. actions. ACYCLIC ELEMENT . If G is a non-compact group. Mat. Accordingly. 131-154) [4) CONNER.B. in terms of local coordinates is equivalent to the study [8) Proc. able manifold X in a differentiable manner is a classical [7) ZAGIER. X)-H). and this is why a study of individual [5) BREDON.I). and 3) finding connections between global tient space of the space X with respect to the group G. Springer. Bordism).e. X / G and X G are of interest.: Equivariant Pontryagin classes and applications to example.D.P. cp" I x = cp'. J. bordism and folds O(n) / O(m) (cf. The study of such dynamical systems. acts non-trivially on References X (i. Ann. I. M. 2) the classification of group space is denoted by X / G. not according to the law (g. and homology groups (d. Dekker.: action of G is differentiable. 484-530. S. M. Benjamin. A. Springer. analogue of K-theory for G-vectorbundles. the space X / G is usu. it is known that if X is a Editorial comments. 1984. the mapping cp is usually assumed to Recent results (mid-nineteen-seventies) mostly con- be differentiable. and is also called the quo. Xn = X 0 + nh the computational formulas may be based fying space BG (cf.g. A finite number of orbit types exists in X.M. fold and if the action A. This is studying the action of the group G based on the study usually not the case if the action of the group is not of pseudo-differential operators in G-bundles [2]. 1972.: K-theory: lectures. Here. T. then G is a [A1] PETRIE. conf. the y' = I(x. second conf. the main interest in the action of a compact group is the action of a Lie group. and RANDALL. MISHCHENKO. On the contrary. [9) Proc. the relations between the coho. Grassmann manifold.: 'The index of elliptic opera- tors'.s. Springer.S. which is the folds O(n) / (O(m)XO(n -m». 1968. [6) HSIANG. the orbit space is a manifold.(B G ) of the classi. 2 (1971). (Uspekhi (Smith's theorem).: Transformation groups on manifolds. CP') if and only if solving Cauchy's problem for systems of first-order dif- it is possible to find an (X". If the group G acts freely. 1967.A finite-difference method for ing equivalence relation: (X. (2) 87 (1968). a) on extrapolation 34 . An invariants of the manifold X and local properties of the important example is the case when X is a Lie group group actions of G in a neighbourhood of fixed points and G is a subgroup. and analytical methods of manifold). Wu YI: Cohomology theory of topological transforma- The group G = R of real numbers acting on a differenti. CP)--(X'. dividing points and terminal points of a continuum. Homology group).ACTION OF A GROUP ON A MANIFOLD G is a Lie group. The following results are ACYCLIC CONTINUUM . X G is a [2) ATIYAH.y). this statement is valid for 'Formal groups and their role in the apparatus of algebraic cohomology manifolds over Zp for G = Zp as well topology'. 1975. 63-90. g=l=e. of Math. involves analytical methods.F. P. the Grassmann mani..A component of the set of If G is a compact Lie group. surgery methods). Surveys 26 (1971). P. y(xo) = Yo· equivalence classes can be found from the one-to-one In integration over a grid with a constant step correspondence with the bordisms Q. tion groups. A References free action of a group is an action for which g = e fol. trajectories and their mutual locations is of interest. e. free.A. and the Stiefel mani. X a differentiable mani. M. D. then X / G is the corresponding of XG. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 57SXX Let G be a compact Lie group and let X be a com- pact cohomology manifold. and SINGER. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54F15 mology structures of the spaces X. [II ATIYAH. Acad. Springer. and FLOYD. if the set X G of fixed points is non-empty. manifold and if each gEG. no. A. the orbit and the manifold X ([6]). Nauk 26. KG-theory [1].M. and NOVIIWV. Springer. CP") such that the boundary ferential equations ax" has the form ax" =X U X' and such that cp" I x = cp. V. Mal'tsev </>:GXX ~ X AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54F15 is differentiable.

then one root of this equation operation in a group is called addition. Math. A. Akad. viz. and assocIative: k (a + b) + c = a + (b + c). S. [A2] ROSSER.H. Golub (ed. L. Izv. t) k=1. A=O Zaved. Vyssh. Vychisl. uo=23/12. Math.y(x»fJ(x. no. However. Vo =1/2 small values of h. USSR Comput. t)=E. 4 (1962). Adams' method proves to be more Yn+\ = Yn +h ~:U-A!(Xn-A'Yn-~J. Certain special case are known as where Q(x.Kutta method. the series of explicit methods k =0.B. Nauk SSSR 104. 5. 199-242. 2. 4 (1962). and MAYERS. ordi- For a given k. The result of addition is called the sum. must be found by some special method.. this results in an unjustified diminution of the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 00A25. The error in the solution can be written as Editorial comments. . Clarendon Press. g(x. Here also. pp. Amer. [3) TnrnONOY. etc. Ivanova increase. Dokl. The sum of ized. since the step-changing algorithm is much more involved and ADDmON . D. 65M10. the selection of the initial values of Yk is not standard. Ijy(" "(I) dl 1h" . U-1 =-4/3. it is usually uniformly small as com. dfJ}:.: Computing methods for scientists absolutely-stable solution of the differential problem. the latter formula gives more accurate nary differential equations. method'.Yn-A)+hvt!(xn+"y~~\). Uchebn. tion with automatic step selection is much more 65N10 involved than the standard Runge . 1984. addition is associa- tive and commutative.P. I. economical than the Runge . S. in G. [2) BAKHVALOY. algebra. method is found and one or two corrections are per. equations (predicator formula) in the extrapolation case a) and implicit difference equations (corrector formula) in the interpolation case b).: 'Asymptotic expan- In practical work.: Computing methods. Mir. Per- A=-\ gamon Press. J. 2. N. V1 =5/12.N.): Studies in used for finding stable periodic solutions of differential numerical analysis. tion. [5) BAKHYALOY.: 'Solving differential equations on a hand-held particular. or b) on interpolation k-\ References Yn+\ = Yn +h ~ v-A!(xn-A. In and engineers. . 683-686 which are needed to begin the calculations by formula (in Russian). k= 1..S.Moulton methods. and ZHIDKOY. This means that Adams' method can be applied References over a large integration interval in the case of an [A1) Fox. Math. U-1 =-1 /2. no. Adams in 1855. V-1 =-1 /12.D. Fiz. 10. +O(h"'). Particular solutions of this equation are Yn = CJln.One of the basic arithmetic operations.Yk for Adams' method.A. H [I. Uo = 1 (Euler's: method). 2. the are called the summands. (the'trapezoidal rule). N.: Numerical methods: analysis. and a and b In the case of the equations y' = -ay. The operation inverse to addi- Yn+\ = Yn+h~U-A(-aYn-A).=0 tion is called subtraction. N.Bashforth methods. ADDITION k step size.F. 1977 (translated from the Rus- results but a non-linear system of equations must be sian). no. two numbers a and b is denoted by a + b. vo=2/3. The standard Adams procedure for integra- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 65LXX.S. such as in the is I JlI=>\ and the rounding-off errors rapidly case of a multi-operator group. t) is the solution of the system Adams. t) = /y(x.S.: 'An estimate of the error of numerical y~tP = Yn +h ~ v-A!(Xn-A. Bakhvalov a).Yn-A). Phys. A certain series of implicit methods is known as The structure of the term O(h k +2) is such that. which converge pointwise if h I v I I I (3f / 3y) I < l. A.M. a>O. for Adams. Sometimes. V1 = 1/2. It yields explicit difference x. it may be programmable calculator'. . formed according to the formula i Mat.: 'On an estimate of the error at numerical integration of differential equations by Adams' extrapolation The initial conditions Y I. 5 (1955). uo=3/2. viz. a non-commutative If ah '2/ _ I u . solved in order to find Yn + I. 52-90 (in Russian). k=2. equations. When integrating with automatic step selec- tion. N. where Addition is also the name usually given to the opera- Jl is a root of the equation tion in an Abelian group (in additive notation) and to the binary operation in a ring under which its elements form an Abelian group. an approximation by the former sions of the error in the difference method of solving Cauchy'S problem for systems of differential equations'.537-548) k-\ [4) LOZINSKI!. Addition of numbers is com- extrapolation formula a) has the form mutative: a + b = b + a. O.e. 1968. Mat. no. pared to the main term on large intervals of integra. 6 (1958). k=2.A I > 2. and GoRBUNOY. u_2=5/12. integration of differential equations 1'. it was first introduced by J. The Adams method is a special k or (k+ 1) multistep method. Mat. when Q(t. 565-586. . etc. as distinct from the Milne method. [1) BEREZIN. 20XX 35 . Assoc. 1973 (translated from the Russian). (Zh.Kutta method in most A=O cases.

is strongly additive.ADDITION OF SETS ADDITION OF SETS .'T of its subspaces of weight with mixed-volume theory.EA j I 52A25.. V Arkhangel'skii Firey p-sums are continuous with respect to Ai and p.'T. . [2) ENGELKING. Copenhagen Univ. when p = + 00 it gives the convex lowing conditions for two relatively prime integers m. see Convex sets..: Convex analySiS. Coli. Pacif. plete generality. The compactum X can be represented as the union over a dependence of the volume S on the Ai is connected set of infinite cardinality '.1 [5) ARKHANGEL'sKIi. the p-sum coincides ADDITIVE ARITHMETIC FUNCflON . Dokl.T. Inst. Akad Nauk SSSR 126. and PONOMAREV. and the function log m is com- pletely additive. 04AXX. References [1) ALEKSANDROV. [2] FlREY.V./IIf)l / P. An additive arithmetic function is Ai eRn considered up to translation. Press. R. topologiques compacts. Superad- sets in a Euclidean space Rn. linear space of. Koninkl. decompos- sets. 1984 one carries out (-p )-addition of the corresponding (translated from the Russian). AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 10A20 36 . addition '. tion of the mean values of the radii of curvature at points with a common normal.'1. which is the number of all prime divisors of the number m (multiple divisors zl(z {~(Yz nAi+ are counted according to their multiplicity).. ill such a case X which is decomposed into the direct sum of two sub. is an addi- tive arithmetic function. PWN. When p .: Memoire sur les espaces Further examples are addition of sets up to transla. V. The addi- preserves convexity and reduces to addition of support tion theorem (which was formulated as a problem in functions (cf. where Hi (1959).J.: 'An addition theorem for weights of sets lying in bicompacta'. Fedotov linear space by the rule AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03EXX.. Fund Math. The function Q(m). Princeton Univ. while for C 2 -smooth [I)) was established in [3] for 'T=~o and in [4] in com- strictly-convex Ai eRn..I. Kubilyus References [I] ROCKAFELLER. which is where Y z is the translate of Y for which Yz n z = {z } the number of different prime divisors of the number (see [1 D· m. n as well. 94-101. The sum of Ai along Y is defined as Examples. able as a sum of sets with a countable base'. then the weight of X does not exceed 'T. 14 (1964). f(mn)= f(m)+ f(n) is satisfied for relatively non- The sum along a subspace is defined in a vector space prime integers m. and when p = ..: General topology. When p = 1. J.00 it gives their intersection.: Minkowskische Summen und Integrale. Paris. W. 43 Firey p-sums are defined in the class of convex bodies (1956). ditive Mengenfunktionale. Weight of a topological space.: Fundamentals of general topology: problems and exercises. In the space Rn. f(mn) = f(m) +f(n). AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54A25 The projection of a p-sum onto a subspace is the p-sum of the projections. Reidel. the p-sum of An additive arithmetic function is said to be strongly ellipsoids is an ellipsoid (see [2)). Isoperimetrische Ungleichungen. S = ~AiAi = U {~AiXi}' x.V. dra is a polyhedron. Yu.. a number-theoretic function. additive if f(pa)= f(P) for all prime numbers p and all The Blaschke sum is defined for convex bodies positive integers a. integration of a continual family of [3) SMIRNOV.J. Mat. A. VP. 387-393 (in Russian). it is characterized by the addi.. when p = -1 it is called the metic function of one argument that satisfies the fol- inverse sum (see [1]).. polar bodies and takes the polar of the result (see [2]). 1929. P.: 'Blaschke sums of convex bodies and mixed other (associative and commutative) operations on sets bodies'. in Proc. are the support functions of the summands. W. pp. Convex sets. Nederl.If a Hausdorff the vector sum is called also the Minkowski sum.. the support func. addition of closed sets (along with closure of the Amsterdam. Ai' The most important case is when the Ai are convex [4) DINGHAS..M. A. Math. For these four values. 52A20 where the Ai are real numbers (see [1)). A. tion. R. result. 1977 (translated from the Polish). The vector sum (with coefficients Ai) is defined in a 1961.P.. and when p = +2. the p-sum of polyhe. and URYSOHN.An arith- with the vector sum. Ai eRn containing zero. 1967. ADDITION THEOREM for weights . Convexity Copenhagen. 2 tion of the p-sum is defined as C'L. A. For convex Ai. An arithmetic function is also called 1970.: 'Some applications of means of convex bodies'. 1965. metric space of). For p. 53-60. no. 1. f(pa)=af(p)· spaces Y and Z.S. Cf. [4) ARKliANGEL'sKIi. Wetensch.: 'On metrizability of bicompacta. 239-241 (in Russian). n hull of the summands. Akad. Support function). Editorial comments. It is defined by said to be completely additive if the condition the addition of the area functions [3].Vector addition and certain [3) FIREY. the function w(m). and addition in commutative semi-groups (see [4]). P.

7. and DELEANU. 396-413. Editorial comments. +Y I . Kernel of a morphism [4] LINNIK. Terekhin gique'. 16. u: Coim(u)~Im(u) such that the morppism u splits as References the composition [A1] HARDY. [A 1].V. Z) ~ HOIIlq(X. in a category) and a cokernel exist for any morphism. I. the (1966).£ in which for integer different from zero and n is a sufficiently large any two objects X and Y an Abelian group structure is number. J.The problem of [A1] ROYDEN.: 'An asymptotic formula in the theory of numbers'. 1968. Exam- ples of non-Abelian additive categories are the category ADDITIVE FUNCTION. finitely-additive function (on of topological modules over a given topological ring sets. Yk. all elements of the given ring with respect to the addi- m<n tionoperation in the ring. 1. [3] HooLY. = n. Ivanova plicity.(m +a). counted according to multi. a measure (sic) is a countably-additive measure. finite. ::J r n = {O} with respect to the morphisms which are group for any finite number of pairwise-disjoint sets homomorphisms preserving the filtration. Particular cases of the additive divisor object of a category) as well as the product X X Y of problem (k l =k2 =2. cf. (F(X). T. Sums of the form (1) express that the composition of morphisms the number of solutions of the equations HOIIlq(X. V. H. . . Y)~HoIllQ:.: 'On the representations of a number as the sum objects X and Y in (. tion).: 'Completion abelienne'. and WRIGHT. Editorial comments. a is a fixed AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 16AXX. . . Tohoku Math. 17-40. London Math.The group formed by ~ Tk.: 'Sur quelques points d'algebrique homolo- A. to be pre-Abelian if a kernel (cf.M. 1968.: An introduction to the theory of numbers. Math. Sect. tively. It is isomorphic to their product the dispersion method of Yu.(mfrk. 18816. possibly.£1 is said to be additive if. XX Y. an integer mink factors.202-208.H. Linnik [4]. Then a non-negative function p. (2) is a bilinear mapping.] m~n (1) ADDITIVE GROUP of a ring . E. . Macmillan.(n -m). London Math.A real-valued function JL defined on with respect to the morphisms which are continuous a system of sets E and such that linear mappings. London Math. for any [2] EsTERMAN. the mapping of two products'. .) (*) groups r with a filtration r = r0 ::J r I::J . J. Countably-additive set func- [1] BUCUR. on domains) .£~(. L. in [1] .[3].£ into numbers'. y). (3) 7 (1957). .r(X. an additive category (. Suppose that E is a a-algebra on a [3] GRUSON. 123- F: HOIIl(. YI . Bull. kl =2 and k2 =3) are considered any two objects X and Y. 119-121. 13AXX 37 .E.. A. The additive divisor problem with kl =2 In an additive category the direct sum XEB Y of any and an arbitrary positive integer k2 was solved using two objects exists. An additive category is said Proc. Math.£. (mfrk. F(Y) is a homomor. o. A. . 18E05 Usually. Soc.A. Yk. Proc. Xk. Another necessary condition is xI . YU. finding asymptotic values for sums of the form: AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 28A 10 ~ Tk. in E. (taking. Soc. Amer. and also the category of Abelian I-'< U E. Sci.V. B.: Introduction to the theory of categories and functors. References [1] INGHAM. Soc. The function T2(m)=T(m) is also then there exists a unique morphism denoted by d(m) or ao(m). m. ADDITIVE GROUP ADDITIVE CATEGORY .A category (. Wiley. = a.: Real analysis. such divisors of the number m. . The additive group of a ring where Tk(m) is the number of different factorizations of is always Abelian.: The dispersion method in binary additive prob· lems. phism of Abelian groups. Soc.L.: 'Some asymptotic formulae in the theory of A functor F: (. References ADDITIVE DmSOR PROBLEM . AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 10JXX An Abelian category is additive by definition. Null respectively. A. countably- additive) measure if it satisfies (*) for an arbitrary (respec- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 18A05. .P. . Countably-additive set functions are an important kind References of additive functions (cf. [2] GROTHENDIECK. Y)XHoIIlq(Y. 9 (1957). C. (2) 90 set X. (2) 31 (1930). (1) 2 (1927). The dual category to an additive category is also an additive category. X ~ Coim(u) ~ Im(u) ~ Y.£ includes a null object (zero object. countable) number of disjoint sets E. Xk. 1963 (translated from the Russian). Dogac I hev val ue + 00) on E is an additive (finitely-additive. 1979. G. . . {E I.) = ~I-'<E. Here kl and k2 are integers ~2.En} of E whose union also belongs to E.M. . . Clarendon Press. Z) X I . Bredikhin If for a morphism u: X ~ Y in an additive category there exists an image Im(u) and a co-image Coim(u).£I from an additive category (. In particular 'T2(m)=T(m) is the number of defined on the set of morphisms HOIllQ:(X. cf. (3) that (.

: Information theory and reliable communication.no(A». It was found that.. tem and control theory and stochastic analysis. the notion of a are solved by means of generating functions. V. t) dt+ dw. Riemann partitioning (or decomposition) of integers into sum. he investigated the problem of partition- ij=. where t is in the given interval.e. nine cubes. 38 . Goldbach problem). In this case the The first systematic results in this field were obtained signal ij at the output of the channel can be represented in 1748 by L. and also with the algebraic and played by purely arithmetic estimates of trigonometric geometric analogues of such problems concerning alge. the term In Vinogradov's method trigonometric sums additive noise is used for describing the following way noise j. assign the signals at the input and the output of the channel to given sequences Ai = {ad (where ai. YE CfII =!lJI (!lJI and CfII are the problems form a part of various branches of number spaces of the values of the signals at the input and out.. theory . method was introduced by Euler and forms the basis of tion ij(t) =. i.(t). The general situation of a sto. etc.The branch of number theory. Waring problem). so that in particular. i=J "=0 McGraw-Hill.An interference added to the prime number and two squares (cf. obtained by the analytic methods of the theory considered are partition problems of large integers. J are Wiener noise processes. Euler. ) the power series W) is independent of ." and a random variable study the partition of integers into positive summands.. called additive noise.. dy= h(x. t) dt+ dv. with additive noise.}. Problems in additive number theory are channel.(z) = Lr(n)z". in several problems of additive ADDITIVE NUMBER THEORY . algebraic and probabilistic number put of the channel. and the ones usually sions. sums by Vinogradov's method. enters a stochastic differential equation or observation equa- tion: dx= f(x. q(Y. and by the law of the braic number fields and sets of lattice points. Editorial comments.aj<oo is called a Gaussian channel..lo'X) ]. These distribution of prime numbers in arithmetic progres- problems are said to be additive. t) dw is referred to as having multiplica.L. t) dt + g(x. respectively) depending only on the theory. A. and also by methods based on probabilistic transition function Q(y..analytic. respectively.(t). located in intervals distributed over neighbourhoods of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 94AXX rational points. A main part of r (n ). y).. the number n in the form P. who employed power series to as the sum of the input signal . i. moreover. 2. As a first step. If one considers channels with discrete or continuous Many classical problems in additive number theory time over finite or infinite intervals. F(z) = IIf.. More precisely.. Depending on the method selected. Prelov n = aJ + .. GALLAGER. the valid for almost all values of n. and consider the corresponding generating function References k 00 [I] R. (cf. is extracted.. elementary and mixed ication channel is a channel with additive noise if the methods... where wand v f F(a)e27Tiaai da. if is a nt) j. representation of a given number as a sum of not more than three prime numbers (cf. r independent of it.. algebraic. especially in sys. necessitate the use of hypotheses number theory dealing with problems involving the related to the Riemann hypothesis (cf.E... More generally.) of the channel is given by a concepts. . hypotheses). the process and i = I. Here r (n) can be calculated using the Cauchy integral. 1%5 (in where r(n)=rk. either r(n)i=O for all n. . Instead of the analytic pro- perties of F(z) which. A = {AIoA2'" .H.. additive density q(y. 1968..: Channels with noise.e.. tive noise. then the considered channel O=S.. difference y-y.'O is an integer...A(n) is the number of representations of Russian). Hardy. ~nlJO X = 1. Dobrushin v. solved by analytic. r(n) = chastic differential equation of the form o dx = f(x. [2] KHARKEVICH.. and L 1) n~x the representation of a given number as a sum of one lim X--.ADDITIVE NOISE ADDITIVE NOISE . Vinogradov. one says that a given commun. Moscow. . depending Classical problems in additive number theory on k.. This channel with additive noise is introduced by the rela. are used instead of power series.(a) = L i7Tiaai.. of Dirichlet L-functions.l or r(n)i=O for suffi- include: the representation of a number as a sum of ciently large n (n. +ako ai E Ai.A.(t) +W).Littlewood signal during its transmission over a communication problem). y E !lJI. the analytic methods developed by G. J.Y)=q(j-y).(z) = L zai Gaussian random process. ij(t) and W) are random processes representing Littlewood and LM. ing a given number into a given number of summands.+r. In particular. a crucial role in the calculation of r(n) is mands of a given type. or the relation r(n)i=O is four squares. Hardy .

(5) CHUDAKOV. 1959. The elementary sieve methods of Y.. algebraic number fields. by which it can be proved Additive number theory includes problems whose that d(A. which may be treated in the solution of Waring's problem. Springer. while Yu. if applied to tive number theory are now being intensively a number of problems in additive number theory. Nauk 4 (1938). H.: Sieve methods. Springer.: Multiplicative number theory.M.Littlewood equation. I. no.L. 1980. Springer. of the large sieve. method yielded solutions of several so-called binary The standard reference on the early historical aspects is. Math. The dispersion method was also Certain problems in additive number theory are employed in the study of the general solved by studying the structure of the sets obtained by Hardy. then the posi.M. developed in 1941 by Linnik. addition of sequences A.. and methods of additive number theory to arbitrary However. Brun (cf. where {P} is the given binary equation to a large number of auxiliary sequence of prime numbers.E. while the other (7) DAVENPORT. Sieve method). has at most k2 prime factors. 1979. yield developed. with a positive density. Teil 1. Surveys 20.: 'Abschlitzungen von Exponentialsummen und ihre well. sieving of Anwendung in der Zahlentheorie'. Go(A). Linnik found an elementary Diophantine equations. ADDITIVE NUMBER THEORY or.(n) 'in the mean'. r(n) can be expressed by an asymptotic for.. = {a. the principle of sieving the prime numbers from the Russian).H.} = {P}. Elementary formulas for the number developed by him. This is done. Russian Math. sieve is a consequence of the laws of distribution of from the given sequence. 01 < 1 and O2 < 1 are suitably chosen positive constants) (4) OSTMANN. and k = 3. 39 . in Enzyklopaedie der the prime numbers . In sieve [1) VINOGRADOV.} given only in terms of The range of application of the dispersion method their densities d(A.: The dispersion method in binary additive prob· lems. References bining analytic and elementary methods. The dispersion (cf. then Q(n)= ~S. Helft 13. use of elementary concepts of probability theory.: Selected works. a simultaneous. 1985 (translated methods. H.m} yields a solu.(n) (within two prime numbers. If {a.. The tivity of d(A. tion of the so-called Goldbach . G. out of the sequences {m} and {2n . Selberg sieve).) is positive. one obtains Chudakov's theorem: tion of the dispersion that Q.: Additive Zahlentheorie. lems in additive number theory are obtained by com.H. 89-130) numbers one of which has at most k I.: An introduction to the in arithmetic progressions. Bredikhin Hardy. which mula.V.M. 1963 (translated from the Russian).)=infnA.Littlewood problem by the dispersion method Editorial comments. where intersects with the range of application of the method A. systematic study belongs to other branches of number Shnirel'man in this way that positive integers can be theory: the problem of representing integers by qua- represented as a sum of a bounded number of prime dratic or higher-degree expressions. XIX. If it is shown by a computa- numbers. an acceptable error).(n) and the true numbers of solutions Q.(n)=~1 ~ai~n 1. The application method makes it possible to sieve out sequences with of this result to problems in additive number theory in the aid of prime numbers. tosthenes. B. suitab~ accurate. viz. if k=2. It was shown by L. H. were also employed by P. problems.. by sieve weakly-dependent random variables. Actually.(n) of the odd integer can be represented as a sum of three prime equations are connected. how to find the number Q(n) of solutions of course. respectively (where Mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluss ihrer Anwen· dungen. with an increasing number which sequences of density zero are added. Generating function) can be used.Euler quasi-problem on (6) BREDIKHIN.: Uspekhi Mat. (8) HALBERSTAM. Linnik in 1959 successfully solved the B. where 0: and /3 run through References given sequences which are sufficiently well distributed [A1] HARDy.(n) does not differ much Almost all even integers can be represented as a sum of from S.: 'The dispersion method and definite binary additive problems'.. Chapt. Vol. Acad. of the equation a+/3=n.) implies that g(A)<oo.G. YU. There is a trend to transfer the problems results which are as yet unobtainable by analytic tools. the method of the large by constructing a new sequence. (Uspekhi Mat. It consists of reducing the ko(A). N. Era. then one equations for which the expected number of solutions obtains Vinogradov's theorem: Every sufficiently large S. Amer. and RICHERT. E. 2 (1965). He showed [2] that any sufficiently of partitions of an integer can be found in [A1]. The smallest number k satisfying one of the pro. G(A). and WRIGHT. [A2].. 1974. Brun In modern number theory various branches of addi- sieve) and of A.. H.G. finally. 1956. If Al = . Linnik's method involves the theory of numbers..V. (2) LINNIK. framework of general additive number theory. Thus. methods (cf. Nauk 20. sieve of) is extended to other sequences as (3) HUA. Clarendon Press. Press. the most advanced solutions of certain prob. L. 2 (1965). or the law of large numbers. Selberg (cf. Chebyshev in his proof of perties above is denoted by g(A). 14-33. no. respectively. is realized of discarded residues. =Ak=A.-K.n 8\ and ".n 2. the representation of an even integer as a sum of two 85-125. out of the sequence of positive integers (cf. mainly. 1. Soc. large integer can be represented as the sum of a prime To derive such formulas the method of generating functions number and two squares of integers.(n) / n. and the study of summands.M.

larger than 2. but for which the moreover. while y belongs to a multiplication is associative (wherever defined) and. An additive relation can thus be regarded also integers as the sum of a bounded number of prime as a (not necessary single-valued) mapping r: A ~B or. The classical sian). lems for sufficiently large n is the general analytic method of Hardy . Bredikhin posed in 1742. L. Espe. Teil I. Linnik. method of trigonometric sums (cf. Sieve method). bounded number of prime factors. reprint. Con- by quadratic forms in three and four variables. connecting homomorphisms for exact sequences of with a and {3 subject to the same conditions as those complexes. it is a) Ternary additive problems of the type possible to define their product. of the module B and a homomorphism {3: S~B / L are Additive problems may be solved by analytic. and versely. the additive relations form a category with corresponding relevant trigonometric sums behave involution r~r -] . twenties). c) EA EB C such that there exists an dense sequences of integers which are well distributed element bEB for which (a.A sub module r of the Other additive problems are. The above considerations are valid not only stated in a). ficiently large numbers as sums of two numbers with a Ind r = Ker r -I .M. Chel.ADDITIVE NUMBER THEORY [A2] DICKSON. I. Soc. L. YU. a quotient module B / L similar problems. First posed in 1770.Goldbach problem on the Anwendung in der Zahlentheorie'. Additive problems of the type 6) above are also binary. more exactly. [4] HUA. ADDITIVE RELATION . Math.: History of the theory of numbers. 2) The Waring problem on representing any positive AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 10JXX integer as a sum of s=s(k) non-negative k-th powers. for example: direct sum A EB B of two modules A and B over some 3) The problem on the representation of posItIve ring R. but also in any other A universal tool for solving ternary additive prob. elementary and mixed methods (cf. and the Euler .e. theory of numbers. due to AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 10JXX Yu. B. where k~2 is given. alge. Vol. The solution [1] VINOGRADOV. These problems were first dungen. i. theory concerning the decomposition (or partition) of References integers into summands of a given kind. This in arithmetic progressions. the large sieve and by the dispersion method. if a sub module S CA. sequence which may be thin. which is the n=a+{3+y.-K. A large number of additive problems H two additive relations r:A~B and s:B~C are belong to one of the following two classes: given. Defr = {aEA: 3bEB (a. as the sum of a prime quotient module B /Ind(r) where number and two squares (posed in the nineteen.Littlewood . D. in the category of modules. b)Er. [2] LINNIK.: The dispersion method in binary additive prob- additive problems include: lems. Additive r : A ~B such that rO = {3.Littlewood problem on representing homomorphism rO of the submodule Def r into the any integer. 1) The Goldbach problem on representing an odd [3] LINNIK. Binary additive problems usually cannot be solved by Ann 148 (1962). 1963. it consists 6) Problems concerning the representation of integers of all pairs (b. 1971. as in the case of other binary relations.. Springer. larger than 1. Heft 13. Math. A. Here. a 4) The Hardy .V. and are solved by different variants of the elementary sieve method (cf. r -\ : B ~A is the relation inverse to r. [2] PuPPE. C)ES. They are studied by special arithmetic- ADDITIVE PROBLEMS . Mikhalev such methods.Problems in number geometric methods of the theory of quadratic forms. a)EBEBA such that (a. I. YU. numbers (the weak Goldbach problem). larger than 5.: 'Korrespondenzen in Abelschen Kategorien'. in Enzyklopaedie der representation of an even integer. properly. O)Er}. then.1-30. cially powerful results are obtained by the method of sea. as the sum of three prime 1968 (translated from the Russian). b)Er}.E. V. then there also exists a unique additive relation braic. Springer.: 'Abschatzungen von Exponentialsummen und ihre numbers. 5) Problems concerning the representation of all suf- Ker r = {a EA: (a. given. b)Er and (b.: Ergodic properties of algebraic fields. where a and {3 belong to sufficiently set of all pairs (a.M. Additive relations are used in natural definitions of b) Binary additive problems of the type n = a +{3. integer.V. sr: A ~C. 1963 (translated from the Russian).: The method of trigonometric sums in the of classicru additive problems resulted in the develop. Interscience. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 18810 40 . 1-3. 1954 (translated from the Rus- ment of new methods in number theory. 1959.: Homology.V. as a 'many-valued' homomorphism. S.Vinogradov: the References [1] MAC LANE. Amer. Abelian category. number theory). as the Mathematischen Wissenschaften mit Einschluss ihrer Anwen- sum of two prime numbers. Vinogradov method).

n. tertiarity is the (primary. It was subsequently shown intersection of a finite number of ideals of special type that. i.: 'On the axiomatic addi- existence theorem: If the ring R is commutative. [4]. Tertiary ideal).. then m =n and pr(Ai)=pr(Bi) for associated to M...: 'On primal ideals'.).: 'Axiomatic primary and tertiary decomposition with radical P.i ". mary decompositions for submodules N of modules Mover The uniqueness theorem holds for such representations: a Noetherian ring R. which of course tative rings (the classical additive theory of ideals) has means that n. stating The additive theory of ideals of Noetherian commu. E. 1011-1040. L. ideal Q of R is said to be primary if for any two ideals [5) MURATA. 105 (1962). but the Chapt. nBm (2) where each Ass(M / OJ) consists of a single prime ideal P" is a second primarily-reduced representation of the (By definition Ass(M) for a module M..: 'Idealtheorie in Ringen ohne Endli- chkeitsbedingung'. 1-6.. Such representations are called a primary decomposition. (1) [lO) Itogi Nauk.The uniform structure of its additive 41 . R.: 'Idealtheorie in Ringbereichen'.A.A. 3. Akad. I (1967). mentioned existence theorem is no longer valid. within certain natural limitations. Math. the condition J. Yu. Andrunakievich of the other ones.M. uniqueness and intersection theorems still hold. ADDITIVE UNIFORM STRUCTURE ADDITIVE THEORY OF IDEALS . such that none of the ideals Ai contains the intersection V. Let R be a [I) NOETHER. and such that the primary radicals Editorial comments. Nauk SSSR Ser. A and B of R. 14-25 (in for any ideal A =l=R there exists a representation of A as Russian). USSR· Izv. module. Math. Issl. 1963. some integer k. are all different.l. Gauthier-Villars. If A is an ideal of R. some 'uniqueness' theorem must hold. there exists a representation.M... [8) GoYAN. no.) bered.e. This ideal N is known as the pri. AB CQ. [A1) BOURBAKI.M. 5 (1967). 4. Ann. I.A branch of existence theorem. 1975. Hermann. 83 Noetherian ring. Noether [I] and W. K. then [2) KRULL.J7'=' OJ' C OJ holds for no i E I and that the found numerous applications in various branches of Ass(M / OJ)=P. (AJ 10. There is also a corresponding uniqueness theorem. O. A ¢Q ~ B cpr(Q) [6) ANDRUNAKIEVICH. Its principal task is to represent any zation has in fact been found [4]. Springer. Trans. N. [6]. A primary representation is also pr(Ai) are pairwise different. Proc. Math. tertiary. (Izv. All special features of the additive theory of ideals References are clearly manifested in the case of rings. then tive theory of Riley ideals'. ideals: The intersection of two primary ideals having Mat. 2) the representations chosen ideals developed further within the framework of lattice must be unique apart from certain limitations or.. repeated attempts have been made to find a generalization of classical ADDITIVE UNIFORM STRUCfURE of a topological primarity to the non-commutative case such that the skew-field K . Inst. of systems with fractions and of multiplicative other words. is the collection of all prime ideals P for l. [8]. provided the ideals Bi are suitably renum. The systems [4].. 91- 115. some During the nineteen-sixties the additive theory of 'existence' theorem holds. etc. and RYABUKHIN. This is AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 13CXX why. 1. l. 1 (1950). no. ever since the nineteen-thirties. in other words. mathematics. that there is a reduced decomposition. and SAMUEL.: Commutative algebra. Math.24-66. Soc. I. A mer.A. Ann.: Algebre noetherienne noncommu· tative. Poiytechn. This theorem is used to prove an theory'. in theory. Geom. References If the ring R is non-commutative. primal. W. too. 2. An [4) LESIEUR. 1961.: 'Additive ideal theory in multiplicative systems'. and is known as ter- ideal of a ring (or of another algebraic system) as the tiarity (cf. were introduced in the nineteen-twenties and the normal divisors of a group and submodules of a nineteen-thirties by E. More generally one has pri- known as non-contractible or primarily reduced [1]. [5]. Algebra Topol. and CROISOT. Krull [2]... and RYABUKHIN. the above. an associative ring with the max· (1921).. uniserial. Math.. 729-744. 31 (1967). imum condition for ideals. [7]. 133-180. 1965 (1967). The type of only 'good' generalization of the concept of primarity the representation is so chosen that: I) for any ideal [6]. A mer. P. the set of prime ideals ideal A of the ring R. YU. V. Mat.. which there exists an xEM such that p={rER: rx=O}. 101 (1929). the intersection of a finite number of primary ideals Ai: [9) FUCHS. n . 1057-1090) the same primary radical P is itself a primary ideal [7) RILEY. Such a generali- modern algebra.: Aigebre commutative. there exists a largest ideal N of R for which N k CA for [3) ZARISKl.: 'The addi- is satisfied. remains valid. This is a representation If (I) holds and A = B. no. Osaka City Univ. this stimulated the development of fundamental principles of the additive theory of ideals the additive theory of ideals for· non-associative rings. The intersection theorem is valid for primary tive theory of ideals in systems with residuals'. Soc. mary radical of A (in R) and is denoted by pr(A). 2 (1959). 177-201. L.

called the subgroup of princi- of the uniform structures of its factors R. k) is the formed by the sets V of all pairs (x. [7]. and an analogue of the reduc- The adele group of an algebraic group G is denoted by tion theory was developed [6].the volume of GA / Gk .: Ade/es and algebraiC groups.ADDITIVE UNIFORM STRUCTURE group. [2]. GA is a locally compact group. If 00 is the set of all Archimedean valuations constituted by all coverings by (open) spheres of a given fixed radius. the Haar measure is finite if and only if the group G AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 00A05. is compact. v. 1964. Vol. Math. A base is pal adeles.. with the construction of fundamental be defined as follows. where V by C.R.) strength of these results [5] that the decomposition VE V m of the group Gk • with distinguished invariant open sub. uniform topology. Tamagawa [1]. a base of the addi. then GA is 1966. For instance. A covering of a topological skew-field K is uni. The number T( G) . of k. and Ov is the ring of integer elements in kv. problem as to whether the number of such double AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54E15.: Uniform spaces. A base of neighbourhoods for the uniform struc. it was also proved that the number of Valuation) of k. Go. algebraic group is finite. coverings by intervals of given fixed length. Cf. then GA has a natural ring structure. GkxGA(oo) of the adele group GA is finite and equal to References the number of ideal classes of k. to meet certain needs of class field Vy = {x +y: x E V}. Ov) for zero. y) such that general linear group over k. For various arithmetical GA' Since all groups Gk. Chevalley (in the nineteen-thirties) for algebraic is an arbitrary neighbourhood of zero and number fields. function field. theory. over an algebraic number field has finite volume in the tuent parts. In particular.: 'AdeJes'. It was generalized twenty years later to alge- tive uniform structure of the real line is formed by all braic groups by M.. CA = U CkXjCA(ao) j=1 groups Go. Another problem that has been solved are the cir- additivity of volume means that the volume of a whole cumstances under which the quotient space GA / Gk object is equal to the sum of the volumes of its consti. for any division of the object into parts. X IIc 0. i. 42 ..(cO. are locally compact and since applications of adele groups see [4]. The uniform structure of the group Rn .e. 9. is the multiplicative group k' of the field k. A uniform structure is also called a is known as the subgroup of integer adeles. and is 1961. called the idele group of k (the idele group is the group ture of the commuta!ive topological group of K is of units in the adele ring Ak)' 3) If Gk = GL(n. References Examples. If k is a over a global field k. pp. and the volume of GA / Gk in set function. Since GA is locally compact. where V is an arbitrary neighbourhood of ments g=(gv)E IIVE vGv for which gv EGL(n. in AlgebraiC groups and discontinuous called the adele ring of k. 12JXX classes for an arbitrary algebraic group is finite is con- nected with the reduction theory for subgroups of prin- ADDITIVITY . Press. is the product a discrete subgroup in GA . Additive function. Tamagawa number). A. field k. See also Uniform space. veniently reformulated in terms of adele groups. It was shown on the IIck. Math. Kneser and T. The value of a magnitude domains for the quotient space GA / Gk .An element of the adele group. V. then GA consists of the ele- x . 00A25 has no rational k-characters (cf. If Gk =k'. Fedorchuk A(ao) VEOO VEOO Editorial comments. Pure Math. T. Symp. almost all valuations v. l. Princeton Univ.y E V. such a measure always exists. V is the set of valuations (cf. Amer. The real They noted that the principal results on the arithmetic line is the completion of the field of rational numbers of quadratic forms over number fields can be con- with respect to its additive uniform structure.e. [2AJ TAMAGAWA. The naturally arising [A1] ISBELL. Soc.. Proc. Here Gk is a linear algebraic group. Character of a group). Soc. which is The image of the diagonal imbedding of Gk in GA is known as its additive uniform structure. of the important arithmetical invariant of the algebraic group restricted topological direct product G (cf. defined is valid for an arbitrary algebraic group G. i. 1) If Gk is the additive group k + of the [I] WElL. then C = IIc k. It has been corresponding to a whole object is equal to the sum of shown [5] that GA / Gk is compact if and only if the the values of the magnitudes corresponding to its parts group G is k-anisotropic (cf. 2) If Gk subgroups. Countably-additive Haar measure. kv is the completion of k with respect double classes of this kind for the adele group of the to v E V. it is denoted by A k . 113-121. Anisotropic group).is an ADELE .The property of magnitudes that can cipal adeles. Amer. form for the additive uniform structure if a covering of The concept of an adele group was first introduced the type {Vy:yEK} refining it can be found. A base for a uniform structure is also then the number of different double cosets of the type called a uniformity.

Pure Math. 5-30. then its energy groups and number theory'. 20GXX.ICH. l. Amer. in Algebraic groups and discontinUOWi subgroups. Proc. Trudy Mat. 1967. cal variables p. no. if [6] HARDER. (Itogi Nauk. To prove parameters.) Thus. Press.: Basic number theory. 1966.: 'Algebraic groups'.i x 2 ) / 2 varies proportion'ally to the frequency.. suf- theory. . ravors /l such that either p'.: 'Minkowskische Reduktionstheorie tiber Funktionenkorpern'.W. L. but ADIABATIC FLOW . it is v.e. other generaliza- Gy with respect to the Oy.: Mechanics. q. no. (non-autonomous system). the system (*) describes an ordinary har- number fields'. and LIFSHITZ. For each VEl completely integrable and its motion would be quasi- let Gy be a locally compact group and Oy on open compact subgroup. Acad. I = wx 2 +-. with canoni- References [l] LANDAU. In this example. Publ. then the sum of the system' may be rendered more precise in two ways: a) kinetic energy and the enthalpy for any liquid element the Hamiltonian H is an explicit function of the time t is constant. a precise general formulation The adiabatic invariant is usually defined as a quantita. Algebra Topol. A. ADIABATIC INVARIANT [2B] KNESER. Inst. q' vary slowly. [3] CASSELS. the usual procedure is to construct another magni- invariant . In the publications by many mathematicians and experts in celestial mechanics on G = II GvC Oy) . The topology on G is defined by tak- ing as a basis at the identity the open subgroups II IUy these publications seems to indicate that certain magni- YE tudes are in certain cases in fact adiabatic invariants.. Vol. If the flow of take place over a very large but finite period of time a compressed liquid is adiabatic and continuous. V. ':i. and FROm. the adiabatic invariant is [4] PLATONOV.): Algebraic number where ( is a small parameter and (. the term 'adiabatic invariant' is not YE used at all. but the derivative dH / dt is small. J.P. IHES. G. of which is difficult [I]. the Hamiltonian system under consideration would be Editorial comments. The restricted (topological) direct product of the periodic (in this case simply periodic). 5 v 2 (1975). E. for systems of the type just described in fact belong to tem which remains practically unchanged during an the field of asymptotic methods of perturbation theory adiabatic (i.) Such approximate invariance may liquid and the bodies which surround it. 33-54.. (1973). then (temporal adiabatic invariants) or over the entire infinite the entropy of a liquid element is constant.undergo significant changes. 16 (1963). ficiently smooth function.. in this case. Hamiltonian systems which are close to being com- YEI consists (as a set) of all (Xy)EII IGy such that Xy in Oy for pletely integrable. Math. Math. (*) Math. is a subsystem of a large system with 1960 (translated from the Russian). dI(t) / dt can be a magnitude of the same order as the 22E55 derivatives of the other parameters of the system. or else their AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 76N10 variation does not materially affect the subsystem. additional assumptions. This makes G a locally compact 'Approximate invariance' of an adiabatic invariant topological group. 132 (v 2 + .D.). while dJ (t) / dt has a lower order of magnitude 43 . Geom 11 (1973).: 'Strong approximation'. = v.P.1 (0) remains small. 7 (1969).S. 9. 1974. If the t-axis (stationary or permanent adiabatic invariants [I D.e.A flow for which there is no the variations of the adiabatic invariant are not cum- heat exchange between the individual parts of the mulative with time. A P 17 k'~ variables p. very slow in comparison to the time scale (if the problem is posed in a more general manner. monic oscillator with frequency (. even though the information presented in all but finitely many v. for the tude J(t) such that the values of l(t) oscillate around simplest system J (t). 4. Soviet Math. pp. Platonov assumed that if the parameters did not change at all. Let I be an index set. A.unlike the adiabatic 1 (t). 187-198. motion is steady. Thus. above denoted by tions are also known. q'. the variation of the parameters of the system is slow in [7] PLATONOV. Pergamon. 162-168 (in Russian). Soc. Symp. V. which is itself autonomous and is .463-482. A.: 'The arithmetic theory of linear algebraic comparison to the oscillation period. b) the system under consideration. Steklov. (EDS. l(t) means that for all t under consideration the differ- ence I (t) .: 'Some finiteness properties of adele groups over If (")=const.-W2(ft)X.M. i. ~ .)(s) is a positive. p' .A term of physical origin adiabatic invariant can be affirmed only under various whose meaning in mathematics is not unambiguous. Temporal adiabatic invariants tive characteristic of the motion of a Hamiltonian sys.P. M. q. Invent. In view of the above restrictions. if the characteristics of the field of The notion of 'slow variation of the parameters of the the flow are independent of time. (The change may last for as long as the the temporal asymptotic invariance of some magnitude values of these parameters . (The derivative AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 12A85. with Uy an open neighbourhood of Gy for all V and Uy= Oy for all but finitely many v. W 5-37) [5] BoREL. a typical of the motion in the system) change of its few rigorous results can also be obtained [4]). as well as in most other cases. [8] WElL. Springer. the existence of an ADIABATIC INVARIANT .

Sommerfeld. A. Then there exists a k such that.See l-adic cohomology. the topology is separ- adiabatic invariant.ADIABATIC INVARIANT than the derivatives of the other parameters of the sys. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 70HXX.: Zh.Linear connections r AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14F30 and r such that for the corre_sponding operators of Amc NUMBER.Rees lemma: Let A be a commuta- magnetic field strength does not significantly vary tive Noetherian ring. and SAMUEL. but this lemma shows that the ~-adic topology of F is induced concept does not play a significant part in quantum by the ~-adic topology of E. 2. quantum numbers. this is a proof that I is a temporal to nn. in the role in the quantum theory of Bohr . topology).-Khim. - AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 12BXX where X. zero consists of the powers ~n of some two-sided ideal tem. which quantizable magnitudes must be adiabatic invari. Y)+B(X. 81 CXX VI. Thus. following equality is valid: tudes retain their values (e. no. A-module of finite type. Russian Math. Y). It is therefore possible to speak of adia. The topological interpretation of the Artin . One also says that 44 .. . T. p. The argument s =f. . 1963. for any n ~O.. n n. and let F be a submodule of It should also be noted that. 6 (1963).t) direct differentiation yields closure of any set F CA in the ~-adic topology is equal dJ (t) / dt = O(~). no.?f References [1] MANDEL'SHTAM. and that Krull's theorem holds: The ~-adic topology of [2] ARNoL'n. It follows that the com- mechanics and is not ordinarily used in that science. Nauk 18. Favorskir Addison-Wesley. a symmetric bilinear form). science. The separable com- batic invariants is open to doubt in case a) above if H A pletion A of the ring A in an ~-adic topology is iso- depends on t in some general manner (in particular. Japan Acad. in ~-adic topology M becomes a topological A-module. 366-382'D V A 1975. 413-419. Yand Z are arbitrary vector fields. the (1963).A linear topology of a ring A in quadratic form (i. Here. 13JXX Amc COHOMOLOGY. Commutative algebra. the topology in A is ¥f-adic.?eal of finite type. covariant differentiation v and v there holds ZB(X. 7 (1961). that the completion E <. except mncmkE nF) = mk+nE nF.: Commutative algebra. where H is adic topology defined by its maximal ideal (an m-adic the magnetic field strength and v ~ is the velocity com. Adiabatic invariants i. T. .I. ponent of the particle lying in a plane perpendicular to A fundamental tool in the study of adic topologies of the vector H.e. \lzY)+2w(Z)B(X. ADJOINT CONNECTIONS . O. if ~ is an advances in quantum mechanics. Proc. adiabatic invariants played an important hoods of zero is given by the submodules ~n M. no. III'. 6 I + ~ contains no zero divisors. nosov [2] BOURBAKI. let E be an along the Larmor radius. Flat module).: 'Small denominators and problems of stability a Noetherian ring is separable if and only if the set of motion in classical and celestial mechanics'. The topology is then said to be ~-adic. B(·. Fiz. a similar manner: its fundamental system of neighbour- Historically. 91-191. Survrys 18. [4] KASUGA. no. 1972 (translated from the French). Russk.91-192) topology is separable if ~ is contained in the (Jacob- [3] NORTHROP. Inter. for processes which bring about a degenerate state of the system). ET AL.. 1. the problem of permanent adiabatic invari. during an adiabatic E. The ~-adic topology of an A-module M is defined in ants is connected with small denominators [2]. and which the fundamental system of neighbourhoods of wO is a I-form (or covector field).'O(F+~n). N. 5 (1928). Let A be a commutat~ve ring with identity with an ants. II. in the example (*) for J = I + f. If ~ is a maxjmal ideal. Springer. able if.g. In particular.' 0 ~n = (0). V. certain magni.: 'On the adiabatic theorem for the Hamiltonian References system of differential equations in the classical mechanics I.: The adiabatic motion of charged particles. pletion A of a ring A in the ~-adic topology is a flat A A-module (d. The existence of permanent adia.W' xv / w2 (the ~. in morphic to the projective limit lim(A / ~n). 37. then A is a local charged particles in electromagnetic fields [3]. and the ideal prime denotes the derivative of w with respect to the ~ is said to be the defining ideal of the topology. the A-module E of finite type is identical with E®AA. Y) = B(\lzX. Danilov AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54H13.P.. . and A are used in modern physics in the study of motion of ~n = ~n A. the absence of periodicity or limits as t ~ + 00). this ratio is an adiabatic invariant if the rings is the Artin . the change of state in quantum mechanics. let ~ be an ideal in A. P. the ring with maximal ideal ~.Rees batic invariants in quantum mechanics as well.I. 60. (Uspekhi Mat. This rule lost its importance with the subsequent ~-adic topology and let A be its completion. [I] ZARISKl. and only if. L. In case <- b) above. in particular.See p-adic number. son) radical of the ring. A local ring topology is an important magnitude is the ratio vi / H.: Elements of mathematics.) is a Amc TOPOLOGY . Obshch.

L(x) .P. Sometimes the 1-form w is not mentioned in the notion of adjoint connections. that is. (I/J.. Z)Y) = A knowledge of m (. where A(t) is a continuous complex-valued (n Xn)- R':. /(y) ao(t)y<n)+ .x).x{~~. . L'(I/J) . .Am + R~ibjm = -2(a. If x(t) ADJOINT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION to an ordi. Uj(~) = 0. AT = T. Instead of the name adjoint con.: Spaces with an affine connection. {3).I' (~)y I dt = j[II(y)-t(~Yldt = S 10 45 ..f~As = 2Wkbij' For the curvature _operators R and R and torsion .[3]). respectively. where (~t). [5]). [4]). and 1/I(t) are arbitrary solutions of the equations nary linear differential equation 1(y)=0 . k= I. tEl. y). It follows at Let ~=[to. .. Thus.n) linearly independent solutions = 2{ w([U..T. (3) for any scalar A. CAl)' = Xl'. tdeI. A. adjoint differential operator t maps the space C* (I) differentiable complex-valued functions on 1 =(a. problem adjoint to the linear boundary value problem l(y) = 0.kh .. the following relations hold: ~ ~(-ly(an_kI)U)y<k-j-l) const. The Lagrange identity and the Green formula Moscow-Leningrad. tEl. Ml 17 . 1976 (in Russian). 0.. then its Crn(I) is the space of m-times continuously.asw. Y)X) = of the equation 1(y)=0 by m (see [1] . In coordinate form. .The ordinary L(x)=O and L *(1/. R(U. of the equation t(~)=O enables one to reduce the order B(Z. then operators T and T of the connections v and v. m<2n. Strictly speaking this notion of an 'adjoint connection' should be called 'adjoint with respect to [[(~'L(X»-(L'(I/J)'X)ldt = (~.. x(t» _ const. Z~ai' B~bij' W~Wi. y). akbij . tEA. if I is a linear differential operator act- ao(t) =j=. v~rt).Z)X. For all n-times continuously-differentiable is defined by the equations functions yet) and «t). X). Uk(y) = 0. . ADJOINT DIFFERENTIAL EQUA nON V and V are adjoint with respect to B. Band w'.m. ..fLbsj . A(t). Adjoints are also defined for linear partial differen- ~ E C(l) tial equations (see [6].) is the standard scalar product (the sum of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53805 the products of coordinates with equal indices). they are defined It implies Green's formula in such a way that the equation (see Green fonnulas) ° 1\ T j[II(y). +1. then linear differential equation n~) = 0. d- nections one also encounters conjugate connections. tEl. Nauka. +an~' (2) (see [5]). L(x) = 0. . (the bar denotes complex conjugation). -~+A'(tN = 0. and let Uk be linearly independent once that linear functionals on cn(~). where A * (t) is the Hermitian adjoint of [I] NORDEN. (4) - $(y)-t'(~)y = - d {~n k-l } ~(-IY(an_kI)u>y<k-j-l) .)bij' matrix. AT(X. The adjoint of the equation n~)=O is 1(y)=0. closely connected with the general concept of an adjoint operator. Lagrange's identity holds: t'm = 0. For a system of differential equations = B(AT(Z. n k-l respectively.. . Y)+B(X..B(AT(Z. tEl References (see [l]. (1) The concept of an adjoint differential equation is d> y<» = ~.. YEC(I). In coordinate form (where X..w. Y. and The restriction of t to en(l) is given by formula (2) t(~)-(-I)n(ao~)<n)+(-I)n-l(al~)<n-l)+ .L(x»-(L (I/J). akEC-k(I). k = Ij =0 B(R(U. ing on c n (l) into C(1) in accordance with (1). tEl.)=0. the adjoint system is given by ATijbsk-ATk)bsi-An.2n -m.. x) = dt(I/J. Then the boundary value (/1 +/ 2)' = I. j= I. Y) . ~ o/tse ovsk'- II take the form Editorial comments.bsj = 0. adjoint to C(1) into the space C n* (1) adjoint to en(l). where ('. If y(t) and W) are arbitrary solutions of 1(y)=0 and n~)=O.x+A(t)x. -. Z]). Here the Uj are linear functionals on cn(~) describing dt k=lj=O the adjoint boundary conditions.Uw(Z)+Zw(U)}B(X. + an (t)y.

gEcn(~) that satisfy For the linear boundary value problem the conditions Uk(y)=O. .m . Similarly. [5] DUNFORD. to H c. tEt!. V. 46 . mathematischen PhYSik...n. n. When m = n..[3]): argument and covariant in the second. (6). reprint. The concept of an adjoint boundary value problem is o:«O)+y«O)+«I) = 0.. 1963. [3] CODDINGTON. .k)... [V. linear boundary value problems for partial differential If problem (3) has k linearly independent solutions equations (see [6]. {3. P.A concept expressing the 10 universality and naturalness of many important (see [1] . Deutsch. . 1971. (7) j=l.: Differentialgleichungen: LOsungsmethoden und linearly independent solutions (its rank is LOsungen. VLADIMIROV]: Gleichungen der l(y) = f(t).. E. L*(~) = 0. . Chelsea. tEt!. if 1\ j"&t)f(t) dt = 0 ADJOINT FUNCfOR . 1955. J. E.n.S. If where U is an m-dimensional vector functional on the Uk(y) n = ~[O:kpy(p-I)(to)+.: Linear operators. problems (3) and (4) [2] NAiMARK.. .. [7]). U(x) = 0. i.P. L(x) _ x+A(t)x = 0.no functional defined such that the equation Examples. and H dX. such as a free universal For the eigen value problem algebra. r' = 2n . problem (3) has only a ferential equatiOns..: Partial differential equations.k).. . when m = n.t.. Vj(~)=O. Jl of (5)..T. holds for any pair of functions x.l. Verlag Wissenschaft. Moscow. . Y) = H\l(X. k=I. 1969 (in Russian). U(x) = 0.m. Therefore. 8. with real a(t). and LEVINSON. Here U* is a (2n .. G( Y»: sf X IT __ .[3].. 1976 value problem (in Russian).. &-I)(tl). U*(~) = 0. trivial solution if and only if the adjoint boundary [4] HARTMAN.2n-m..L. k=l. 2. O. Adjoint boundary value problems are also defined for . Birkhauser. Interscience. The Fredholm theory.. For the problem (~t). alternative holds: The semi-homogeneous boundary [6] MIKHAiLOv. Uk(y) = 0.l. ~+a(t~ = 0.. l(y) = '>"y..m )-dimensional vector &-I)(tO).. W...n... have an equal number of linearly independent solu. McGraw-Hill. [7] WLADIMIROW.8kpy(p-I)(tl)l space Cn(~) of continuously-differentiable complex- p=1 valued n-dimensional vector functions with m <2n. . p=I. 1973 (translated from the Russian). any 1\ covariant functor G: G£'~~ induces a functor jy(t)«t)dt = 0.. .. p= 1.n + k [1] KAMKE. 34805 (4). ® is the category of sets. . N. . Uk(y) = 0. then Jl=X is an eigen value of (6). closely connected with that of an adjoint operator [5].e. J=l.: Ordinary differential equations..S.: Linear differential operators. (5) Let F: S1'~G£' be a covariant functor in one argument the adjoint eigen value problem is defined as from a category S1' into a category CL F induces a func- I'm =~. 1.: Theory of ordinary dif- tions. X(t»II:I\ I-to =0 y+a(t)y = 0.S.CX. the are linear forms in the variables adjoint boundary value problem is defined by y(P-l)(to). [7]). y(P-I)(t l ). mathematical constructions. Moscow. Y): st'* X G£'~® is the basic set-valued eigen values A. and ScHWARTZ. then problem (4) has m .A. (in this case the rank r of the boundary value problem References is equal to n .. .ADJOINT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION holds for any pair of functions y.A. y..8«0)+8«0)+«1) = o. "'ECk(~) satisfying y(O)+ay(1)+. has a solution if J(t) is orthogonal to all non-trivial E. The functor HF is contravariant in the first if A=FJl (see [l] .n.t. (8) possess properties analogous to problem has the form those listed above (see [I D. respectively. various completions. Vjm = 0. (6) tor If A is an eigen value of (5). The eigen functions yet). Tonkov solutions «t) of the adjoint boundary value problem AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 34A30. N. O". u*(~) = o. k=l. 1982. and direct and inverse limits.8y(1) = 0. the adjoint boundary value The problems (7). M. the conditions y(0)+yy(I)+8y(l) = 0. Spectral value problem (4) has the same property. . (8) then Vj mare linear forms in the variables (see [ 1D. «t) corresponding to where ~* is the category dual to st'. are orthogonal functor. .

following definition. c) above holds.1(lG(y»' limits (e. The functors F and G are of sets. S. b) for cp: IdSf~GF and 1/. subgroup. A category is called Gc:::::. with the adjoint algebra ad g of g. where X EOb ® and ment that a functor has a left adjoint if and only if a). cp: IdSf~GF is the unit of some adjunction if and only By passing to dual categories. where ® Springer. The adjoint group Ad G of the full subcategory of torsion groups is the left is contained in the group Aut g of automorphisms of adjoint of the functor of taking the torsion part of any the Lie algebra g of G. Left adjoints commute with co- €x = O(IF(X). leads to an adjoint pair (or every X EOb Sf. for any set A the basic AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 18A10 functor HA(Y)=H(A. E. a' : B ~ Y. M. the The transformation () is called the adjunction of F with imbedding functor of the category of Abelian groups in G. A connected semi- 4) Let P: ~~® be the forgetful functor from an simple group is a group of adjOint type (i. A References functor G: (£~Sf has a left adjoint if and only if for (I] TSALENKO. that is. adjunction) if the following equations hold: Y EOb Sf. 1971. respec- natural transformations (: IdSf~GF and 1j: FG~Ido:. or form an adjoint pair.SH. Sf: (£~Sf of an arbi- dence between the sets of morphisms H \i. b) and Ax =A for all x EX. F is called the left adjoint of G and G the right the category of groups has a left adjoint. 1jF(x)F(€x) = IF(X)' has a left adjoint F: Sf~(£ if and only if the following In general.G. Y) is the right adjoint of the functor X®A of group G under the adjoint representation (d. 1jy = 0. 5) The imbedding functor Ido:.(F(X). ADJOINT GROUP which is also contravariant in the first argument and arbitrary variety of universal algebras into the category covariant in the second. A category is called complete on only if it is representable. Properties of adjoint functors. 2) In the category ® of sets. if there is a natural transformation variety ~ with X as set of free generators.: Fundamentals of every X EOb Sf there is an object Y that is free over X category theory. which assigns to every set X the free algebra of the morphic. M. 1974 (in Russian). which assigns adjoint of F (this is written (): FG. Examples of adjoint functors. An object Y E Ob (£ together with The concept of an adjoint functor is directly con- a morphism (: X~G(Y) is free over an objectXEOb Sf if nected with the concept of a triple (or monad) ill a every morphism a: X~G(Y') can be written uniquely category. if HF and HG are iso.e. and the imbedding functor representation of a Lie group). there is a set S cOb (£ such that every morphism G(I/IY)</>G(Y) = IG(Y)' I/IF(x)F(c[>x) = IF(X) a: X ~G(Y) is representable in the form a = G(a')cp. one may establish a if for any morphism a: X~G(Y) in Sf there is a unique duality between the concepts of a 'left adjoint functor' morphism a':F(X)~Yin (£ such that a=G(a')£x. 1) If G: (£~®. with respect to G. They Let Sf and (£ be categories that are complete on the satisfy the following equations: left and locally small on the left. Moscow. This and a 'right adjoint functor'.HA =H dA.The linear group 3) In the category of Abelian groups. is called the Freyd adjoint functor theorem. Y) is the right adjoint of the functor XXA. and SHUL'GE1FER. Tsalenko is the category of sets. or simply FG). The functor P has a left adjoint F: ®~~.g. The state- co-products IIxExAx exist in (£. for all objects X and Y. The left adjoint functor Let ():FG. Adjoint tensor multiplication by A. right adjoint of the (£-reflector. For all XEObSf and YEOb(£. let of a given functor is uniquely determined up to isomor- phism of functors. G(y)). BE S. ADJOINT GROUP of a group G .Sh. [2] MACLANE. Y) has a left adjoint if and only if all locally small on the left if it has small hom-sets. G(Y)) for all objects X EOb Sf and Y EOb (£. co-products) and send null objects and null The families of morphisms {(x} and {1jy} define morphism into null objects and null morphisms. Y) and trary reflexive subcategory (£ of a category Sf is the H Sf (X. at least one of the sets H(X. the functor Ad G that is the image of the Lie group or algebraic Hom(A. and c) for every X EOb Sf. called the unit and co-unit of the adjunction (). in the form a = G( a')( for some morphism a' : Y ~ y'. In particular. adjunction. A representable functor the left if small diagrams have limits. (): HF ~HG that establishes a one-to-one correspon. adjoint.: FG~Id\i. The to every group G its quotient group by the commutator transformation ()-I: HG~HF IS called the co. and its Lie algebra coincides Abelian group. is non-empty. a pair of natural transformations conditions hold: a) G commutes with limits. A natural transformation where cp: X ~G(B). A functor G: @~Sf G(1jY}€G(Y) = IG(y). tively. this enables one to deduce property expresses the fact that F(X) is a free object the properties of right adjoints from those of left over X with respect to the functor G in the sense of the adjoints. is iso- 47 .: Categories for the working mathematician. then G has a left adjoint if and Editorial comments.

5. Forms. (A')' = A. J. then every A has an adjoint A'. More generally. TS..>M.L.E. Press. y EL.: Functional analysis. More precisely. (AB)' = B'A'. Addison-Wesley. Adjoint matrices correspond to adjoint linear (3) HUMPHREYS. The x(cp)=x(cp) for all cpEM'. N. xEM. 2. (Ax. N. This property is equivalent to the signify the dual linear mapping cf. fJ6 = G~I. [1) PONTRYAGIN. Onishchik normal bases.: Elements of mathematics. 1965 (translated from the French). the mapping~: M' ®RC~HomR(M. A and A' have the same characteristic polynomial. (2) SERRE. one can define an element x EM" by putting of the concept of an adjoint linear mapping.. 1975. . Press. .I' is the matrix adjoint to . In particular. contragradient module. For any left R-module C. 1958 (translated from the Russian). ADJOINT MODULE. .-P.ADJOINT GROUP morphic to its adjoint group) if and only if its roots ADJOINT MATRIX. It follows from the properties of the functor Gram matrix of the basis e 1. module .The linear transformation A' on a as a left R-module can be made into a right R-module Euclidean space (or unitary space) L such that for all M' by putting x. xEM... In a unitary space. AER. References [A 1] REED. Editorial comments. see Matrix. The imbeddings mapping Mf->M' defines a duality between the L--. Lie groups and Lie AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 15A04.9l'G. determinants.en.I and G is the module [2]. Acad. of a generate the lattice of rational characters of the maxi. if G i1: serni. A 'y) This right module M' is called the adjoint of M. R). 1.: Elements of mathematics. (A')~l = (A~l)".en is related to the matrix . i.S.I of A in the same basis as follows: x((cp®c)n = (x </»c. trace. if and only if R is a Quasi-Frobenius ring. 48 . The Abelian group ADJOINT LINEAR TRANSFORMATION of a linear HomR(M. Princeton Univ. Ad G coincides with the connected component sition. Properties of adjoint matrices are: References (A+B)" = A'+B'. y) = (x. 3 (translated from the French). a. their characteristic polyno- ping M' ~M'" ~M' is the identity. Algebra: Modules.The matrix A' whose ground field has characteristic zero and G is connected. . let M be a left module over a ring R. 22E10./) connect the two notions. of the identity in Aut g. For references. . [1] BOURBAKI. Hermitian adjoint matrix. References 1972. imbeddability of M in a direct product of copies of the ping cp: L--. 10C05 algebras. . Pigolkina the sense of Bass are those for which the above Editorial comments. The torsionjree modules in by complex conjugation. This is a special case x EM. 1975. </>EHomR(M. Chapt.. but M"· need mials. entries a.: Lie algebras and Lie groups. is also a homomorphism. J. the equality x(cpA) = (x </»A. This defines a homomor- transformation A' is defined uniquely by A. traces. 6 AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 15A04. L. C) given by matrix fJB of which in a basis e 1. M--. and II the direct product) and that there is a homorphism of M"· into M'.. denotes complex conjugation and the ' denotes transpo- simple.. Pogolkina References [A1] BOURBAKI. 1. If L is phism of Minto M'. the adjoint matrix coincides and is either called the adjoint group or the group of with its complex-conjugate transpose: A' = (A ') where- inner automorphisms of g. R) of homomorphisms of Minto R regarded transformation A . (-. Here M' is the space of (continuous) linear ground ring. the phrase 'adjoint homomorphism of Minto M" turns out to be a transformation' or 'adjoint linear mapping' is also used to monomorphism.>L ' of a linear map. 1975. If the the field C of complex numbers . Springer. the finite-dimensional.. then the functionals on M and cp'Cm'CI))=m'CCP(/)).>L'. Rings. 47 A05 (translated from the French). Chapt. B. (M)' = M'.k =aki.>M'. and eigen values are related not be isomorphic to M·. Thus.The module of homomorphisms of a given 22E15.. determinant. . and SIMON. Addison-Wesley. Cf. For between the scalar products holds. CEC.: Linear algebraic groups. the centre of such a group is trivial.: TopolOgical groups. . S II Hom that (~M ~ M" (where ~ is the direct In a Euclidean space. 2.22E20 module into the ground ring.": M' --.k are the complex conjugates of the entries aki then Ad G is uniquely determined by the Lie algebra g of A.. 2. given (rectangular or square) matrix A = II aik II over mal torus. 4. If R is right and left Noetherian. also categories of finitely-generated left and right R-modules Adjoint operator. Both of these are isomor- phisms when M is a finitely-generated projective where . TS.e.. </>EM'. transformations of unitary spaces with respect to ortho- A. and eigen sum. dual AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 20G05. The composite map- values. M. Benjamin. Sect.

J. Onishchik normed linear spaces. in which case it is defined by functionals fEE' separate the points of E (the (Ax. and LAY. g satisfying (*) into X'. ] is the bracket operation in the algebra g. In Western literature the adjoint ADJOINT SPACE of a topological vector space E - operator as defined above is usually called the dual or con. 1953.S. locally convex spaces X and Y.: Topological groups. ad g = Der g if g is a semi-simple Lie algebra over a structed from a linear operator A : X ~ Y in the follow. X and Y are A. where [ . moreover Der g / ad g is ADJOINT OPERATOR A linear operator the one-dimensional cohomology space HI(g. References [I] JACOBSON. ADJOINT SURFACE . The differential of the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 46A20.C. [3] MISHINA. g'>. Macmillan. ADJOINT REPRESENTATION OF A LIE GROUP References or algebraic group G . are continu- ous. then the Hilbert spaces. <Ax. 2. respectively). Editorial comments. Sobolev Editorial comments. 1965 (translated from G in the tangent space Te( G) (or in the Lie algebra g of the Russian). ADJOINT SURFACE [2] MAc LANE.: Lie algebras.-P. then A'g=g' is a [3] SERRE. Arner.A. 1980. H. pletely continuous. modules. Addison-Wesley. [4] HUMPHREYS. D. 1976 (translated from the Russian).A surface Y that is in Peter- The adjoint representation of a Lie algebra g is the son correspondence with a given surface X and is. The image ad g is called the adjoint AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 13C99. D. fEE'. E' is a Banach space with respect to the norm References Ilfll = sup I [ex) I. then the evaluation mappings f. zero. g> = <x. . 1975. 1980. then where (-. Soc. then A' is also continuous.. Princeton Univ. References The kernel Ker Ad contains the centre of G. If E is a locally convex space. then so is A'.: Vector spaces.Banach theorem). con. 3 (translated from the French).: Lie algebras and Lie groups. and if G is [A 1] ScHAEFER. Hongrie. 22E15. G) mapping each a E G to the differential Editorial comments. The weak-*- Int a : x ~axa -I. S. If E is a normed space. and vice versa. If. There are two (usually different) natural topologies on AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 47 A05 E' which are often used: the strong topology deter- mined by this norm and the weak-*-topology. XETe(G) =g C End(V).A. 1965 uniquely defined operator from the set DA' of elements (translated from the French). Skornyakov inner derivations. ing way. XEE. g) of g. L. If for all XEDA.A. Acad.E. Press.: Homology. 1963.: Linear algebraic groups.: Abelian groups and The kernel Ker ad is the centre of the Lie algebra g.yEg. A' g). in addition. F. The vector space E' consisting of continuous linear jugate operator. Interscience.. B. X. coincides with this centre.I. If A is com. Noordhoff. Wiley.H. K. 1962. Let the domain of definition DA of A be everywhere dense in X. f(z). A.: Elements of mathematics. Adjoint operators are References of particular interest in the case when X and Yare Hil. such that the asymptotic net on Y module g acting by the formula corresponds to a conjugate net a on X with equal (adx)y = [x. [A1] BOURBAKI.P. The term adjoint operator is reserved for functions on E. 16A53 linear Lie algebra and is an ideal in the Lie algebra Der g of all derivations of g. [A1] TAYLOR. A': Y' ~X' (where X' and y' are the strong duals of defined by the adjoint representation. 22E20 tionelle.L. field of characteristic zero. Math. 1958 (translated from the Russian). A.: Topological vector spaces. Instead of the term adjoint space Ada = d(Inta)e of the inner automorphism one more often uses the term dual space. Springer. If DA = X and A is continuous. The adjoint surface Y is the 49 . Sci.. Hahn.) denotes the Hilbert space inner product. (*) [2] PONTRYAGIN. Springer. Lie groups and Lie bert spaces. gEY' and g'EX'. In particular. 46810 adjoint representation of G at e coincides with the adjoint representation ad of g.. linear representation ad of the algebra g into the moreover.. N. and SKORNYAKOV.: Lefons d'analyse fonc. 22E10. g) = (x. algebras. If G <: GL( V) is a linear group m a topology on E' is the weakest topology on E' for which all space V. invariants.y]. J.E. The operators ad x are derivations of g and are called L. v. [2] RIEsz. N.1 . Springer. 1975. then II A' II = II A II. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 17805. References [I] YOSIDA. (Ada)X = aXa.The linear representation Ad of [I] RAiKov. Chap!. where AXEY.: Introduction to functional x#! II x II analysis. 20G05. and SZOKEFALVI-NAGY. L. Benjamin.: Functional analysis. connected and if the ground field has characteristic 1966.

) gives the possibility of obtaining a wide variety of 8 </> = k(l-8)' iteration methods for solving equation (1). Under conditions of thermodynamic and interpreted as an iteration algorithm molecular equilibrium. ADSORPTION . Mat.S. In other words.Au(t). and vice versa.. Oosure of a computational algo.g.: Numerical methods: analysis. 1984. N. algebra. North-Holland. Editorial comments. implicit schemes. has the form etc. S. is known as Varying the form of the operators Ci and considering the adsorption isotherm. 1964.: Numerical solution of non- of the form m diu(t) linear boundary value problems with applications. Mir.m-I. Appl.: Numerical analysis of parametrized non- 1=0 linear equations. and SoBOLEY. Similar ideas can be used in optimization theory by e. Lebedev ture and with the structure of the adsorbent.'Consumption' of matter from a gas A result of using adjustment is that it permits one to use approximate solution methods of (2) in order to or from an opening of the interface between them (or construct iteration algorithms for solving equation (1) from the surface of a solid body). The relation between the relative pressure cf>=p / ps of the adsorbent and the relative for solving equation (1). where A is a coefficient which varies with the tempera- VI. . 1971 (in Russian). Sabitov boundary value problems is viewed as a steady state of a AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A05 (dissipative) parabolic problem (ct. the rates of adsorption and C1(un+1-u n) = Tn(j-Au n).-U(t n) = j-Au(tn) adsorbent and adsorbate. Y. in which C I and Tn are now concentration O=c / cs . Reidel.: The theory of difference schemes. 7i1 = A In</>+ 1. 10 (1965). for m = 1. 1986. where the index s stands for seen as characterizing this (iteration) method.1983. Again this leads to all kinds of is regarded as the steady-state limit solution for t~oo iteration algorithms.S. [3] MARCHUK. the continuation method (to a parametrized family). G. Cauchy problem). solution u of a stationary problem constructing a mechanical system whose stable equilibrium Au =j (1) state is the desired optimum. . [A3] RAzUMIKHIN.Kh. Prentice- i~l Ci dt i = j . Here the Ci are suitable operators which guarantee the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 65HXX existence of the 'adjustment limit' liml-+OO u(t)=u. . This evolution equation may e. (2) Hall. 50 . (cf. the limit value at a constant temperature.g. Moscow. of a Cauchy initial value problem for a non-stationary References [A 1] BABUSHKA. employed for capillary bodies: [2] GoDUNOY. in programming and economics. which is empirical. ordi· nary differential equations.e. and HLAVACEK. Because of the inherent (numerical) stiffness an implicit discretization ADJUSTMENT MEfHOD .. Such a time-stepping surface. describes the interaction between the adsorbent and the rithm).tn >0.A method in which the method.L. where k is the equilibrium constant which roughly tational algorithm (d. after which they leave the surface (are where Tn =tn +3 . M.ADJOINT SURFACE rotation indicatrix for X. which depends on the natures of the C 1 U(tn+l. an explicit method of the form period of time. UO = uoo. Wiley. splitting schemes.96-130. on the temperature T and on n the pressure p. V. Iteration algorithm). method with m =1 arises quite naturally when an elliptic I. 1977 (translated from the Rus· Posnov's formula [2]. [1] BAKHVALOY. for the non-stationary adsorption is the 'consumption' by an adsorbate from a volume of gas on the surface of the adsorbent. Thus. [A2]). is widely sian).!. should be advocated.. W. such as BDF. as in [A3]. of the adsorbent are retained by the surface force for a For example. If (J is a princi. then Y is a Bianchi called the time-stepping method. The adjustment method is also pal base for a deformation of X.I. B. Brunauer's equation [l] is commonly used in the case of a homogeneous surface of the adsorbent and poly- References molecular adsorption. A generalization of the adjustment method IS adsorbate.1.S. be [A2] KUBICEK.: 'The optimization of numeri- evolution equation involving the same operator A (cf.: Physical models and equilibrium methods dku dt k I = UOb k=O. [A4] RHEINBOLDT. Adsorp- equation (2) one could employ a discretization (dif- tion is a particular case of sorption. and LEBEDEY.. different discretizations with respect to t in equation (2) Langmuir's equation of mono-molecular adsorption (explicit schemes. V. cal processes'. For these methods equation (2) will be the closure of the compu.: Nt:merical methods in the theory of neutron transport. . And then this method can be desorbed). ferencing) with respect to t solution method which is The molecules of the adsorbate falling on the surface convergent and stable to obtain approximate solutions. and RYABEN'Kli. n =0. I.K. S. desorption are equal.

(equation of motion). 865. dt + p div V = 0 tion'. V. Here V is the OF .e. 60 (1938). (continuity equation). The former model is the limit- simplified mathematical models are established for dif. This is also true medium. [A2] BRUNAUER. 1968. accordingly. which describes the order of the ratio between the iner- Press.H. P.V. nolds numbers are very large (l(f . AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 76S05.103 ). Processes without turbulence or added to the above equations. Even for such simpli.. and on this basis an incompressible fluid. V)-div(pV) AERODYNAMICS. The Brunauer. S. the Froude number describes or more 'small' terms in the complete set of aero. in E. adsorp. while the heat generation in which the turbulence can be neglected may. of the equation of motion is obtained as the Mach 1) Problems in the aerodynamics of an ideal (non. J. and TELLER.grow without limit.): Handbook of physics. The equations of an ideal fluid are obtained from the The simplest model is that of an incompressible 51 . McGraw-Hili. Lykov model of an ideal fluid yields an accurate description of Editorial comments. p- dV = pg-Vp dt References [A1] BRUNAUER. forms an tions of the transfer of the mixture components are exception to this rule.108 ). in prin. [3) IL'IN. AERODYNAMICS. Froude number of order ~ 1). It assumes multi-molecular adsorption for which of aerodynamic equations of an ideal fluid are: each layer obeys a Langmuir equation. Tekhn. it is only valid for and gases. the orders of the individual are the model of a weight-less fluid and the model of terms in the equations are estimated. the word characteristic velocity of sound in a fluid medium). due to chemical reactions is added to the energy equa- ciple.: 'Surface tension.A.: J. the Rey- [4) BOER. S. E. DE: The dynamical character of adsorption.: The nature of adsorption forces.U. these can be subdivided into from the general system by putting p = const. the force of employed in practical work in aerodynamics. which are an accurate the acceleration due to gravity and U is the internal description of the laws of motion of a gas-like medium energy. the order of the ratio of the inertial to the gravity dynamic equations are discarded. so that the A. and COPELAND. be sufficiently completely investigated by a tion. 80A20. Chapt. Turbulence.2+V) = p(g. EMMETT.E. It is a system of equations of the first order and its interaction forces with solids moving in this with respect to the functions sought. no.Teller flow processes around solid bodies under these condi- equation. The A number of simplified models can be derived from real possibilities of solving such equations differ from the model of an ideal fluid. quasi-stationary processes.Problems involved in the solution of fundamental velocity vector. [2) POSNOV. if Ma«Fr). or BET-equation. S. V. and also for 2) Problems in the aerodynamics of viscous fluids. In most problems of applied aerodynamics of aircraft 1952 (in Russian). Condon and H. 7. Moscow-Leningrad. Claren- don Press. 1943. 82A99 p!['. motions of the liquid or the gas) is of order ~ 1.Emmett. forces. Fiz. except for the boundary layer zone. number tends to zero (which is the relationship of the viscous and thermally non-conducting) fluid. Froude numbers ~ 1 (i. in which one increases without limit.: Zh. Soc. There are several modifications. [A1] generalizes the Langmuir tions. p is the pressure. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF References general equations by making the Reynolds number - [I) BRUNAUER. and in seacraft hydrodynamics. mathematical solution of the relevant equations. and rockets. in which the Strouhal 3) Problems in the aerodynamics of radiant gases. Princeton Univ. p is the density. Amer. The system equation. Odishaw (eds. [A2]. tial and the viscous forces . and numerical methods are widely numbers of order 1()2 . Vol. The most important ones the theoretical. number (the criterion of similitude of non-stationary 4) Problems in the aerodynamics of rarefied gases. for which no satisfactory for a mixture of chemically interacting gases: The equa- mathematical model has yet been established.. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS (equation of conservation of energy). g is equations in aerodynamics. This model is very accurate when applied to the fied models analytic solutions can be obtained only for aerodynamics of aircraft and rockets (with Froude the simplest cases. This form four large classes. B. 1967. Chem. 309. L. As regards the nature of the equations involved in The equation of an incompressible fluid is obtained aerodynamical problems. These gravity becomes significant in seacraft hydrodynamics methods have become prevalent with the introduction and especially so in meteorological applications (with of electronic computers.: Adsorption of gases and vapors. In 'fluid' being used in this context to denote both liquids the general case this is not true.H. !!e. However. ing case of the general model as the Froude number ferent classes of aerodynamic processes. 2. cf. 23 (1953).

In a viscous fluid a solid is fol. Khristianovich's In the spatial case the formal solution of the Neu. including numerical mainstream only to a small extent (a thin wing at a mathematics. All these methods involve some sort of linearization of lems of computational mathematics. potential. the intensity of the turbulent layer of problems involving plane-parallel and axi-symmetric which vanishes only in exceptional cases (e. in the flows may be fairly easily solved by numerical methods case of plane-parallel motion). the velocity of the unperturbed flow. these problems display the the potential along the stream has a constant discon. have been developed that achieve an acceptable accu. Accordingly. dealt with when investigating incompressible fluids: bulent surface. As the Reynolds number In practice. Wing theory). propagation of the effect of any particular disturbance tial are given on the projection plane of the solid. Integral-relation method. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF fluid. and the solution of the stationary problem (cf. supersonic speeds stimulated the search for solutions of ping. Adjustment method). though for a solid whose shape is unknown very exceptional cases. manners.AERODYNAMICS. principal drawback of equations of elliptic type . compressible fluids much research was done on the tronic computers are employed. ally based on the linear theory. velocities are all treated in substantially different tion. In the first period of research on the aerodynamics of racy by means of relatively simple calculations. Moreover. The flow around solids of revolution at zero angle aerodynamic problems of compressible fluids. it is only in the case the spatial problem of waves with a finite amplitude. lowed by a turbulent trail. for solving these problems belong to the simplest prob. permitting as it does to obtain mann problem for the velocity potential will accurate solutions of the equations of subsonic aero- correspond to the physical picture of the flow only in dynamics. throughout the space. of trans sonic flow around a solid is obtained as a limit The principal difficulty in problems involving a solution of the non-stationary problem as the time heavy fluid is that the boundary conditions for the tends to infinity. i. In the subsonic range the aerodynamic equa- lems (determination of the characteristics of wing pro. solutions can only be obtained for linearized lems of an incompressible fluid.g. Ana. by an ele- discontinuity surface is unknown. in which a non-stationary aero- of solving this problem for other shapes of wings are dynamic problem is solved (starting from an arbitrary available and simplify the task to a considerable extent initial state). In view of the practical importance of these prob. approximation. However. The of incidence is determined by the classical solution of problems involving subsonic. the most difficult to study. method is an exception. This method is very laborious. there is no point in effect of compressibility on the aerodynamic charac- using these methods. The most suitable method for lytic solutions have been obtained on these asumptions solving the problems of transsonic aerodynamics is the (for a circular and an elliptic wing). The location of this equations. In this model the entire system of equations is solutions have been found for planar problems of the reduced to the single Laplace equation for the velocity theory of waves only. In lems involving discontinuous velocity potentials in the the case of spatial flows with discontinuous velocity region of the flow zone represent the real spatial prob. and it may be assumed that approximation. from the around which the fluid is flowing disturbs the basic point of view of mathematics.the tinuity. tions remain elliptic and the solutions qualitatively files and fuselages) many methods for their solutions resemble those obtained for incompressible fluids. (cf. the linearized problem (small wave axi-symmetric motion around solids of revolution that amplitudes) has been largely solved. and the calculation the solution of aerodynamic problems is reduced to of the wave resistance to the motion of a ship is actu- problems in classical potential theory. The problem of flow around a given shape is solved The possibility of aircraft travelling at near-sonic and by classical methods of the theory of conformal map. of plane-parallel motions of a weight-less fluid and On the other hand. 52 . Numerical methods adjustment method. Exact quite feasible if electronic computers are employed. The presence small angle of incidence) that the problem could be of local supersonic (parabolic) zones which almost solved. the difficulties involved in the problems increases. this trail becomes thinner (for a continuous of subsonic aerodynamics are the same as those to be flow) and in the limit it becomes an infinitely thin tur.e. If elec. transsonic and supersonic the exterior Neumann problem for the Laplace equa. Little progress has been made on potential cI> ( cI> = V). and for this reason mentary transformation. but is potential on the free surface are non-linear. since accurate numerical methods teristics of the solids around which the flow takes place. In such a case the surface of turbulence can be always terminate in shock waves precludes any analytic considered as horizontal. The normal derivatives of the velocity poten. in advance. It is only in the linear as those for incompressible fluids. These equations can be converted. into equations for incompres- the exact problem of flow around solid bodies in the sible fluids in which the boundary conditions and the presence of a discontinuous potential surface is a very conditions on the surface of discontinuity are the same complicated non-linear problem. on the assumption that the solid The zone of trans sonic aerodynamics is. the prob.

the numerical methods flows around sharply pointed solids and to the prob. the boundary of the solid to which the fluid particles tion of local subsonic zones (the method of integral adhere. which means ever been performed. with formation of local subsonic lCS. and axi-symmetric cases) becomes identical to the one- Problems in pure supersonic flow have been most dimensional stationary problem. the advantage of the problems of aerodynamics of viscous fluids . This included the develop. While the resulting systems of equa- Practically speaking. Despite the fact that the boundary-layer conditions of continuous velocities and accelerations equations contain all the main terms of viscous stresses. For this reason ics may be said to form a separate field. It should be noted. chemical kinetics. the flow by methods of purely supersonic aerodynam- 2) Mixed flow. flows around thin solids (excepting the blunt-shaped peratures ionization takes place and radiation processes regions) are distinguished by small changes in the velo- become significant. but even these difficulties are of a tion of the equations of motion and the equations of computational and not of a principle character. the local subsonic zone (including the supersonic part sonic aerodynamics may be subdivided into three fields. those employed in the aerodynamics of an ideal gas. only. It is this fact which radi- relations.Stokes equations). of the region of influence) is followed by calculations of 1) Pure supersonic flow. these problems are limited to tions are more complicated. This is why it was possible to sion of the Navier-Stokes equations in the vicinity of develop effective numerical methods for the computa. the tubes cannot be realized in this temperature range. city component along the main stream. The linear theory of supersonic flow tions in a very wide range of Mach numbers and has also been exhaustively studied. AERODYNAMICS. finite obtained in this way and approximate similitude laws difference methods and methods of semi-characteristics. the method of inverse problems and the cally disturbs the solutions obtained for ideal fluids adjustment method). The Aerodynamic problems concerned with gases under- latter may be somewhat complicated by the occurrence going chemical reactions involve the simultaneous solu- of weak shock waves. while a local subsonic flow always occurs at and since modelling natural conditions in aerodynamic the blunt end. However. completely or in part. to the initiation of chemical reactions). that near the surface of the solid around which the flow up to the time of writing (1977) no rigorous takes place. which complete equations are of elliptic type. at higher tem. The boundary-layer equations zones usually represent bounded narrow domains in the represent the principal term of the asymptotic expan- vicinity of the blunt ends. Having computed this region. and even then only in the regions of smooth con- ical methods are developed on the assumption that the tinuous flow. their mathematical structure is much simpler. employed in their solution are essentially the same as lems of internal aerodynamics (calculations of jet noz. the boundary- is physically realistic. can be obtained of numerous practical problems. the remaining (pure supersonic) flows are calculated by the aerodynamic characteristics of hypersonic instruments methods of supersonic aerodynamics. these are also extensively by which relatively simple solutions may be obtained employed in the analysis of the results of numerical cal- not only for plane-parallel or axi-symmetric but also culations. Analytic solutions geometric parameters of the solid. It Up till here. sharp-edged solids are not employed (charring of lations are extensively carried out in practical work. consequently. Hypersonic At higher velocities and. While the sonic zone ensure the uniqueness of a solutions. The order of the error involved in the mathematical investigations of these problems have boundary-layer equations is 1 / 5e. and such zones are mixed) consists in the fact that such boundary-layer theory. which are then reduced to very compact rela- for spatial flows. This part of hypersonic aerodynam. numer. however. the edges). zones. super. There is another type of problems. directed along the normal to the surface of the solid. Such calcu- high. which are con- 3) High-temperature hypersonic flow producing nected with hypersonic flow around thin solids (prior chemical reactions in the gas.the theory of the complete equations supersonic flow with local subsonic zones (even though of a viscous fluid (Navier . have been established. This hypothesis is confirmed by layer equations are parabolic with characteristics all the results of numerical calculations. since the the equations may be simplified so that the problem of mathematical problems involved are quite different flow around a thin body of a given shape (in the planar from those arising in the case of 'transparent' gases. As compared with the aerodynamics of transsonic There are two principal trends in the theory of flow. itative characteristics of hypersonic flows have been ment of numerical methods of characteristics. are mainly obtained by numerical methods. Many important qual- thoroughly investigated. it has been said that the computation of is therefore possible to conduct the computations 'layer 53 . during the transition from the subsonic to the super. if the supersonic velocities are very except that they are much more laborious. There is also no proof that their that the theory is valid for large Reynolds numbers solutions do exists and are unique. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF As regards mathematical methods of study. zles). Accordingly.

flow around a cylinder). tem of two equations of the second order with respect Such models very often are no limiting cases of the to the stream function t/. tions on plane sections are often used in practice. I.-w which the flow takes place. 54 . exists at large Reynolds numbers (e. Crook's model in the theory of rarefied gases). In the simplest case cases. The tions: J equations of the three-dimensional layers themselves ~ at = ~W-2[~~-~~ ay ax ax ay .g. i. The principal difficulty in solving such Problems in the aerodynamics of radiant gases and equations is their high order and the fact that the of rarefied gases have been solved only for the simplest region of influence is unbounded. The solu- into a number of separate second-order differential tion may be obtained in a similar manner by the equations which. since an accurate numeri. all these approximate methods become superfluous. tion methods. if elec. but in the tance.-y. The structure of three- dimensional boundary layers is more complicated. They complete equations (model of gray radiation. even in the difficult case of a hot gas in boundaries: which chemical reactions are taking place. merely qualitative reflections of the relationships described in the complete equations. bilities for increasing the effectiveness of electronic tion of this non-linear system of the fourth order can computers. solution of the ideal fluid equations as the first tions) was the development of numerous approximate approximation. lations. fluid involves not merely the development of computa- ciently accurate results. the one-parameter A _ aWn +1 _ [a<pn aWn _ a<pn aWn J Kochin . The volume of the ~Ij.. Numerical methods yield tions could be obtained. model of may be written in the dimension-less form as follows: diffusive radiation in the theory of radiant gases. tronic computers are employed. but also research on fundamental ques- ties in solving the exact equations of a three. However. vary significantly with the geometry of the solid around ~ at = ~·. the development of methods acceptable solutions up to Reynolds numbers of several for solving the complete system of equations for a hundreds. However. boundary conditions as well. computations involved in solving these problems is very The boundary conditions on solid boundaries are only large. What was said above applies to plane-parallel and to rather. of the rate of des. case to take a real system of non-stationary equations.LoitsyanskiI method. The layer to another. models of the relevant phenomena have been proposed. at/. Such a separation theory of boundary layers (computations of the resis. thus obtained in the (n + 1)-st approximation. but it is not necessary in such a is highly advantageous. The solu. Wn+l = aa. There are no principal difficul. methods of calculation of three-dimensional boundary which is more convenient to handle in numerical calcu- layers is much less advanced. but above these values of the Reynolds viscous liquid is due to the introduction of electronic number the numerical calculations no longer converge. and success in this field will depend on the possi- for the stream function t/. adjustment method.AERODYNAMICS. but ~w = 2 [2f~-~~J ay ax ax ay . iterative process is so constructed that separate equa- ing outside the range between the sections. The numeri. The problem of flow around a body by a viscous despite the lack of a theoretical basis.e. often yields suffi. to pass from one section of the boundary only be obtained by some kind of iterative process.n o/n+l = const. Thus. with respect to the x- equations for the vortex flow and the flow function is variable (along the tangent to the surface of the solid). which means that a separate set of system of equations is split.1Wn +1 2 ax . by choosing the troyment of the surface under hypersonic flight condi. etc.-+wn' cal routines may be so constructed that at each step the where CP=t/. mathematical with a constant viscosity coefficient one obtains a sys. partly because calcula. Thus. MATHEMATICAL PROBLEMS OF by layer'. this. in view of the practical importance of of stationary motion of a viscous incompressible fluid these problems (in both these fields). tions. / an = O. ~o/n+l = Wn+h cal solution of the boundary-layer equations presents with the following boundary conditions on the solid no difficulties. of the surface temperatures. irrespective of the conditions prevail.). tions for the vortex velocity and for the flow function One consequence of the practical importance of the are obtained at each iteration step. must take place not only in the equations. alj.2 ay ax ax ay . and vortex velocity w. in which analytic solu. = w. one obtains the following set of itera- methods for performing such calculations (the tions: Pohlhausen method. one may consider the system of parabolic equa- axi-symmetric flows. for the case of Except for a few special cases. from the computational point of view. it is unclear whether a stationary solution dimensional layer. computers. The development of 't'. = const.

The affine algebraic subsets are the High speed flow. 1940 (in Russian). .I.e. 1975. c.C. It is identical with the rin~ of k-regular func- [9] Numerical methods in fluid mechanics. 14A05 mon zeros of some family S of the ring of polynomials k[T]=k[TI' . tions <.A. corresponds the zero ideal. O. i. 1969 (in Pol- ish).. Moscow. of the concept of an affine algebraic set leads to the [A6] PAl. to be an affine algebraic k-set if its points are the com. a special kind of so-called ideal of the affine algebraic k-set. and CHusHKIN. projective algebraic varieties over the field k (or k- [A2] PAl. [3] HARTSHORNE. 1960. Moscow.M. 1966.: An introduction to fluid dynamics.. In particular. V. The sonic speed. A topological space is irreducible if equations.fi)Ek[T]. Let k be a field and let k be its algebraic it is not the union of two closed proper subspaces.: Hydrodynamics. which is identified with the tangent only if Wx = Wy.. a study in logic. Iskovskikh The set of solutions of a given sy~em of algebraic Editorial comments. 1966. set is said to be irreducible if it is not the union of two For some material on the branch or aerodynamics dealing affine algebraic proper subsets. Oxford Univ. 1965. closure.R. called solution of problems in gas dynamics'. Press. each smooth curve L EM with origin Xo and each one 55 .:n X. Affine algebraic sets have the structure of a [A3] HOWARTH. were the subjects of classical algebraic geometry.: The method of characteristics for spatial super- sonic flows. Acad.: Viscous flow... An similitude. The set Wx of all polynomials AFFINE CONNECTION . Springer. Springer. . 1953. The ideal Wx connection on a manifold (cf. V. 1965 (translated from the Russian). Moscow. 1977 Wiley. [2] SHAFAREVICH. 1977. topological space. (EDS. Press. An equivalent defini- with such things as plasmas and the mechanics of stellar tion is that the ideal Wx is prime. W. Hilbert theorem assignment to each point x EM of a copy of the affine 3)).0.e. and SAMUEL.Tn].V. quotient ring k[X]=k[TJ/ Wx is called the coordinate 1967 (in Russian).. Moscow. the intersection X n Y is identical with the sum of [4] HAYES.I. [A4] BlRKHOFF. with the ring of k-valued functions. 1966. i. M. 1970.J. 1969 [1] ZARISKI. Two affine algebraic sets X and Y coincide if and space (An)x.A. N. 1968 (in Russian). AFFINE CONNECTION References any affine algebraic set can be defined by a finite [1] KocHIN. and ROZE. affine algebraic k-set .: Hypersonic flow theory. Press. KmEL'. The [8] Flow around blunted bodies of a supersoniC gas flow. Cam- bridge Univ.: Gas flow with large supersonic speed. 1956. Springer. and PLUMPTON. The affine algebraic set X can be centro-affine space TAM). [2] KHRISTIANOVICH. fact and closed sets of this topology (the Zariski topology). . . . X U Y is identical with the intersection of their ideals 1959 (in Russian).K. [6] BELOTSERKOvsKIi. A. Vol. v.): High speed aerodynamics irreducible as a topological space. Irreducible affine gases (magneto. They References were called. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 73JXX. LA. affine algebraic varieties and [A1] BACHELOR.E. Wroclaw. when the smooth fibre bundle E attached to M by the family S. 1-2. Press.Tn] that vanish on X forms an ideal. In an affine connection defined by a system of generators of Wx. The structure of such an E involves the number m (Hilbert's Nullstellensatz. 14A 10. Oxford Univ. [L.I. L. affine algebraic sets of 'C form a lattice with respect to [3] SEDOV. O... number of polynomials (fl. I. pp. SEDOV]: Two-dimensional problems in hydro. 0. varieties). [A7] FERRARO.: Radiation gas dynamics.V. V.. TH. Press. V) denotes the scalar product of two vectors. ring of X. 1-2. (translated from the Russian). G. VON. The 'empty subset of In is [7] CHusHKIN.: Mathematical aspects of transsonic gas dynamics. 1. Acad. P. [A9] BERS. respectively. Press. with the set of polynomials has the affine space An of dimension n = dim M as its fEk[TJ. References [A8] KOGAN. in Basic developments in an affine space over k and denoted by AZ.A differential-geometric in k [TI' . 76GXX 1. The ideal of dynamics and aerodynamics. their ideals Wx + Wy .: Algebraic geometry. to it fluid dynamics.: Commutative algebra. L. R. Dolgachev AFFINE ALGEBRAIC SET. 1-126. 2. P. S. Nostrand. (ED. Press. Any set 1(n is an affine algebraic set.: Basic algebraic geometry. In the equation of the conservation such thatf(x)=F(x) for all XEX. affine algebraic set is irreducible if and only if it is [A5] KARMAN. Connections on a mani- coincides with the radical of the ideal I (S) generated fold). Acad.: Gas flow around bodies with large sub- ities fl = . the structure on a smooth manifold M. 1958. also an affine algebraic set with the unit ideal. Princeton Univ. Acad. S. An affine algebraic of energy (g. S. L. Springer. Dorodnitsyn f: X~k.Tn] such that fmEI(S) for some natural typical fibre. while the ideal of the union [5] CHERNY!.. magneto-fluid mechanics. Press. A subset X of the Cartesian product 1(n is said AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14A25. The equal- dynamics.I.: Theoretical hydro.A.and electro-aerodynamics) see the article algebraic sets together with projective algebraic sets Magneto-hydrodynamics.A.: 'The numerical Wx n Wy. (translated from the Russian). Interscience. P.I. ET AL.: Rarified gas dynamics. Press. 1964.: An introduction to concepts of an affine variety and an affine scheme. N.. 1964 (translated from the Russian). = fi =0 are called the equations of X. . cf. O. mathematical problems in. the operations of intersection and union. for which there exists a polynomial FEk[T] Editorial comments. Further development and jet propulsion. Princeton Univ.): Modern development in fluid dynamics.

The equations (3) are called the struc. } w' = dx'. the covariant derivative of the field X in the direction (4) i_I I k 1 of Y is defined as Q) . image of the frame at point XI is defined as the solution each provided with a smooth field of affine frames in {x(t). ~(An)xo which satisfies the condition formulated neighbourhood of the origin Xo of the curve L. The field of frames in the coordinate w' = ndx k .I\w' . by the system of linear differential forms development of L. (1) w. ei(t)} of the system (An)x. i. the forms (1) called the object of the affine connection. Let M be covered with coordinate domains. ~(An)xo' the image of the frame at XI is neighbourhoods. i.+W . transformation of a frame of the field at an arbitrary An affine connection on M may be defined by a system point.the so-called torsion forms Qi and curvature forms Qj . det I n 1=1= O. The requirement is that. The and that the principal part of its deviation from the curve which is described in (An)x o by the point with identity mapping be defined.e.e. n smooth vector fields. = axi ax] axk.e. are given).e. = dw . = [aa. . respectively. when passing to an arbitrary element of which transforms in the intersection of two neighbour- the principal fibre bundle P of frames in the tangent hoods according to formula (5).] = AidA k + A i A I.} neighbourhood may be so chosen that Wi =dx i . the torsion tensor it is called a space with an affine connection. The mapping field of frames by the formula (An)x.. dx i =(OXi /oxj)wI. af'1 ar 'k 1 a. and Sjk = fjk-n). All I-forms Wi and w.' + r~kr'i/. \l t' kS = ~+tif' axk""]k Curvature form). called the covariant derivative of the wk Aw': QI = . define a certain affine connection on M. they are linear combinations of the form a tensor field.lSI 2 ] k w'/\ W k . ~(An)xo for a curve L EM is obtained as follows. The differential of are transformed as follows: this in (An)x o at t =0: where Qi and Qj are composed from the forms (2) (d~'+~'wj)e. then wj = fJkwk. {ei(t)) is the solution of system (5». The mapping are replaced by the following I-forms on P: (An)x. = r)k dxk.. while the 2-forms If. ~(An)xo tends to become the identity mapping. i. w'(\l yX) = Y W'(X)+ w. and the below.AFFINE CONNECTION of its points XI is thus provided with an affine mapping A smooth field of frames is chosen in a coordinate (An)x. In the intersection of the coordinate Thus. for (An)x. a vector field X=~iei is given. ui(O)=ei' where (An)x. is called the covariant differential of the field X with ture equations of the affine connection on M.[8j+wj(X)t+t:j(t)].~ +~rjk] dxke" according to (3). where Xis the tangent vector to L ]k ax' ax) axk ]k ax) axk ax" at Xo. Torsion form. wj = rjk dXk. in some neighbourhood of the point Xo. Here left-hand sides .(Y)d(X). Xi =Xi(t) are the defining equations of the curve L. --~~f' + 2 x' ax' a (6) e. '2R]kIW I\w. is obtained with the aid of (5) into which w' = Ajw'. the mapping for the initial conditions u(O)=O. The system fjk is spaces (An)x with origins at the point x.~(An)xo' the Q'. the system consisting of the point in (An)x o with posi. when XI moves along L towards Xo. 56 . lim (j(t) = 0. linearly independent at each point du = (W')X(I}(x(t»u" 1 (5) X of the domain. The origin of these frames coincides with X (i. } l ]I vector Xx (I) is mapped into the vector ~i(xl)ei(t) (where (3) Qj = dwj+wkl\wj. defined on P and satisfying which may also be defined with respect to an arbitrary equations (3) with left-hand sides of type (4). wk (2) is to be substituted. During the and the curvature tensor of the affine connection on M. Here the respect to the given affine connection. 1 field X=~iei' If a second vector field Y=1{ek is given. t~O t t~O t Rjkl = ax~ - A manifold M with an affine connection defined on Here Sjk and Rjkl are. of functions fjk on each coordinate neighbourhood ej = A j ei. as du) = (wj)X(t)(x(t»u" t~O. wi. then. k] k] I. when (An)x.r~/r'ik' (7) lim M = 0. XEM according to the formulas ei =A{-ej. Aj =ox i /ox j and tion vector ei[wi(X)t +t:i(t)] and n vectors r L . with respect to some position vector X (t) with respect to Xo is known as the frame.are semi-basic (cf.

: 'Sur les varietes a connexion affine et la throrie R(X. RAsHEVSKI11: Riemannsche Geometrie und Tensorana/yse. [5) POSTNIKOV. The 412.. if V x(t)Xx(t) =0 holds identically with respect to t. of tensors) in an affine ences in English are [A2] and [A3]... [3B]. Independence of the vectors e. i = 1. The point d 2 Xi dxi dx k o is called the initial point. . E. R. Useful additional up-to-date refer- ment of vectors (and. the affine coordinate frame by n numbers . [3B) CARTAN. E. 42 (1925). and NOMIzu. . To closed curves with origin and end at x space An which converts the first frame into the second there correspond affine transformations (An)x ~(An)x' (see also Affine coordinate system).K. in other words. definition is as follows. E. E. Springer. In particular. and which possesses connection).A set of n defined with respect to a local coordinate system by the linearly-independent vectors ej (i = 1.. Polon. S. S(X. mapping (An)x. it found an independent meaning in 1918 - the properties: 1924 owing to work of H.d = O. Soc. Deutsch.: Lectures on differential geometry.M. which form the non-homogenous holonomy group of A. H. 1-25. if. Editorial comments. one may consult [A 1]. France 52 (1924). i. Math. the vectors theorem. Y]. References [1) WEYL. P.(M)~Txo(M). Instead of the articles [3A]. while the vectors ej are the . ~(An)xo' In this sense any affine con- [A2] KOBAYASHI. x EM. i. jYx = f yX. Prentice- Hall.: The variational theory of geodeSiCS.coordi- desic line. . 40 (1923). Parallel vector fields are used to effect parallel displace. connection if its development is a straight line. along L. AFFINE COORDINATE FRAME An affine connection on M may also be defined as a The concept of an affine connection arose in 1917 in bilinear operator V which assigns a vector field V y X Riemannian geometry (in the form of the Levi-Civita to each two vector fields X and Y.Pn which are holonomy group. An affine coordinate frame in affine automorphisms TX<M)~TX<M) form the homogeneous n-space is a set of n + 1 points Po. geometry. Cremonese.J. 2 (1923). 325- V ek ej = f)k ej where {ej} is the field of frames.P. by a suitable parametrization. y(jX) = (Yj)X + f yX. Y)ei' [2C] CARTAN. for torsion-free affine connections. its tangent vec. Cartan [2]. Geodesic lines are AFFINE COORDINATE FRAME . M.lI\W J' dO. S(X. and more usual. 1. 1963. [2B) CARTAN.: Raum. Y) = x Y -yX-[X.y]z. A. R(X. in each direction passes one geo. representing a linear mapping of the References tangent vector spaces Tx. dt t t scale vectors. Y)Z = (R)k/~rI')I!ei = O)(X. Y) = S)kI'!T/ei = Oi(X. occuring in the decomposition of the position There is a one-to-one correspondence between affine vector OM by the scale vectors: OM=xses (summation connections on M and connections in principal fibre convention). 1959 A vector field X is said to be parallel along the curve L (translated from the Russian). The specification of two affine coordinate bundles of free affine frames in (An)x. 1971. E.K.J = Oik I\wJk -Wik I\ok . [3A) CARTAN. K.: Theorie globale des connexions et des groupes d'holonomie. Bull. and TROYER.: 'Sur les espaces it connexion conforme'. . Zeit. 1955. connection. Materie. if..: 'Sur les varietes a connexion affine et la theorie fields of the torsion tensor and curvature tensor de la relativite generaIisee (premiere partie suite)" 41 (1924). Y) = xyZ-yxZ -[X. the Lie algebras of these groups are defined by Po Pi . S.: Metric affine geometry.e. nates x j . generated frames defines a unique affine transformation of the by them.. these identities reduce to the following: Academic Press. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53B05 tor field x(t) is parallel to it.: 'Sur les varietes it connexion projective'. . Any point M is defined with respect to Through each point. Verlag Wissenschaft. identities apply to the latter: in the definition should be understood as independence in a dO i = Oil\w ] i -(. and a point O. y)wi(Z)ei de la relativite generaIisee (deuxieme partie)'. The Bianchi corresponding vector space. are defined by the formulas: Math. 1923. E. 171-221. [P.OJ' corresponding vector space. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N10 57 . In accordance with the holonomy linearily independent in the affine sense. Ann. 205-241. generally. are linearly independent in the the 2-forms of torsion OJ and curvature OJ. -2-+ f j kd . Soc. Wiley (Interscience). Weyl [1] and E. Moscow.. The corresponding linear Editorial comments. A curve L is called a geodesic line in a given affine [A3] STERNBERG. 17-88.e.n. (j Lumiste d~i +I'!wj = 0. 1964.: Foundations of differential nection generates a linear connection on M. 1965 (in Russian).n) of n- system dimensionru affine space An. where f is a smooth function on M. Shirokov the given affine connection. An equivalent. . defined by the [A 1] LICHNEROWICZ..: 'Sur les varietes a connexion affine et la throrie between these definitions is established by the formula de la reIativite generaIisee (premiere partie)'. The relation [2A) CARTAN. OJ =0. when References [A1) SNAPPER. [4) RASHEWSKI.

e2.A differential invariant of a curve parallel to the tangent at M. 10 In the affine theory of space curves and surfaces there are also notions of affine curvature which resemble the The differential invariants K=(r'. The differential space is defined as an ordered triplet of linearly. length. As in the k = [dds 2r ' . two more invari- curve in the geometry of the unimodular affine (or ants of the curve are considered: the affine arc length a equi-affine) group. The vectors. c the invariant (a. equi-centro-affine arc length and equi-centro-affine curvature of a plane curve There is a geometrical interpretation of the affine cur. In this geometry the affine (or.A rectilinear For references. the equi-affine) curvature of a plane curve terms of the invariants s and k introduced above: y = y (x) is calculated by the formula a = jkl/2ds K = _l_. With the aid of this concept.r) 11/3dt. They can be expressed in exactly. (In equi-affine geometry. Planes passing through pairs of coordinate Constant equi-affine curvature characterizes curves of axes are known as coordinate planes. more and the affine curvature K.the surface area of the parallelogram which are the coefficients of the decomposition of the constructed on a and b. axes. The natural parameter (equi-affine arc length) affine curvature at M 0 then is of a curve r=r(t) (rEe 3) is defined by the formula ko = ± lim "' /nO(a-s). b have an point M are given by an ordered pair of numbers (x. e3 and a point O. s = jl (r. are constructed in a similar manner.The branch ing through the point 0 and parallel to the basis vec. The vectors e) perties of curves and surfaces that are invariant under and e2 define the positive direction on the coordinate transformations of the affine group or its subgroups. The axis parallel to the vector e) is called the The differential geometry of equi-affine space has been abscissa (axis). The vector n =d 2 r / ds 2 is directed along the affine normal AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N1 0 to a plane curve. understood to mean the differential invariant of the Passing to the general affine group.!. while the 10 second number y is called the ordinate of M. known as the equi-affine arc length. can be constructed An affine coordinate system in three-dimensional for a non-rectilinear curve r=r(t). AFFINE DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY . r. more exactly. An affine coordi. see Affine differential geometry. which is the arc MoM and let (J be the affine length of the arc of volume of the oriented parallelepiped defined by these the parabola tangent to this curve at M 0 and M. and coincides with plane curve in the geometry of the general aff'me group the diameter of the parabola which has third-order con- or a subgroup of it. r'''. c).dk . The first number x is called the abscissa.and the coordinates is called the equi-affine curvature of the plane curve.AFFINE COORDINATE SYSTEM AFFINE COORDINATE SYSTEM . A. respective notions of Euclidean differential geometry. The straight lines pass. vector OM by the basis vectors: the invariant parameter OM = xel +ye2. for the sake of brevity. equi-affine) arc selves are called the affine arc length and the affine length of the curve is curvature. Parkhomenko mines a curve up to an equi-affine transformation. called the ordinate (axis). b. k 3 / 2 ds' k = -t[(Y")-2/3f. r"''). vature at a point M 0 of the curve: Let M be a point on In equi-affine space it is possible to assign to any the curve close to M 0.P. r"'').] ds 2 3 case of the plane. let s be the affine length of the three vectors a. the second order. of geometry dealing with the differential-geometric pro- tors are known as the coordinate axes. b. Shirokov nate system on a plane is defined by an ordered pair of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A15 non-collinear vectors e) and e2 (an affine basis) and a point 0 (the coordinate origin). is the tangent to the locus of the mid-chords of the AFFINE CURVATURE . k=j=O. invariant independent vectors e).!!!. The affine curvature is usually tact with the curve at M. the affine normal at a point M.S. r) 11/ 6 dt. of a point. b) . M~Mo V·S5 s = j I (r. the magnitudes sand k them- while the affine (or. where the primes denote differentia- 58 . one defines the coordinate axes - abscissa. coordinate system in an atTme space. ordinate and applicate . r"'.) The centro-affine arc s = f(y'')1/3 dx. y) invariant (a. A natural equation k = f (s) deter- A. while that parallel to the vector e2 is most thoroughly studied. T= -(r". centro-affine curvature. The affine coordinates of a In an equi-affine plane any two vectors a.

to the surface and subject to the normalization condi- 4. are called. the surface. The subgroups both in three-dimensional and in multi- vector dimensional spaces (centro-affine. E.). r2.12 [V-g] IJ called a line element (M.. Blaschke. affine-symplectic. developable surface r=r(u 1 . also studied. m) and (N. A point M of A. 1985. 1923. congruences and complexes of straight lines. makes it possible to construct the symmetric point of intersection of the straight lines m and n. IS [3] NORDEN. Thales Verlag. r. de Gruyter. [5] SHIROKOV. U. 'r+K! } affine and equi-affine spaces: affine spheres (for which the affine normals form a bundle). The covariant tensor Tijk = gksT'fj . A. is especially impor- In addition to curves and surfaces. 2. where V k is the symbol of the covariant derivative with References respect to the metric tensor gij' determines the direction [I] BLASCHKE. Affine of the affine normal to the surface. 1962 (translated from the Russian). such as developed [5]. In the three-dimensional equi-affine space the affine distance may also be defined in terms q.: Affine Differentialgeometrie. A P Sh· k .F. affine surfaces of revolution (the affine normals intersect one proper or and defined by the fourth-order differential neighbour- improper straight line).P. All these statements have appropriate reduced to selecting some moving frame. and the Fubini . Geom 1963 (1965). The connections lk 2k AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A 15 fij and fij AFFINE DISTANCE . ajri = fijr. equi-centro-affine. W. [2] SALKOWSKI. formed by the vectors Many specific classes of surfaces are distinguished in {r.An invariant determined by are conjugate with respect to the tensor gij in the sense two line elements in an equi-aff'me plane. 35-88. W. see [A1]. _ aij development is also in progress of the differential gij . hood of the curve being studied. in Wilhelm Blaschke gesammelte Werke. There also arises at the same time an 2k Teubner. the frame generalizations in the multi-dimensional case. For the development of affine dif- 2' ferential geometry after W. where f Ij' which also plays a major part in projective differential is the surface area of the triangle MNP and P is the geometry.Pick cubic form straight lines and planes.: 'Zur Entwicklung der affine Differentialgeometrie nach Blaschke'. vector The· following tensor is constructed for a non- fields. References where JI is a covariant vector defining the tangent plane [A1] SIMON.The branch of geometry 59 . Itogi Nauk. determine the surface up to equi-affine torsion of the spatial curve. tion NJI= 1. etc. the equi-affine curvature and the equi-affine tial conditions. 3-64 (in Russian). AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N1 0. The derivational equations 1934. bi-affine. The centro-affine theory of spatial curves has been objects in equi-affine space are. affine minimal surfaces.: Differentialgeometrie.jk = o. The tensor together with a straight line m passing through it is TkIJ = . 51 N25 These forms are connected by the apolarity condition gijT. the quadratic form Affine parameter). passes through the centre of the osculating Lie quadric. Shirokov '" = Tijk du i du j du k . rij = aijr. etc.A. ri = air.: Spaces with an affine connection. For two line elements (M. Nauka. P.: Vorlesungen aber Differentialgeometrie und geometrische Grundlagen von Einsteins Relativitatstheorie. affine distance for two elements tangent to a parabola The two principal surface forms are also constructed: is equal to the affine arc length of this parabola (cf. Springer. The affine normal Differentialgeometrie. A. etc. other geometrical tant. u 2) in equi-affine space: In parallel with equi-affine differential geometry. G.P.P. + AijJl. Norden [3]. a =det(ai). The study of the curve is transformations. laI 1 / 4 ' geometry of the general affine group and of its other where aij =(rJ. Vol. a/Ii = fijJl. n) the affine distance is 2j1 /3. 1k [4] LAPTEV. +gijN Moscow-Leningrad. 1976 (in Russian). m). AFFINE GEOMETRY . Iro ov intrinsic connection of the second kind f ij . which satisfy supplementary differen- respectively. pp. and SHIROKOV. A. AFFINE GEOMETRY tion with respect to the natural parameter. rij). Two such forms. = gij du i du j of elements consisting of pairwise incident points.P. defined by the derivational equations Editorial comments.: 'Differential geometry of multi-dimensional sur- define an intrinsic connection of the first kind fij of faces'.

51 N1 0 surface does not degenerate. and GROTHENDIECK. at M. f: X~S is a finite morphism if there [A2] MESERVE.e. Mobius. 1969.E. N. pp. As distinct from ordinary the parabola that has third-order contact with the curve minimal surfaces. that f. as a result. corresponding to these groups. Math.A.: 'The cohomology theory of abstract alge- [2] EFiMOV. any affine S- appearance in 1872 of the Erlangen program. which means that it is a root transformations of an affine space. other geometry. Dolgachev [A 1] BORSUK. Congress Edinburgh.( (') x). v. A. Conversely.P. Under com- groups (cf. P. correspondence with the homomorphisms of the tions contains various subgroups.The affine-invariant manner at each point of a hypersurface intersection of all translated subspaces containing M.: Fundamental concepts of geometry. 1960. A. in an affine space with the aid of the third-order dif- V. Deutsch. 14E40 AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N1 0 AFFINE NORMAL . References tion). according scheme definable by an affine morphism f: X ~S is to which each group of transformations has its own isomorphic (as a scheme over S) to the scheme geometry. if for each xEBa the module Aa[x] is a tive transformations that map a fixed hyperplane of the finitely-generated module over Aa. Internat. IHES 4 (I960). the affine normal of a tic points. Moscow. A.A surface whose point M of a plane curve coincides with the diameter of affine curvature is zero. denoted by SpecA. Shirokov AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14A 15.A morphism of schemes invariant with respect to affine transformations (cf. in Proc. projective space into itself (cf. Danilov References I. subordinated Closed imbeddings of schemes or arbitrary mor- geometries equi-affine geometry. exist a covering (Sa) of S by affine open subschemes such Addison-Wesley. centro-affine phisms of affine schemes are affine morphisms. R. B. Springer. Pool. 1960 (translated from the Russian). zation of a scheme is an affine morphism. Math. [A1] HARTSHORNE. [1] GROTHENDIECK. PWN. a similar an affine minimal surface may contain elliptic points as interpretation can be given to the affine normal to a well. J. Verlag Wissen. V. A) determines an affine S- concept of 'affine geometry' only arose following the scheme.1 (Sa) is finitely generated as a module over the ring Aa of Sa· The morphism is entire if Ba is entire over A a. which consist of saddle points only. it is essential that the principal quadratic form of the hyper- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 15A03. A. in the Let S be a scheme. examples of affine morphisms are entire morphisms Affine geometry also deals with problems of differential and finite morphisms. It is a subgroup of of a monic polynomial with coefficients in A a . schaft. Shirokov AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A 15 AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A 15 60 . .The fundamental group of every xEBa integral over A a . Thus.: 'Elements de Editorial comments.F. The scheme X is tion for three points to lie on a straight line. subscheme in S is an affine scheme. E.S. was the first to study the (') s-algebras and let Ui be open affine subschemes in S properties of geometric images that go over into each which form a covering of S. V. an elliptic paraboloid consists only of ellip. If tangent hyper-quadrics are employed. V. position and base change the property of a morphism References to be an affine morphism is preserved. f : X ~S such that the pre-image of any open affine Affine transfonnation). however. In particular. and is an affine minimal surface. Then the glueing of the other as a result of affine transformations.: Hohere Geometrie. hypersurface.arose. Shikin A. 1955. [1] ALEKSANDROV. the subject of which are the properties of the SpecJ.1 (Sa) is affine for all IX and such that the ring Ba of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N 10 f. if AFFINE GROUP .: Lectures on analytical geometry. Shikin [2] DIEUDONNE.A straight line defined in an AFFINE HULL of a set M in a vector space . equivalently. ( (') z). i. let A be a quasi-coherent sheaf of first half of the 19-th century. The affine normal at a AFFINE MINIMAL SURFACE . K. or.AFFINE GEOMETRY whose subject are the properties of figures that are AFFINE MORPIDSM . References 1968 (in Russian). in addi. hyper-quadric coincides with its diameter. Two English-language references geometrie algebrique'. P. parallelity of straight lines (planes). Zalgaller ferential neighbourhood of this hypersurface. Projective transfonna. Affine differential geometry). 1977.: Algebraic geometry.. Examples are the simple rela. etc. sheaves of (') s-algebras A ~J. Thus the morphism of normali- geometry corresponding to specific transformation sub. Editorial comments. braic varieties'. or the called an affine S-scheme. the projective group and is represented by those projec. Press. 103-118. 1958. are [A 1].I. The set of S-morphisms of an S-scheme figures that are invariant with respect to the transfor. the affine schemes Spec f( Ui . f: Z ~S into the affine S-scheme SpecA is in bijective mations of this group. The group of affine transforma. tion to general affine geometry. [A2]. Cambridge Univ.V.: Multidimensional analytic geometry. E.

the affine p'arameter is s = 2l /3. The morphisms of an arbitrary AFFINE PSEUDO-DISTANCE The number scheme (X. A). Publish or Perish. for the affine length of an arc MoM 1 of a ring A with respect to the multiplicative system parabola. provided with unimodular group. If M' is held fixed. while M is moved equivalence of these categories. SpecA. which is the same. The best known is the topological space SpecA and a sheaf of rings A on parameter which is invariant with respect to the equi. S. [A3]). AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A15.: Semi-Riemannian geometry. M. t).: Differential geometry. Science Press.1(p) for _p~SpecB)! and a homomorphism of sheaves of rings </I: A ~a</l:(B). B)~(SpecA. in which the basis of open sets is constituted by the subsets D(f)={pESpecA: fflp}. For a plane curve r=r(t) this affine the Zariski topology (or.(t)x(t) =0 The affine schemes form a category if the morphisms is valid (cf. for the determination of which the object in the theory of schemes. who created the theory of schemes.A) = A f . homomorphism of rings </>. A ~B define_s a morphism of [A2] BUCHIN. or regular. equal to the modulus of the vector pro- (which are also called X-valued points of SpecA) are in duct of the vectors MM' and t. in the along the curve. References are considered as morphisms of affine schemes.e.O. 1983. AFFINE SCHEME . f(D(f). f) x). thus. affine schemes: (SpecB. Each [A1] SPIVAK. The sheaf of to local ~gs A is defined by the condition where (r. The mor- pseudo-distance in an equi-affine space can be defined phisms of affine schemes which correspond to surjective in a similar manner for a given hypersurface. above is sometimes refered to as the special affine arc integrally closed. A) p=(MM'. respectively) if the Editorial comments. the general affine group or anyone of its subgroups. Academic Press.. homomorphisms of rings are called closed imbeddings of A. A. respectively) if the topological space autoparaliel curve) of an affine connection is a parametriza. i. 2. An affine scheme consists _of a lowest order must be known. where Af is the localization of the In particular. Gor. cf. the correspondence plane curve r = r(s). consisting of don and Breach. B. r) is the skew product of the vectors rand r. f) x) into an affine scheme (SpecA. Shirokov affine schemes. The notion of an 'affine parameter' is also used in the scheme is called connected (irreducible. where M' is an arbi. A scheme MI' It is possible to introduce in a similar manner the is a ringed space which is locally isomorphic to an affine parameter of a space curve in the geometry of affine scheme. 1983. SpecA is the set of all prime ideals of A affine transformations.A generalization of the concept ter on a curve which is preserved under transformations of an affine variety. An affine parameter of a geodesic (an quasi-compact. (a<f>(p)=</I. dual to the constructions of the on the affine normal of the curve at M.. or regular. which establishes an anti- from M' to M. with respect to the affine (called the points of the affine scheme). respectively). a one-to-one correspondence with the homomorphisms trary point in an equi-affme plane.. AFFINE SCHEME AFFINE PARAMETER. affine arc length . M is a point on a of rings A~f(X. where f is {i}n. Let A be a commuta- derivatives of the position vector of the curve of the tive ring with a unit. discrete. An affine direct sum and the tensor product of rings.A parame. considered as locally ringed spaces. Localization in a commutative algebra. or theory of geodesics. without nilpotents. where f runs t~ough the elements of A. 51 N25 The most important examples of affine schemes are 61 . This number p is called the affine pseudo-distance category of affine schemes. An affine length. Grothen- and the tangents to the parabola at the points M 0 and dieck [1]. the continuous mapping a</>: SpecB~SpecA [A3] O'NEILL.r) 11/3dt. s is the affine parameter of the A ~(SpecA. \l . of these schemes.P' Shirokov An affine scheme SpecA is called Noetherian (integral. which plays the role of a local of the affine group. the area of the triangle formed by the chord MoM 1 Affine schemes were first introduced by A. In particular. normal. The arc length given by the formula ring A is Noetherian (integral. s = 11 (r. Here. The space SpecA of tion x(t) of the geodesic such that for the corresponding an affine scheme is always compact (and usually not covariant derivative \l the equation Hausdorff).: Affine differential geometry. 1970. with the parameter is computed by the formula: spectral topology). which transforms the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A 15. A) is a contravariant functor from the curve and t=dr / ds is the tangent vector at the point category of commutative rings with a unit into the M.P. reduced. the affine pseudo-distance from M' to category of affine schemes there are finite direct sums M will assume a stationary value if and only if M' lies and fibre products. SpecA also has these properties. 53B05 section a / f of the sheaf A over the set D (f) into the section <f>(a) / <P(f).

its points a=(a1. J. 1977. I.: Algebraic geometry. f«u]. in Math. The affine group Aff(A) space) to which corresponds a vector space Lover k contains an invariant subgroup. . R. If L is a a bijection of A on L. and if H1(X.. and DIEUDONNE. The pre- ab+bt:+w = 0. a Examples. and DIEUDONNE. The affine group of References the affine space A (kn) is denoted by Affn(k). 1971. which is denoted by a + I. ••• . Reference [A1] is. (parallel) translations. i.bn) deter- coherent sheaves of A-modules on SpecA. space A and denoted by Aff(A). [A2] GROTHENDIECK. M) = 0 if q>O. A. ab. AFFINE SPACE over a field k . projective mine the vector ab=(b 1 -a1. Dolgachev The affine isomorphisms of an affine space A into Editorial comments. Springer. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14A15.' . 1 (1969). Affine unimodular group). b)EA XA is denoted by ab and is called the is isomorphic to the additive group of the vector space vector with beginning in a and end in b). the additive group schemes (cf. The mapping J~CP defines a surjective homomor- following properties: phism of Aff(A) into the general linear group GL.. b EA " forms a subspace of L. IHES 4 (1960)... . stan. ity) states that if (X.bn-an)· modules correspond to locally free sheaves.an) and b=(b 1. of vectors of the space L acts freely and transitively on In a manner similar to the construction of the sheaf the affine space corresponding to L. The where -0 denotes the zero vector.I. F)=O for any quasi-coherent subspace (or a linear manifold) in A if the set of vectors sheaf of (!) x-modules F. is the subgroup of parallel translations as kernel.. Each ele- [A1] HARTSHORNE. V. 14L17. The coho. c EA the relationship is called the subgroup oj Euclidean motions. R. An alternative to [1] is [A2].: 'Algebraic geometry'. braic or differential) equations is an affine space the associated space of which is the space of solutions of The converse of this theorem (Serre's criterion for affin- the corresponding homogeneous set of equations. Adv. = ~a1aj +c. Publ. This group element (a. In particular. J. the pre-image of the orthogonal group b) for any points a. A. Group scheme).: Lectures on algebraic geometry. [4]. . J. it 62 . 2) The complement of any hyperplane in a projective mology spaces of quasi-coherent sheaves over an affine space over the field k is an affine space. Moscow. Each affine sub- Other criteria for affinity also exist [1]. b. image of the special linear group SGL is called the equi-affine subgroup (d. Euclidean space.: 'Elements de ment of A'. called the affine group of the affine dard. Springer. J(a+I)=J(a)+<p(I) for all aEA 1. subgroup Ga CAffn(A) consisting of the mappings sion of L is taken for the dimension of the affine space f:A~A such that J(a +l)=a+<p(l) for a given aEA A. The dimen. .A set A (the ele. of course. x EA. called the subgroup oj (which is called the space associated to A) and a map. 233-321. 1. the field of scalars is an f(D(j). A it is p~ssible to ~nstruct. [2] DIEUDONNE.: 'Schemes with finite- dimensional cohomology groups'. IEL 1. space A' CA has the form a+L' ={a+/: IEL'}. 14K99 where b. then A (kn) is Such sheaves are called quasi-coherent. .. A point a EA and a vector IE L define another and arbitrary I EL is called the centro-affine subgroup. A mapping J :A 1 ~A 2 between affine spaces A 1 and geometrie algebrique'. affine mapping is called an affine isomorphism. M) = Mf = M® AAf . which has the L.bn).: Elements de ment JEAffn(k) is given by a formula geometrie algebrique. Danilov morphic. If L =k n. is valid. while a is an arbitrary ele- [I] GROTHENDIECK.'" . and HARTSHORNE. (!) x) is a compact separable A subset A' of an affine space A is called an affine scheme. Math. where References L' is some subspace in L. J.I. It replaces [3]. The category of called the n-dimensional affine space over the field k.AFFINE SCHEME affine varieties. A 2 is called affine if there exists a linear mapping of [3] MANIN. consisting of the mappings ping of the set A XA into the space L (the image of an J: A ~A for which cp: L~L is the identity. Amer. Yu. itself form a group. other examples are affine group point. with a) for any fixed point a the mapping x~a1. J. scheme are described by Serre's theorem: 3) The set of solutions of a system of linear (alge- Hq(SpecA. for any A-module M. Math. then X is an affine scheme. 1970 the associated vector spaces cp: L 1~L2 such that (in Russian). and A-modules is equival~ent to the category of quasi. a. 1) The set of the vectors of the space L is sheaf of A-modules M on SpecA for which the affine space A (L). affine space of dimension 1.e. j ments of which are called the points of the affine (a{) being an invertible matrix. A bijective [4] GooDMAN.an» = (b l . 1. All 258-266. the space associated to it con- cides with L. affine spaces of the same dimension are mutually iso- v. 91 (1969).

Shirokov References [I] BOURBAKI. An affine isomorphism is also AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A 15 called an affine collineation. It is usually said that the tensor com.' 'Sp } 1}q SI Sp JI Jq tI . 1967. [A2] GREUB. [A3] DODSON. V. correspond three points also lying on a straight line. any surface of the second order is an planes are mapped into intersecting planes. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N1 0.: Tensor geometry. "'A'ipAt. A. and q copies of the dual vector space E~. non-degenerate (non-homogeneous) linear transforma- mation with respect to the lower. tion. M. S. Chap!.H. Shirokov tion is analytically expressed by the formulas Editorial comments. intersecting In particular. ~ =A'I.A surface the affine normals (cf. V. 1977. An intersecting lines.. Dolgachev don and Breach. B. 1983. S. where to three points lying on a straight line (translated from the French). T. Having chosen a straight lines is equal to the ratio of their images. c. q). An affine transfor- ponents undergo a contravariant transformation with mation is defined in an affine coordinate system by a respect to the upper indices.One of the differential invari- space L. while paral- affine sphere. 1984 (translated from the Russian). thus. parallel straight lines. The basis {e.: Multilinear algebra. variety with the Zariski toplogy (cf. A. otherwise it is proper. Springer. References y' = C21 X + C2V+ C23. Such a tensor Under an affine transformation the ratio between is said to be of type (p. Shirokov Editorial comments. An equi-affine group is also called a Euclidean group. AFFINE TRANSFORMA nON is isomorphic to the general linear group GL of the AFFINE TORSION . 15A03 Thus. and POSTON. An improper convex affine sphere is an lel planes are mapped into parallel planes.(r". and NOVIKOV. 2 itself. .An element of the tensor pro.: Elements 0fmathematics. '. Affine transformations in space are defined in a similar AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 15A69. the mutual location of two straight lines is preserved: E. 1. AFFINE TRANSFORMATION of a Euclidean space - References A one-to-one point mapping of the plane or space into [A1] BERGER. r"'.P.} in En.methods and applications. T = . J. or degree. FOMENKO.. Science Press.A. Gor- l. the number p + q defining directed segments lying on the same line or on parallel the valency. N. Linear algebra.T. Springer. times called an affine space. Shikin intersecting straight lines are mapped into intersecting AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 53A 15 straight lines.. W. Addison-Wesley. An affine tensor as described above is commonly called Simply a tensor. skew-field k are constructed in a similar manner. mapping of each plane onto some plane. and parallel lines into parallel lines.. An affine transformation of space results in an affine itely distant (or improper (ideal». References Chapt..J. by an affine transformation straight lines are transformed into straight lines. Moreover. x = CIIX +CIV +C13. space). [A 1] DUBROVIN. and this mapping is linear. A. ants of a curve in equi-affine space: In algebraic geometry an affine algebraic set is some. 1'1 ' to-one mapped on a set of vectors in the plane (in where AjA. Affine spaces associated with a vector space over a Similar concepts are introduced for curves in spaces with other fundamental groups such as centro-affine. in the case of a plane. =8).T.: Affine differential geometry. tion of the plane transforms intersecting lines into Affine normal) of which intersect at one point. An affine transforma- AFFINE SPHERE .l. r"''). of the tensor. parallel straight lines are mapped into AFFINE TENSOR .. one defines an affine tensor of type ratio between the surface areas of two measurable fig- (p. an affine transforma- A.. elliptic paraboloid. [1] BUCHIN. 1987. = A Jes volumes of two measurable bodies (in the Euclidean according to the formula space) are preserved as well. 63 .P. affine sphere is said to be improper if this point is infin.. A finite-dimensional affine space can be provided with the structure of an affine where the primes denote differentiation with respect to the affine parameter of the position vector of the curve. "'A/qT. structures. 2 (translated from the French). Springer.: Modern with the supplementary condition geometry . while skew lines are mapped into duct of p copies of an n-dimensional vector space En skew lines.. 1974. Algebra: Algebraic Editorial comments. Pitman.: Geometry. Under an affine transfor- mation a set of vectors in the plane (in space) is one- r". 53A45 manner. I. and a covariant transfor. which ures (on the Euclidean plane) and the ratio between the transform as a result of a change of basis e..P... q) with the aid of nP +q components 1)'. also Affine scheme).T.

The affine variety X=Speck[T 1 . . The subset of the which straight lines are preserved.M. This makes it possible to References introduce the concept of volume in an equi-affine [A 1] SHAFAREVICH.S. . . hyperbolas into hyperbolas. The set X (k) is in a bijec- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N1 0 tive correspondence with the set of maximal ideals Specm (A) of the ring A. Each affine algebraic set over sian). which in terms of To each affine variety X=SpecA a functor on the coordinates take the form x' = C11 x+ C13. which is a space with a fundamental affine uni- modular group. Similitudes.: Introduction to geometry. is called affine space over k and is denoted by AZ.metric (respec- tively. algebra A defines a surjective homomorphism Affine transformations are the most general one-to- one mappings of a plane (a space) into itself under cp: k[TJ. Y' = -ec12x+ec11y+c23 algebraic set. [A 1) COXETER. P. the elements of the set [A2] MESERVE. X(k) (respectively..E. Moscow. the order of the transformations isomorphic to the group of all matrices curves being preserved.R. In particular. Dolgachev and x are interpreted as rectangular coordinates of Editorial comments. an algebraically closed field. Tn]. where k[X] is the coordinate ring of X. isomorphic to the ring A. H. A. . 1973 (in Rus. tions to three pairwise-perpendicular planes. Such a second order is converted into a curve of the second group of matrices is called the unimodular group or spe- order. one puts a = 0.: AnalytiC geometry. Parkhomenko k in turn defines an algebraic variety Speck[X]. Addison-Wesley.AFFINE TRANSFORMATION Under an affine transformation an algebraic curve is one obtains a centro-affine unimodular group of converted into an algebraic curve. affine algebraic variety .: BaSIC algebraic geometry. in formulas (*). ciallinear group of order n and is denoted by SL(n). Wiley. the similar- affine scheme is an affine variety if and only if it is iso- ity transformations constitute a subgroup of this group. rational) points of X. It is defined by the constitute another interesting subgroup of the group of correspondence: affine transformations.: Lectures on analytical geometry.M. Each eralization of the concept of an affme algebraic set.. B). and uni- AFFINE VARIETY. Shirokov etc. where A is a com- to two mutually-perpendicular straight lines. Each mutative k-algebra of finite type without nilpotent ele- affine transformation in a space is a product of an ments. set "k n consisting of the common zeros of all the poly- References nomials of the ideal ker cp is an affine algebraic set over (1) ALEKSANDROV. M. I. . that satisfy the condition det(A) = 1. If the vectors x I. 1961.A gen- form contractions of a plane to a straight line. . equi-affine group - an algebraic set V whose coordinate ring is isomorphic The subgroup of the general affine group consisting of to A. then AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14A 10 64 . References B ~ X(B) = Homk -alg(A. parabolas into parabolas.: Fundamental concepts of geometry. 1968 (in Russian). V.e. The coordinate ring of such an affine algebraic set is [2) POSTNIKOV. Moscow. morphic to a reduced closed subscheme of an affine the set of isometric transformations is a subgroup of space. A. If ~=k (respectively.S. . An affine transformation in a plane is a product of an affine variety is a reduced affme scheme X of finite isometric transformation and two uniform contractions type over a field k. If. Tn] is the ring of polynomials over k. if B=k). space.Xn of a k- the group of similarity transformations. • . 1977 (translated from the Russian). 1955. defined by the formula CP(Ti)=Xi' Let "k be the algebraic closure of k. dimensional domains of P. Springer. The spectral topology in the space X induces on the affine transformations of the n-dimensional affine the everywhere-dense subset Specm (A ) a topology space X 1-+ X = Ax+a (*) which corresponds to the Zariski topology on V. i. ellipses are converted into ellipses. moreover. X(k)) are called ge<!. then means a reduced and irreducible scheme of finite type over the transformation (*) will preserve the volumes of n.S. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 20H05 Examples of affine transformations: isometric transformations. isometric transformation and three uniform contrac- where k [T 1. or homothetic transformations. . . k. An The affine transformations form a group. B. . Frequently the name 'variety' points in the n-dimensional Euclidean space En. . . similarity transformations.P. a curve of the of order n with determinant equal to one. and with the set of points of AFFINE UNIMODULAR GROUP. In terms of coordinates like above similarity transformations take the form an affine variety is in a one-to-one correspondence with the irreducible subvarieties of the corresponding affine x' = C11X+C12Y+C13. The set of points of Editorial comments.Tn]~A. X = SpecA.. i = C22Y+ C23' category of k-algebras is assigned. Each system of generators Xl.

Fock function). one is concerned here with the The first Airy function (or simply the Airy function) isomorphism VI8i V~End(V) of linear algebra.Fok function ous problems of physics. V. w 27Ti 3 =e / .The second-order linear ordi.An affine tensor of type (1. and STEGUN. a caustic'.I / 3: v(z) = V. (EDS.The point in the complex For complex values of z plane corresponding to this number.. y(x) = C. AFFIx OF A COMPLEX NUMBER Z = a + bi in its geometric representation . correspondence by which the matrix If} I is assigned Bureau of Standards.A. W2(Z) = 2e.(z) = 2e i7T / 6v(wz). Fedoryuk to each affinor realizes an isomorphism between the algebra of affinors and the algebra of matrices.M. so are w( wz) and w( w2 z). [3) ABRAMOWITZ.A. Cambridge Phi/os. V. The following identities hold: analysis.P. Fock [V..1 00 ] xt dt. by Bi(z) = iw 2 Ai(w2Z)-iwAi(wz). + 00) is a contour in the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 30-01 complex t-plane.Particular solutions of the Airy A.. v(z) = 2i . ] + v(x) = IX~/4 [Sin[tlxI3/2+~]+O(IXI-3/2)J. I x I »1. 55..0] U [0. x~+oo. 6 (1838). then so v(x) decreases rapidly for x >0. w. 1964. Trans. its solutions are regarded as forming a distinct w. and any mation. Moscow.A brief synonym for an affine transfor. ° which converges for all z. w(z) = w(o) (l+~+ Z6 2·3 (2. Since the Airy equation plays an important role in vari. 1). wJ(z) and W2(Z) are linearly indepen- w"-zw = 0. 3 identified with the complex number itself. Vol.S. 2) If w(z) 'jE is a solution of the Airy equation. Nat. Math. The affix is sometimes 1 [exp [ Ai(z) = 2". M. is defined by Icos [3-T + AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 15A69.A.. i. Fok]: general solution can be expressed in terms of Bessel functions of order +. b). and BULDYREv. Series.w.B.: 'On the intensity of light in the neighbourhood of AFFINOR . The fol- X' = A~xs +a'.:6'7) + . AIRY FUNCflONS . Its by V.4. ]. where y = (ooe -2?Ti /3. 53A45 Ai(x) = -. nary differential equation The functions Ai(x) and Bi(x) are real for real x. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 34A30 nor is sometimes defined in the literature as a general (affine) tensor./3 [fiX3/2]. An affi.): Handbook of endomorphism there corresponds a unique affinor. the point with Cartesian coordinates (a. I.3)'(5'6) + .(Z)-W2(Z) -- class of special functions (see Airy functions). 1972 (in Rus- according to the rule vi =/1 vS • To the iden ti ty sian). x» I and oscillates strongly for x<O. A second collection of Airy functions was introduced It occurred first in G. Ai(z).P. y" -xy = O. x~-oo. Editorial comments. have the following fundamental properties: The most important Airy function is v(z) (or Ai(z».e.i7T / 6v(w-'z). zt-t3 ] dt. mechanics and asymptotic (Airy. ing an affinor with components f} is equivalent to [2) BABICH. Shirokov equation. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 51 N10 References [1) AIRY. The functions Wl(X) and 65 . G. AIRY FUNCTIONS AFFINITY . +w'(O) [z+ . Specify. 379-402. where w = e 2m j3. Any two of v(z).Vxl'/3 [fiX3/2]+C2Vxl_. Airy's research in optics [1]. lowing identity holds: A. M.: Asymptotic methods in specifying an endomorphism of the vector space problems of diffraction of short waves. l.e. V. Soc.!. I) Every solution is an entire function of z and can Its asymptotic behaviour on the real axis is given by be expanded in a power series vex) = ~ X-. The mathematical functions. defined as a non-degenerate linear substitution two of these solutions are linearly independent. The second Airy function is defined AIRY EQUATION .: + (3.. dent. in this case v(z) is called the Airy. Shirokov w(z)+w(wz)+w(w 2z) _ O..B. Appl.(z) = W2(Z)' (1) The solutions of the Airy equation in the complex plane z.4 exp[-fx3/2][l+O(x-3/2)].

hence.. if zo is a simple turning point of (4). example. q' (xo) =1= ° (such a point is called simpfe).. A) has been studied (for example. but it is valid in the sector Yi x ) = Yi x ) [1+0 [~ J].8o(x . q'" '2/::=OA -nqn(x) as A~+ 00).00. 00 x ~ (-Iranz -3n /2 n =0 q(x) =1= ° for xEI. Let a < Xo < b.. for I argz I. Stokes [2] and is called the Stokes q(x. b. q(xo) = 0. q'(xo) > O.. (3) that. the branches of and Vz z 1 / 4 are positive on the semi-axis (0. ((x) ~ [~!.. Other generalizations concern the b equation w" +A2 q(X)W = 0.. In the remaining sector I arg .. and can be differentiated term by term any number of Xo . of WI (z) and W 2 (z) by means of (1).. 66 ... as A--+ + 00. yo(x) = Yo(x) [I+O[ ~]]+Y.> where Yo(x) = «((x»-'/2Ai(-A2 / 3«x». A) can be expanded in an asymptotic series phenomenon..'x". then terms of the Airy function v and its derivative (see [6]). This result has been generalized in various directions: totic expansion of v(z) has a different form in different asymptotic series have been obtained for the solutions. and the asymptotic expansions are uniform with respect to argz y. The expansions as I z I~ 00: zeros of q(x) are called turning points (or transfer v(z) '" 2~z-'/4exp [_f 3/2] x z (2) points) of the equation (3).. a)dx. I. neighbourhood of the point x = 0 can be expressed in Analogously. x ..G. e±i1T /3)..80 ((x) ~ '. . b] and A>O is a large parameter.] I. the case q = q(x.. then the tion to the asymptotics of the integral coming from a Stokes lines are the rays (.'xo.. as .77) is arbitrary. Z ary points XI(O:) and X2(0:) that coincide for 0:=0.- W 3 I ".. j = 1. 2.0) and (0. _ r [3n+t]9. if Zo emanating from a turning point z 0 and containing no sex. a) = jtfAS(x. If for small values of component of the level line 0:. x 3 + 0(X4) as x-)oO.. then f is called a Stokes line. q = .(x)o[f].n Y. 00). the Airy equal to 277 /3.. 3. Let f be the maximal connected is real and 0: is a real parameter. if blished by G. the contribu. A~oo. such y" +A 2q(X)y = 0. an .z (that is. iarg [z+. a) = ax .(x) = Y. Here £E(O.. 3. (2n)! Equation (3) has linearly independent solutions Yo(x) andYI(x) such that... If then for small values of 0:.00 the phase S has two close non-degenerate station.(x) = «((x»-'/2Bi(-A2 / 3«X».00.. S the complex z-plane. Set 00 X ~ anz -3n /2 n =0 for I argz . a where the function q(z) is analytic in a domain D of for A>O.. (4) leA. other turning points. Let Si be a neighbourhood of z 0 from functions arose in connection with the study of this which a neighbourhood of the Stokes line fi' j = 1. Here f and S are smooth functions.. for Re j v'q(t) dt = 0. has been removed.x. of the form has been investigated. sectors of the complex z-plane. x=l=xo.AIRY FUNCTIONS W2(X) increase exponentially as x~+oo.w-£. a". j=O. problem [1]. W-£... The asymptotic expansion of W2(Z) is of the form (2). Vq(t) dtr" '... the asymp...a)f(x. as A~+oo.. 2. This fact was first esta. and the asymptotic The Airy functions occur in the study of integrals of behaviour of the solutions near multiple turning points rapidly-oscillating functions.\--+ + 00. (4) is the Airy equation).(x) [I +0 [~]] + Yo(x)O [fJ. For complex where q(x) is a smooth real-valued function on the z the Airy functions have the following asymptotic interval I=[a.'W-£. there are three Stokes lines fl' f2 and f3 emanating Integrals of this kind occur in the study of short-wave from it and the angle between adjacent lines at z 0 is fields near a simple focus (see [7] and [8]). For a suitable numbering of the Si' Consider the second-order differential equation equation (4) has three solutions w/z). times.z I <£ the asymp- totic expansion of v(z) is expressed in terms of those uniformly with respect to x..

G. W.. . [I] BEREZIN. References References [I] AIRY. 1976 parts..: Computing methods. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 65D05 [10] WASOW. based on tient group of the group Z of zero-dimensional cycles the successive application of the formula of degree 0 on X. 1983 (in Russian). which is M. .P. Nauk 6. Appl.: 'Tables of the Airy functions'. Proc.Xn. both its Picard variety and its Albanese variety are called its Jacobi variety.Xi I increases.: The saddle-point method.. cf.S. the space of everywhere-regular differential forms of References degree I on X. places.K Samarin [4] SOOUN. Interscience. an Albanese variety may be considered as a value at a point x of the interpolation polynomial method of defining an algebraic structure on some quo- 4(x) with respect to the nodes Xo. without the use of differences'. M. Soc. Dover. 1973 (translated from the Russian). M. Ser. dimHo(X. From the algebraic point of AITKEN SCHEME ....: Asymptotic expansions for ordinary differential equations. the The function Ai(z) satisfies the differential equation Albanese variety can be described as follows.. . N.B. ordi- 128.M.. Moscow. characteristic values for certain types of second-order differen- McGraw-Hili. Vol. [A2] LEBEDEV. Nat. 7 (1952). 1974. 6 (1838)...: The classical theory of in the construction of Newton's interpolation formula. gamon Press.: 'On interpolation by iteration of proportional mation for the equations of quantum mechanics.A.k)(X) = (*) braic curve. X m . [A2]..: Quasi-classical approxi- [A1] AITKEN. . A.M. . . L. canonically attached to an algebraic variety X. Soc.V. the inequalities of computations by means of (*) may finish if the irr(X) . I.A method for computing the view.V..k-l)(X) xo-XI has characteristic zero. Math. M. . the Lagrange polynomials is the use of divided differences [7] LANDAU..: Trans. ..A. Cambridge Phi/os.: Handbook of mathematical functions.: Asymptotics and special functions. 2 (1932). Albanese). . and ABRAMOWITZ. no. Moscow. F. V..: Numerical methods: analysis. V.: Introduction to numerical analysis. Editorial comments. Aitken published the gist of his [5] BABICH. by renumbering the interpolation nodes in systems of higher order near simple turning points. Uspekhi Mat. [6] FEDORYUK. E.3-96 (in Russian). References [8] MASLOV. Addison-Wesley. If the field has finite characteris- L(i)(x) = f(Xi) (see Interpolation fonnula). 3. V. A. in particular. Mir. Moscow.N. G. [3] Fmc.k) (x) xk-x. honour of G.•. (II] FEDORYUK. Let [21 be w"(z)=zw(z). If X is a non-singular complete alge- Lk(X) = L(o. 56-76. Fedoryuk the solution of the following universal problem: There Editorial comments.. 1965.: 'Asymptotic laws of distribution of the [A2] HILDEBRAND.. an alternative to the computation of Russian). 1 W~ w on [21. 1946 nary differential equations.. Cambridge Phi/os.. The Aitken scheme is convenient for interpolat- The Airy functions also occur in the study of asymp.: Asymptotic methods for linear ordinary dif. . where f:A~Alb(X) (so named in Ai(x) = ?T~ VxK. ALBANESE VARIETY ..2. then the equalities Xk-XO L (l. no.J.\-) = dimk H1(X. Each one-dimensional cycle y of the [A1] OLVER.S. tial equations'. (2) BAKHVALov. G. and FEDORYUK.m)(x) is the interpolation polynomial with are valid. Acad. j3 [ . A. @ x) 67 . number of interpolations must be carried out over the same sian). Bur. Stand. N. . The image of the mapping y HI(X. I.. The number dimAlb(X) is called the irregu- interpolation nodes Xi. 1974. M. . ALBANESE VARIETY values of two interpolation polynomials of consecutive degrees coincide in the required number of decimal for Z ESj.D. 10 (1857). Moscow. sian). 105.: Trans. X2/3]. V. and BULDYREv. The Airy function can be expressed exists a morphism cJ>: X ~Alb(X) such that any mor- in terms of modified Bessel functions of the third kind: phism f : X ~A into an A~elian variety A factors into a product f= fcJ>. Aitken's scheme is disadvantageous when a problems of diffraction of short waves. Edingburgh (in Russian). If the ground field 1 IL(O.W. N.: Special functions and their applications.P. 1970. 1977 (in range. M. 55.\-) and irr(X)'. Math. fields. reprint. 1972 (in Rus.S. Q. 379-402. [9] DORODNITSYN. Q.k=1. . The process tic. V. Soc. F. Z)~([2I)· thus obtained is a lattice r in ([21)*. algebra.. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 33A40 and the quotient space ([21)* / r coincides with the Albanese variety of X. Moscow. @ x) where L(i. 1972 (translated from the Russian). Per- [2] STOKES. and ZHIDKOV. 1951 (translated from the Russian). larity of the variety X. If X is a complete non- singular variety over the field of complex numbers. the order in which I x . 1977 (translated from the Rus- (in Russian). In such cases..An Abelian variety Alb(X) ferential equations.: Asymptotic methods in method in [A1]. topological space X determines a linear function Press. dimAlb(X) = dimk HO(X.B.V. dimH1(X. ing the values of a function given in the form of a table totic solutions of ordinary differential equations and (of values). and LIFSHITS.c.

exactness axiom) and a certain continuity condition. cohomology is often more useful. G) are defined as the direct limit X.. Parshin itself is equivalent to the cohomology defined in sheaf AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14K30. tJ x) *.. where F is some Steenrod . method of solving boundary value problems for a tran.N. The dimHl(X.S. are employed in homologi- used only in problems in one-dimensional spaces.E. Haus- inclusion of {1 in a.g. up to an homotopy. Often one ~peaks also of Cech lim.. in homological dimension gamon Press. Hn(a. theory. Nauk 24. All axioms are valid for cohomology. Surveys 24. and.EKSANDROY): 'Untersuchungen AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 35-XX. applied to homology. S. Ann. 101-187. 149-183. a') defined. Hn(a. G).X h the homology (cohomology) groups in topology. obtained by adding a single point 00 to groups Hn(x. [P. Press. (Uspekhi Mat. A . here a signifies not only the covering. 87-140) The Aleksandrov-Cech homology groups (modules) E. a'.The unique Hausdorff compac- (/3. A . /3')~(a. terization by mappings into Eilenberg . Nerve of a family of sets). S. The possibility of passing to the limit ALEKSANDROV COMPACflFICATION.G.: Computing methods. N. The Aleksandrov compactification aX axiom. G. in the theory of generalized manifolds medium.Eilenberg axioms (except.A. N.S.S. (in particular. Aleksandrov-Cech homology and coho. and ZHIDKOY. and E1LENBERG. etc. Moscow. The Aleksandrov compactification was defined by mology groups have the property of continuity: For P. ications of X. [4) SKLYARENKO.P. no. in defining the funda- [1) BEREZIN.: Algebraic varieties.: Al'bedo neutrons. M. with ax' In addition. the Aleksandrov compactification aRn 68 . Springer. T. A. X. non-compact. 19 (1932). 1966. in the References theory of analytic spaces (e. 82A70 tiber Gestalt und Lage abgeschlossener Mengen beliebiger Dimension'. is the smallest element in the set B (X) of all compactif- partly for this reason. and a' is the subcomplex in a that is the nerve AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 55N05 of the restriction of a on the closed set A (cf.. Aleksan- is ensured by the existence of simplicial projections drov compact extension .Eilenberg axioms except for the exactness compactum in X. 1956. both cal problems in the theory of continuous mappings. Aleksandrov (1) and plays an important role in X=lim. the role of factorization ers.MacLane [2) LANG. possibly. The Aleksandrov . E. [2) GERGOMENOYA. Steenrod. (2) 30 (1929). by the tifieation aX of a locally compact.: 'Theorie genet-ale de l'homologie dans un espace ALEKSANDROV-CECH HOMOLOGY AND que1conque'.A to operate with sheaves of cochains. [2) CECH. Per. a'. in to find the reflection and transmission coefficients and the theory of transformation groups (a connection with to find the solution of the transport equation in a quotient spaces). of Math. If the ground field has positive characteristics it addition are equal to the respective limit of the homol- can happen that ogy (cohomology) groups of the compacta X).: 'Homology theory and the exactness Steenrod . Thus.Eilenberg axioms (with the exception The Albanese variety is dual to the Picard variety. I. A smallest element in the set B (X) exists The exactness axiom is also valid for homology on the only for a locally compact space X and must coincide category of compacta if G is a compact group or field. 1983. G) [1].ALBANESE VARIETY hold. Practically speaking.S.: Abelian varieties. 5 (1969). Princeton Univ.. 1973 (in Russian). Russian Math. which makes it possible ALBEDO METHOD (in transport theory) . Sklyarenko Hn(X. 1973 (translated from the Russian). [2] are defined as the inverse limit Editorial comments. Similar ideas. includ- thickness. 91-142. P. the axiom'. ET AL. and transmission of a sequence of layers of increasing Aleksandrov-Cech homology and cohomology. 5 (1969). spaces is valid for cohomology. n. in various duality relations). G) over all open coverings a of the space cohomology instead of Aleksandrov-Cech cohomology. The homology groups satisfy all the then have the form {oo} U (X \ F). E.dimHo(X. The Albedo method is a variant of the theory originating from N.e property of continuity is lost). mental classes of homology).: Foundations of algebraiC Homology and cohomology theories which satisfy all topology. indicated above) and this condition of continuity. which satisfies all axioms including the exactness coefficients being played by the matrices of reflection axiom (but ty.. while the cohomology A. 14KXX theory. Fund Math. no.tech cohomology dorff space X. but also its nerve. the usual charac- [1) BALDASSARRI. [3) STEENROD.\} Aleksandrov-Cech theory is the only theory satisfying the Steenrod . An arbitrary neighbourhood of the point 00 must linL. Borel and oth- matrix factorization method. the Albedo method is ing the above modification. spectral homology and cohomology . are contained in the homology sport equation. COHOMOLOGY.. Ai. On References the category of paracompact spaces. Cohomology may also be defined as cohomol- ogy of some cochain complex. Germogenova [1) ALEKSANDROFF. References TA. Springer.

J.: Set theory. all natural numbers.4. many theorems about alephs are A reasonable up-tO-date additional reference for this topic is [A 1]. tion der im Kleinen kompakten topologischen Raumen'. one dis- tification of the 'open' Mobius strip coincides with the tinguishes between singular alephs. The definitions of the sum. weakly inaccessible alephs. and forms the content of the continuum 0 P. A more recent theorem on the exponentiation of alephs was proved by J.: 'On the singular cardinals problem'. 92 (1924). Editorial comments.: Set theory and the continuum hypothesis.: Basic set theory.A. is also called the one-point compactification. Jordan in 1892 that a particular case of which. that there is no such Ind aX < Ind X. i. then the n-dimensional sphere. The first theorems of this kind were tered. Theorem [4] KURATOWSKI. Aleksandrov hypothesis. 265-268. strongly inaccessible tions connected with the Aleksandrov compactification. P. 1.S. the equation assumes the form dinality of all countably-infinite sets. J. References v. Cantor to denote the cardinal numbers (the cardinality cf. [2] HAUSDORFF. the product and a ALEXANDER DUALITY . For example. 1968. locally compact and ordinal and if cf(a)<a. regular alephs. ~o is the cardinality of the set of nat. See also Totally weD-ordered set. 1974. Congress Mathematicians Vancouver. reprint. there exists a perfectly-normal. Continuum References hypothesis. alephs. Math. 1966. 1979. P. ALEPH. K. It was shown by Cantor that the set pactification has the dimensions dim aX < dim X and of all alephs is meaningless.g. Ann. ~a<~fl' The cardinal number ~a+1 is the smallest 04A30 cardinal number which follows ~a' The generalized con- tinuum hypothesis states that 21'1· = ~a + I for any ordinal ALEPH-ZERO . demonstrated without recourse to the axiom of choice.: Topology. P.S. Chelsea. [A2]. Ordinal number. Holland. owing to which the homological properties of a set can be defined by certain properties The following formulas are most-frequently encoun- of its complement. A.s. among all alephs. If a = 0. It was shown by C. pp. A particular case says that if As symbols alephs were introduced by G. As in the case of cardinal numbers. number a. and its order type is a. is the Bernshtefn a simple closed curve divides the plane into two formula: domains and forms the common boundary of the two (the Jordan theorem). One has the homological properties of complementary subsets of Ka + Kil = Ka 'KIl = Kmax(a. Springer. in Proc. cation aN of the set of natural numbers is «a homeomorphic to the space of a convergent sequence Here cf(a) denotes the confinal character of the ordinal together with the limit point. Ill' a topological space.S. Silver in 1974. [P. The set of all alephs smaller than ~a is AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03E10. [A1] DUGUNDJI. V.e. number. The Aleksandrov compactification 1956 (translated from the Russian). K!(p a = ~ ~ K!(p <. Fedorchuk [I] ALEKSANDROV.J. Set theory. limit real projective plane RP2. and if /3<cf(a). ~ . For each ordinal number a by ~a=w(wa) one denotes References [A1] LEVY. However. Verlag Wissenschaft. for a=O. B. Vol. ~I is the cardinality of the set of 1975. cf. There are pathological situa. If a</3. [3] COHEN. and MOSTOWSKI. the cardinality of the set of all ordinal numbers smaller [A2] SILVER. Cardi. 1978. etc.J. set.: EinfUhrung in die Mengenlehre und die Theorie der reelen Funktionen. Benja- References min. the Aleksandrov compac. F. then AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03E55. There is no largest aleph countably-compact space X whose Aleksandrov com. the Aleksandrov compactifi. Brouwer (indepen- 69 . etc. Each cardinal then number is some aleph (a consequence of the axiom of choice). 2!«( = K~+1 for all ~<W1 nal number) of infinite well-ordered sets. A. 21'1 =~]. all countable ordinal numbers.: Set theory. This theorem was extended in The recursive formula of Tarski: If an ordinal number 1911 by H. Lebesgue and L. ALEKSANDROV]: 'Ueber die Metrisa.A cardinal number which is the car- number a. Inter- than Wa' In particular. North- 8. Denoted by ~o. Allyn and Bacon.The connection between power of alephs are obvious. ALEXANDER DUALITY of the n-dimensional Euclidean space is identical with a is a limit ordinal. Efimov AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54035 Editorial comments. Cardinal [I] ALEKSANDROFF.The first letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Deutsch. ~a is singular if a is a limit e.. 04A 10 totally ordered according to magnitude. 04A 10. alephs.E. The recursive Hausdorff formula: formulated in terms of set-theoretic rather than alge- braic topology. 1966. 294-301.

W.Z (f. 4 (1934).: La-". -J (B. between this fact and the property of an r-dimensional [2] ALEKsANDROV.G / Ka-. ing M --"M.. in polyhedron <P in an n-dimensional spherical space is Proc.I generates the extension A may be an arbitrary subset of M n . Euclidean) space.: 'On homology theory of non-closed sets'.. X) of a closed set A in an n-dimensional spherical manifold M n with a compact group X of coef. Purely algebraically the groups by their dual cohomology groups of the same extension (*) defines and is defined by the extension of dimension over the dual group of coefficients.t. freely acted upon by a free with the (discrete) group Y of coefficients which is dual Abelian group Ja of rank a with a fixed system of gen- to X in the sense of the theory of characters.-J(B. La=La(tJ. closed sets of an n -dimensional space'. while the covering corresponds to the com- cients were replaced by modules. [3]. 21 (63). II. Congress. Roches- manifold (in an n-dimensional space) being linked with ter. X) and the structure of a module over the integer group ring Hn -. 1963. etc..r . S.t. Mat.S.S. Inst.fa-". are duals. The which differs from that of Pontryagin's theorem in that extension l-. ••• . All-Union Math. Math. Chogoshvili [4] (1934). P. [4] states that the r. Math. sheaves. Symp. Alexander Homology manifold). Fixation of the generators ti in Ja identifies Z(JG) which has compact support. [6A] ALEKSANDROY. mutation homomorphism Y/l: G(k)--"P of the link 70 . Alex. Inst.G-. The next important step in the development of dual- ity of this kind was the theorem of Pontryagin [2]. sets'. Soc. and H. 161-232 (in Russian). 54FXX group H. 1956 (translated from the Russian). 16 (1915).. . into which a plane is subdivided by a closed subset [5] ALEKSANDROV..J] of Laurent trary sets are obtained by replacing the latter type of polynomials in the variables ti . and the (n . P.(A. It was [3] PONTRYAGIN. Alexander's theorem [2].1)-dimensional homology with the module structure of the one-dimensional group Hn-. . Closed ander in 1922 [1] in purely homological terms. Proc. equal to the (n -r-l)-dimensional Betti number mod pp. Macmillan. G. in General topology and its relations to modern analysis and algebra.. 1955. where Ka is the Pontryagin duality. the group X may (*): I-. Z).Ba--.. Orbit) is a covering which corresponds to multiplied.: 'Homology properties of arbitrary subsets of Euclidean spaces'.: 'Topological duality theorems II. Group algebra). [7]. Trudy Mat.S. L.. pp. The same Aleksandrov-Cech homology groups (cf. 48 (1955) (in Russian). Since in it is known as Alexander.(A... while the other is of with the ring spectral type. J. Here fa is the ker- In subsequent generalizations.. 4-th.S. P. The were replaced by more general manifolds (homology mod~le Aa is called the Alexander module of the cover- manifolds which are acyclic in certain dimensions. Moscow.O [5].. 1961. Sb. a connection was also established 148-154. P. ALEXANDER INVARIANTS .. Non- closed sets'. an (n-r-l)-dimensional manifold (Lebesgue).Ja-.Ja of the Alexander. Y) are understood to mean the Z(JG) of the group Ja (cf. modules (**): O-". S.S.: 'The general topological theorem of duality for closed sets'.. Trudy Mat.Ja-.Ba-.: Combinatorial topology. 904-914. A series of subsequent publications commutator subgroup of the kernel K a .. 1964. G. P.Ka-. The dual.S. this theorem to the case of any closed set <P.Invariants connected ficients.. Arner. which determines on Ba be both compact or discrete.. duality. the groups of coeffi. [6B] ALEKSANDROY. Trans.I. 2 of its complement. .Steenrod groups (groups of some link k of multiplicity JL in the three-dimensional projective type) and other groups. Soc. cf. In the case first studied by J.: Algebraic topology. sphere S3. ity expressed by this theorem is known as Alexander [10] CHoGOSHYILI. 54 (1959) (in Russian). Amer. The forms of Alexander duality for arbi. Prague. 62 (1947). Graylock. 2.G.: 'A proof of the invariance of certain constants of analysis situs'. the duality formulated fundamental group 'TTJ(M)=G of the manifold M.Pontryagin theorem. Steklov. 123-132.. no.: 'Homology theory of compact spaces'. 57-62 (in Russian). erators t J.: 'Topological duality theorems I. the group Ba=Ka/ Ka. which states that the r-dimensional homology AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 55NXX.ta. 2 (1947). D...S.S. the formulation of the one-dimensional homology group H J (M. Soc. [3]. Y) of the complement B=Mn\A homology of a manifold M. is iSOlporphic to led to Aleksandrov's theorem [5].. of Math. structure is induced on Ba by the given action of Ja on Aleksandrov-Cech homology and cohomology). [9] BOURGIN.W.Pontryagin duality or as Ka='TTJCM).tj = I).S.. Trans.: 'Fundamental duality theorems for non- depends only on the topological properties of this set.. one of M. no.. Vol. 35.ta· _ and their scalar product defines the linking coefficient The projection of the manifold M onto the space M of arbitrary cycles from the homology classes scalarly of orbits (cf. shown by Brouwer in 1913 that the number of domains [4] LEFSCHETZ. spherical manifolds nel of the homomorphism f..Aa-. Aleksandrov in 1927 extended [8] KAPLAN. . G.ALEXANDER DUALITY dently of each other) to the case of an n-dimensional References manifold in an (n + I)-dimensional spherical (or [1] ALExANDER.W. Ann.: Modern algebraic topology. This theorem is known as the the kernel Ka of the homomorphism y: G-.. Math. Amer. This type of duality was first expressed by J. Steklov.ta)=Z[tJ.J. the Aleksandrov-Cech groups [1] when M=M(k) is the complementary space of were replaced by Sitnikov . dimensional Betti number mod 2 of a (finite) [7] CHOGOSHYILI. 248-271.

the polynomi- (m-i)X(m-i) and Ei=La for m-i<1. rd is a presentation of the group G. then T=fl l .H.li A ( t J. tI'N • I.e. 1963. .: Introduction to knot theory. References respectively..H. c.Xm+l. 2 (1957). The {XI.t~· so that fli(O. then also over follows are: G / G' is a free Abelian group.. R. R. Since La is fl l (1)=1. are powerful tools for distinguishirJg knots and is defined up to unit divisors t~. then A =A. . cP 1" where II is the group of units of Lp.. If [ ~]Y"<P.1 C.: Knotentheorie. they can be used fli(t) = t 2k fli(t -I).. If JL= 1.I. in particular over the field principal properties of G which are relevant to what of rational numbers. Knot and link diagrams). each ideal Alexander invariants. (2) JL~2.W.li t I . ideals Ei and polynomials ai.0)*0 and *00. Alexander's [1) ALEXANDER. polynomial. aXj JL=2.rm } for which Yp. quence of the symmetry of T. (or of the covering M rJ~M).. C. = 1 for all i to calculate a number of module invariants. module A..R) Ginn. as Alexander's reduced module... The polynomial 65.t I' ) f or certaIn . If fli7'~::O. for each selection ideals are ideals of the module A a. . fold M. Ann. See also Knot theory. all ti by t i. 340-356. . and fl.rJ.: 'On 'V -polynomials of links'. Chelsea. then T=fll / t -1 (up to units of Lp.: 'Topological invariants of knots and links'. J. the Alexander link matrix.). . In particular. It may the sum of the link coefficients of the loop representing also b~ deduced from the Poincare duality for the mani- x with all ki . It may be (n = 3).. The module properties of A (k) have been [5) CROWELL. in the the field of fractions PI' of the ring L I' is acyclic case of links. and in the first place the poly- Ei lies in a minimal principal ideal (Ll i). Thus.t1') is simply call~ the Alexander poly- pairs out of the knots in a table containing fewer than nomial of k (or of the covering M~M).273-282. ALEXANDER INVARIANTS group. the group HI(M. L. A I' is the Alexander module of the link k.. Press. reduced ideals and Alex. Knot table). 275-306. Math. is finitely generated over any ring R containing Z in [7) NEUWIRTH. For JL=l. .2)-dimensional spheres k i in S n. If operators with applications to knot theory'. Alexander greater than a certain value N.R). Math.. it follows from the matrix ina of module relations for Ba is obtained the symmetry of fli (t) and from the property fli ( 1) = + 1 from [)(a by discarding the zero column. M is the complementary space M(k) of k. where Ei is Hosokawa polynomials [4] are characterized by the generated by the minors of [)(a of order property V(t)=t 2k V(t-I) for any {t~2.. [8].e. . R. i. the defect Z. The case of links has not yet _been sequences'. . [4) HOSOKAWA.(M) over Aa is called the Alexander covering matrix and. However. To the homomorphism YrJ there correspond a Alternating knots and links. if JL= 1. fli+ I divides fl i .. Nagoya Math. . and Fox. . tI'-I) -. R. The degree of V(t) is [)(a and ina are defined by the modules Aa and Ba up also even [4]. K. its generator fli nomials.ander's reduced polynomials of.(XJ=ti' degree of fll (t) is equal to the rank of HJ (M. The which Ll(O) is invertible [7].R)~HI(M. 30 (1928). If The matrix [)(a of the module relations of a module fll (t I. .E o C.! Trans. where y(x) is equal to Fox . no. 1965.: 'Corresponding groups and module studied [4].(l).Eic' .. It follows that consisting of JL (n . i.C. [10]. The La: (O)C.Z)=O. and. [3) BLANCHFIELD. V(t)=a l (t) / (t -1)1'-2 is known as the Hosokawa 10 (1958). .. series of ideals fli(t) with these properties there exists a knot k for Ei(Aa) of the ring which they serve as the Alexander polynomials. a l is divisible by (t -l)r2.. and the Reidemeister torsion TEP I' / II obtained as the matrix corresponding to the imbedding Lp. both a Gaussian ring and a Noetherian ring.(Xi) = 1... it is 9 double points (cf. then the chain complex C. . . 71 . R). Y. if fl(O) = + 1. taken under the automorphism generated by replacing As a rule. I . • . is defined accordingly. of Math. in 1~i ~JL. Lli fails to distinguish between only three mial Lli(t J.. The opposite als Lli of two-dimensional knots by the property numbering sequence may also be employed. [6) CROWELL. If the case of links the generators ti EP correspond to the n = 3. In such a case fl(t) is the cparacteristic_polynomial of the group G is 1. The following properties of the knot poly- to transformations corresponding to transitions to other nomials fli(t) are characteristic: Lli(l) = +1.t1')*0. F.H. thoroughly investigated. The symmetry of fll for n = 3 is a conse- where {Xi. If JL= 1.tN. taking into account the free action of Ja [3]. multiplied by tt. Soc. . In A ( -I I. .27-40.Trotter duality for knot and link groups. addition to the homomorphism Ym' one also considers integers N i • This symmetry is the result of the the homomorphism yo: G(k)~J. the link ideals have the following symmetry pro- meridians of the components k i C k and are fixed by perty: Ei =Ei' where the bar denotes that the image is the orientations of these components and of the sphere. designated. . A mer. Osaka J.. .: Knot groups. J..: 'Intersection theory of manifolds with [)(A) is obtained from [)( by replacing all ti by t. If {t= 1. 19 (1961). The matrices that the degree of fli(t) is even. Princeton Univ. presentations of the module. reprint. 1948. i>JL (cf. fll(t)=l if and only if HI(M. G has the presentation of the transformation t:HI(M. [2) REIDEMEISTER.Ei .. The Laurent polyno- links.

87-88) (for the complex M-220/BESM-6) and Al'fa-6 (for V. multilinear algebra. ALGAMS .) have been added. linear algebra. (3) ERSHOV.H. pp. At A. 89 (1967).: Hand. Moscow. the demand of a specific a. 57MXX which do not exist in Algol-60. References plementary kind of loops in which the desired number (II 'Description of the language ALGAMS'. 18-XX. (Programmirovanie 1 (1976).: 'A method for generating link polynomials'.: 'Refinement of the enumeration parameter.. 1968. V. 2) A special case of an operator ring: An algebra sian). appointed by the commission for comprehen. ALGEBRA . in Conference on the restrictions are related to those imposed on Algol-60 in topology of manifolds. Novosi- birsk.An algorithmic language developed for 3) A synonym of universal algebra. [21 LYUBIMsKIi. R. It is supposed to be a standard ALGEBRA . 1964 (in Russian).1966 by the Group for (d. 1967 (in Russian). simplified structure of the naming expressions. Automatic Programming for Medium-type Computers AMS 1980 Subject Classification: OS-XX. one studies algebraic operations (cf. External identifiers are names of arrays recommended for inclusion in the AL'FA . 17 -XX. and MARTYNYUK. (occasionally. Reading and writing USSR to solve scientific and technical problems with of the external arrays is achieved by a standard the aid of computers. bra).can be encountered in the oldest recursive use of procedures. Ershov tive algebras (formerly described as 'hypercomplex sys- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 68B05 tems') and non-associative algebras are algebras in this sense. product signs and chains of inequalities. Chernavskif the same time new features were introduced into AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 55NXX. complex numbers and stored in the external memory.1) A branch of mathematics (see Alge- Novosibirsk. V. 13- (GAMS). etc. pp. while the capacity of the working memory of tions for components of complex and multi. Novosibirsk. 3-56 (in Russian). 2 (1965). J. which indicates that the principal 72 . XX.. unary algebras. J. put procedures. Vol. LV. It algebras such as Boolean algebras. Moreover. A special class of function rou. mathematical texts. The most arithmetic operations on positive integers and positive important restrictions include the prohibition of a rational numbers .ALEXANDER INVARIANTS [8) CROWELL. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 68BXX. Amer.: Operating languages for systems of automatic programming.The branch of mathematics in which language for the exchange of algorithms between social. It is based on the language Algol-60 (d. as well as a more precise definition of has been introduced. in Algorithms and of repetitions can be performed without introducing an algorithmic languages. The term is used in combinations such as homo- [2) Al'fa . of identifiers (except for labels) prior to their use. The simplest algebraic operations - order to facilitate the translation process. G. the machine remains relatively small. 289-298. 13. procedure bodies in the case of a description of them in ing of natural numbers by dots. exchange procedure. book for the use of the system Al'fa. Novosibirsk. etc. Algebraic opera- istic countries. a linear or vector algebra) over a field. Boston. (4) Manual for the use of systems of automatization of programming.M. 20-XX sive collaboration of the acadeInies of sciences of socialistic countries. Mech.L and VOLOSHIN.P. over a skew-field or over a commutative ring. To the arrays. YU. Algams contains detailed descriptions of input and out- tines. Math. and topological algebra. including both external and part identifiers.An algorithmic language developed in the external memory of the machine. 57TXX. KOZHUKHIN.W. J.P. G. J. logical algebra. Al'fa is to some extent an exten. A. the description no. Unary algebra). 73-74.: 'Torsion in link modules'.69-84. There is a sup. Lutsikovich BESM-6 machines). the unified language known as the Algol-60 subset. isolate parts of the program which may be quantities appearing in Algol. V. and are recalled to the component quantities with an internal dimension (vec. was developed in 1963 . working memory upon entry into the respective array. the body of which is defined by an expression. Algams. tion). These [10) MILNOR. and a [9) LEVINE. Associa- A. 14. commutative algebra. dimensional quantities. Algibr Software 2 (1976). It is possible to display the count. 6SF05 References [1) ERSHOV. Math. This includes use mainly on medium-power electronic computers. preceding the sion of the reproducing properties of Algol.P.: 'Multidimensional knots'. E. tion of a procedure's formal parameters. 1968 (in Rus. 115-133. A.Z. matrices. Other additions In this way the effectiveness of the language is include descriptions which serve to introduce designa. The principal programming definition of the Algams language'. on which certain restrictions were imposed in Historical survey. Programming and Computer systems include Al'fa (for M-20 type machines). 15-XX. enhanced.a system for automatization ofprogramming. Part identifiers. 16-XX. 1968.L and POTIOSIN. 12-XX. to use summation and other languages. 1975 (in Russian). Boolean algebra. Algol).V. KOZHUKHIN. tor.

the first problem was the solution of alge. multiplication. and second degree. The first such examples were Historically.and second. roots of the equation in terms of its coefficients. roots. Euler's Introduction to braic operations dates back to the 'theory of relations' algebra includes integers. subtraction. algebraic equations of degrees since a geometrical interpretation of even the simplest one to four. The abstract concept of an algebraic operation appeared in the mid-nineteenth century in the context The purpose was to derive formulas expressing the of studies on complex numbers (cf. Cardano fonnula) and modern stage of development. fundamental theorem of). ALGEBRA properties of these operations were known even in early fourth-degree equations (cf. W. F. unlike any number. the Arithmetic of Diophantus the following three . Other problems were neglected at that time. Further progress only became possible eighteenth century. the algebra of matrices. mathematical operations which had previously pre. It was assumed. but was rigorously proved by C. progressions. tinct from arithmetic. Substantial tion groups.'identity' transfor.as dis. solving alge.D. Abel in 1824 that equations of degree higher than bols '+' and '-'. it was established by vailed began to be replaced by the contemporary sym. algebra corresponded. at Galois in 1830 stated a general criterion for the solva- the end of the sixteenth century. N. but no progress was made in this direction.e. by the mid. more or less. Cauchy's multiplication of permuta- type: tions. Jordan published a major treatise on pennuta- degree equations even in the earliest times. advances were made in the sixteenth century by Italian These studies prepared the way for the transition of mathematicians: a formula was found for solving algebra at the turn of the nineteenth century into its third-degree equations (cf. was the first to use the bility of algebraic equations by radicals (cf. Towards the end of the fifteenth Girard. Gauss' 'composition of binary quadratic forms'. Ferrari method). Gauss only century the cumbersome verbal descriptions of towards the end of the eighteenth century (cf. This theorem which can be reduced to algebraic equations of the first was first stated in the seventeenth century by A. ions (cf. Galois letters of the alphabet to denote the constants and the theory). dur. variables in a problem. In particular. Algebraic equation). and algebra was understood to mean the 'analysis of bols of algebra were known as early as the mid.F. however. Matrices subsequently became the subject of an carried out on algebraic symbols . Serret in his course of higher seventeenth century.L. A brief table of the contents of one of the tions. in this connection. of systems of linear equations. as a result of gradual generalization and intensive study to the 'elementary' algebra of our own days. From the mid-nineteenth century onwards studies in formed on explicit numbers. as noted by J. and E. which dealt with calculations per. Newton's binomial arithmetic operations . 'prehistory' of algebra. The term degrees. division Grassmann's exterior algebra. braic equations in one unknown.ratios of lengths or of areas - and Diophantine equations. accompanied by studies on algebraic equations in ing which views as to the proper subject matter of this several unknowns.). roots. During antiquity. Most of the present-day sym.::enturies fruitless efforts were made (third century A.) had a major influence on the to find similar formulas for solving equations of higher development of algebraic ideas and symbols. H. and their mations of formulas consisting of letters. ordinary and decimal frac. be solved by radicals. Thus. The development of algebra Studies on algebraic equations in one unknown were proper took place during the next three centuries. additions. logarithms. Hamilton's quatern- and extraction of roots ('solution by radicals'). . Complex number). L. is impossible. and parentheses appeared. in general. The first attempts at an axiomatic study of alge- best textbooks of that time. Quaternion) and A. means of addition. equations of the Ruffini's and A. equations'.H.D. of the concept of a number. which marks the end of the algebra (1849). independent theory. etc. of Euclid. and subsequently symbols for four cannot. in particular of systems of linear discipline kept radically changing. and P. The study of linear equations resulted in the In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 'Algebra' introduction of the concepts of a matrix and a deter- was understood to mean the science of computations minant. equations. and of the appearance of The principal subject dealt with by the algebra of the arithmetic operations performed on objects entirely eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were polynomials. Mathematicians were able to solve first. Cayley's matrix calculus. tions. which is characterized by 73 . the problem of finding at 'Algebra' originates from the work AI jabr al-muqabala least a 'formula-free' proof of the existence of a com- by Mohammed al-Khwarizmi (nineth century A. Boole's algebra of logic. Finally. while C. scope of application was extended beyond the solution braic equations (cf. Algebra. powers. Viete. by There appeared G. algebra gradually moved away from the theory of equa- that the symbols stood for actual numbers: integers or tions towards the study of arbitrary algebraic opera- fractions. i. plex root of an arbitrary algebraic equation with com- which describes general methods for solving problems plex coefficients became of major interest.

called groups such as semi-groups. them. and theories of ally forms part of the definition of a ring (d. Loop. sets with marked rela- of a universal algebra and in fact served. Number fields. and by distributive laws for multiplication with tions. the theory of linear equations and For a long time the studies that were actually carried the theory of matrices. the theory of universal respects. the study of Lie groups can be 74 . in many tions on them. The operations in rings and bra and other fields of mathematics have been created fields are usually called addition and multiplication. Rings and fields are very important types of algebras A number of disciplines intermediate between alge- with two binary operations. cf. Model). The study of non-associative bra. inter- century. and was fully esta.e. E. the first example theory of models (cf. and the sets as carriers of algebraic operations are linear algebra. and of the general theory of algebraic operations is a lattice. as a model for the construction of algebra and algebras and the theory of models became so closely of mathematics in general at the turn of the nineteenth linked that they gave rise to a new discipline. which originates both from algebra and from rings (cf. extension of the scope of its applications. and there is a trend towards in which multiplication is commutative. differential algebra. A by the introduction into universal algebras of comple- ring is defined by Abelian group axioms for the addi. Initial studies on the general theory of arbitrary One of the most important and most thoroughly stu. as well as problems related to of study are the algebraic operations themselves. An important part of algebra. include: the system of subsets of a given set with the tieth century under the influence of D.L. Tarski laid the foundations for the concept of a group was. quasi-groups and loops the theory of algebraic systems (cf. braic systems which adequately represent the behaviour braic equations. divisor. At the same time ment and. Universal algebra). If a ring is considered considered up to an isomorphism. an inverse element. was formulated as early as the out concerned only a few basic types of universal alge. an algebra with 'universal algebra') date back to the nineteen-thirties one associative binary operation.e. containing a unit ele. A closely related subject is that of bras which naturally appeared in the development of multilinear algebra. sets of numbers closed under addition. of studying many mathematical objects that are some- tion.I. A skew-field is its own right. van der the least common multiple and the greatest common Waerden's Modern algebra. The role of algebra in modern mathematics is ments is a multiplicative group. algebras or universal alge. the terminology in Algebra. Quasi-group. Subsequently. Algebraic system). i. the more general concept of from the point of view of algebra. Independent studies on generalizations of mediate between algebra and mathematical logic. arose in the nineteen-fifties as a discipline in fully recognized independent discipline. Birkhoff. Lie only rings with associativity multiplication were stu. the sets themselves a module is obtained. subtraction and division by non-zero numbers. A field is a skew-field extremely important. studies linear spaces. Typical examples of lattices operations. nineteenth century. an associative ring in which the set of all non-zero ele. theory of topological groups and Lie groups.e. crystallized at the beginning of the twen. These include topological algebra (including the respect to addition (d. Homological alge- tive rings and algebras). Originally. modules and their indistinguishable. historically. scalars of the ground field). and were carried out by G. and Steinitz. mentary structures compatible with the algebraic opera- tion.e. The A.ALGEBRA the combination of previously separate algebraic ideas fields are the main objects studied in commutative alge- on a common axiomatic basis and by a considerable bra and in the closely related field algebraic geometry. (cf. multiplica. The subject matter of algebra. Semi. began only much later (d. A typical way i. The as universal algebras with one binary operation (addi- subject matter of modern algebra are sets and algebraic tion) and with a unary operation (multiplication by operations on these sets (i. its principal branches and Linear (or vector) spaces over a field may be treated its connection with other branches of mathematics. This means that. i. and relations defined on them. Rings and algebras). Topological group). the subject of which are sets with algebraic operations group). instead of a set of scalars. and in this sense the proper subject linear transformations. the set of positive integers with the operations of taking blished by 1930 with the appearance of B. Noether. the theory of normed rings died. cf. Non-associative rings and algebras) is today a topology. Thus. Hilbert. Artin and E. group. operations of set-theoretic union and intersection. Mal'tsev and A. various ordered algebraic formations. E. The modern Another important type of algebra with two binary view of algebra. Normed ring). Associa. A part of it. mathematics and its applications. Associative-commutative rings and of these objects. times far removed from algebra is to construct alge- were implicitly included in the very first studies of alge. fields have also been studied. universal algebras (this theory is sometimes called died type of algebras is a group. further 'algebraization' of mathematics. for each element. and this requirement of associativeness occasion. Linear spaces over skew- bras.

Editorial comments. Algebraic topol- ogy). MacLaurin and L. Lie algebra). homology groups (cf. [6] WAERDEN. Mat. His proof representation theory of finite groups in quantum essentially consists of constructing the splitting field of mechanics. Springer. solving them in this language and translating them back is merely a ALGEBRA. theorem of algebra'. Nostrand. Algebraic number theory). A. Linear algebra. Springer. Invariants. Tensor algebra). no. such a method turns theorem that states that any polynomial with complex out to be highly convenient. but also by using the powerful the one employed today. 13-XX. Editorial comments. 1972 (translated from the [2] MAL'TSEV. its content. Vol..G. Algebra and LogiC 10. RemesIenm'k ov [5] BOURBAKI. All proofs of the theorem involve some netics (cf. Laplace. 20-XX themselves. Math.H. This role of algebra in mathematics may be com.: 'A topological proof of the fundamental [7] LANG. N. 12005 algebraic disciplines.See C· -algebra. cients. The recent major discoveries in topology were made using algebra as a tool (cf. I. in some standard manner. Homology group). an infinite series of 1984.: Algebra. This is because by algebraization one The theorem was first stated by A. tions. in the theory of differential equa.L. 2 (translated from the French). For a proof based on the Brouwer Chapt.: Elements of mathematics. sian). 1-3.: Algebraic systems. 1956 (in Russian). Amer. Automata. 257-304 (in Rus- cow.I. N. Vol. It would appear at first sight that the translation of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 22D25. 1-3. 1974. v. 1-2. References sian). 1974. Girard in 1629 and solves problems not only by purely verbal by R. cyber.: 'On the history of algebra in the USSR during Russian). and in other mathematical 'ideal' roots of the polynomial in fact exist. algebra plex number. so that one made the formulation more precise and gave it a form may occasionally overcome highly involved complica. damental theorem of algebra without basing himself on tions. 15-XX. Issled. Gauss was the first to prove the fun- is very important from the point of view of its applica. see also the articles on individual AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 26CXX. 103-118) [3] BASHMAKOVA. Lagrange functional analysis. 1970-1972 (in Rus. in geometry (cf. 1-3. d. G. Yu. There fol- in number theory (cf. Mos. methods and meaning. theory of) and mathematical form of topological properties of real and complex economics (linear inequalities. Descartes in 1637 in a formulation different from considerations. realized as 75 . Linear inequality). Projective All these proofs are based on the assumption that some geometry. and occasionally the only coefficients has a root in the field of complex numbers.I. A similar method References is used in topology: to each topological space is [A1] LIDL. no.I. function algebra . ALGEBRA. Monthly 56 (1949). In fact. product of linear and quadratic factors with real coeffi- tion of practical problems. (Algebra i Logika 10. R. I. C. in lowed the proofs of Euler. it is demonstrated that at least one of them is a com- Besides its fundamental role in mathematics. B. S. her first twenty-five years'. algebra'. VAN DER: Algebra. [A 1]. nomial with real coefficients can be decomposed into a pared with the role of modern computers in the solu. and PILZ. B. Addison-Wesley. Addison-Wesley. discrete groups in crystallography). Moscow. of algebraic 'reflections of them' make it possible to AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 01-XX. I (1971).I. 68-75. A. Euler apparatus of formal algebraic calculations.: Higher algebra.: Algebra. . 46L05 problems into the language of algebra. I. theory of. lL. Collection of articles. 1974. S. [A 1] ARNOLD. Shirshov semi-simple commutative Banach algebra A. C * . no. VN . which is equivalent to the one in use today: Any poly- tions. 12- evaluate.. Algebra: AlgebraiC structures. 1972 (in Russian). A.A A. examples are applications within physics (the the assumption that the roots do in fact exist. C. 10-XX. assigned.: 'On a proof of the fundamental theorem of [3] Mathematics. Merzlyakov ALGEBRA OF FUNCflONS. 1967-1971 References (translated from the German).F. d' Alembert in 1746. from the Russian). after which disciplines.: Higher algebra. Mir. A. fixed-point theorem cf. I (1971). The role of topology has ultimately been reduced to the single assumption that a polynomial of References [I] The history of mathematics from the earliest times to the begin. very accurately. 1973 (translated 466. parts: Lie algebras (cf. ALGEBRA OF FUNCTIONS largely reduced to the study of their algebraic counter. [2] LANG. [I] KUROSH. ning of the 19-th century.G. 10 (1957). and these series 1951-1964. odd degree with real coefficients has a real root. the properties of the spaces XX. For references. [4] KUROSH. Springer. Addison-Wesley. [A2] JACOBSON. Mir. numbers.: Applied abstract algebra. 465- [8] MAL'TSEv. A proof of the fundamental theorem of algebra Algebraic concepts and methods are widely employed was first given by J. FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM OF .: Lectures in abstract algebra. Istor. a polynomial. P.G. possible one.The superfluous complication. and others in the second half of the eighteenth century.

i~m.Z 2 = 0. The function /I(Z)=Z.f" EA for which valued analytic functions f. bourhood in which this function coincides with some which is continuous on the space of maximal ideals. If a EA and if / is some function maximal ideals has a representing measure concen- defined on the spectrum of the element a (i. if /EC(X) and if d f In II exp(itfa) II -t-2 TOO p(j) . ideals is metrizable. let A be the algebra of con- tinuous functions in the disc I Z I ~ 1 that are analytic and Ji(x) =0 if x f1. then/(a) is some func. /(a)EA for any aEA. 1:S. The set fo separate the points of X.Ui. however. then/EA. . +f.(A ). then each maximal ideal Xo con- convergent algebra (or uniform algebra) if the norm in tains a smallest closed primary ideal J(xo) which is this algebra defines a notion of convergence equivalent contained in any closed primary ideal contained in Xo. there exists a partition of unity belonging to A. In the present case any point in the space of maximal ideals 9n. for any point Xo not contained in F. it is possible to tion is valid for non-semi-simple commutative Banach find a function / EA such that / (x) = 1 for all x EF and algebras as well.. uniform algebra is a closed subalgebra of the algebra of In the algebra of absolutely convergent Fourier series bounded continuous functions on some topological with an adjoined identity any maximal ideal coincides space. The use of the Cauchy integral Algebras that are analytic with respect to the boundary formula permits a considerable strengthening of this are defined in a similar manner. analytic with respect to the Shilov boundary. In a regular algebra. if A =L1(Z) and /(a)EA for all aEA with and I (x) = 0 for all x EF o. of the space X some neighbourhood of this interval. .e. Any function which locally does not belong to A. for any are analytic in a neighbourhood of the spectrum of a pair of non-intersecting closed sets F. the con- hood of the spectrum of the element a.. but such a definition has fl(x)+ . for spectrum in the interval [0.e. closed set F in the space X of maximal ideals of A and bourhood of the spectrum of a EA into A. a In a few cases lea) can also be defined for multi. Thus. Similarly... it is contained in only one maximal ideal. for any algebra of functions which are analytic in some neigh. The general example of a (depending on f) of x 0 EX. /(x) is real for all x EX. fl. Any analytic algebra is result: If the function / is analytic in some neighbour. in the disc I z I < 1 and that satisfy the condition A function g is said to belong locally to the function / (0) = O. this class of functions that /(xo)=O.e. If A is a reg- A function algebra is said to be a uniformly.e. the group of units of A (a simple for all la. system of functions /J. ular function algebra. If A is a uniform algebra and if its space of maximal Let A be a closed subalgebra of the algebra C (X).}. -00 1 +t < 00 with p' (f) Ef. Clearly. if /EC(X) and if An ideal in a Banach algebra is said to be primary if exp(f)EA. with the corresponding primary ideal. coincide with the space of maximal ideals of A). If A is an algebra with real If A is a semi-simple algebra with space of maximal generators /a and if ideals X.. i. i. A function algebra is said to be analytic if all func- tion on 9n. and the mapping / ~/ (a) is a homomorphism of the A function algebra A is said to be regular if.j"+alj"-l + . it is not necessarily true that tions of this algebra that vanish on a non-empty open /(a)EA.. X 2 E X there exists a function I in A for exists a function /EA such that Ilex) I < I I(xo) I for which I(x d=#=I(x 2)· The algebra A is called symmetric 76 . If. i. then subset of the space of maximal ideals vanish identically. for any two different consists of 'peak points': Xo is a peak point if there points Xl. then /EA. then / is analytic in any finite open covering {U. Let A the closure of which is the Shilov boundary. on the set trated on fo. the functions lEA that vanish in some neighbourhood then A is a uniform algebra. 1]. but is a solution of the quadratic belongs to a regular algebra is itself an element of this equation algebra. This proposi. then A is regular. Moreover. of values of the function a=a).. root). aiEA. function of the algebra. F 0 EX there given element cannot be enlarged. For exists an element/EA such that/(x)=1 for all XEF example. to the uniform convergence of the· functions on the a The ideal J(xo) is the closure of the ideal formed by space of maximal ideals. provided with the natural sup-norm.. All regular algebras are normal. An element / of a function algebra is called real if where z2EA.ALGEBRA OF FUNCTIONS an algebra of continuous functions on the space of all x=#=xo. The unit disc is naturally identified with the algebra A if for any point Xo EX there exists a neigh- space of maximal ideals of A. then among the boundaries (not where X is a compactum (which does not necessarily only the closed ones) there is a minimal boundary f 0.(x) 1 inherent difficulties.. then /(a)EA verse is usually not true. +an = 0. If II a 2 II = II a 112 for all a EA. / is an entire function. in general.

those already established. closed. Gorin of anti-symmetry is a closed (anti-symmetric) subalge- Editorial comments. where lEA. 'if . which are com- the equivalence classes are known as Gleason parts. the space of maximal ideals of a Dirichlet algebra bra A) if any function lEA that is real on S is constant which contains more than one point.. and equivalent to'.2 is valid.. The algebra A called anti... then there exists a on this set. then'. maximal sets of anti-symmetry. Russell. the false. and and was subsequently developed by C. such that obtained in this way depend on the truth or falsehood the restriction of the algebra to this part contains all of the initial propositions and on a corresponding treat- bounded continuous functions.3'. given that 'x> 2' and then the metric PA is non-Euclidean. 1969. The Let Re(A) be the real space of functions of the form development of the algebra of logic was an attempt to Re(f). References [A1] GAMELIN. Propo- of the space of maximal ideals.3'. However. cides with some function in the algebra A. Thus.A.. then the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 46J 10 function itself belongs to A. then A =C(X).. If X monly used in the language of logic. more 'complicated'. with respect to which the functions lEA are analytic. but also the metric sitions are understood to mean statements about which induced by the imbedding of X into the dual space to it is meaningful to ask whether they are true or false. Boole [1]. by using the connective sets on the circle and in the interior of the disc serve as 'and'. in prin. if P is a Gleason part in called a set 01 anti-symmetry (with respect to the alge. If a continuous function is [A2] STOUT. regular space is homeomorphic to the Gleason part of The truth or the falsehood of the propositions the space of maximal ideals of some algebra. Poretskii. then A =C(X). 1 and A is the closed sub algebra in construct new.: The theory of uniform algebras. Hilbert. the particle 'not'.S. by using the the Gleason parts. 1971. The distance in the sense of For instance.. An algebra for which Re(A Ir) is dense in C(f) lytic functions are anti-symmetric. In particular. while the statement 'all angles are right angles' is x I> X2 EX the inequality PA (x I> x2):S. the restriction A I y of the algebra A to a maximal set For references see Banach algebra. the proposition 'a whale is an animal' is this metric will be denoted by PA. it is possible to obtain. 'is relation PA(XI> x2)<2 is an equivalence relation. the proposition 'x>2 and x:S. E. For any points true.: Uniform algebras. Each maximal set of the mapping 1/1 is not a homeomorphism in general if P anti-symmetry is an intersection of peak sets (a set P is is endowed with the ordinary topology of the space of called a peak set if there exists a function lEA such maximal ideals. This generalization of the Stone. etc. closed in C(X). their logical meanings (true or false) and with logical the study of arbitrary algebras A cannot be reduced to operations on them. to reduce the study of arbitrary uniform algebras logic that deals with propositions from the aspect of to the study of anti-symmetric algebras A. bra of the algebra C (Y).. dary: Two such points have two mutually absolutely symmetric if it follows from the conditions f. not only the ordinary topology became the principal subject of algebra of logic.lEA that I continuous representing measures with bounded deriva- is a constant function. etc. D. Thus. if A is terms of the representing measures on the Shilov boun- symmetric. According to the Stone. Gleason parts do not necessarily connective 'or' it is possible to obtain the proposition have an analytic structure: Any a-compact completely. tives. In the general case the space X can be I(I/I(z» is analytic in I z I <l. propositions and logical operations on them algebra A. 'x>2 or x:S. make it possible to is the disc I z I :s. It follows that endowed with the metric PA. the study of analytic algebras: There exists an example The algebra of logic originated in the middle of the of an algebra of type R (X) (a closed subalgebra of the nineteenth century with the studies of G.The branch of mathematical ciple. P. algebra C(X» which does not coincide with C(X). continuous one-to-one mapping 1/1 of the disc I z I < I bra A is anti-symmetric if the whole set X is a set of into P such that for any function lEA the function anti-symmetry. It follows from this definition that the alge. Peirce. If X is the space of maximal ideals of the algebra A. and the one-point 'x:S..S.Weierstrass theorem makes it possible. but 1/1 is a homeomorphism if P is that II p = 1 and II (x) I < 1 if x tl. is anti-symmetric and regular. T. Bogden and such that on each maximal set of anti-symmetry it coin. symmetry are connected. accordingly... The space X can be With the birth of the theory of sets (in the eighteen- regarded as a part of the space of maximal ideals of the seventies). A can be considered on X..W. 'or'. propositions from C (X) consisting of the functions analytic in I z I < 1. The fact that two points ment of the connectives as operations on propositions. Quigley. and others. A subset S eX is is called a Dirichlet algebra. The connectives 'and'. P has a structure represented as the union of non-intersecting. E. ALGEBRA OF LOGIC . B. if Re(A) is an algebra or if Re(A) is solve traditional logical problems by algebraic methods.L.P). algebras of ana. [2]..3'. Prentice-Hall. 77 .Weierstrass theorem. the maximal sets of anti. ALGEBRA OF LOGIC if both a function I (x) and the function I(x) belong to belong to the same Gleason part can be described in it.

while the latter is called the disjunc- of propositions . the number of opera. it is possible to obtain new tions. V?Es' greatest detail. In addition to 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 individual propositions. (~l &~2)& . they may be expressed by conjunctions. y. (6) and (7) that. if the constants 0 and I. propositions in each formula are given. )&~s) and tions. denote part in the transformations of formulas into equivalent variable propositions.. often uses tables which contain all the combinations of the implication and the equivalence. )V?Es) by the more compact nality two. The subject matter of the algebra of logic is the equalities.If these equalities are used..functions. The results presented here are also The former relation is known as the conjunction of the closely connected with a second approach to the study factors ~t.. «. z. i. Let A. respectively. In what follows below.. Thus.. Each one of the above letters is formulas: known as a formula. The following equalities play an important individual propositions.e. However.above the symbol. (7) function which is defined on samples of zeros and ones.. For extended to the class of functions whose arguments. as instance.. (xVy)Vz = xV(yVz) (2) «x&y)~Z»).. This is the so- advance.« . and let x. The connectives 'and'. Thus. the equivalence x -y equals 1 if and only if (the laws of distributivity). . tion of the terms ?E 1 .plify the notation of formulas by eliminating some of tions on the functions will also be extended. x&x = 0 (5) is equal to 1 if and only if x = O. (4) xVy equals 0 if and only if x and y are both equal to xV(y&Z) = (xVy)&(xVz) 0. As the next step. the synoptic table of junctions and negations. the value 0 or 1 can be assigned to the formula. negation is I 0 0 0 I 0 0 represented by a bar . mations which. one also uses variable propositions. any function of the alge- the functions X-. Let the symbol * denote anyone x&y = y&x. and let ~ and ?E denote (the law of commutativity). alter the expression. . x&y. C. (x&y)&z = x&(y&z).e.. This means that any xVx = 1 (6) formula can be considered as a way of stating or as a (the law of the excluded middle). a x~y = xVy. 1 if and only if both x and y equal 1. B. are said to be equal (~=?E) if they realize equal func. ••• . the absorption laws yield the law of idempo- well as the functions themselves. examples of which are given above. xVy = yVx (1) of the connectives listed above. V (disjunction). Thus. . variables Tables for arbitrary functions of the algebra of logic whose values may be any individual statements given in are constructed in a similar manner.the so-called propositional calculus.~s. from the aspect of practical applica. . and with as values also 0 or 1. xV(x&y) = x (3) also the digits 0 and 1. and 'is equivalent to' are denoted. the results of these operations are x&(xVy) = x. xVy. 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 by the symbols & (conjunction). are regarded as the values of the variables and the values of the func. It formalizes the concept of of logic.the parentheses. the class of functions of the algebra of logic will be but not the function realized by the expression.. denote truth tables.ALGEBRA OF LOGIC Often truth is symbolized by the digit '1' and falsehood below: by the digit '0'.. even without the use of tables. The tables themselves are sometimes called a compound proposition. i. looked upon as operations on quantities which assume the values 0 and 1. then (~*?E) and i will be formulas (e.?Es' It is also seen from the In specifying the functions of the algebra of logic one equalities (5). (?E 1 V?E 2 )V . and (equivalence). the most important case is that of sets E of cardi. Two formulas ~ and ?E x~y = (x&y) V (x&y). These new treatment of functions of the algebra of logic and the equalities are ottained by the so-called identity transfor- operations on these functions. ~ 0 1 1 0 I 1 0 (implication). the relations (1) and (2) make it bra of logic is sometimes understood to mean this latter possible to replace the formulas concept. generally speaking. . .. the values of x and y are identical.. the implication x~y is equal to 0 if and only if x = I and y = 0. assume the values of tency x V x =x. and this case will therefore be discussed in notation ~1&~2&'" &~s and ?El V?E2 V . 'if '" x y x x&y xVy x~y x-y then'. way of realizing a function of the algebra of logic. dis- tions on these combinations.. the disjunction x&(yVz) = (x&y)V(x&z).g. and the negation X. and x-y is given bra of logic may be realized by a formula written using 78 . the concept of a formula called tabular way of specifying functions of the algebra was inductively introduced.. The connectives and the particle 'not' are (the law of associativity). The above equalities frequently sim- elements of a finite fixed set E. formulas. If the values of the (the law of contradiction). 'or'. x~y. The conjunction x&y is equal to (the law of absorption). The alge..

disjunctive normal forms a hypothesis of the formula 2r. form. containirJg all vari. The procedure of this algorithm is as ing all hypotheses and all consequences of a given for- follows: The given formulas u \ and U2 are reduced to mula. the contracted disjunctive normal form for The set of all formulas involving variable proposi. a consequence which satisfy the following conditions: 1) it does not of 2r is called simple if it is a disjunction of variable contain pairs of elements 2rj and 2rj such that any fac. this is verted with the aid of the equalities (1) . if they are identical. u\ =U2. ~.FU 2. may be con. Equations (1) . the conjunctive normal form. Each formula u in a 2r = ~ is true.(7). V. for any tion to the disjunctive normal form. A hypothesis of a formula 2r is understood to be a perfect disjunctive normal forms which contain all the formula ~ such that (~~2r) = I. and in exchanging 0 for 1 and of 2r \. . the 2rj are pairwise unequal. 0 or 1. An opera- In the latter language a special role is played by a class tion (or function) f is said to be. V. where s. use is also made of formula in the language over &. The tions. Here the parentheses are omit. by substituting 1 for 0 and 0 for 1 is either a variable proposition. (2) and (3) are examples of dual equalities. "'. equality is called the dual of the above equality. throughout (including interchange in the values of the junction of them. 1 which realizes a dual of ~. some of the symbols &. -.. and the formulas u \ and U2 are equal if and only if their con- constants 0 and 1 is called a language over these symbols tracted disjunctive normal forms are identical. An important role in the algebra of conjunction of variable formulas or their negations and logic and its applications is played by contracted dis. The survey of hypotheses and consequences is based on while the other contains the negation of this variable the indication of an algorithm which transforms a given (under the condition that the pair of elements does not formula into all of its simple hypotheses and contain a second variable for which the same is true). junctive normal form and a contracted disjunctive nor- fect disjunctive normal form forms the basis of an algo. the disjunctive normal form x&y VX&Z yields (x~y)~z = «x Vy)&Z)V«x Vy)&z). formulas or their negations and if. hypothesis of a formula 2r is said to be simple if it is a if not. it is no longer a consequence of 2r. etc. there exists (in the same disjunctive normal form) an into all remainirJg hypotheses and consequences. V and-. Any disjunctive 2r and ~ have identical hypotheses and identical conse- normal form may be reduced with the aid of the equali. A the same variables.. These expressions 1 for 0. is the dual of 2r while ~. after discarding anyone of its factors.(7) to an equal contracted disjunctive normal hypothesis of that disjunctive normal form. consequences and. since it is assumed that the conjunction operation tion of a formula which consists in replacing the sym- is 'stronger' than disjunction. a consequence of a for- variables comprised in both u \ and U2 and the two mula 2r is a formula ~ such that (2r~~)= 1. respectively. 2rs are calculated first. the perfect disjunctive normal form of 0 is the forms such that their dual expressions are a perfect dis- formula 0 itself. and 2rj one of which contains some variable as factor. ALGEBRA OF LOGIC only the symbols &. and 0 for 1. u \ =. after one of its ele- tor of 2rj is contained in 2rj . ~. "'. the conjunction and the disjunction x factors or factors of the form x and together. V. A transforma- ted. equivalent disjunctive normal form. =~. and each conjunctive normal and each 2rj in this disjunctive normal form containirJg form is the dual of some disjunctive normal form.. equality (5) able formulas of u and any number of other variables. the conjunctive normal form (x Vy)&(xV z).e.. is dual to equality (6). An element of a disjunctive normal form is a ties (1) . then it is also true that 2r. with the aid of the laws (2) . 0. If the equality are called disjunctive normal forms. while a fac- 79 .. -. if. Thus. i. for example tuting the symbol V for &. Similarly. -. In addi- and constants. when calculating with bols of all operations and expressions by the symbols respect to the given values of the variables. constants 0 and 1 are mutually dual. it is no longer junctive normal forms. . so that none of the 2rj contains equal functions). ~. The possibility of reduction to a per. The pairs of the laws (1).(7) into an the so-called duality prinCiple. i.(7) show that. 0. V.. For instance. Such a disjunctive normal form is perfect conjunctive normal form and a contracted con- said to be a perfect disjunctive normal form of the for..e. mal form. "'. junctive normal form are defined as conjunctive normal mula u. the values of their dual operations. is the language over &. if the table defining f is obtained from the table 2r\ V . then other factors of these two elements. of expressions which it is possible to find an equivalent formula in the are obtained from a disjunctive normal form by substi- language over &. its negation or a con. and all are mutually dual. the negation is dual to itself. 2) for any two elements 2rj ments is discarded. If 2r =~. 0. is called a duality transformation. V2r s. A expressions are compared. Perfect and contracted disjunc- rithm determining the equality or inequality of two tive and conjunctive normal forms are used for survey- given formulas. and 1. The element 2rk which is equal to the conjunction of the algorithm is based on the following facts. and this non-zero function of the algebra of logic. i.e. the formula «x"'(y~z»~(x&z» is x&yVzVx&y.the dual of an opera- of formulas which may be written in the form tion I/. quences. Thus.l and where each 2rj which defines I/. & for V. -.. and 1.. and if 2r.

There exists an algorithm which can be used to estab- junctive normal form for a given function of the alge. to a reduced polynomial by identity transformations. V. tions of this system. language over &. 1. i. x&1 = x. s. A system of functions of by discarding a number of elements. +m:s . when m: j is equal to 1 or is a variable or hypotheses (not containing letters which are not con. For certain func. . (and constants) of the system may be used to represent tion of the algebra of logic which realizes this function any function of the algebra of logic. the algebra of logic is complete if and only if it con- tions the contracted disjunctive normal form may coin. i. tions of some of its factors or of propositions equal to The equality m: = 58 is valid if and only if the reduced them. that conjunction is a that conjunctive normal form.0. as functions h. by means of should be mentioned is the minimization of functions certain conversion rules. Thus.e. a conjunction of various variables without negations. The first problem which mula in one language can be converted. y..1)=0.. 1. . a contracted con. mial for 58. -. Such a that fl (0. where h =#=h' f4 is not functions realizable by formulas over &. "'. for example. when the an element m: with more than one factor.. In addition to the languages mentioned junctive normal form is the conjunction of all its simple above there are also other languages equivalent to consequences. +. . (13) in this language. then m:V ~ is also a hypothesis for 58. Examples of complete elements. (12) In considering one of the languages discussed above in conjunction with some complete system of equalities x&(y+z) = x&y+x&z. A perfect conjunctive nor. These equalities proposition 58. A contracted disjunctive normal form them.x}.0)= 1 and 12(1. l. -. Each minimal dis. ~. They contain infinitely many pairwise incomparable languages (in the sense that x~y = i&y. V. .. y. Such systems are and has the smallest sum of the number of factors in its said to be functionally complete. 1. operations (and constants) such that the operations structing a disjunctive normal form for the given func. 0. which is a part of the problem mula in the second language. 0. has minimal complexity.. V. A proposition in this language is ~ are consequences of 58. polynomial for m: is identical with the reduced polyno- junction of all its simple hypotheses. as before. v) such cide with the minimal disjunctive normal form. or else is equal to 1+1. the disjunctions of some of its elements or of disjunctive expression x&y&z +x&y + 1 is a reduced polynomial. f4 and f5. called a reduced polynomial if it is of the form quence of 58. x~y = (x+y)+I. The identity transformations in the latter with the aid of identity transformations of the equa- language are realized with the aid of equalities esta.x&y}. {xVy. ~. . (10) another by means of identity transformations). a tabular statement of the basic opera- x&y = x.l. There are sign + is interpreted as addition modulo 2. the equalities: equalities (1) . 1. 0. and 1 into algebra of logic there exists a finite system of equations equivalent formulas in the language over &. then m:V~ is also a conse.(6) constitute a complete system of x+y = y+x. just as in the case of the language over tion 58. +. (9) there is no way of translating from one language to x+y = (x&y) V (i&y). also other languages based on systems of operations ing relations are valid: which are not functionally complete. (II) equalities of the language over &. and the reduced polynomial of f5 contains In the language over &. Such disjunctive systems are {xVy}. 1. I = xVi.. A contracted disjunctive normal form is the dis. +. as well case occurs. and vice versa. . 1. tained in that disjunctive normal form) other than the m:j=#=m:j if i=/=j.. 1.ALGEBRA OF LOGIC tor of a conjunctive normal form is a consequence of Here it is considered. (x+y)+z = x+(y+z). then m:& ~ is also a conse. tains functions fI (x. monotone. transformations. Two languages are called equivalent if each for- has important applications.. cient to base such a language on an arbitrary system of zation offunctions of the algebra of logic consists in con. into another equivalent for- of the algebra of logic. with the aid of identity quence of 58. v) and 12 (x. ~. How- These formulas make it possible to translate formulas ever. 0.. ~. x+(y+y) = x. . and in this language such that any equality can be deduced vice versa. and the number of xVy = «x&y)+x)+y. If m: and ~ are hypotheses of a proposi. If m: is a hypothesis of a stronger connective than the sign +.:. then m:&~ is also a hypothesis for 58. It is suffi- of synthesis of control (switching) systems. . Such a system called a deductively blished for the conjunction and the following additional complete system of equalities in this language. (14) tions in the language and the requirement that proposi- 80 . normal forms are called minimal.e. +. V. normal forms equal to them. {x+y. for any language based on some operations of the from the language over &.. Any formula of the algebra of logic may be converted mal form has no consequences other than the conjunc.. The minimi. lish the completeness or incompleteness of an arbitrary bra of logic which is not a constant is obtained from finite system of functions of the algebra of logic. Thus. the follow. if are sufficient to deduce any valid equality in the m: is a consequence of 58. -. etc. It is the contracted disjunctive normal form of this function based on the following fact. A perfect disjunctive normal form has no m: 1 + . (8) such languages is infinite. if m: and &. with monotone functions. V.

Springer. Moscow. ures A. Boolean functions.: Grundzuge der theoretischen tion n 1J. 0. is not symmetric and its space of maximal ideals has a [2) BOOLE.P. i.B. are known. if a logarithm of an invertible meas- ures on a locally compact Abelian group G that have ure from M (G) can be taken (one-dimensional integral bounded variation. in Collection of in the Shilov boundary. This makes it possible to algebra M (G) of complex-valued regular Borel meas. the language Under this imbedding the image is a closed ideal in over &. Instead. and a many-valued logic must be con./E) = £! dx V. The convolution A*J.Stieltjes Functions of the algebra of logic and Post classes.LEM(G) is the function ~ on the dual group Gdefined has been stimulated mainly by the problems to which it by the formula has been applied.. An important application is the theory of electric circuits.Stieltjes transform of a measure Historically. Dover. Each idempotent measure is a finite integer combina- [4) HILBERT. bra L 1(G) may be assigned a corresponding measure which satisfy the equalities from a complete system of J.S. character. Gorin support. 1962. abstract). Dover.A. S. for any continuous function f on G with compact algebra'. the (integral with respect to the Haar measure). objects (which are used as values of the variables) and To each function f which belongs to the group alge- some system of operations over the objects of this set. V. P. Amer.is transformed into the language of a dis- M(G). If the group G is not discrete. -.~ and II J. The Fourier. 126 (1971). Interscience. Nevertheless. cf. The algebra of measures AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 28A60.Ll + . and Xi is a [5) NOVIKOV.L of the meas. W. Math.. various interpretations of the language zero of the group.(y). the Haar measure of a compact subgroup. and MCGEHEE.L II =0 if ~ O. then the structure of References [I) BOOLE.: The mathematical analysis of logic: being an esstry the measure algebra M(G) is extremely complicated: It towards a calculus of deductive reasoning. sidered (cf.: Essays in commutative If the total variation of a measure is taken as norm.L=J.e. M (G) becomes a commutative Banach algebra over the [A2] TAYLOR. 1951.) = j jf(x+y)dh(X)dp. [1) RUDIN.L.Lb where J. Edinburgh. . For instance. tributive lattice. reprint. pp. space contains infinite-dimens~ona1 analytic sets.LfEM(G) in accordance with the rule equalities of the language. G. G. 195-225. Many-valued logic). J. + nkJ. measures for which J. I into the language of a Boolean algebra. and with convolution as multiplication (cf. contracted disjunctive normal forms are also called abridged In the general case the theorem on idempotent meas- disjunctive normal forms. section of the Society of Natural Scientists at Kazan. etc. mology spaces of dimension zero of the space of maxi- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03GXX mal ideals.The ideals of the measure algebra.B.L*J.: Measure algebras. and where Pi is Logik. W. 161-330 (in Russian). and [3) PORETSKII. V. in particular. the development of the algebra of logic J.: (cm ) of zeros and ones is the Fourier. and KUDRYAVTSEV. A satisfactory description is also known for other cohomology groups of the space of maximal ALGEBRA OF MEASURES. J.: 'On methods of solving logical equalities and the naturally imbedded group G in it is not dense even on an inverse method of mathematical logic'. O.L. J. Acta Math. reprint. Soc. Editorial comments. Harmonic References analysis. tell. the idempotent protocols of sessions of the Fiz·Mat.: Elements of mathematical logic.. In certain cases circuits can- not be described in terms of the ordinary two-valued algebra of logic.V.LEM(G) is completely defined by the condition [2) TAYLOR.. In the theory of Boolean functions a finite number of terms. P. Kazan'. harmonic analysis.Li = Xi Pi. measure algebra .: 'The cohomology of the spectrum of a measure that. Thus. 1946. measures. The set of discrete measures con- are permitted. 1847. D. jfd(h*P. 1964 (translated from the Russian). normal ures can be naturally interpreted in terms of the coho- forms of. These interpretations involve some set of tained in M (G) forms a closed subalgebra. Then ~=~. c. G. In the case G = Z this means that a sequence [6) YABLONSKIi. Macmillan. 43A20 81 . GAVRILOV. field of complex numbers. p.L.c. 1884. on which are number of pathological properties. I is transformed into the language is an isometric isomorphic imbedding Ll(G)~M(G). this founded the mathematical theories of logic and probabilities. V. M (G) is an algebra without a radical. Kudryavtsev (cm ) differs from a periodic sequence by not more than Editorial comments. 1979. Vol.S. +. In particular.: An investigation of the laws of thought. 1964 transform of some measure on the circle if and only if (in Russian). and ACKERMAN. References G GG [A 1] GRAHAM. of a Boolean ring (with a unit element). E..: Fourier analysis on groups. ALGEBRA OF MEASURES tions be the values of its variables are sometimes dis. such a procedure results in the transformation of the language over &. 1972.c. 2. The result language over &. with the ordinary linear operations cohomology). M (G) has a unit which is the 8-measure located at the carded. Univ.

J. General generated by it is finite-dimensional or. taking com. then the variety of algebras with known as a a-algebra of sets. 64 (1948). equivalently. 1/2. (x. Summa Algebras (respectively. Soc. 1. is an algebra of sets. The set of all alge- subsets of some set n that is closed under the set. v. If Fis an infinite field of algebra of sets that is closed under countable unions is prime characteristic p. P. The 3) let n be a topological space. 141-146 (in Russian).: 'Power-associative rings'. if the characteristic of the plements). 5) The collection of Lebesgue-measurable subsets of Rk is a a-algebra of sets. domain of definition of finitely-additive (respectively. An algebra with associative powers in the theory of random processes a probability measure is also called a power-associative algebra. intersection. 1) The collection of finite subsets of an tive algebra A with associative powers of characteristic arbitrary set n and their complements is an algebra of other than 2 has an idempotent e=. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 17A 10. can be uniquely extended to a ALGEBRAIC ALGEBRA . (*) 2) The collection of finite unions of intervals of the where A >. it is necessary (and sufficient) for it to be closed under finite unions and taking the complement. no. and SCHWARTZ. infinite system of countable number of times. 552-593.y. .. x. A o(e)A I (e)=O.: 'On the power associativity of rings'. structure theory of algebras with associative powers.5-19. Sazonov and if the set of degrees of the minimal annihilating AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 28A05 polynomials of its elements is bounded.1. the class A of sets of the [3] GAiNOV. The fact that the is often originally defined only on an algebra of this set of algebras with associative powers over a field of non- type. Gainov where E is a Borel subset of Rk. z)=(xy)z-x(yz). but an independent. the smallest a-algebra of sets containing all open sub- sets of n) is known as the Borel a-algebra of subsets of References n. Interscience.A. 1 (1970).An algebra A with associ- a-additive measure defined on the a-algebra generated ative powers (in particular. [2] HALMOS. 17A05. is defined by the system of identities order for a class of subsets of a set n to be an algebra (x.T. A = Ao(e)EflA 1/2(e)ElM I(e). Math. 1970. the element a has an annihilating polynomial with coef- [3] NEVEU..e. Subalgebras and homomorphic images of an algebraic algebra (of ALGEBRA WITH ASSOCIATIVE POWERS . a variety of algebras which. A>. A.: 'Power-associative algebras over a finite- characteristic field'. carried out a finite number of times. A. Mas. 1950. Editorial comments. no. According to the theorem of XX extension of measures.: Measure theory.T. 3 (1957). a-algebras) are the natural Brasiliensis Math. type (Algebra i Logika 9. a field F all elements of which are algebraic (an ele- References ment a EA is called algebraic if the subalgebra F[a] [I] DUNFORD. sets. 82 . if theory.(e)AI/2(e)CA I / 2(e)+A j ->. [2] GAiNOV. An algebra A is called son.\a}. the collection consisting of the at most countable decomposed according to Peirce into a direct sum of vec- subsets of n and their complements is a a-algebra of tor subspaces: sets. In field F is zero. 1 (1970). A mer. x)=O was proved in [A1]. x.FO. Uspekhi 4) let n=RT . ficients from the ground field F). J.. 16- a-additive) measures. while the sets belonging to B are known as Borel [I] ALBERT. forms an algebra of sets. a-additive measure. and is their subsequently extended to a wider zero characteristic forms a variety defined by class of sets (to the a-algebra generated by A). V. x) = 0. where T is an arbitrary set (i. an algebraic algebra of bounded degree if it is algebraic v.A. I. References [A 1] ALBERT. set of all real functions on 1). n is the Mat. an associative algebra) over by A. A 1/2(e)A 1/2(e)CAO(e)+A I(e). Trans. Here type A o(e) and A I (e) are sub algebras.: Linear operators.: 'Identity relations for binary Lie rings'.\=0. defined on an algebra A.ALGEBRA OF SETS ALGEBRA OF SETS .T. 9-33) A. any a-finite.A non-empty collection of generates an associative sub algebra. bras with associative powers over a given field F forms theoretic operations (of union.\=0. of sets. x. x.(e) = {a EA: ea =.T. Nostrand. no. An where (x.: Bases mathematiques du calcul des probabilites. then A can be sets. Algebra and Logic 9. 2 (1948).R. x) = (x 2 . If a commuta- Examples.A. Nauk 12. A.A bounded degree) are algebraic algebras (of bounded linear algebra A over a field F each element of which degree). N. x)=(x 2 . the a-algebra B of decomposition (*) plays a fundamental role in the sets generated by the open subsets of n (in other words. 21-33. identities which defines it is known [3]. Any a-algebra of sets is associative powers cannot be defined by any finite sys- closed under the set-theoretic operations carried out a tem of identities.(e) for . 1958.

are algebraic alge- bras. and the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 30AXX. Assoc. y) is a polynomial with coefficients from an that the element eo may be extended along an arbitrary algebraically closed field k. Springer.y)=O. then X and Y are 83 .An algebraic variety of limit limZ-+ 1 (z) exists for any regular element of con- Q dimension one. More exactly. m~O. A. Soc. neighbourhood of a by a generalized Laurent series finite-dimensional ones). where x and y are connected by the equation continuation of the element eo in D yields exactly k l(x. elements (in particular. braic PI-algebra is locally finite. 12F05 plex numbers (cf.I elements with centre z 1 can be It has been known for a long time that even when obtained by analytic continuation along closed paths studying affine curves fundamental relationships can around the point a. nil-algebras and associative (Puiseux series): skew-fields with a countable set of generators over an 00 uncountable field. n=-m The algebras considered below are associative. and the initial affine obtainable by analytic continuation of the element eo curve Y may be obtained from X by deleting a finite in the annulus D may be represented in a deleted number of points. finite or infinite. distance.D. with sub- The number k . N. then the algebras obtained from an alge. all the morphic to a plane affine curve. Algebra.: Noncommutative rings. seqlloent closure in the Zariski topology. field and is unique up to isomorphism.An algebraic extension (cf. Math.. [2] HURWITZ. An algebraic curve is the most fre- tinuation of 1 in a domain for which a is a boundary quently studied object in algebraic geometry. A is of bounded degree. E. satisfies a polynomial identity (cf. ALGEBRAIC CURVE Examples: locally finite algebras (in particular. VN. Chelsea. remaining k . the analytic k(x. curve is imbedded into a projective space pn. 1968. Amer. Chapt. a skew-field) over a finite field References is commutative.: Theory offunctions of a complex variable. algebraic singular AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 12F05 point .An isolated branch point a of finite order of an analytic function 1 (z). An algebraic algebra of bounded degree 3. under braic curve over an algebraically closed field. There may exist several (and even an infinite number then A is isomorphic to a ring of matrices over a skew.I is said to be the order of the alge. y).8 (translated from the Russian). where I(x. in addition.I. and by a detailed study of the singular points. The simplest and clearest concept is that of a plane tion with centre z 0 along paths passing through a. 4.. a skew-field. The algebraic VN. All branches of the function 1 (z) projective curve X is obtained. An algebraic algebra without non-zero nilpotent of a complete analytic function with a given affix a. R. ALGEBRAIC CLOSURE 01 a field k . In the point. continuation of some regular element eo of this func. Arner. tinuation in D tend to a definite. If the ground field is uncountable.: Structure of rings. braically closed field. In this way a braic branch point. ing conditions: I) There exists a positive number p such where I(x. 32830 tensor product of algebraic algebras. a = 00. An alge. The field of rational func- continuous curve lying in the annulus D {z: = tions of an irreducible algebraic curve over k is the 0< I z-a I <p}. and COURANT. limit In order to study all the points of an affine curve. the as z tends to a while remaining in D. affine plane A~ satisfying the equation l(x. A. This different elements of the function 1 (z) with centre z 1 . 2) there exists a positive integer k>1 field of algebraic functions in one variable of the form such that if z 1 is an arbitrary point of D. The Jacobson radical of an algebraic algebra is a nil-ideal. fundamental theorem of). This is a set of points in an called an algebraic branch point if it fulfills the follow.: Vorlesungen iiber allgemeine Funktionentheorie und elliptische Funktionen. a singular point a in the complex sequel. is called an algebraic primitive algebraic algebra A is isomorphic to a dense branch point for a function 1 (z) if the point b 0 is an = algebra of linear transformations of a vector space over algebraic branch point of the function g(w)= l(l / w). if. j(z) = ~ cn(z-at/ k . 1968. Math. 1977.y) is a polynomial over k. Remeslennikov ALGEBRAIC BRANCH POINT. Latyshev closure of the field of real numbers is the field of com- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 16A16.y)=O. Extension of a field) of k that is an alge- References [I] JACOBSON. means that every algebraic curve is birationally iso- if e 1 is an arbitrary element with centre z 1. is affine algebraic curve. If Y is irreducible. of) different algebraic branch points and regular points field. having the property that the ALGEBRAIC CURVE . A The point at infinity. PI-algebra). It follows that finite skew-fields are [1] MARKUSHEVICH. commutative. and 3) the values at the points z of only be revealed by considering points at an infinite D of all elements which are obtainable from eo by con. I. 1956. Solomentsev braic algebra by extension of the ground field. Such an extension exists for each [2] HERSTEIN. an algebraic curve means an irreducible alge- z-plane for the complete analytic function 1 (z).

where g is the genus of the curve X. this dimension is known as the identical with the Albanese variety and with the Picard genus of X. then they are curve is given by isomorphic. The principal divisors form a subgroup P(X) of the In particular. (!) x) is known as the arithmetic genus of The class of divisors which are linearly equivalent to the algebraic curve X. Local ring). Divisor). Curves of degree n of maxi- cients mal genus exist for each value of n and lie on a quadric (G.Roch theorem yields I(D)=deg(D). which means that not every smooth projective curve is jective model of an algebraic curve. This property is tively. Any holds: smooth projective curve is isomorphic to a curve (n . or effective. situated in p3..N oether theorem). If G~ denotes the subset of points of J (X) curve of genus g. cial divisors are singular points of the Poincare divisor For any non-negative integer g there exists an algebraic on J (X). '7T=dimHI(X. Every complete algebraic curve where d is a non-negative integer which is a measure of is projective. then G~ forms a subscheme in order m.. In particular. one says that D is special (or. The degree system defined by the divisor D is I(D)-I and the cal- of the principal divisors on a smooth projective curve is culation of I(D) is an important task of the theory of zero. In particular. any divisor if I(K-D)=O).e. For non-special divisors the characteristic for rational smooth projective curves.Roch theorem. '7T is identical with a divisor D on a smooth projective curve X defines a the dimension of the space HO(X.2)2 for even n. obtained by the plane. non-special).ALGEBRAIC CURVE birationally isomorphic. the number Each divisor of degree higher than 2g . 4 Divisors on a smooth algebraic curve are represented by linear combinations of points with integer coeffi. If two smooth projec. Any plane algebraic curve can be con. In _ (m -l)(m -2) g .. If X is a projective plane curve of degD =n and I(D)=r. i. A normal algebraic curve is smooth.Brill. The group CI(X) is isomorphic to which (f) + D . 1870). then J(X) and 17= (m-l)(m-2) dimG~ . ClO(pl)=O. the adjunction formula Kx=X(X+KF ) holds. For a curve X in space the following estimate process of normalization.. For smooth projective curves divisor class.. 2 ' particular. The degree of the divisor D is the curve by means of the formula degKx =2g-2.2 is non-special. Any divisor D for which I (D)?d defines a 2 ' rational mapping CPD of the curve X into the projective 84 . Cl(X) / Clo(X) = Z. For an arbitrary group Div X of all divisors on X. which is projective curve X is connected with the genus of the written as D . rings (!) X> X EX (cf. respec- of degree zero is a principal divisor. If all nx. Rational curves are distinguished by which correspond to the classes of divisors D with the equality g = O. This variety is ferential forms on X. If X is a smooth projective curve. one can consider the subset of the field Div(X) / P(X) is called the group of'divisor classes and k(X) consisting of zero and of the functions f for is denoted by CI(X). Vector bundle.0. Points which correspond to classes of spe- curve is equal to the genus of its non-singular model. For any complete algebraic curve X. one of which will now be g = (m-l)(m-2)_d described. If a number smooth projective curve X lies on a smooth algebraic degD = ~nx' surface F. The following equality is valid: /(D)-/(K-D) = deg(D)-g+l. If X is smooth. where nx=O for almost all x (cf. The quotient group divisor D on X. and of the subgroup Clo(X) of divisor this theorem is the equality classes of degree zero. ordinary singular points.0. The degree of the canonical class Kx of a smooth the divisor D is called positive. then all the smoothness on X. If I(K .D»O (or For the line pI. point on the Jacobi variety J (X) of X. This is a linear space over k of finite the group Pic(X) of classes of one-dimensional vector dimension I(D). algebraic). where n is the degree of X.:. The dimension of the complete linear bundles on X (cf. any irreducible algebraic curve is biratio- nally equivalent to a smooth projective curve. one can speak of the degree of a Riemann . Riemann . the genus of a plane smooth projective tive curves are birationally equivalent. and thus all divisors in one class are of the same algebraic curves. The pro. By definition. r(n-r+l)-(r-l)g 2 ' (the Riemann . d is simply the number of singular points. If X has only ordinary double valuation rings of the field k(x) are given by the local points. the genus of an algebraic variety of X. lies in some space pn. degKx=(X)2 + (X·KF ).. 4 (n -l)(n -3) (I) verted by a Cremona transformation into a curve with for odd n. CI(PI)=Z. Q~) of all regular dif.g+ l.'O. Halphen. The strongest relevant result is the degree. This theorem and its genus is given by the formula: has numerous applications.

in the case of and G is the modular group consisting of rational-linear the interior of the unit disc. G is the iden- plex numbers C. The space H / G has the some non-Euclidean bounded polygon.manifold. A where X is a simply-connected complex manifold. the set of classes of mutually. the second Elliptic curve). birationally unit disc D = {z: I z I < I} (the Lobachevskii plane). If <PK is an isomorphism. up to an isomorphism. the addition of points on the torus defining the is called the moduli variety of curves of genus g. G is a subgroup of motions transformations with integral coefficients and with in the Lobachevskii plane which can be defined by determinant equal to + 1. The mapping <PD depends on the class of ponent of the unit of which coincides with the group of D. an? number of important results have been obtained in this G is a group of automorphisms of X which acts on X field. For these curves surface. The set of points of the curve X(C) has the other by a projective transformation of pSg -6. Its order is bounded in any proper subspace of the space pm (m I(D)-I). then <PD defines an isomorphic points of X(k). i. straight line C (the finite plane) and the interior of the 2) curves of genus I (elliptic curves). Usually one uses the same symbol X for the the curve <PK(X) is called canonical. All smooth projective curves are subdivided into three 3) hyper-elliptic curves. k). class above contains a unique curve pI. Two curves coverings of the projective line. I) If f(x. The converse is also true. of a given type can be reduced to the study of discrete The genus of a curve does not fully characterize the groups of transformations of the universal coverings birational class of an algebraic curve. It is noteworthy that there are available now (1977). birationally equivalent to PI. Mappings <P which correspond to a multiple nK of the Weierstrass point) on X play an important role in the canonical class of X are the most interesting from the study of the group Aut(X) in the latter case. which curve).1) [6]. Classes of birationally equivalent curves class consists of complex tori C / Q that all have the of genus g> 1 are described by points belonging to structure of a one-dimensional Abelian variety (elliptic some algebraic variety vi( g of dimension 3g . the affine 1) curves of genus 0.which act freely with a relatively compact fundamental tion are curves of genus zero. is isomorphic to the field of meromorphic doubly- The following results are valid for the group Aut(X) periodic (elliptic) functions with period group Q.universal covering belongs to. If deg(D)~2g+ 1. y = I/. point of view of the birational classification of curves. transformations PGL(I.e. G is isomorphic elliptic curves is described by points in the isomorphic to a subgroup Q of the additive group C quotient space H / G.domain. it is defined smooth projective curve and its corresponding one- uniquely up to projective transformations in pg -I. biratio.3. while <PD(X) is not contained Aut(X) is always a finite group. this has been proved (by F. then there exists a parametrization x = <j>(z).tity group. their classification up to a birational isomorphism. The third class consists of all smooth projective 85 . classes. where H is the upper half-plane which is a two-dimensional lattice in C. This group structure on the respective curve. which is also known as a compact Riemann teristic of curves of genus g> 1. the connected com. ALGEBRAIC CURVE space pl(D)-I. The natural structure of a one-dimensional compact analytic study of the mapping <PK yielded a more precise charac. rational functions C(X) on an elliptic curve X~C/Q Severi) for g< 11 only. According to one conjecture vi( g elliptic curves are obtained in this way. but an adequate solution of the problem is not discretely and freely. 3) If X is a curve of genus g>l. Thus. any compact <PK: X~pg-I is an isomorphic imbedding if and only if Riemann surface is obtained from some smooth projec- X is not a hyper-elliptic curve. then imbedding of X into pm. by the number 84(g . All smooth variety is irreducible. If k is the field of com. however. only three one-dimensional simply-connected connected Smooth projective curves are subdivided into four analytic manifolds. These are classes: the projective line CP I (the Riemann sphere). the class 3K defines an isomorphic imbedding that all smooth projective curves are finite (ramified) of the smooth projective curve into pSg -6. A dimensional complex manifold. in the case of the affine straight line. the first structure of an analytic manifold isomorphic to C (d. X and Yare birationally equivalent if and only if their Let X be a smooth projective curve defined over the images <P3K(X) and <P3K(Y) are obtained from each field C.y)=O is the equation of the affine model of the X is pL then Aut(X) is the group of rational-linear curve X. The field of is unirational. depending on which one of the three types their 4) non-hyper-elliptic curves of 8enus g> I. Weierstrass points (d. tive curve. If of automorphisms of a smooth projective curve X.X). In the case of the projective line. Any connected co~plex very important task of the theory of algebraic curves is manifol~ X can be represented as a quotient X / G. 2) If X is an elliptic curve. nally equivalent to a canonical curve in pg -I (algebraic The problem of classifying smooth projective curves curves of basic type).{z) by elliptic functions of it (a uniforrnization of then Aut(X) is an algebraic group. Another way of studying Aut(X) is based on the fact If g> 1. equivalent to a smooth cubic curve in p2. The only excep.

Atti R. J. a cohomology class y(Z)EH 2p(X. field k. [A4) HARTSHORNE. D. Math. cohomology) classes of type of one variable. The moduli space of curves . R. it has been proven plane.2g vq. The [4] CHEVALLEY.. subvarieties of the given algebraic variety.: 'On the Kodaira dimension of N ow let X be an algebraic curve defined over the the moduli space of curves'.: Principles of algebraic the vertical line (J = 1 / 2 (cf. 23-88. Each analytic cycle is homologous 86 . The study of the general case of such groups.: Geometry of algebraic curves. 1957. 1977. 349-366. though containing a finite LobachevskiI Riemann-Noether-Brill theorem.E. I. If k is the field of complex numbers References [I] SHAFAREVICH.: 'Endlichkeitssatze fUr abelsche Varietaten Liber Zahlk6rpern'.: Groupes algebrique et corps des classes. for ellip- tic curves the rational points constitute a finitely. Princeton Univ. P. This inequality is equivalent to the [A2) ARilELLO. 1959. Z) and. G. function of X. Soc. field of rational numbers Q. 2 there is the Mordell conjecture to ALGEBRAIC CYCLE on an algebraic variety . [A3]. e. Math.q -1 I :S. For curves of genus zero [A6) FALTINGS. ko(B) are studied in the theory of algebraic surfaces In what follows X will denote a non-singular projec- (d.A. plays an important role developments in the theory of algebraic curves.. GRIFFITHS. The set of rational points ceX) == EBcP(X). D. has fixed points in D.A 9 is of general type. 196-223 (in Italian). Zeta-function in algebraic geometry. M. and HARRIS. J. Estimate (1) above is due to G. J. G. In the case of a smooth projective curve two over a number field has only a finite number of rational over a finite field k a proof has been given of the ine. one of the most important problems is that of Mumford) or if 9 is even and g~40 (Harris).E. Such Wesley.: Basic algebraiC geometry. and X(k) is finite for curves of The subgroup C l (X) is identical with the group of Weil genus g > 2. [7] SPRINGER. Springer.ALGEBRAIC CURVE curves X of genus g> 1.. 1977 C. 1. Uniformization). Springer. [AS] MUMFORD. and HARRIS. has been proved by G. Addison- that are invariant with respect to the group G. q is the number of elements of Land g is the curves'. and ISKovsKIKH.: The theory of algebraiC functions. the existence and location of the set of rational points The Mordell conjecture. This morphism is uniquely denoted by cP(X). c. [ZlEH 2n -2p(X. Soviet Math. each smooth pro.: 'Studies on the geometry of algebraic of k. Amer. Harris and D. Curves of genus 0 and lover the field divisors (d. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14HXX generated group (if X(Q) is non-empty). [5] SERRE. every curve of genus at least X(k) of X. 1966. points.: Algebraic geometry. 5.V. tive algebraic variety of dimension n over an algebrai- cally closed field k. then each algebraic cycle Z E cP (X) defines a (translated from the Russian). duality. In this case the field C(X) is [6] CHEBOTAREV.A. Every algebraic [8] DoLGACHEV.. Wiley.e. Elliptic surface. Springer. no. Reference [A2] also contains new results on the non-compact.: Introduction to Riemann surfaces. this reference also gives a survey of recent and of the respective quotients. Press. A proof can also be found in [A2]. J. The sub- jective curve X over k is isomorphic to the general fibre group of the group C(X) of algebraic cycles on a X1J of the morphism f: V ~B of a smooth projective variety X generated by a subvariety of codimension p is algebraic surface V over ko. the points of X(Q) are relatively easily found.. Ruled surface). RJ.. G. Divisor) on X. Algebra Topol. I. while for curves of genus g. 67 (1982). Geom.G. ferent from the one just discussed. cohomology) classes. First.An ele- the effect that X(Q) is finite. 1951. Faltings [A6].-P.77-170) functions (cf. E. in modem arithmetical research..: Lectures on curves on an algebraic surface. ment of the free Abelian group the set of free genera- If the ground field k is the field of rational functions tors of which is constituted by all closed irreducible ko(B) of a smooth projective curve B. if 9 is odd and g~25 (J. J. but this situation is substantially dif. and HARRIs. Springer. V. (2n .2p )-dimensional homology class [2] WALKER. secondly. geometry). the manifold D / G is [A4]. Invent. 1978. The problem of the classification of elliptic curves also led to a study of the VE.E. 73 (1983). X(k) is in one-to-one correspondence with the set of p sections V(B) of f. 6 (1976). [A5]. genus of X. functions are known as automorphic. i Tekhn. Tarin 24 (1889). quality I N . P.A. Riemann hypothesis concerning the zeros of the t. respectively. N. that equality holds in the theorem for a generiC curve in the sense of moduli. 12 (1974). Math. viz. The group C(X) can be represented defined if it is assumed that its fibres do not contain as the direct sum exclusively curves of genus 1. CORNALBA. 1985.: 'Geometry of alge- curve of genus g> I is uniformized by automorphic braic varieties'. where N is the number of References points on X that are rational over a finite extension L [A 1) CASTELNUOVO. 1978.: Introduction to the theory of algebraiC functions homology (or. Hermann. 1948 (in Russian). [Zl (or y(Z») are called algebraic homology (respectively. Invent. Acad.: Algebraic curves. thus If an algebraic curve X is defined over a non-closed not unirational. that all zeros of the t-function lie on [A3) GRIFFITHS. the group G Castelnuovo [A1]. Voskresenskil quotient D / G.g. isomorphic to the field of meromorphic functions on D Moscow-Leningrad. Editorial comments. 803-864. (Itogi Nauk.R. Sci. in accordance with Poincare [3] MUMFORD. Z). i.

The operation of in AP(X). have defined. on T be a flat morphism. A CT(X). 87 . cycles that are T-equivalent to zero.. Z"-'numZ') if the equality WZ= WZ' is valid for any varieties (or. In such a case. ALGEBRAIC CYCLE with an algebraic cycle. Picard scheme). an irreducible subvariety. the bilinear form cP(X) / C~g (X) being finitely generated for p> 1 remains open at the time of writing (1977). (a. For divisors the groups CT(X) C1(X). It is believed (Hodge's conjec. A similar proposition for arbitrary k. Crat(X) be the cohomology class of a hyperplane section.. and for isolated classes of equivalent (which is denoted by Z "-'homZ. in accordance with the counterexample in Z'. The problem of the quotient group the field of complex numbers C.) if varieties [4]. has been proved verting it into a commutative ring. the algebraic cycles Z and C(X) =1= Chom(X). q). Z' are called rationally equivalent (which is denoted by Z"-'ratZ'). if k is variety X. parametrized by a are valid. The subgroup of algebraic cycles that are If W = ~ni W. which intersection of cycles makes it possible to define a mul. and Two algebraic cycles Z and Z' are called homologically for all n [7]).2p )-dimensional cycle r on For any Wei! cohomology theory H·(X) there exists X is homologous with an algebraic cycle if and only if a uniquely defined homomorphism of groups the integrals of all closed differential forms of type y: cP(X) ~ H"'(X). (which is denoted by Z "-'TZ') if there exists an m ~ I varieties. If Z. which is is known as a family of algebraic cycles on X denoted by A • (X) and is known as the ring of algebraic parametrized by the base T. z' EC1(X). zeta-function of an algebraic variety. imbeddings Two algebraic cycles Z and Z' on a variety X are CT(X) C Chom(X) C Cnum(X) algebraically equivalent (which is denoted by Z "-'algZ') if they belong to the same family. y(Z)=y(Z'). and is a subring in the ring H· (X). Intuitively. Two algebraic cycles Z and Z' from cP(X) are second particular case of this concept is that of a linear called numerically equivalent (which is denoted by system. is denoted by braic subvarieties of X parametrized by the base Y. algebraically) equivalent to zero. respectively. The subgroup of algebraic cycles numerically the same Hilbert polynomial (respectively. algebraic cycles) of a projec. of the variety X (cf. In particular. is closely connected with the Wei! conjectures on the tiplication in the quotient group C(X) / Crat(X). If W = Wi is defined by that has been chosen. A of divisors. the corresponding family of Two algebraic cycles Z and Z' are called T-equivalent algebraic cycles on X is called a family of algebraic sub. is arbitrary characteristic and for the l-adic theory of Wei! denoted by C rat (X) (respectively. for any flat morphism f: X ~ Y such that mZ "-'algmZ'. b) ~ (-1)" Lx-"'ab tient group C~g (X) / C:at (X) has the structure of an is positive definite on the subspace of primitive classes Abelian variety (cf. equivalent with zero is denoted by C num(X). The metic genus). for p =n -1. ture) that an integral (2n . q=/=p.Severi group of the is called primitive if xL'X -P =0.. Let X be imbedded in a projective space and let Lx qat(X) = n CP(X). parametrized by a connected base. form The quotient group C(X) / Chom(X) is finitely gen- erated. It is not known (1986) whether this connection is that the projection of each subvariety or not A • (X) depends on the Weil cohomology theory W. WE C n -P(X). (2p -q. This conjec- ture has only been proved for p = 1 (for n =2 [6]. x E AP(X) = A' (X) n H"'(X) erated and is called as the N eron .2 only. n connected base. Intersection theory). The subgroup of algebraic of algebraic varieties its fibres Xy form a family of alge. is an algebraic cycle on the product of homologically equivalent with zero is denoted by two varieties X X T. equivalence of algebraic Chom(X) n C1(X) and Cnum(X) n C1(X) are identical cycles means that Z may be algebraically deformed into [6]. All members of a family of algebraic sub. If this definition includes the condition that the [5] for the case k =c base T is a rational variety. However. provided both sides of the equality are tive variety X. over r are equal to zero. con. The usual requirement in Wei! cohomology classes. The subgroup of algebraic cycles rationally similar counterexample was established for a field k of (or. The quo. The question as to the equality of the these groups is a direct sum of its components groups Chom(X) and Cnum(X) has been solved [9]. An CPrug(X) = Calg(X) n CP(X). The imbedding Calg(X)CChom(X) is valid. C alg (X». algebraic cohomology class The quotient group Cl(X)/C~g(X) is finitely gen. Each of cohomology. the concept of rational where Chom(X) is considered with respect to the ordi- equivalence reduces to the concept of linear equivalence nary cohomology theory with rational coefficients. respectively. virtual arith.. called the Chow ring for n. then the set of cycles on X of the Chom(X).

W.. If a given number (or element of a field) c is a root /. are called simple roots of the polynomial. P. A number (or element of a field) c is called a root of A state-of-the-art survey concerning the Hodge conjec. . J.1+ . It is Here n is a non-negative integer. while x is an converse proposition is also true if k is finitely gen- unknown which has to be found. equation that are numbers of a certain kind (e.. 359-386. i Tekhn. ao. after tensoring with the field of rational numbers [A1].: 'Analytic cycles on com- its multiplicity (consequently. the Galois group G(k / k) of the f" =0. P.: 'Algebraic cycles and the Wei! conjecture'. 19-38. V. believed (Tate's conjecture on algebraic cycles) that the the so-called coefficients of the equation. fHES 43 be considered.e. Pub!.c but is not divisible by (x . no. H.. References The values of the unknown x which satisfy equation [1] BALDASSARRl. Ray. Paris. S. (1). related to the is irreducible over this field. of Math. Math. Alg. Geom. and HIRZEBRUCH. V. IV. in The roots of a polynomial are related to its coefficients Dix exposes sur la cohomologie des schemas. or as the roots of the polynomial braic varieties'. this statement also applies to the field of complex numbers. see [A4].: 'Algebraic cohomology classes'.: What is known about the Hodge conjecture. real or complex).: 'Homological equivalence modulo algebraic equivalence is not finitely generated'.496-541. 1956.25-45. [8] 'Groupes de monodromie en geometrie. cannot be represented concept of dimension.An equation of the type algebraically closed.: 'Geometry of alge- roots of the equation (1). cients in a field P has at most n roots in this field P. Springer. Duke Univ. 55M10 corresponding equation are called reducible. equation means to find all its roots contained in the [5] GRIFFITHS. important case is that of coefficients and roots of an [7] HODGE. multiplicity k of a polynomial f (x) (where k is a non- ture is in [A2]. then n is called the degree of assumption [2]. degree n has exactly n roots (counted according to their AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14C25 multiplicity). the values which. Press. in M. where f" is a polynomial of degree n in one or separable algebraic closure of the field k acts on the more variables (n ~o).algebrique'. Soviet Math. Dolgachev of the polynomial f. rational.): Sem.L. (2) 90. variable is an equation of the form ment of A' (X) is invariant with respect to some sub.(x) then.: L'anaiysis situs et la geometrie algebrique. 1964.A. will con- [2] TATE. Equation (1) of degree n with coefficients from a One of the different numerical invariants of the ring of field P is called irreducible over P if the polynomial (2) continuous functions on the given space. Grothendieck (eds. It is assumed that the erated over its prime subfield. See also [A3]. IHES 58 Each polynomial f (x) of degree n >0 with coeffi- (1983). In an algebraically closed field any polynomial of 1980. 1983.: The theory and applications of harmonic integrals. (1974).e. 7. negative integer) if f (x) is divisible by (x . Geom. Springer. Aleksandrov than n over P. J. [A1] CLEMENS. i. each root being counted the number of times equal to North-Holland .. 6 (1976). i. M. where X=XQ!)"kk.s. In 1983 H. pp. 5.(X) is not finitely generated. f. other roots are References called multiple roots. in accordance with the Editorial comments. Ann.D.. The division may be performed according to proved that Chom(X) / C. Topology 1 (1961).: Algebraic varieties.A. Algebra Topol.V.. Viete theorem).. are known as the algebraic geometry Woods Hole. 803-864. i. (1) group of finite index of the group G(f / k). M.an are given. there are not more than n plex manifolds'. The case of the coefficients naud. [A4] BLOCH. the equation.. (2) Nauk. Roots of multiplicity one Much of the recent progress of the theory of algebraic cycles is related to algebraic K-theory. 1952. +an. [A2] SHIADO. as the product of other polynomials of degrees lower P.(x) is divisible by x -c without CP(X) / cglg (X) is not finitely generated [A 1].Kinokuniya.ci + I. Polynomi- 88 . 273-308. 12 (1974). [9] DELIGNE. and roots being elements of an arbitrary field may also Vol. Each ele. in Summer school of vert this equation into an identity.g. F. Rim and A. S.: 'La conjecture de Wei! 1'.F.(x) = aOxn+alx n. the most 1924.ALGEBRAIC CYCLE If a variety X is defined over a field ~ that is not ALGEBRAIC EQUATION . and ISKovsKlKH. He also remainder. Cambridge Univ. If ao*O. In particular. As far as applications are concerned. Math. D. To solve an 1968. range of values of the unknown(s) under consideration.S. 77-170) [4] KLEIMAN.: Lectures on algebraic cycles. even the Horner scheme.: 'On the periods of certain rational integrals II'. Many conjectures on the coefficients of the algebraic equation (1) are not all zeta-function of algebraic varieties are based on this equal to zero. ALGEBRAIC DIMENSION of a topological space . Clemens proved that Bezout theorem. Otherwise. 1972-1973. different roots). Publ. both the polynomial and the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 54F45. North-Holland. . S. T. [3] DoLGACHEV. (ftogi j. by Viete's formulas (cf. [6] LEFSCHETZ. LV. [A3] ATIYAH. no.. 3 (1969). An algebraic equation in one Weil cohomology H*(X). if substituted for x.

the polynomial x 2 . Arithmetica by Diophantus (third century A. Irreducible polynomials of all complete solution of the problem when an algebraic degrees exist over the field of rational numbers. Whether a given polynomial let K be an arbitrary field and let P be the field of is reducible or irreducible over a field P depends on the rational functions in ao. Thus. Sn. Cubic equation). a minimal extension of P in group. For any n >4 there tions by radicals of equations of the fifth and higher exist equations of degree n with rational (and integral) degrees with coefficients that are letters. The theory of the solution of conditions involving the characteristic of the field K in quadratic equations was first expounded in the book the above formulation become superfluous. that the leading coefficient ao is not divisible by p. braic equations by radicals in Galois theory can be terion: If.H. since it has no sion of P) cannot be expressed in terms of the coeffi- rational roots. then this poly. of the second and third degrees were already known to This theorem was proved by Galois for the case in ancient Babylonians (2000 B. exam. then the roots of equation (1) (lying in some exten- cible over the field of rational numbers. there if the Galois group of the equation f (x) = 0 is solvable exists an extension of P containing at least one root of over the field and the characteristic of K is zero or is f(x) (cf. and any unsolvable by radicals ([3]). functions in the coefficients of the equation with coeffi- dano formula. moreover. f (x) of degree n> 1 that is irreducible over P. the of addition. Italian mathematicians obtained the since the Galois group of equations of order n with solution by radicals of equations of the third and coefficients (that are letters) over the field P of rational fourth degrees with coefficients that are letters (cf.. Quadratic equa. equation and if the exponents of the radicals are not nomial is irreducible over the field of rational numbers.. Every field has an algebraically closed exten. . there exists a prime number p such cients from a field K that is irreducible over K. all 1) if at least one root of the equation f (x) = 0 can be the remaining coefficients are divisible by p.g.p2 X . subtraction. but is reducible over the field of complex tion (which is meaningful in the extension of P). Abel's theorem does not contradict the fact Only polynomials of the first degree and polynomials that some algebraic equations with numerical coeffi- of the second degree without real roots are irreducible cients (or with coefficients from a given field) are solv- over the field of real numbers (and all polynomials can able by radicals. Ferrari method). about the year 1830. However. which K is the field of rational numbers. In numbers.). Any algebraic equation of xn -a =0 which correspond to these roots can be taken degree not exceeding four is solvable by radicals. which is unsolvable for n >4. polynomial can be decomposed into linear factors. is the symmetric group which followed.P = 0.C. then all the roots of the equation can be which this polynomial can be decomposed into linear represented by radicals in terms of its coefficients. divisible by the characteristic of K. a two-term equation). to be irreducible over the fields to which these radicals tions of problems involving special forms of equations are adjoined. The irredu. Some special equations of degree n be decomposed into products of linear and irreducible are solvable by radicals (e. all factors. 2) conversely. equation is solvable by radicals was given by E. Then. Only polynomials of the first degree are other words. multiplication and division polynomial x 2 + I is irreducible over the field of real (operations which are meaningful in P) and root extrac- numbers. ALGEBRAIC EQUATION als of degree zero and zero itself are not considered to equation of degree n >4 with coefficients a 0. for a polynomial (2) of degree n >0 with stated as follows. . . In the Abel's theorem is a consequence of Galois' theorem.) (cf. Car. During the 300 years cients from an arbitrary field K. the general equation of degree n >4 is irreducible over the field of complex numbers. then the Galois Let P be an arbitrary field. Abel in 1826 that such solutions of such an equation for n = 5 is the equation do not exist. and the expressed by radicals in terms of the coefficients of this constant term an is not divisible by p2.V2).c. but is reducible over the field of real cients of this equation by a finite number of operations numbers: x 2 -2=(x + V2)(x . Similarly. K. A quadratic polynomials). . fruitless efforts were made to find solu. x 5.an with coefficients from field in question. Extension of a field). Let f (x) be a polynomial with coeffi- integral coefficients. It was finally coefficients that are unsolvable by radicals.2 is irredu. An example demonstrated by N.an. in this case all tion. i. For each polynomial group of this equation is solvable over K. Solu. there exists a higher than all orders of the constituent factors of this splitting field of f (x). be reducible or irreducible. In Galois Abel's theorem in modern formulation: Let (1) be an theory an algebraic equation is solved by reducing it to 89 . sixteenth century. where p is a prime number. cibility of a polynomial over the field of rational The fundamental theorem on the solvability of alge- numbers can often be established by Eisenstein's cri. Galois ples are the polynomials of the form xn +2.e. . and the binomial equations Solvability by radicals. . exponents of the roots a I / n involved can be taken to SIOn. be prime numbers.

substitute each one of the Budan .. Resolvent) of the original equation. It is stant term.Y) and g(xo. the or if the two leading coefficients ao(xo) and bo(xo) are number of all real roots) of a polynomial with real equal to zero. +bs(x) = 0. Primitive root). f(x.g. +an(x) = a.y) = bo(x)ys+bl(x)y. the number of negative roots of f (x) can be is a root of the resultant R(f. Methods of approximate calculations (e. which yields an estimate these roots into the system (3) and find the common from above for the number of real roots of a polyno. A poly- Algebraic equations in one unknown with numerical nomial f(x) with rational coefficients has the same coefficients. The the following determinant: Newton method usually yields a more exact bound if ao al an 0 0 0 the coefficients are real. I 1+ . A polynomial has multiple tion. I ao I If a certain numerical value is assigned to x. in particular. coefficients without multiple roots can be found by the Thus. with integral multiple roots.>0 where ai(x).-l + . then the resulting polynomial has the roots of g(x) (if any) are integers.Fourier theorem. type. and of upper and lower 0 0 bounds for the negative roots..y) = ao(x)yn +al(X)yn-1 + . By considering the polynomial minant. then all rational its derivative. The exact number of nomials f(xo.y) have a common root yo real roots located in a given interval (in particular. and can be found by trial and error. and verify 90 . are reduced to the deter. in order to solve the system (3) one must find Sturm theorem.) The following statement is true: A number Xo f( . for the characteristic polynomial of a real symmetric matrix). g) = bo bl bs 0 0 0 The simplest method to determine the number of real 0 bo bs roots is to use the Descartes theorem. the number greatest common divisor d(x) of this polynOInial and gem) is divisible by p-mq). roots if and only if its discriminant vanishes. roots of these two equations in one unknown y. b/x) are polynomials in one unknown x. +bm bn=FO. One mial with real coefficients lying in a certain fixed inter. R(f.. Descartes' theorem is a special case of all roots of the resultant R(f. but only of multiplicity one. Hurwitz' criterion is a necessary The solvability of equations by radicals is closely and sufficient condition for all the roots of an equation connected with problems involving geometrical con... I t is sometimes desirable to find roots of a special vents (cf.ALGEBRAIC EQUATION a chain of simpler equations. divisors of the con- same roots as f (x). The determination of a lower 0 ao an bound for the positive roots. Cyclotomic polynomial. bj is obtained. The resultant of this system is equation (1) with arbitrary complex coefficients. roots as the polynomial g(x) with integral coefficients the parabola method) are generally used to find the obtained from f (x) by multiplication by a common roots of algebraic equations of degree higher than two multiple of all denominators of the coefficients of f (x). see Linear equa- equal (given) multiplicity. Concerning systems of simple roots are all the roots of the polynomial f (x) of algebraic equations of the first degree.. For instance. inclusive. and if j<k)(c)=FO. If f(x) is divided by the among them such that.Hurwitz criterion). roots of a polynomial with rational coefficients. a system can be taken as an upper bound for the modulus of of two equations in one unknown y with constant coef- each root (both real and complex) of the algebraic ficients ai. g) if and only if the poly- found using the same theorem. vanish if a divisor of the number b o (and only those fractions x =c. als ao(x) and bo(x). Routh. must also find the common roots of the two polynomi- val. It is convenient to begin by getting rid of the g(x)=boxn +b)x n -) + . which are called resol. with (cf. for any integer m. further possible to construct the polynomials whose Systems of algebraic equations. If it is known that all the roots of a given polynomial are real (for 0 0 0 0 0 bo bs example. g). If b o=l. with coefficients from the field of real or complex The only rational roots of a polynomial numbers. then Descartes' theorem yields the (There are s rows of a's and n rows of b's in this deter- exact number of roots. substitute them into (3). the problem of the division of the circle into n equal There exists a method for calculating all rational parfs (cf.} The number g(x. A system of any two algebraic equations of any The determination of the number of roots and degree in two unknowns x and y may be written as: bounds on their size are frequently occurring problems. (with complex coefficients) to have negative real parts structions with ruler and compasses. A number c is a root of multiplicity k coefficients are found among the irreducible fractions of a polynomial f (x) if and only if the polynomial and p / q in which P is a divisor of the number bn and q is its derivatives up to the order k -1. 0 0 0 ao an mination of an upper bound for the positive roots.x). (3) max I a.

. which originated with the studies of A.. AX. 1975. known as the field of constants. 3. 1967-1971 numbers. of valuations and extensions of fields are especially cals) is also called the Abel. Dedekind. and the algebraic-geometrical manner. pp. Moscow. The first direction of the theory of algebraic [I] KUROSH. (2) Pk(XIo'" .Xm of this last equation are y=- PI(XI.. functions. . 3. . many results obtained at first using function-theoretical fies an equation and topological methods can be successfully applied to (1) more general fields using algebraic analogues of these methods. Abel.xm } is known as the 91 .. common divisor). If D (x) is the discriminant of the polynomial assumes the form F(x. H. PO(XI. 1941 (in Russian).e. 313-511 (in Russian). .xn). 4. VAN DER: Algebra. since function-theoretical studies ALGEBRAIC FUNCflON A function involve the extensive use of algebraic methods.eO.xn ) is often y = f(x) (or y(x) for short) is a k-valued analytic func- written in powers of the variable y. Xn with coefficients in some field K.. 2. Over the field C of over this field. . [3] WAERDEN. and with Pk(Xl.PO(Xl. . N. of the polynomial for which F(x. . .: Foundations of higher algebra.Xn .xn). Xl. K. in particular. calculation of the common roots of two equations in The theory of algebraic functions was studied in the one unknown (the common roots of two or more poly.. . . ..y) = Pk(X)yk+ . . cal and topological methods of the theory of analytic [5] DoMORYAD. points of view originally differed not only in their [A2] JACOBSON.xn) then the roots Xl. past from three different points of view: the function- nomials in one unknown are the roots of their largest theoretical point of view taken. YU. . If k = 1. while y =f(x l. in which they are regarded as meromorphic (translated from the German). where F is an irreducible polynomial in y. y) = ay called the degree of the algebraic function.xn) known as the critical values of y = f (x). Noether and others (cf. . methods and their ways of reasoning. + Pk(x) '" 0.Xn)yk-I+ . The methods employed are purely algebraic. important.. 12AXX terminology. . . braic functions are considered to be rational functions References on an algebraic variety. an to yield the equation algebraic function may be represented as a quotient Pk(x)D(x) = 0. and is ° F( x. aF(x. In other words.: Encyclopaedia of elementary mathematics..Xn)yk+Pk_I(XIo'" . and are studied by methods of [A 1] N. . functions on Riemann surfaces and complex manifolds. In the algebraic-geometrical approach alge- Good up-to. . +PO(XI. f(x» = 0). .. this is the solution of one equation in one unknown and the impossible in general. . Hensel..: Basic algebra.: Higher algebra. which is obtained by eliminating y from the equations ° where Pk(Xl. .. . . A. Mir. xn) of the variables x j. . and is called an algebraic function over complex numbers. This task involves complicated calculations.'" . B. 1-2. study of algebraic functions over the field of complex Leningrad. +PI(x)Y+Po(x).I. algebraic geometry (cf. This differentiation has by now become largely arbitrary. A.. (i. Vol. . 1974-1980. functions of a single variable is connected with the [2] SUSHKEVICH. Xn.. by N. . 1951. The arithmetic-algebraic approach involves /. so that equation (1) tion.Ruffini theorem. . but also in their AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 26CXX.H. Xl. mon roots. Vol. and is called a rational function of mentary set G=C\ {Xl..y ) = . Field theory and JACOBSON. Moscow. Xn that satis- . The polynomial F(y.xn) = 0. ..P.Xn. . Freeman. Weierstrass and B. Abel's theorem mentioned above (the general equation of degree n >4 is unsolvable by radi. The number k is the degree of F with respect to y. The algebraic function is said to be defined Algebraic functions of one variable. . an algebraic function can Xl. 1972 (in Russian). The theory Editorial comments.. ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION if the resulting equations in one unknown y have com. .. is connected with the so-called elimination theory. . Rational function).. an algebraic function of one variable the field K. It point of view. The comple- of polynomials. pp. . the solution of a system of be expressed as square and cube roots of rational func- two algebraic equations in two unknowns is reduced to tions in the variables x j. 205-227 (in Russian). . . M.xn) are polyno- mials in Xl. Algebraic References geometry). V Proskuryakov the study of algebraic functions over arbitrary fields. the arithmetic- Systems of any number of algebraic equations with algebraic point of view taken by R. . Riemann. 4. . the most important methods applied are the geometri- Moscow. These three Galois theory. Freeman. 1963. Springer.L. . if k >4. . Clebsch. [4] MANIN. . ..date textbooks are [A 1] and [A2]. For k = 2.: Lectures in abstract algebra. . any number of unknowns are solved in a similar Weber and K. . . .: Encyclopaedia of elementary mathematics. 1-2.G.

. Let Ko be a small disc with centre at Xo Case 2. f(x) = ~ air ~ a. is not more than s-valued at all 92 . . one obtains expansions similar to (4). This sidered on the Riemann sphere S. it is completely con. then the element /J.(x) = ~af'''. If a. . Case 1. 00 00 is satisfied. {fa.+I(X). Such expansions of elements by frac- satisfy the conditions tional degrees of the difference x . along D (in. the point Xo is a pole of order p of the alge- wise direction).la. any two elements with the same centres are also group of the algebraic function.e. xO)+a1(x .(X)}. . these permutations consist of cycles of the orders a" .. /I (x) = ~a}". i. (x). yields an element / (x) which also braic function. Any system If r>O....k..XO)I / a (where a is a positive integer) can a. then T = x .=0 in a neighbourhood of the point xo there exist k and similar expansions also take place for the elements single-valued analytic functions f6 (x). where Xo is a fd(xo) = y~. Furthermore. one returns to which does not contain other critical points. indices (or branch orders) of the algebraic function. .=0 . . (6) is called the local uniJormizing parameter for the {/I (x). The a.g..x 0 can be taken as parameter.. If P >0. (x). (3) ments in one cycle into each other in cyclic order.ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION non-critical set.. If Pk(x)y is substituted for y. introduction of the variable T= I / x reduces this case ment /J. . To turns around the critical elements with centre at the point Xo. +a.=-P I=-P tained inside Ko. +as=k. (6) by a number of turns around the point Xo. finite number ~k of such turns yields the initial ele. any elements fl (x) andf1(x) with centres at x. . let D be the circle 00 00 with centre Xo passing through x'.la.=0 of(xo. x' =FXO. or 2) Pk(xo)=O.(x . . One obtains a subsystem /J. Ia. in a neighbourhood of T=O. and X2. For any two points point correspond permutations of the elements with X"X2EG. converts the Puiseux series of ele- fd(x) = y~ +a1(x .Ia.fd(x» =0 critical point. . = ~af'(x_xo)'la. . (x). but is elements of an algebraic function described above a single-valued analytic function of the parameter forms the complete algebraic function in the sense of T=(X-XO)'/a.xoY la.Ia. (x) of the first cycle can be represented verse proposition is also true: A function y = f (x) as convergent series which is analytic. .. . According to the implicit function theorem. (4).e. each one of these elements T= °(x = 00) one has the expansion may be obtained by analytic continuation of the other y(x) = ~ ajTj la = ~ ajX. algebraic function.jk(x) can be decomposed into a number of The parameter of the expansion in the series (3).hex) be a system of regular elements with may contain a finite number of terms with negative centre at x' EK o.. If at least one element connected in this way. ..Jla ..>I. .as. the critical point Xo is called an algebraic function... The population of all not a single-valued function of x in the disc Ko.. . and a minimum required plane completed by the point at infinity x = 00. for each point Xo EG one can construct k ele... (x)}. then two cases are possible: 1) Xo is algebraic branch point of the algebraic function.+ . For any point Xo EG equation (2) has k 00 00 . i. and let case 1. If Xo is a non-critical point of the {fa.Ta.la. J=l. say..xo. An algebraic function is usually con- belongs to the system of elements with centre x'. ~aj = k.. (5) . which corresponds to one tum around x 0. These functions remain indices: bounded as x ~xo.xo)2 + . i. there is a cyclic permutation of the series and of the ments of an analytic function.. In a cer. respectively. in a neighbourhood of the point of elements with centre x'. . then the point x = 00 is called a pole of order r. Weierstrass. . The permuta- analytic continuation along some curve in G. such a j=-r j=-r subsystem is known as a cycle. Xo is a critical point. The and which can be decomposed into a convergent series transformation T~T" r = e 2'ITj / a.y~ and the condition . on the complex system consists of k elements. F(x. . = ~a}(x-xo)'la" (4) different roots yA.. /J. are derived from each other by centre at this point. .e. the root (x .. The analytic continuation of some given element.f~ (x) which of other cycles.. if. oy =1= 0. . but numbers aj (sometimes aj -I) are called the branch Pk(xo)=F0. algebraic function. on the other hand. non-intersecting cycles (5). the a root of the discriminant. (x).(X)}.. . +a. known as the function corresponding elements... .. (x)... + . D(xo)=O. Thus.. If Xo is a critical point of an aj is greater than 1. flex).Y~) . The con- /J. e.=0 .+I(X). . tions defined in this way constitute the monodromy ular. which /J. ... are known as Puiseux series.(x) is be taken as such a parameter. in partic. .t . (x) to the previous case.. Algebraic functions have no singularities tain neighbourhood of this point the elements other than algebraic branch points and poles. the clock.

which identically satisfy equation (2). the Riemann sur- The uniformization problem is locally solved by a local face coincides with the set of non-singular projective uniformizing parameter. due to Hensel. x = x(t) provided with the natural topology. Each field K the complex plane or the interior of the unit disc. it has a trivial fundamental group and is «I>(y. . field of constants k is the field of complex numbers C tion is compact and is a k-sheeted covering of the and if n = 1. cally identical with the theory of algebraic curves. uniformization is achieved using elliptic functions. it is called the genus of the alge. results and concepts of the theory of divisibility in alge- braic number fields can be applied to function fields or [12]. If f is an alge. ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION points of the Riemann sphere except for a finite of all rational functions R(y. An especially close analogy exists 93 .. branch points can be the critical morphic functions on the Riemann surface of the alge- points and the point x = 00. which had originally belonged to the Algebraic functions of several variables. . domain of algebraic numbers. A particularly close analogy holds for algebraic For instance. . . x n . . then uniformization is attained the language of the theory of valuations of fields [1].xn ) = 0. . which is called a model of K. Resolution of of algebraic functions. i. Xm and x = 00.. the genus of such a function is one.Hurwitz fonnula. . i. . if k>4 and the genus of the algebraic function theory of algebraic numbers led to the genesis of the p- is higher than one. Any braic function is a simply-connected two-dimensional element y EK satisfies some algebraic equation manifold. x]. with the aid of a rational or a trigonometric function. . If the a general function. In of algebraic functions in n variables is isomorphic to the first case the algebraic function is a rational. number theory motivate similar problems and construc- If k = 3. Let S be the set of all non-trivial valua- uniformized if y and x are representable as single.x 0. The genus of the Riemann surface of an algebraic n (cf. defined by the equation F(y. transcendence extension k (x I. For one. It can be calculated by the tion. In the case of a parameter t. then t}· ~ set to functions [2]. then Kf is identical with the field of mero- Riemann sphere. Each such field contains a purely is a torus. . braic function in the variables x I. Algebraic functions are the braic function. the application of a Puiseux expansion to the Finally. . uniformization is realized using adic method in number theory. The Riemann surface of an elliptic an algebraic function field in n variables (or. ments of this field are connected by an algebraic equa- braic function. this parameter may be the vari. and has at Kf . The field Kf is an extension of finite only class of functions with a compact Riemann sur. . of algebraic functions in one variable. Automorphic function). type of the field of constants k of transcendence degree face. x I. it is the solution 'in models. so that each of them defines an algebraic function Riemann . while in the third case it is of dimension n. which in this case is uniquely defined up to an the large' that is of interest.. so that many t2 + 1 Y = -2--1' t - x . If the The Riemann surface of a complete algebraic func. if y (x) is a isomorphism. the theory of which is practi- y2_x 2 = 1. . . geometry on the model of a field K can be restated in able x . and can be considered as an alge- conform ally equivalent either to the Riemann sphere. x = tgt. sometimes. x n ) = O. If k = 1. x n . In par~icular. . tions (cf. . The function y = f (x) can be singularities). [6].or fourth-degree equation as a function field). .. coinciding with the field of rational functions on such points only poles or algebraic branch points. one can take Each algebraic function field in one variable is the field of fractions of a Dedekind ring. instance. The genus of a rational of the remaining elements. was subsequently applied braic function in the variables x I. . x].e. in the the field of rational functions on some algebraic variety second case it is an elliptic. then each algebraic function field closely connected with the theory of Riemann surfaces has a non-singular projective model (cf. if y (x) satisfies the equation functions in one variable. Many concepts and results in algebraic rational function of x. . function that satisfies a third. . however. Valuation) of an algebraic function field K valued analytic functions which are non-negative on the field of constants. Extension of a field). x n ) forms a field number of points x I. any n + 1 ele- function is important. it is known as the abstract Riemann surface of the field K [1]. . .e. (called the field of rational functions in n variables). Any extension K of finite function is zero. if k = 2. field of constants k is algebraically closed and of The unifonnization problem of algebraic functions is characteristic zero. . 4 in the case of an algebraic function of genus tions in fields of algebraic functions and vice versa. field theory. is an the algebraic hypersurface in (n + I)-dimensional space algebraic function of degree k~s. If y = y(t). Class automorphic functions (cf. Many problems and constructions in algebraic y = sect. and its Riemann surface is the type of a field k of transcendence degree n is known as Riemann sphere. x n ) of the field k The universal covering Riemann surface of an alge. .

e. The References concepts and the results of algebraic geometry are [I) ZARISKl.: Theorie des fonctions algebriques. the space in the ordinary Hausdorff topology. [5) SHAFAREVICH. N.. Funktionen einer Veranderlichen'. algebra provides a flexible and powerful transforming one curve into another of the same arc apparatus which is just as suitable for the conversion of length.G. ferential topology (both with respect to singularities [3) SToiLOV. only began in the mid-nineteenth century. braic groups and simple finite groups connected with [4) CHEBOTAREV.: Basic algebraic geometry. methods of these disciplines are utilized in algebraic [8) DEDEKlND. This language implies Johann Bernoulli noted a new interesting property of problems. c. New York. however. the situation may be clearly functions and curves (cf. They studied integrals expressing the not follow from the point of view of pure algebra. S. S. means only with great difficulty or perhaps not all. in dif- [2) SERRE.E.: 'Theorie der algebraischen geometry. H.W.: Commutative algebra. and LANDSBERG. and GOURSAT. Modern algebraic geometry ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY The branch of arose as the theory of algebraic curves (cf. in the first half of the eighteenth cen- 94 . Algebraic theory. 92 (1882). reprint. I. every algebraic variety is simultane. integral into another integral. with the introduction of the con- Funktionen einer Variabeln und ihre Anwendung auf algebraische cept of coordinates into geometry. 181-290. and WEBER. 1980 (translated from the German). using elliptic curves as examples. Math. This fact concept of a zeta-function is defined for the latter and makes it possible to introduce a large number of classi- the analogue of the Riemann hypothesis has been cal structures which induce such invariants of algebraic demonstrated for algebraic function fields (cf. Nevertheless.: The theory offunctions of a complex variable. E. the language of geometry is also At the end of the seventeenth century. integrals that received the name 'elliptic'. Math. From the analytic point tion of such proofs in their most obvious and most gen. and if the space is only later that the meaning was extended to include two. The system of space). The utiliza- [II) JUNG. The geometri.: Theorie des fonctions algebriques de deux variables independantes. 1965.B. visualized. 1959. 1951. 30AXX jective algebraic varieties. and in functional analysis of one variable. At first. the first stage of development of with commutative rings: algebraic varieties (cf. and it was If the coordinates are real numbers. R. cf. 1-2. in the theory of differential equations (K- Moscow-Leningrad.: Einfohrung in die Theorir! der algebraischen tion of coordinates in projective geometry created a Funktionen zweier Veriinderlicher. Scheme. However. H. tions and the evaluation of trigonometric sums). this branch of algebraic geometry still are in the A. In arc lengths of certain curves.: The theory of algebraic functions.R. O.: Introduction to the theory of algebraic functions Abelian categories). but as a result it left to algebraic geometry the traditional study of pro- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 26A09. E. in the theory (translated from the Russian). constructions and considerations which do elliptic integrals. J. 1902. H.-P. of view. 1951. 1948 (in Russian). P. complex numbers. situation in which algebraic methods could compete [12) HASSE. P. Zhizhchenko domain proper of projective geometry. algebraic spaces. concepts and results which one now calls the theory of Algebraic geometry may be 'naively' defined as the elliptic curves arose as a part of analysis (rather than study of solutions of algebraic equations. and differentiable structures). Springer.: Number theory. 1971. Teubner. Jakob and used in more general situations. I. Conversely. They found methods for turn. Chelsea. Hermann.ALGEBRAIC FUNCTION between algebraic number fields and algebraic function ously a complex-analytic. 1977 theory and the index of elliptic operators). Springer. brought into correspondence. its Kurven und Abelsche Integrale. Chelsea. Fagnano. differentiable and topological fields over a finite field of constants. (representation theory). in the theory of categories (topoi.or three-dimensional. Soc.: Theorie der algebraischen seventeenth century. in group theory (alge- Moscow. J.G. Elliptic integral). of complex spaces. this was tantamount to the conversion of an eral form. Zeta. G. crystallization into an independent branch of science [###BOT_TEXT###) PiCARD. the ideas and 1-2. For instance. and SIMART. these were the identified with a 'set of points in a coordinate space'. geometry) . Historically. 1976-1978. [7) ApPELL. and SAMUEL. G. 1-2. varieties that can be obtained by purely algebraic fun~on in algebraic geometry). Amer. with synthetic methods. Akademie-Verlag. the theory of algebraic curves consisted in the clarifica- braic variety) and their various generalizations tion of the fundamental concepts and ideas of this (schemes. Reine Angew. Lie groups).: A Igebraic functions. The genesis of algebraic geometry dates back to the [9) HENSEL. K.F. the achievements of [13) LANG.the theory of integrals of rational func- cal intuition appears when every 'set of solutions' is tions on an elliptic curve. etc. extensively used in number theory (Diophantine equa- 1975.. Alge. 1962 (in Russian and Rumanian).: Groupes algehrique et corps des classes. Algebraic mathematics dealing with geometric objects connected curve). and in certain cases the In the case of algebraic geometry over the field of result was a transformation of an integral into itself. reprint. Springer. even though the respective arcs could not be a tentative reasoning into a proof as for the formula. [6) CHEVALLEY.

Roch theorem). may be writ- still took place within an analytic framework: Abel had ten as shown the way in which the basic properties of elliptic (x. It leads to the integrals was mainly developed by A. y =t:. Vj(y». as a result of the publication of the inheri- Fagnano and the Bernoulli's. Theta- dx _ ~ function) and discovered their numerous applications (I) not only in the theory of elliptic functions. Elliptic It contains the concepts of the genus of an algebraic curve). Riemann posed and o V(l-e 2x 2)(I-e 2x 2)' solved the question of the connection between his con- where c and e are complex numbers. it law on the elliptic curve s2 = f (t). given not on the plane of the complex variable. Abel on the theory a 'many-sheeted' surface above this plane. which interconnect x with y by (1).G. Abelian integral). B. invariant differential form on this curve (cf. was proved by E. Vj(x»EB(e. The Riemann . Euler's rela- The transition to the study of arbitrary algebraic curves tions. Thus it is seen that these results contain both the The work published by Abel in 1826 became the group law on an elliptic curve and the existence of an starting point of the general theory of algebraic curves. curve and of the equivalence of divisors. published in 1851.J. The desired relation is the ordinary integral of tions.Vj(y)' number theory and in mechanics.H. discovered by Finally. but also in Vj(x) . Riemann . and of the con- 95 .(8) defines a uru.Roch equality y2 =(1-c 2 x 2 )(l-e 2 x 2 ) by elliptic functions. but independently.3 independent Both these functions have two periods. in parameters if p > 1. of his diary.1829. in particular. but on The studies carried out by N. Such integrals were subse- curve. He considered (1) as a differential equation. Riemann ing point was the elliptic integral surface) are close to the modern concept of a one- dimensional analytic manifold: A manifold on which f I- 0= dx analytic functions are defined. Vj(e» = (y. considerations. integrals can be generalized to include integrals of arbi- where EB denotes the addition of points on the elliptic trary algebraic functions. quently named Abelian integrals (cf. I/e w=2f dx The work of Riemann was the starting point for stu- o V(l-c 2x2)(I-e 2x2) ' dies on the topology of algebraic curves. a student of Riemann (cf. between x and y that satisfy the equation Jacobi arrived at the concept of 8-functions (cf. Abel considered cept and the concept of an algebraic curve. Finally. e. and obtained several results in the problem of L. Gauss and.F. ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY tury. and the invariance of became clear that to some extent he possessed some of the everywhere-regular differential form s -1 dt with these ideas long before the work of Abel and Jacobi. Abel was the first to investigate the group of this equation. respect to shifts by elements of the group. connecting While studying the transformations of elliptic func- x and y. position of branching points of the surface he proved that the set of classes depends on 3p . Euler studied an arbitrary polynomial f (x) of the transformations. He assumed that such a function is and Euler integrals'). Riemann three-volume treatise Traite des fonctions elliptiques et adopted a novel principle of studying functions of a integrales Euleriennes ('A treatise on elliptic functions complex variable. is the presence of a group tance of e.. Roch. The reason for the existence of the homomorphisms of a one-dimensional Abelian variety. the theory of elliptic equivalence criteria in terms of integrals.:'deg(D)-p + 1. By transforming Abel's expressions of fourth degree and posed the problem of the relations elliptic functions in series into the form of products. this study consti- Jacobi studied the function inverse to the elliptic tutes the first appearance of the field k (X) as the pri- integral. the complex domain: Moduli problem). corresponding result is nowadays called Riemann's duced the inverse function A(8) and the function existence theorem. After having studied the possible !:l(O) = V(l-e 2A2)(I-e 2A2). integral of (1) and all its special cases. and presents After the work of Euler. gave numerous examples of such transformations. Somewhat later than Abel. the this integral as a function of the upper limit and intro. Analytic methods led to the inequality formization of the elliptic curve I(Dy. beginning in 1786. he showed that it has two independent mary object connected with a curve X. The surfaces introduced by Riemann (cf. 2w and 2w. which he called the moduli (cf. are collected in a In his dissertation. this study I/e explains the topological meaning of the dimension p of w=2f dx the space QT[X] as one-half of the dimension of the o V(l-c 2x2)(l-e 2x2) ' one-dimensional homology group of the space X (C). so that the mapping x =A(8). periods. His theory of the Jacobi variety of an algebraic curve. of elliptic functions appeared in 1827 . Legendre. His start.

published by himself and A. were undertaken by Clebsch. They also showed that if where r is an integer vector. It was (i. a cf. . necessary and sufficient for the existence of non-trivial The studies initiated by Clebsch were continued and functions which satisfy the functional equation (3) (cf. who showed that they are masked by the analytic approach. (2) m geometry of algebraic curves became an important field in mathematics. One of the series (2). Riemann considered it self-evident that a ° on this surface such that the integrals Uj with respect to variational problem .mp) runs through all integral p- integrals and Abelian functions. if matrix (ajd and L/ v) is a linear function. together with the theory of Abelian where m=(m). of the same pal properties of the function f) are the relations kind as the genus of the curve X). The problem of as an independent branch.bp which convert the surface development of the algebraic-geometric aspect of the he has introduced into a simply-connected surface. mainly due to the work of A. v) = ~rnjvj. only of secondary importance at that time. . which had hitherto been written out by G. Gordan [10] This series converges for all values of v if the real part deduced a formula for the number p of linearly of the quadratic form F is negative definite. in particular with the series (in p vari. They posed the morphic function with given periods which cannot be problem of the development of geometry on an alge- reduced to a function in a smaller number of variables braic curve lying in a projective plane as the set of by linear transformations. birational) transformations (cf. Birational shown in 1921 by S. aj is a column of the p = 0. . it was shown by G.ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY cept of a birational isomorphism. The princi. O(v+CXj) = eL/VlO(v). Clebsch based his work F(rn) = ~CXjkrnjrnb CXjk = CXkj' on algebraic curves. By the eighteen-fifties many special properties of ding of the variety cn / ~ into a projective space (~ is algebraic varieties of dimension higher than one the lattice corresponding to the given matrix of periods. . It was soon shown by Weierstrass that this is Uj with respect to bk form a symmetric matrix (ajd not true in all cases..v). Lefschetz that. Poincare. and theory of algebraic curves. It was shown by Riemann that it is possible to select An error made by Riemann proved useful in the cuts a I. which expresses this number in terms of the order of the curve and the O(v+7Tir) = OCr). (rn. The periods of prove these theorems by an algebraic method. and remained unrelated to the 96 . detailed study was made of surfaces of the third degree. Clebsch.ap ' b). This change was dimensional vectors. . J. Noether. independent integrals of the first kind (i. Another part of curve. Abelian function).. These relations are Noether's ideas were presented very clearly in a study necessary and sufficient for the existence of a mero. Plucker in 1834 inversion of integrals of arbitrary algebraic functions arrived at formulas interconnecting the class of the had been posed much earlier by Abel.. . the f)-function defines an imbed. . These studies. understanding of the algebraic-geometric nature of the These relations between the periods were explicitly results of Abel and Riemann. while the integrals solvable.vp ). greatly facilitated the gence of the series which determine the f)-functions. if the Frobenius geometry). Brill. such studies were lem in general. which relations analogous to those necessary for the conver. the curve has a rational parametrization and. nine points of inflection. . expanded by a student of his school . and are wi if J =k.is ak are if J=I=k. Riemann's results which satisfies conditions that ensure the convergence remained unfounded for a certain period of time. .. their for- an arbitrary 2n-periodic function of n variables satisfy mulation was essentially algebraic. Salmon and A. ables) It was only after the studies of Riemann that the O(V) = ~eF(m)+2(m. While Riemann v = (VI> ' . . . In proving his existence to select U I. He considered the function f) way in which this difficulty could be overcome was to corresponding to these coefficients ajk. The these results were not connected with any general prin- purely geometrical theory of algebraic curves developed ciples for a long time. Frobenius. This theorem was formulated results which are invariant with respect to one-to-one by K. Riemann's study on Abelian functions deals with the He also showed that a plane curve of order three has relations between O-functions and the inversion prob.e. Cay- base of the theory of algebraic curves were created ley in 1849 that any cubic surface without singular under the influence and within the framework of the points contains 27 different straight lines. Theta-function.e. its order and the number of its double points. relations are satisfied. Accordingly. The concepts and the results which now form the in particular.the 'Dirichlet principle' .. For instance. Complex torus). Clebsch and P. Thus. However. it becomes a plane curve of order three. (mostly surfaces) had been discovered. However. theory of algebraic functions and their Integrals. Weierstrass and proved by H. based his work on functions. . . (3) number of singular points.up of the everywhere-finite integrals theorems. p = 1.M.

Poincare on the prob. conditions under which this fibre or algebraic (the latter also being known as 'continu.in the study of algebraic varieties over the was defined in an analytic form.be = 1. d are integers. e and which were developed at the same time.contains a singular point. and his works opened a new domain of research in The studies of F. Bertini. One of the principal achieve. Klein and H. but it is theory of complex manifolds. A further application of Lefschetz lem of unifonnization of algebraic curves by auto. b. However. The principal representatives of this school were G.y. He also posed ering.studies of Klein and Poincare. de Rham) to obtain more complicated fields in this manner. and rational surfaces by numerical invariants. in modern terms. 1: X ~p I. the families were taken linear and. The connection between these concepts connected. by P. G. Poincare also made an important contribu- was first studied by Castelnuovo. Klein's starting point was the theory jjR(x. It particular. a classification up to conju.could be shown by using these techniques that non- morphic with respect to the group consisting of all singular algebraic varieties form part of an important 97 . he curves of genus three. of modular functions. Castel. in particular. The complete group of order two is a rational surface. The field of modular functions is Lefschetz' studies laid the foundations of the modern isomorphic to the field of rational functions. where a. E. A classifica. z)dxdy has a zero period over this cycle. and the algebraic sig. in particular. it was proved in ous'). Such manifolds were sub- possible to consider functions that are invariant with sequently studied by powerful tools. Picard tion of surfaces was achieved by Enriques in a series of studied the topology of algebraic surfaces by a method studies. Segre and E. He proved that a eighties. Lefschetz started to use a new science - was made by Severi.x6x 1+ XTx2 + x~xo =0 of genus three.I (a) with the variation of the point a Epl of families on a surface. he did considerably more VIew. [:~) = [~ ~) (mod 7). This led to the concept of linear and algebraic this way that smooth surfaces in p3 [11] are simply equivalence. They both correctly conjectured plane of all elements of order two in this group.logous to a cycle representable by an algebraic curve if gous to the uniformization of curves of order one by and only if the regular double integral elliptic functions. then X is rational. which ended only in the first decade of the based on the study of the fibres of a morphism twentieth century. and The development of algebraic geometry was strongly affected by the Italian school. Klein considered functions that are auto.field of complex numbers. ad . For instance. if a surface X is unirational and a morphism independently. He studied the variation of the topology of The principal tool of the Italian school was the study the fibre 1. at least from the modern point of dimensional cases. J. Severi. Cartan. the latter constructing tions or. F. analo. Cremona. In other proof was only obtained in 1907 by Poincare and.automorphic functions with the aid of series which are gation in the group of birational automorphisms of the now named after him.to algebraic geometry is connected with the theory of morphic functions appeared in the early eighteen. ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY fundamental ideas in the theory of algebraic curves transformations z~(az+b)/(ez+d). He showed that these functions uniformize the curve Enriques and F.tion to the topology of algebraic surfaces. bution to the subsequent development of the problem In 1921 S. including the respect to various subgroups of the modular group and theory of harmonic integrals r.algebraic geometry. Their objective was the uniformization of all two-dimensional cycle on an algebraic variety is homo- curves by functions now known as automorphic. A similar reasoning underlies the gave the classification of involutive plane transforma. Neverthe. In and the theory of sheaves (H. it can be corresponding group.yv. and made considerable advances readily deduced that the quotient of the plane by a in their attempts to prove this result.simplification of the results of Poincare and Picard and less. there are still many concepts and results which are to obtain generalizations of these results to higher- essentially analytic. His first aim was to obtain a nificance was clarified in the course of time. Leray). A large portion of the concepts topology .this proof was made by the studies of Poincare on the nuovo (1893) solved (positively) the general case of the concepts of the fundamental group and a universal cov- Liiroth problem for algebraic surfaces. C.algebraic cycles on algebraic varieties. The first result group and to obtain new groups which uniformize in this direction was reported by Bertini in 1877. words. Koebe. It is possible in ments of the Italian school was the classification of this manner to distort the fundamental polygon of this algebraic surfaces (cf. An important contri. Hodge. and solved the problem of the characterization of The topology of algebraic curves is very simple. This that any algebraic curve can be uniformized by a classification is very simple and. Castelnuovo.was exhaustively investigated by Riemann. A major contribution to 1: p2~X is of degree two. Algebraic surface). in particular by L.

the solution (by development of the theory of fields and the theory of H. Hasse and his school defined over a field of characteristic zero (cf. Pub!. J. curve over a finite field. the theory of intersections in a smooth projective [6] GROTHENDIECK. Resolution attempted to prove the Riemann hypothesis (cf. braic geometry in the early nineteen-fifties. Math. Grothendieck succeeded in generalizing and geometry from the aspect of set theory and from the clarifying many important classical constructions in axiomatic aspect. The language of the originated in the theory of congruences.32. D. [A 1] FULTON.: Intersection theory. see [A 1]. It was claimed by Poincare tine of modern algebraic geometry. The hypothesis itself was proved by 1-3.: Basic algebraic geometry. Thus.: 'The historical development of algebraic to the studies of B. Zariski. The theory of schemes struction of algebraic geometry had been prepared in directly affected one of the most important recent the first decade of the twentieth century by the general achievements of algebraic geometry .: Topological methods in algebraic geometry. For the first time 'abstract' (not necessarily account of algebraic geometry is [A2]. Chelsea. tionen. 1866.: Theorie der Abelschen Funk- the hypothesis: one based on the theory of correspon.8. F. E.e. The scope of application of algebraic algebraic geometry. Interest in algebraic geometry over 'non-classical' fields Abstract algebraic geometry). Alge- with two unknowns. Riemann hypotheses). arithmetic of). interpreted as theory of schemes has now become a part of the rou- equations over a finite field.V. between 1931 and 1939.827-866.: Theorie des fonctions algebriques X X X). supplied a new Serre gave a definition of varieties based on the con- interpretation and considerable generalization of many cept of a sheaf.R.-P. 0. Advances in the construction [3] BALDASSARRI. Accordingly.11. One of the most important achievements of only a short time before (cf. this involved the [I] SHAFAREVICH. IHES 4. Cheval. modelled on the theory of arithmetic and geometric genus. 1949. in 1940. Press. Coherent algebraic sheaf. founded many new branches of algebraic geometry (cf. of singularities). Grothendieck's work on the foundation of the con- In the middle of the nineteen-twenties much work cept of a scheme. tor bundles on complex manifolds. commutative and. A. J.: AlgebraiC surfaces. Serre introduced powerful methods of Kibler manifold). C. the abstract definitions of which geometry was greatly extended to include complex had been until now only little geometric. The ground for a systematic con. cal Riemann . Weil. while the other was based on the study of its de deux variables independantes. braic varieties. succeeded in formulating a proof of Springer.. of algebraic geometry over arbitary fields are also due [4] DIEUDONNE. 1971. which may be formulated for any References algebraic curve over a finite field. A recent historical sections. In particular. Bologna. Springer. 1977 development of a theory of algebraic curves over an (translated from the Russian). Springer. van der Waerden in the period geometry'. cycles and inter. of divisors on the surface [II] PICARD. the Riemann hypothesis for an arbitrary algebraic [8] ENRIQUEs. Math. classes (cf. which had been introduced system).Roch theorem. local algebra into alge- The theory of sheaves.: 'Elements de variety. and DIEUDONNE. Weil's book [5] con. reprint. quasi-projective) varieties were defined by pasting References together affine pieces. 1984. He found two ways of proving [9] ZARISKI. Amer. Chern class) and a considerable In the late nineteen-fifties algebraic geometry generalization of the classical Riemann . Soc. and GORDAN.: Le superficie algebraiche.24. due to by F.: Methods of algebraic geometry.20.L. this theory was the creation of the theory of Chern Coherent analytic sheaf). Springer. 98 . 1971.17. O. [7] HIRZEBRUCH. 1947-1954. W. 1-2. arbitrary field. [5] WElL. M. Hirzebruch [7]. higher-dimensional varieties are Based on material from the 'Historical sketch' of [I] used in both cases. he developed 1946. For another good reference on tains the construction of algebraic geometry over an Hirzebruch's work concerning a generalization of the classi- arbitrary field: the theory of divisors.Roch theorem underwent a further radical transformation. I. Amer. Hironaka) of the problem on the existence of a rings. and has made a signifi- Mathematicians in 1908 that methods of the theory of cant contribution to the advances made in the study of algebraic curves may be used for studying equations arithmetical problems of algebraic varieties (cf. and !'EDOE. [2] HODGE.D. and the related theory of vec.: Foundations of algebraic geometry. He also established the theory of classical invariants of algebraic surfaces (of both the coherent algebraic sheaves. Samuel. A. Cambridge Univ. P. Math. Hasse for elliptic curves. Monthly 79 (1972). dences of the curve X (i. geometrie algebrique'. G. A. A. and of the canonical coherent analytic sheaves.Kahler manifolds (cf. He also manifolds and algebraic varieties over arbitrary fields.: Algebraic varieties. By using the language of category was done on broadening the scope of algebraic theory. Teubner. A. Springer. has united it natur- in his address at the International Congress of ally with commutative algebra. 1956. Jacobi variety. and SIMART. ley and J. P. 1978 (translated from the German). non-singular birational model of an algebraic variety In the nineteen-thirties H. W. [10] CLEBSCH.28. in particular. F.ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY class of complex manifolds . Editorial comments.

1960. The study of arbitrary induced by the rational action of G on V is regular. [3] SERRE. (G.: Linear algebraic groups. 1974. V. 317. 151- connected if its algebraic variety is connected. an of invariant rational functions (cf. are regular mappings (morphisms) of algebraic varieties. J. T) where quotient group. hE G (where e is the unit of G). Pures Appl.: 'Schemas en groupes'. 1977. More precisely. R. c. dimension are closed. An algebraic group is called linear which is acting rationally (but not necessarily regularly) if it is isomorphic to an algebraic subgroup of a general on an algebraic variety V (this means that T: G X V ~ V linear group. Benjamin.: G X G~G and the inversion mapping p: G~G [I] BOREL. 20GXX defined by a universal property (d. In what follows. arbitrary algebraic group contains a unique normal and of constructing quotient varieties are fundamental 99 . A. [4] CHEYALLEY. 307- groups the space of co sets (left or right) can be natur. The type of a particular group is deter. c. PH. M. 1969.g. only connected alge. and is calle~ an algebraic variety V. Geom Alg. Hermann. its underlying algebraic variety and the morphisms p.P. Abelian variety. 1958. Internat. A natural extension of the class of algebraic groups leads ALGEBRAIC GROUP . structure of an algebraic variety in which the multipli. g(hx)=(gh)x algebraic varieties. ally provided with the structure of an algebraic variety. Press. ALGEBRAIC GROUP OF TRANSFORMATIONS [A2] DIEUDONNE. algebraic groups reduces to a great extent to the study The problem of describing the orbits. References cation p..: History of algebraic geometry. Wiley. Jacobi variety). birationally iso- group is both an Abelian variety and a linear group.-P. pp. and p are defined over k. stabilizers. an eUiptic its natural action on the affine space V = k". Platonov algebraic variety. orbits of minimal mined exclusively by properties of its variety. T). A. A homomorphism <1>: G~G of algebraic T: G X V ~ V (r(g. Congress Mathematicians Edinburgh. Math. with coefficients in a fixed algebraically closed tions. . and HARRIs. T) is group is defined in a similar manner. If G is an algebraic subgroup in GL(n) and T is field k). Press. An algebraic group is linear if and only if is a rational mapping. [2] MUMFORD. [A4] GRIFFITHS. is an algebraic group of transforma- order n. Numerous [A3] HARTSHORNE. An algebraic group is said to be defined over a field k if 1959. rational points of the variety G is an (abstract) group [5] DEMAZURE. which is denoted by G(k). V. Quotient space of an algebraic group). (G. theory of). 1963-1964. k) (the group of all invertible matrices of action by shifts. If the subgroup H is also normal. x. V and T are defined over a field k.: Groupes algebrique et corps des classes. Cambridge Uniy. Invariants. linear algebraic subgroup H such that the quotient Monterey. morphic to V. braic groups will be considered. These two classes of alge.: Principles of algebraic examples of algebraic groups which are neither linear geometry. D. A k-isomorphism of an algebraic G. and by Gx = {gEG: gx =x} the stabilizer of linear algebraic groups (d. ALGEBRAIC GROUP OF TRANSFORMATIONS - then the quotient group G / H is an algebraic group An algebraic group G acting regularly on an algebraic with respect to this structure. Linear alge. Vol. 39 (1960). I. "en ov dimension of an algebraic group is the dimension of its v. An algebraic group is called in Sem. Well [3] braic groups have a trivial intersection: If an algebraic that there always exists a variety VI. fields of Abelian varieties and linear groups. The 153. 53-68. in Proc. Notes in Math. where T is the adjoint action or an group GL(n. braic group). and the above properties of T are its algebraic variety is affine. The orbit G (x) need not necessarily be closed in V. the group of triangular matrices. B B TJ" k . G. then curve. For Examples of algebraic groups: The general linear instance. algebraic groups nor Abelian varieties are given by the theory of generalized Jacobi varieties for algebraic AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14-XX curves with singular points [3] (cf. An algebraic group of transfor- braic group is called an Abelian variety if its algebraic mations is sometimes understood to mean a group G variety is complete. x) = gx) is a morphism of algebraic groups is called algebraic if <I> is a morphism of their varieties satisfying the conditions: ex =x. 1970. Leet. For There are two main types of algebraic groups. Oxford Uniy.: Abelian varieties. Springer. valid for ordinary points). Wadsworth. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14KXX. group G / H is an Abelian variety [AI]. 1985. called an algebraic group of k-transformations. Editorial comments.: 'Une demonstration d'un theoreme sur les subvariety of the algebraic variety G. with each point x E V one denotes by G (x) = {gx: g E G} the altogether different properties: Abelian varieties and orbit of x. it is called a for all x E V and g. If k-homomorphism. For such sub. A subgroup H of an References algebraic group G is called algebraic if it is a closed [A1] CHEVALLEY. groupes algebriques'. 1978. and such that the action of G on VI then it is the identity group. I. it is a triplet (G. In particular. e. V. An alge. I. and GROTHENDIECK. Springer. T) is an algebraic group of transformations. It was shown by A. In such a case the set of k.: 'La theorie des groupes algebriques'. but closed orbits exist always. if <I> is defined over k.A group G provided with the to the concept of a group scheme.: Algebraic geometry. then (G.

.B. Chap!. Inst. a concept close to that of and applications'. Inv. Stockholm.eX.· . Internat. in A Baker algebraically independent..B..). 72 (1983). . Surveys 22.: Invariant theory.. 77. it was found that the values of the exponential function e Z .bn EK are called algebraically independent over Math.'" . .B. K be some extension of a field k. k if for each polynomial f(x) . 1962. J.xn ) with mates for polynomials on algebraic group varieties. G. eX' . . measure of algebraic independence (cf.1. If several numbers are algebraically [A2] PHILIPPON. A. Mathematiciens Nice. 2 (1955). Mittag-Leffler. .. Press.!.Xn . independence. J. 169-202 feb).: 'Quotient spaces modulo reductive groupes and applications to moduli of vector bundles on algebraic qualitative concept of algebraic independence if the curves'. [2C) MUNFORD. . I is an algebraic number and f3 is [2A) DIEUDONNE.. It is [A3] LOXTON.am) I. Press. A..): Transcendence theory. The eXlstmg analytic and D. n for any Q-linear independent X1.an are called algebraically dependent. 479-482. Schanuel's algebraic independence may be extended to the case conjecture. [3) SHIDLOVSKIi.: 'Varietes abeliennes et independence algebrique II'.: 'Ueber das abelsche Analogon des Lin- ization of the concept of transcendency of a number demannsche Satzes I " Inv.. [3]. J.. been proved which deal with the algebraic non- [2B) MUMFORD. and CARREll. independent. Math. 15. if for any polynomial P(x).P. pp.bn)*O. Russian b 1> ••• .. A. (the case n = I).. Acad. The notion in question is also independence of certain classes of numbers. 1971.: 'On algebraic groups and homogeneous spaces'. The above-mentioned theorem on its finite subsets is algebraically independent.: 'The development and present state of the theory of transcendental numbers'. . It is possible to impart a quantitative facet to the [2D) SESHADRI.. otherwise the algebraic independence of the values of e Z is known as it is called algebraically dependent.H) = min 1 P(al.: Geometric invariant theory. The definition of the Lindemann. . old and a cubic irrationality. . and k a sub ring [I]. the argu. 1-79. pp. . 363-388. functions (cf. Math.n. no.. 1969. The elements [2) FEL'DMAN. 'transcendence degree where K is a ring.. the elements b). Steklov. ALGEBRAIC INDEPENDENCE . For instance. . J. 20HXX algebraic independence of the values of E-functions have been established [3]. 1971. . D. .Weierstrass theorem. A number of theorems have also new. Alge- References braic independence has been proved for numbers aP [1) BoREL. . Congress Mathematicians algebraic independence. 72 (1983). VAN DER: 'Transcendence and usually very difficult to prove that given numbers are algebraic independence by a method of Mahler'.S.: Algebra. The analytic methods referred to above yield Amer. An analogue of the Algebraic independence of numbers.A. 526-530.: 'On arithmetic properties of values of ana- lytic functions'. N. Benjamin.A concept in the References theory of field extensions (cf.. 1974. Complex numbers Lindemann . D. not all of which are zero. (x 1.: Linear algebraic groups. and POORTEN.XnEC'. and at. . where the minimum is taken over all polynomials of dence of the values in algebraic points of E-functions degree at most n. A. General called an algebraic transformation space. ALGEBRAIC INDEPENDENCE. C. methods of the theory of transcendental numbers give a solution of this problem for the values of certain classes AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 10F37 of analytic functions. A similar result was obtain~d for Bessel cIJ(al.ALGEBRAIC GROUP OF TRANSFORMATIONS in the theory of algebraic groups of transformations which satisfy linear differential equations with coeffi- and have numerous applications. .am.an are called algebraically independent if they strass Ie -function has been proved recently [A1].Schneider-type arguments and zero esti- numbers. Inst. .. Math. Extension of a field). Algebraic 197JJ. Siegel method). . are algebraically aI. Masser (eds. MEASURE OF - ments of which are algebraic and linearly independent The measure of algebraic independence of the numbers over the field of rational numbers. Several general theorems were also established concerning algebraic indepen. The con- References cept of algebraic independence of numbers is a general. 3 (1967).. are called algebraically dependent.am is the function independent. (Uspekhi Mat. where a*O. 1965.e. Trudy Mat. A. v. .bn (in Russian). Let [I) LANG. Gauthier-Yillars. An infinite set of ele. Nauk 22. 132 (1973). 1%3. 355-391. Springer...xn ) with coefficients no. 3-81) from k which is not identically equal to zero. [A2] by are algebraically independent over the field of algebraic using Gel'fond . .··. is still (1986) unproved. an)*O is valid.. in Actes du Congres Internat. . the method in algebraic independence is Mahler's method for relationship P(a). Acad. .B. no. Addison-Wesley.389-405. cients from the field of rational functions [2]. A. 3 (1967). Another algebraic coefficients.. i. . a). 1. and SHIDLOvsKII. Otherwise. . P. Yol. with rational integer coefficients not 100 . Otherwise. in Proc.:.: 'Projective invariants of projective structures expressibility of numbers. [A 1] WDSTHOLZ. each one of them is transcendental. 1977. theorems treating the estimation of the measure of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 20GXX. S. values of functions satisfying functional equations [A3]. sidered. measure of) of these numbers is con- [3) WElL.Weierstrass theorem for values of the Weier- a). ShidlovskiF ments is called algebraically independent if each one of Editorial comments. Platonov estimates from below for the measure of algebraic Editorial comments.

finitely- aid of the homotopy theory of vector bundles and of generated modules and vector bundles) was hindered topological K-tbeory. with the defining relation: objectives of algebraic K-theory. the theory of determinants over a an irreducible polynomial of a degree at least two. obtained on the existence and uniqueness (up to an in which it found numerous applications. K-functor). where R = ZII is the integral group congruence subgroups (cf. roughly speaking. functor on coherent sheaves on a smooth algebraic functors (Ko.. and their generalized Euler characteris. rational coefficients. These con- siderations involved the introduction of the K-functor ALGEBRAIC K-THEORY .A branch of algebra. studies were made of problems connected with of the group K] (R). K(X) as the group of values of a universal additive dealing mainly with the study of the so-called K. ALGEBRAIC K-THEORY all of which are zero. Algebraic K-theory makes exten. the previously familiar representa- general linear algebra. This explains The nineteen-fifties and nineteen-sixties saw the the choice of the class of projective modules as the beginning of the systematic study of projective modules object of the theory. Both K2 and other higher functors have topological applications of the 101 . Grothendieck in 1957. The second origin of algebraic K-theory was an alge- A. the theory of polynomial extensions . On passing from a field to an arbitrary ring R It became clear. was finite complex.. an algebraic analogue of the Bott periodicity theorem cerned topological spaces X that are dominated by a . An algebraic irrationality is the root of rings. It deals with the structure theory tion rings. Shidlovskit isotopy lies in some quotient group of the group AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 12AXX K2(ZW».the idea of 'stabilization'. These objects may be studied with the correspondence (analogy) between projective. turned out to be related construc- To put it more simply. For same type (for example. an obstruction to the deforma- more details see Transcendency. However. or projective modules). moreover. over finite groups. it is a part of variety. study of the structure of linear groups over arbitrary braic number. and with its automorphism) of a basis of a vector space and other help several previously unsolved problems could be group-theoretical facts concerning linear groups over dealt with. which is connected with the homotopy between algebraic K-theory and the reciprocity laws of equivalence of finite complexes and is an element in the the theory of algebraic numbers and algebraic func- Whitehead group. with skew-field [10].B. analogous to that connection that a projective module can be regarded as of suspension in topology. fields. topological problems (extraordinary homol- tion from being true. obtained. It is important to note in this by the fact that an adequate concept. it is a generalization of results tions. which. The next step con. measure of. linear groups was the introduction of the concept of Whitehead tor. etc. the essence of Algebraic K-theory has two different historical ori. which is an element of group Ko(Zw). Congruence subgroup) and ring of the fundamental group II. was lacking in algebra. in particular.Roch theorem [7] and its AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 12AXX generalizations by A. The starting point the dimension of the objects studied (e. The first is related are more clearly manifested on passing to the limit of to certain topological obstructions. Connections were noted sion.g. strictly speaking. Galochkin braic proof of the Riemann . cf. that this construction these theorems usually become invalid.An irrational alge. The For a ring R with a unit element. dratic forms. the latter being some quotient group tions. A related field is the ALGEBRAIC IRRATIONALITY . K]. both in the field of geometry. the development of algebraic K-theory for A vector space can be regarded as a special case of a rings (beginning with the establishment of the vector bundle. an algebraic problem by the isomorphism classes of finitely-generated projec- concerning group rings). Witt ring) of classes of qua- of projective modules and their automorphism groups. The K-functor was then transferred to topology. homological algebra. the Grothendieck computation of the Whitehead group and L-groups group Ko(R) is defined as the Abelian group generated (which is. operators). most important ideas on which algebraic K-theory is category theory and the theory of linear groups. tic X(A). etc. tion of a pseudo-isotopy of a closed manifold into an A. is that general relationships gins. was in fact one of the first tive R-modules. a measure of their devia. Similar generalizations of the ogy theories).I. the module of sections of a vector bundle. based . Witt rings (cf. and the reveals new perspectives in the understanding of old Grothendieck group Ko(R) and the Whitehead group analytical problems (the index problem of elliptic K] (R) are. in a certain sense. and of height at most H. structure theorems of linear algebra appear in topology. Algebraic studies of the Whitehead group began in the nineteen-fourties. and the theory of group representations. and the development of one of the sive use of the theory of rings. Moreover.

If R is commutative.J) ~ K1(R) ~ an element hER at the (i. I).. If this dimension is mto the category of Abelian groups. J) ~ Ko(R) ~ Ko(R / J). i=/=j.Vietoris sequence for a Cartesian square. In lattice in a semi-simple finite-dimensional algebra over particular. if R is Noetherian and if the dimension of its maximal ~o. R ~ R2 theorem: If R is a commutative Noetherian ring whose maximal spectrum has dimension d.(R) quite close to K. Finally. R).e. '. R ~R' module-finite R-algebra. R) in GL(n + 1. <f>(xt) = et· The kernel of this_homomorphism is denoted by Ko(R).'J' hER . It coincides with the centre of St(R).(R) and G. the unit matrix in all other places.R*]. Each of the func- at most 1. seS [xt. then the groups K. integer-valued functions (the ring Z is given the discrete with topology) on the spectrum of R (cf.. If R is a finite in an arithmetical group contain some congruence sub- field. Let R be a skew-field The development of algebraic K-theory was stimu- and let R* be its multiplicative group. by the matrices that have K 2(R.x~tl =1 if }=/=k. let A ~ II~ ?II K 2 (R) ~ K 2 (R 1)ffiK2 (R 2 ) ~ K 2 (R') ~ K1(R) ~ . then the following exact sequence has l~i.. one obtains the group St(R) element by introducing the multiplication induced by and a natural homomorphism the te~sor product of modules.J) ~ KiR) ~ K 2 (R/ J) ~ K1(R. finitely-generated projective modules to Abelian groups For arithmetical rings there are finiteness theorems that satisfies certain properties and is universal with for the functors K. Thus. Such a 'universal' character- ring of integers or the ring of polynomials over a finite ization makes it possible to define analogues of the field. then K2(R)=0.Vietoris GL(R) be the direct limit of the groups GL(n. the Steinberg group localization with respect to a central. JectIve modules one can mention the following h.(R). for the category of Noetherian R-modules the field of fractions of a ring A. then any finitely-generated I /. E(R) then coincides with the commutator of GL(R). thel! Ko(Rt+ 1 =0. and R is an R -order and at the same time an R- functors Ko and KI on 'sufficiently good' categories. Examples oj the groups K. and the relations been found for the functor Go(R): xAx"" = x A+I'. R) be the general linear group plemented by the terms over R. R) for n. let If I is a two-sided ideal of R. which yield an exact sequence elementary matrices et.. projective A-module P such that then there is an exact sequence Pm ~ A~1+1 ffiQ K1(R) ~ K 1(R 1)ffiK 1(R 2 ) ~ K1(R') ~ for all maximal ideals m of R is isomorphic to A EEl N ~ Ko(R) ~ K o(R 1)ffiK o(R 2 ) ~ Ko(R'). 1). 'J' lJ I) U Go(R / (s» ~ Go(R) ~ GO(S-I R) ~ O. and is known as behaviour of K-functors on passing from a ring R to its the Whitehead group. group). group? This question is closely connected with the An important result in algebraic K-theory is the problem of computing the group K I (R. if certain conditions on R are satisfied.(R) can be defined. KI(R)=R* /[R*. In fact. The quotient group A fairly complete study has been made of the GL(R)/ E(R) is denoted by KI(R). ~f the results concerning the stable structure of pro- ring homomorphisms in which JI is an epimorphism. xjd = x>. i=/=I. Let GL(n. There exists a split epi- morphism of Ko(R) onto the ring H (R) of continuous </>: St(R) ~ E(R). In particular.j~n. and sequence makes it possible [8] to define the relative let E(R) be the subgroup in GL(R) generated by the functors K. closed system.ALGEBRAIC K-THEORY where [P] is the class of modules isomorphic to the If fz is also an epimorphism. j)-th place and agree with ~ K1(R / J) ~ Ko(R. then the Mayer.t if i=/=I. be the imbedding of GL(n. J) for ideals J exact Mayer. The kernel kercf> is denoted by K 2(R) (the Milnor It is known that Ko(R) is the nil radical of Ko(R) and. if A is the respect to these properties. KI and K2 are functors from the category of rings spectrum is a. R). and G. (here M m is the localization of the module M at m).(R). multiplicatively- St(n. and A is a hd th.(R) functors G. in R. then the sequence is sup- module P. then Ko(R) is isomorphic to the Picard tors K 0 and K I can be characterized as a functor from group Pic(K). Spectrum of a ring).(R) are finitely generated (i =0. Ko(R)=Z is lated by studies carried out on the problem of then the group of integers.3 is defined by the generators XA.(R. The diagram below represents a Cartesian square of . i. [xt. 102 . and congruence subgroups: Do all subgroups of finite index K 2 (Z) is the cyclic group of order two. Ko(R) becomes a ring with a unit Passing to the direct limit.

J. Fundam. and SCOrf. e. In several cases original reference to the Gratzer-Schmidt theorem is [A2]. 8ak (ed. [A2].: 'K-theory and C'-algebras'.: Lectures on topics in algebraic K-theory. One of the results of these studies is that References [A1] MAGURN. if G is a finite group of order n and C is the set of Math.: Lattice theory.): Algebraic K-theory (Battelle Inst. 1981.. G. K. and let M and N be [9] BASS.. (Szeged) 24 (1963). References [I] ATIYAH. H.B. 5 (1969). then A lattice each element of which is the union (i. 1978. 1966. Mikhalev PfBM ~ N.. A. cyclic subgroups of G.: Algebraic K-theory. 34-59. 1-89. then algebra). for which see [A1]. (EDS. G. 103 . 1968. K-theory). Especially in the form of KK-theory (or Kasparov K1(R)::: GL(d.S.i=l. A.(RG) is divisible by n if i =0. 1968. Algebraic K-theoretic ideas and problems of the stable structure of projective modules. Math.T. Conf).2.G. is given by the generators lea) (which are in one-to-one References correspondence with all the non-zero elements a of R) [1] BIRKHOFF. and ScHMIDT. These 0----> K 1(R) ----> K 1(R[t))fBK 1(R[t. R. The yield the classical functors Kn if n ~2.: Algebraic K-theory. 1969.): Reviews in K-theory 1940-1984. t -1)) ::: Ko(R).. M. 1985. Editorial comments. H. V. f (z) may be represented as the sum of a finite number [6] THOMAS.!.g. pp. Surveys 24. Chow ring). which studies analogous problems for modules ous lattices.. then the index of the subgroup [A2] CuRTZ. 1967. C'- than d. Springer.. In the nineteen-seventies there appeared numerous T. R)/ E(d.G. and EVANS.V. effective methods of computation for higher K-groups References [A1] GIERZ. for i . J. generated projective A-module. J. number theory and analysis. [5] SWAN. H. Soc. E. QtBPfJJM-QfJJN that [10] ARTIN. on which quadratic and bilinear forms are defined.F. t-I)) --'> Ko(R) ----> 0 tice to be isomorphic to the congruence lattice of some is exact for any ring R.I. An isolated singular point z 0 of an analytic function [4] SWAN. Then it follows from Springer.e. then K 2 (R) of the universal algebra is finite. also [A2] GRATZER. no.: Introduction to algebraic K-theory. Nauk 24. G. Benjamin. G. universal algebra (the Gratzer-Schmidt theorem).2. R). the module P be as above. [2] GRATZER.. the Ko(R[t)) ~ Ko(R[t. Acta.F. Amer. [7] MANIN. 3). the sequence lattice of all sub algebras of some universal algebra if and only if it is both complete and algebraic.M. tive modules is the cancellation theorem: Let R. KEIMEL. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 06A23 [2] BASS. Let Q be a finitely. 1-3.. MISLOVE. 3-86) [8] MiLNOR.>K.: A compendium ot continu- Vol.: Lattice theory. 5 (1969).zo)t g(z). E. Interscience. Princeton Univ. no. Soc. ALGEBRAIC LOGARITHMIC SINGULAR POINT Another important theorem on the structure of projec. (ED.H.: Geometric algebra. Yu.(Rc )--. Tata Inst.. Compact lattice element). compactly-generated lattice - that if R is a regular ring.: K-theory: lectures. for group rings have been studied. Math. if R is a commutative ring of stable rank smaller tional analysis centering around C'-algebras (cf. 1970. Springer.: K-theory offinite groups and f (z) such that in a neighbourhood of it the function orders. 1967. in A.): Alge- :s Im(K. HOFMANN. Press. Sci. Algebraic lattices are an important It has been shown [9] that these theories coincide and special case of continuous lattices. K. Springer. least upper bound) of some set of compact elements (d. The development of unitary K-theory ([9].(RG» CEC braic K-theory. geometry'.: 'Lectures on the K -functor in algebraic (z .: 'Characterizations of began in that decade. R.D. Fofanova versions of the definitions of the functors K. 1957. congruence latlices of abstract algebras'. 1.. M. Springer.55-79. (ED.): Algebraic K-theory of terms of the form and its geometric applications. E. LAWSON. 1971. the functors K.I ))----> conditions are also necessary and sufficient for the lat- ----> KI(R[t. ALGEBRAIC LOGARITHMIC SINGULAR POINT - [3] BASS.S. In algebraic geometry there are important connections In connection with the theory of induced representa- with the Chow groups (cf. Springer. 1973. Cf.G. results have become most important in certain parts of func- Thus. and Moss. and the relations l(a)l(l-a)= 1 for a:. Amer. tions of groups. R. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 18F25 Regarding polynomial ring extensions it IS known ALGEBRAIC LATIICE. D. Res.zo)-S[ln(z . B. K 1(R[t)) ~ K1(R).. Nemytov The stable rank of a ring R is closely connected with Editorial comments. A and (Uspekhi Mat. c. arbitrary A-modules. in K. Russian Math. Birkhauser. In One result in the computation of the functor K 2 (R) both cases it is assumed that the arity of the operations is the theorem of Matsumoto: If R is a field. 1984. were found. Benjamin. A lattice is isomorphic to the Moreover.

integer. if 1 / t: is an tive integer. It References was shown in 1872 by G.. in R. Many properties of rational sition of an algebraic integer into irreducible factors is integers are also displayed by algebraic integers. fraction. +alx +ao (1) leading coefficient one is an algebraic integer.: Analytische Fortsetzung. Primitive polyno. tics of rational integers also hold for algebraic integers. on the other hand. Cantor that the set of all [ll BIEBERBACH. If a ular the k-th degree root of an algebraic integer is an is an algebraic number. the so-called algebraic integer m is an algebraic integer. numbers) can be introduced in certain subfields of the tion of the concept of a rational integer (a rational field of all algebraic numbers. 104 . The concept of an and x 2 -2x -1 . The existence of integers. being the roots of the polynomial x 2 -4x + 1.2.. A root of a polyno. Solomentsev number). AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 30B40. a root of a real) number that is a root of a polynomial polynomial with algebraic integer coefficients and with f(x) = a. The sum. All rational an algebraic integer a. For instance.1. there exists a exists a positive integer r such that ra is an algebraic unique polynomial <p(x) of lowest degree' with leading integer (in analogy with rational numbers). The height of an algebraic number a is the For instance. the difference. are algebraic integer y such that f3 = ya.v'3 and 2 + v'3 are greatest absolute value of the coefficients of the irredu. The field of rational numbers mial). being a algebraic integer. units. polynomial of the algebraic number a. is an algebraic number of degree n. if there exists an algebraic numbers. 30BXX A root of any (not necessarily irreducible) polyno- mial with rational integer coefficients and leading coef- ALGEBRAIC NUMBER . integer. being the root of the number fields.m). a*O. The rational integer coefficients that has a as a root. irreducible number (apart from the class of associated The concept of an algebraic integer is a generaliza. the product and the contains only two units . while 21/ n. 1955. which is therefore irreducible lest possible number r is the modulus of the leading (d. among all polynomials algebraic integer. L. Springer. A unit is a divisor of any algebraic root of the irreducible polynomial xn . In partic- with rational coefficients. There is another of all algebraic numbers is a field. however. It turns out. then. that the decompo- polynomial x . all divisors of a unit are are called the conjugates of a. since it is a root of An algebraic integer t: is called an algebraic unit (or the polynomial x 2 + 1. For any algebraic number a there with rational coefficients and a as a root. existence of transcendental numbers (cf. where n is any posi. not always unique.+ 1 and . quotient of two algebraic numbers (except for division Two algebraic integers are called associated if they by zero) are algebraic numbers.. All degree n of the minimal polynomial <p(x) is also called conjugates of an algebraic integer are also algebraic the degree of the algebraic number a. that is. this means that the set differ by a factor which is a unit. cible and primitive polynomial with integral rational Moreover. All numbers conjugate with a are An algebraic integer is a unit if and only if the product distinct. arbitrary large or small. 3. integers and the ring of rational integers. while the rational integers form a discrete set. the numbers The roots aI. each one having modulus 1. . Apart from its degree. coefficient of the irreducible primitive polynomial with or minimal. and are also algebraic units. Transcendental E. unit for short) if it is a divisor of 1. may be seen from the fact that a root of an algebraic braic integers. units. algebraic numbers is denumerable.D. the numbers 2 . and g(z) is a regular analytic function at the the real algebraic integers form an everywhere-dense set point z 0 with g(z oh6 0. . The k-th roots of unity are characteristic of an algebraic number is its height.an of the irreducible polynomial conjugate to a unit are units. Thus. Irreducible polynomial). ficient one is an algebraic integer. irreducible polynomials of any degree n implies the One says that an algebraic integer f3 is divisible by existence of algebraic numbers of degree n. It is called the irreducible. The smal- coefficient equal to one. another important of all its conjugates is -+-1. There exists an which is the analogue of the denominator of a rational infinite set of other units which do not have modulus 1. The concept An algebraic number is called an algebraic integer if of an irreducible integer (in analogy to a prime all the coefficients of its minimal polynomial are number) cannot be introduced into the former. This rational integers. not all of which are zero. k is a non-negative the algebraic integers form a ring. important difference between the ring of algebraic mial with algebraic coefficients is an algebraic number.A complex (sometimes.x' + .. Many divisibility characteris- numbers of the first degree. The inverse of a unit is a unit. a product of a finite number of units is a unit. i and 1+ V2 are alge. The number i is an alge. and this implied the Sect. Moreover. braic number of the second degree. their powers constitute units which may be coefficients that has a as a root (d. being roots of the polynomials x 2 + 1 integer is an algebraic integer. numbers of degree n. and only such numbers.ALGEBRAIC LOGARITHMIC SINGULAR POINT where s is a complex number.

In their study of the theory of cubic field) .g. The field of rational numbers has only by P. while a XIWI + . Kronecker.also made mated by rational and algebraic numbers (Liouville's significant contributions. [N. but its ultimate solution braic properties. fractions. properties o{rational integers often do not field). element of OK) can be written in the form p=( -1 + v=3) / 2 is a cubic root of unity. where D > 1 is a cubic fields). Gauss (Gauss. attempts to solve it yielded very impor. For instance.B. of finite degree over the field Q of rational numbers ian numbers of the form a + bi. which are a generalization of rational number theory.Siegel and fields of real and complex numbers with special alge- Thue . Another very difficult problem algebraic numbers greatly influenced the creation and is the expansion of algebraic numbers into continued development of the general theory of rings and fields.: Basic number theory. rational numbers).. McGraw-Hili. E. E. Shidlovski{ algebraic numbers of the first degree exist over the field Editorial comments. degrees with respect to different fields. are algebraic numbers over P is an algebraic number reprint. Jacobi and F. N.. where a and bare (cf.: Algebraic number theory. CHEBOTAREV): Grundzuge der coefficients from P. thus. Cyclotomic However. An algebraic number of arbitrary degree n does not [5) LANG. number i is an algebraic number of the second degree. Eisenstein created the (WI. 1967. Galois theory.wn ). .G.: Vorlesungen iiber Zahlentheorie. A complex number is called an algebraic number over References a field P C C if it is a root of a polynomial (1) with [1] TSCHEBOTAROW. Vorono! (cubic irrationalities. duct a deep study of cyclotomic fields (cf. D. of complex numbers: the numbers of the field them- References selves. algebra periodic continued fractions. The development of the theory of is still nowhere in sight. such property is related to units. L. Hirzel. manner. Real algebraic numbers of the second degree Algebraic numbers have found numerous applica- (quadratic irrationalities) can be represented as infinite tions in various branches of number theory..V. degree over P and the conjugate numbers over P for [2) HECKE. 1927.G.Roth theorems. the Galois'schen theorie. The minimal polynomial. units of sider the real quadratic field Q( Vii). algebraic geometry. moreover.F. geometry of numbers. an extension K of Q of degree n (cf. E. Extension of a dratic residues. the invertible elements The theory of algebraic numbers was further developed of OK (cf. Algebraic number).e. Markov (cubic fields). A. theorem). . tion is unique for each algebraic integer in K. G.F.can be obtained from an integral basis residues. Yu. Z). including the Thue.: Lectures on the theory of algebraic numbers. 1970. E. 105 . Sokhotskii (theory of ideals) and others . + 1 and . 1949. Addison-Wesley.e. this means that each algebraic integer arithmetic of numbers of the form a +bp.. numbers. e. S.!. form subfields of algebraic numbers in the tant results. The problem concept of an algebraic number field are very impor- of approximation of algebraic numbers by rational tant ideas in number theory and algebra. number theory with the basic aim of studying proper- Algebraic numbers. 1950 (translated from the Rus- sian). algebraic numbers over P are defined in a similar Springer.: AlgebraiC number theory. Nothing is known so far and other branches of mathematics: the theory of (the nineteen-seventies) about the expansion of real forms. The set of all algebraic numbers ALGEBRAIC NUMBER TIlEORY . [4) LANDAU.: Einflihrung in die elementare und analytische Theorie der algebraischen Zahlen und der Ideale. but a general algebraic number Russian mathematicians . ties of algebraic integers in algebraic number fields K were first systematically studied by e. rational integer not equal to ·a square.A. Kummer to con. Zolotarev (theory of field may contain an infinite number of units.1 as units. 1981 (translated from the German). such a representa- proof of the Fennat theorem led E. Diophantine equations.Siegel. Gauss developed the arithmetic of The set of algebraic integers OK of a field K / Q - Gaussian integers as a base for the theory of biqua. Algebraic numbers is one of the more difficult problems in numbers. and to have obvious analogues for algebraic integers. only A. con- ideals). over P. Chelsea. His attempts to produce a rational integers (i. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 12AXX but it is of the first degree with respixt to the field of complex numbers. where (i.G. Noordhoff. A given algebraic number can be of different [A1] WEISS. 1963. E. Hilbert and others. Thue . It is this fact which led in 1844 to a proof of The concept of an algebraic number and the related the existence of transcendental numbers.GJ. Dirichlet. etc.E. ALGEBRAIC NUMBER THEORY Algebraic numbers cannot be very closely approxi. to introduce the concept of an ideal. and algebraic number fields. A root of a polynomial with coefficients that [3) LANDAU. Springer. necessarily exist over any field P. Diophantine approxima- algebraic numbers of degree at least three into ordinary tions.The branch of over a field P forms a number field. the [A2] WElL. A. transcendental numbers. The first create the elements of the theory of algebraic numbers. continued fractions. Moreover. Unit). 3. +xnwn where all the Xi run through the and b are rational numbers. If.

Any of them gives rise to a of a one-to-one correspondence (the fundamental Galois unit x +Y YD of Q( YD). the Pell units form the the theorem on unique factorization of rational integers product of < . order to overcome this difficulty Kummer introduced fields. and what is their structure? not contain prime numbers into which any algebraic These are four main problems in algebraic number integer in k can be split. cated. E. sure of K (cf. There is a fundamental unit A second property of rational numbers without an 11=Xo +yo YD. Kummer expanded the behaviour of prime numbers in algebraic number fields left-hand side using p-th roots of unity. .ALGEBRAIC NUMBER THEORY D. x+y D The structure of the group of units of a field was elu- is also an algebraic integer in Q(YD). The field Q is the Kummer's first point of view. fact that the number of subfields of an extension K / Q = The PeU equation x 2 . need not remain a prime number in an algebraic The problem of the non-unique factorization of alge- number field. and if it splits. to him that unique factorization need not hold. the product of the related to prime numbers. The ideal numbers the theorem on unique factorization in k 106 .E 1 (mod 4). since its answer will shed light These numbers were called ideal by Kummer (since on the other three. is it possible to find problem was reduced to one about the algebraic rules that would give a definite answer to the following integers of Q(t). with the fourth problem.. An ordinary prime number unit by its conjugates. For extensions of group C and r=r1 +r2 -I infinite cyclic groups: higher degree the situation becomes still more compli- U = ex <'II!> X . Galois theory). His basic idea can be given Q(YD) form an infinite multiplicative group (the group by taking the group of Pell units (cf. Any other algebraic number field does have sub. and hence the of higher degree? In other words.1> with an infinite cyclic group.. they do not lie in the original field k).Y)EZXZ. Dirichlet. The question solving the equation x P+yP =zP in non-zero integers arises: Do there exist general laws governing the for any prime number p > 2. correspondence) between all subfields of the normal clo- (x+yVDXx-yVD) = I.11.. It is quite natural to start tion of numbers that play the role of primes for k. braic number theory for the future. above) as exam- of Pell units). then the number 6 has two essenti.. does it have a meaning at Here 111. The question arises: What becomes of the unique factorization theorem. The units of cidated by P.e. the prime to solve Fermat's last theorem on the impossibility of number 7 remains prime in this field.g. The question arises: How many subfields are con. E. hence. In it. where r1 is the number of For algebraic numbers such a unique factorization need real imbeddings K~R and r2 the number of complex- not hold. X <'IIr>. However. 6=(l+v=5)(1. i.. If question: Does a given prime number remain prime in there would be unique factorization into prime factors a field K / Q or does it split in it. This was structure of algebraic number fields.g. but Dirichlet pointed out minimal field of characteristic zero without proper sub. a last (fourth) problem concerns the general with an exponent that is a multiple of p. and all other units are plus or minus obvious analogue for algebraic numbers is related to integral powers of it. Nonnal extension) and the subgroups of its Galois group. the conjugate pairs of complex irnbeddings K ~C.. YD) is an integral basis for it. This n in prime factors: fact is a special case of the general Dirichlet unit theorem for algebraic number fields: If the degree of a n = p~1 .-v=--l). he tried 5=(2+ -v=--l)(2.-5).g. consider the field Q(v=5). who started from a special case.. The question arises: What is the structure ple. thus altering the entire structure of alge- field. Kummer. In fact. are independent fundamental units all in algebraic number fields? and C is the group of roots of unity contained in K. and answering them constitutes the content of finite degree over k in which there does exist a collec- algebraic number theory.. in the field Q(-v=--l) of Gaussian braic integers in algebraic number fields was solved by numbers the prime number 5 has a factorization: E. Q is a subfield of any algebraic number ideal numbers. a finite group of finite order (number and IVD = x-yVD of elements) at most n!. E.Dy2 I has an infinite number of degree n over Q is finite follows from the existence of solutions2. finitely or infinitely ideal number arises from the fact that if a field k does many. then it would have been sufficient to prove how many factors? that not all prime factors at the left-hand side occur Finally. in in Q(f). f a primitive p-th root of unity. p%'. Any power of such a unit (both positive or nega- of this group? tive) is a unit. then there is a field K / k of theory. is equal to + I. . By introducing Galois in the eighteen-twenties (d. then (1. A third property without an obvious analogue is The norm of any unit in a field. The concept of an tained in a given extension K / Q. The problem was solved by E. field K / Q is n =r1 +2r2. different factorizations: group of units U of K is the product of a finite cyclic 6=2·3. In fields.

(so-called associated numbers) have one and the same The corresponding factorization is called Kummer's for- ideal factors.. Therefore. Although Kummer did not considered to be normal from now on. the deep connections between Kummer's theory and In order to simplify the exposition.2 can be ignored. any classes. where d(n) denotes the number Since prime ideal numbers are defined relative to a of divisors. Already in equation (2) has a finite number of solutions. however. it is possible to give a simple description of these form an Abelian group under multiplication. The class number can be Equation (1) yields a preliminary concept of a class. the field K / k is Dirichlet's theory of units. more- result: The class number h of k is finite. Therefore a basic prob- f(x) and 1. in field or. so that non-associated numbers. in modern terminology.divisors in K / k: pose one is given a field k and a prime ideal tJ of its P = PI .. are contained. He obtained the following important law is the same in any given class and such that.. and the classes over. tioned into d(n) classes.. In order to be able to define the principal class part of modern algebraic number theory.t:. (Note that ideal numbers are defined rela. but it is a local equation in class number of a field k. be (the regulator. Computing the rela- field). It is a principal object of study in class field split? This question led to class field theory. Only infinite classes are of interest. a central theory. and they all are divisors of the discriminant ~ of sequel. element of the original field k. for another field k' one (1) must construct an extension K' / k' (of possibly dif- ferent degree over k') in which all ideal numbers of k' where ~j are prime ideals in K=k(O). since they are prime it ideals in a field.) In principle. explicitly described in terms of other field constants Let n be the degree of the extension K / k and let f. 107 . the set of all tJ not dividing ~ is parti- mathematics.f.. tive norms N K / k of both parts of (1) leads to Subsequently. .ite nature would follow.. The first solu.mula (or Kummer's decomposition) tive to the original field k. in a product of prime ideals of the ring of algebraic and their class is called the principal class of k relative integers of K'? In the latter case: By which law does it to K / k.. Pn· (3) ring of algebraic integers. so that the nineteen-fifties the concept of an ideal was general- the set of all prime ideals of k can be partitioned into a ized to the more comprehensive concept of a divisor. are natural numbers. who prime ideals satisfying (1) do exist in k and that there proved that if 0 is a root of an irreducible polynomial are infinitely many such ideals. is fin- coincide. the factori.fI' -) is an integral basis for OK over lem in class field theory is to define the principal class Ob then tJ splits in k(O) 'by the same law as f(x).0.~(x) (modp). the third problem on the factorization 11=···=lm=l. and such fields only will be considered in the ite. finite number of classes and one can collect the prime Therefore. For n fixed be described in terms of the field k itself.) of (2) into one class. ideal separately. . For algebraic number one solution (aj. which helps in understanding classes for which aj. which can in which aj and f. of ordinary prime numbers in an algebraic number A prime ideal tJ in it has maximal number of prime field can be stated in the following general form. In such fields succeed in solving Fermat's problem. Thus. is solved by class field theory for extensions ideal number can be regarded as the h-th root of some K / k with Abelian Galois group Gal(K / k). The concept of an ideal is related to that of K / k. the modern theory of Kummer may be ideals whose Kummer decomposition corresponds to stated in terms of divisors.. Sup. does in terms of the field k itself in such a way that its infin- in the residue field (modtJ).via (3) it is necessary to give a proof of the facts that tion of this problem was given by Kummer. his ideas extended the condition far beyond this problem and the concept of an ideal 11= . This problem has been com- zation of tJ in k(O) is determined by the congruence pletely solved for Abelian extensions K / k. In other words.. The question is: Does tJ remain prime in an extension K=k(O) or does it split Such tJ are said to split completely (or to be totally split). equivalent to it. = 1m has now become fundamental in many branches of holds. The number of fields. the concepts of a divisor and an ideal prime ideals with the property that some aj > 2. The class with m = n is of special interest. ... ALGEBRAIC NUMBER THEORY holds. the concept of an ideal number was (2) replaced by that of an ideal. The problem of partitioning the set of The number of classes thus obtained is called the ideal all prime ideals in classes such that the factorization class number of k. Two ideal numbers are said to the sense that it is necessary to check it for each prime belong to the same class if their quotient belongs to k. Two numbers in a field that differ by a unit I(x) =Jil (x)· . the discriminant and the degree of the the relative degree of the ideal ~j. this equation solves the third problem in Kummer also introduced the concept of the ideal algebraic number theory.

Artin introduced the symbol ductor f that is the greatest common divisor of all equivalent conductors. tively prime with the conductor f It is called the Artin which is valid in every field k. The general hypothesis (he proved it only in special cases).m. The order h m of this generalized class group satisfies the estimates 1:S. Takagi. Kummer and Hilbert morphic to the Weber class group and the discriminant are regarded as group elements realizing this isomor- D of K / k consists of the same prime ideals as the con.h m :S. f=l. where [ \: k] [\: k] = [~l ~: ]. implies the normal extension K / k in which the prime ideals of reciprocity law for Hilbert's symbol. [5]. d. it is required to find the Takagi) by which one can uniquely construct a princi. For m = 1 and Here N p is the absolute norm of the ideal p. l consists in fact of the same progressions (mod/). split completely. However. the Galois group of K / k is iso.. concept of a class group according to Weber with a con.c. This form. in tum. Weber has shown that in group Af / Hf and the Galois group Gal(K / k). has the same prime divisors as the discriminant D of tion given above then corresponds to the modem con. and such that the conductor f eral concept of an ideal class group. is due to H.. With this in mind.e. It is multiplicative: m2 the class groups may be equivalent if H m and H m. {3) defined by 108 . From k and all class fields for this field there must exist a this one can obtain the classical form of the reciprocity one-to-one correspondence. will split com.. the reciprocity law is regarded as an isomorphism of pletely. automorphism op of an Abelian extension K / k. In the gen. let Lm be revealed the special role of the canonical isomorphism the subgroup of principal ideals (a) of k given by a=l between the Galois group and the ideal class group. originated with D. only the prime ideals of Hf field theory better. There- sion with Galois group Gal(K / k) is give. which is equal to some n-th root of unity. [~] = 1 A new point of view on class field theory. Artin. whose certain particular cases the Galois group Gal(K / k) of explicit from is expressed in Artin's reciprocity law: a class field and the class group Af / Hf of k are iso- morphic. groups. where h is the order of the absolute class group and <I> depends (in an appropriate group) only on the ideal is Euler's phi-function. Moreover. He (mod m) and let A m be the subgroup of all ideals of k proved that this isomorphism is given by the Frobenius that are relatively prime with m. implies that there are symbol and realizes an isomorphism between the class infinitely many prime ideals. m2)' If one agrees not to distinguish where the symbol at the right-hand side is understood between equivalent class groups. i.h'cp(m). phism. to exhi- pal class Hf such that the class group Af / Hf is iso. fying Lm ~Hm ~Am can be regarded as a group of defined as principal ideals. then there is only one Reciprocity laws). which is still valid. If for some conductor f one con.. and a (generalized) class group Am / H m is constructed in this way. A class field according to Weber is a field K / k in which only the prime ideals in its [~] principal class Hf . on the entire group Af of ideals 0 of k that are rela- Dirichlet's theorem on prime ideals in progressions. and only these. value. a runs HI = L lone obtains Kummer's definition. For different conductors ml and class to which p belongs. through all numbers of K and p is a prime ideal of k. The 'duality' was stated by Hilbert in 1900 as a cept of an absolute ideal class group. split completely in K. K / k. then there fore one can formulate the reciprocity law as follows. Hilbert.. then one obtains the as an automorphism of the class to which lJIlJ2 belongs. bit the explicit form of the function of (a. and only these. exists a method (subsequently explicity formulated by Given the value of (a / {3)n. structs the Weber class group. it is necessary to introduce the gen. Kummer's defini. symbol (one has to consider the field K=k(a 1 / n ). A subgroup H m satis. The next important stage of development of class Weber introduced the concept of the conductor of a group theory is related to the name of E. who class group. Let m be an integral ideal of k. In all three forms Weber's principal class. In its concept of an ideal class group which is used nowadays general form it was proved by Takagi. Weber and T. He understood if and only if oEHf (reciprocity as a correspondence that between all relatively Abelian extensions of a field between the groups Gal(K / k) and Af / Hf ). This correspondence can be law in the language of Kummer's power reciprocity stated as follows. eral case H m consists of progressions (mod m) whose The automorphism op (nowadays denoted by [-T]] residue classes form a subgroup of the whole multipli- cative group (mod m). and the symbols of Artin.n..ALGEBRAIC NUMBER THEORY In order to be able to understand the ideas of class morphic to Gal(K / k). value of the symbol (a / f3)n reciprocal to it.(ml. each of them also has a numerical ductor f The converse is also true: If an Abelian exten.

J. S. Regula- for an Abelian extension Kp of a local field kp.G. For a discussion of the relations between the aspects of algebraic number theory. 1967. definitions.!. 1966 F. Assoc.I. A. Press. H. and reformulated and proved many theorems specified articles in this Encyclopaedia. Gauss (cf. Eisenstein. which in fact can group remains. Addison-Wesley. 1. also called Shafarevich func. These form a free Abelian subgroup of rank n. Addison. and especially class field but at the end of the nineteen-thirties C Chevalley theory. J. Z. Sb. A.: AlgebraiC numbers. Springer.e.J. Hilbert. Gauss reciprocity law) for quadratic fields [7] 'Hilbert's problems'. In questions of ideal-theoretic formulations and the modern idele based quantitative estimation and methods algebraic number class field theory [A2] is recommended. Acad. The relative degree 1. [4] LANG. The discussion of class field theory above (up to the men- form. 1964. Princeton Univ. J. and others. (EDs. [¥] For Kummer's approach to the Fermat problem cf. For this purpose he principal ideals. 437-479 (translated from the German). 4. proved the extraordinary importance of the local point The ideal class groups Am / Hm are also often known as of view in the creation of class field theory. Jacobi. [A4) WEISS. 1965. 1974. newer results. [A3] POLLARD. [2] POSTNIKOV. S. [5]). to a large extent. Press. References [A2] NEUKIRCH. [3] WEYL.: Class field theory. An algebraic number field of himself on the idea of establishing a connection degree n is a degree n extension of the field a of rational numbers. [10] LANG. and SHAFAREVICH. called the ring of integers OK of K and also the principal order of and the analytic definition of an Abelian differential K. 1962 (in Russian). on properties [A 1] HASSE. I. I. and FROHLICH. i. no. Press. on decomposition of ideals. Moscow. Unit.At first tor of an algebraic number field.S. of an ideal \l3. prime degree.): Algebraic number theory. Bull. Springer. theory is intimately connected with analytic number Meferences theory. 1986.: Class field theory. Sect. Addison-Wesley.: Basic number theory.W. 8. ALGEBRAIC NUMBER THEORY [5] CASSELS. Math. 1967. The class field corresponding to the ray class general class field theory from the local point of view. OK' In the late nineteen-twenties Hasse introduced the For more details. 8 (1902). Extension of a field. M.Wesley.M. Phy- sika Verlag.g.: Commutative algebra. I. An element aEK is an algebraiC integer if it is between the arithmetic definition of the symbol integral over Z. N. [A3].e. and the corresponding fields as ray duced the concept of an idele group and formulated class fields. [6] SHAFAREVICH. E. and as a result Abelian have a totally positive. The link (equivalence) between Kummer's ideal numbers and ideals comes from the fact that for the prime ideals in which precisely corresponds to the determination of the OK there is a field extension L / K in which they become residue of (l·d/1 in the . 1966 (translated from the Russian). Amer.: Number theory. i.: Bericht Dber neuere Untersuchungen und Prob- of r-functions and L-functions of algebraic fields. Math. The study of the reciprocity law in this [9] WElL.113-146 (in Russian). The problem of creating non-Abelian class field tion of ideles) is in terms of the older ideal-theoretic formula- theory for normal extensions with non-Abelian Galois tion as in e. but (translated from the French). Kummer theorem were obtained as a constX!uence of the local theory). various more at a time. also called a minimal (l·d/1 on a Riemann surface. He intro. Amer. Soc.: The theory of algebraic numbers. Frobenius the idea was of secondary importance only (the results automorphism (also for Artin symbo~. a basis of OK is an integral basis. 1963. Discriminant. (68). introduced E-functions. in terms of which he also obtained an explicit residue field extension OL / \l3. 1950. is the degree of the tions. and in the work of Kummer for cyclotomic fields of [8] ARTIN. H. 26 In this form the law first appeared in the work of CF. and TATE.R: 'General reciprocity laws'. H. [II] BoURBAKI. 1959.M.R. The definitions Following this the local-global principle became esta. A. over OK / p where form of the reciprocity law in the general case. [I] BOREVICH. In particular the arti- cles Algebraic number. blished in class field theory. E. H. such that all real conjugates of a class field theory took a structured and completed are >0. Vinogradov they only obtained partial results. Chapt. Acad. He gave a construction of basis. ray class groups mod m.: Algebraic number theory.):J-adic field.: Galois theory. n P=\l3.: Algebraic number theory. It is also based. group A1 / L1 is the Hilbert class field. if it is a root of a monic polynomial in [¥] Z[XJ . Hasse's Zahlbericht [A1]. and more pre- idea of doing class field theory for one prime ideal of k cise statements of much of the above cf. above ignore some problems with the Archimedean primes. Benjamin. 1970. leme aus der Theorie der algebrai'sche Zahlkorper. AMS 1980 Subject Classificatiol"l: 12-XX 109 .11. form was subsequently continued by CG. Subsequently it was in particular the prinCipal ideals (a) making up Lm must extended and refined (cf. McGraw-Hili.: AlgebraiC theory of numbers..R. Hasse. Shafarevich [6] solved this problem in its general form in 1948. basing Editorial comments. Mat. be advantageously consulted for more details and precise The exposition above relates mainly to the qualitative statements. 1(1950).

the algebraic polyno. ing the condition of local representability (in the etale tinued to study them in 1856 [1]. 46 (1924). Nullary (n =0) operations are fixed ele- ments of the set A.M. 152-236 (in Russian). J.: 'The theory of abstract algebras with infinitary numerische Behandlung.. A shorter phrase 'best algebraic approximation'.A mapping [1] CHEBYSHEV. An algebraic space is a tion in the uniform metric (p = 00) were first encoun. Math. 2. m. moduli varieties. 1964. n-ary operation. The number n is known as the arity of the alge. [A2] CHENEY. sheaf of sets F in the etale topology of schemes satisfy- tered in the studies of P. 1905.. an algebraic polynomial of best approximation Zariski topology. Chebyshev (1852). cepts of a scheme and an algebraic variety. pp. Subbotin elements or constants. 1967 (1969). Picard schemes.e. which the infimum is attained is known as an algebraic Any scheme S defines some sheaf S in the etale polynomial of best approximation in lp[a. b] (p. References [A3] MEINARDus.L. in this case such as the etale covering of the sheaf F. The scheme U is known occurs in the difference f (x) . they are also known as distinguished sian). the concepts of binary Amer.:' 2.: Universal algebra. The rate of convergence of Morphisms of an algebraic space are defined as mor- En{j)p to zero is given by Jackson's theorems (cf. Polynomi. Reidel. 1982. ftogi Nauk. Gauthier-Villars. Rozprawy Mat. J.hism U~F such that for a~y sc~eme V and morphism blished by E. [N. Anal. In the twentieth century the con. a mapping braic polynomial of best approximation' one also uses the w: A a ~A. topology): There exists a scheme U and a sheaf mor- braic polynomials of best approximation was esta. e. operations'. Editorial comments. Jackson [3] to be unique for scheme according to the etale equivalence relation. More precisely. A. Borel [2].: Introduction to approximation theory. izable in the category of schemes and require its exten- tity sions. best approximation is defined for functions in a large Many concepts in the theory of schemes are applica- number of unknowns.If P = 1. field of functions.:'l) and let Hn be the set of alge. The quan. not unique. it is not unique. Vol. 1956 (translated from the Russian). actually started in the late nineteen-fifties [A 1]. reprint. Mat. T. (n =2) and unary (n = 1) operations were the first to be [4] GARKAVI. Chel- sea. This gen- MATION . b]. 1981.I. E. [A2] COHN. Chebyshev proved that P~(x) is V~F the fibred product uXFV is represented by a an algebraic polynomial of best approximation in the scheme Z.: 'The theory of approximation in norrned linear spaces'. while a polynomial for algebraic space a natural object of algebr~c geometry. AKmEZER]: Theory of approximation. 1947. which is not set with a system of algebraic operations defined on it to be confused with the phrase 'best approximation' for the is called a universal algebra. Yu. P. P.L. structure sheaf and in the uniform metric is. A nullary Ungar.: Lefons SW' les fonctions de variables reelles et les developpements en series de polynomes. coherent sheaves.75-132 (in Rus- considered. i. The study of infinitary operations [A 1] ACHIEZER.N. The existence of alge. of the n-th Cartesian power of the set A into the set A [2] BOREL. If p> 1. but geometric sense of an algebraic space as a quotient it has been shown by D.ALGEBRAIC OPERATION ALGEBRAIC OPERATION.A polynomial deviating least from a given eralization is the result of certain constructions in alge- function.W. Springer. on a set References A . itself. operation is also called a noughtary operation [A2]. D. and the induced morphism of schemes Z ~ V uniform metric if and only if Chebyshev alternation is a surjective etale morphism. local ring. which is a quotient a polynomial is unique. the category of schemes becomes Jackson theorem). contractions. uniquely defines the scheme S. sheaf of t~e sh~af U according to the etale equivalence mial of best approximation is unique due to the strict relation UXFU.L. which in tum als which deviate least from a given continuous func. [3] JACKSON. identical with a complete subcategory of the category In a manner similar to (*) an algebraic polynomial of of algebraic spaces. 478.: Complete collected works. G. who con.. E. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 41 A 10.215-234. which renders the is called the best approximation. braic operation.A generalization of the con- ALGEBRAIC POLYNOMIAL OF BEST APPROXI. Moscow.P~(x). Historically. etale topology. f(x) be in lp[a. where a is an arbitrary cardinal number. the category of algebraic spaces is (*) closed under these constructions. If the number of variables ble to algebraic spaces: point.. topology of the category of schemes. phisms of sheaves. 41 A50 AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 08A40 ALGEBRAIC SPACE . 18 (1959). least error En{ f)p. say m. continuous functions. let a measurable function braic geometry: Hilbert schemes.: Approximation von Funktionen und ihre [A1] STOMINSKl. This last proposition reveals the convexity of the space Lp.M. Instead of the long phrase 'alge- cept of an infinitary operation appeared.I. which are often not real- braic polynomials of degree not exceeding n. Many results in the theory of schemes 110 . N.: 'A general class of problems in approximation'. However. 13-14. Baranovich References Editorial comments. in general.

braic space. algebraic surfaces need not be biregularly isomorphic. and the spaces. Picard. due to the Italian school of algebraic geometers: C. Unlike algebraic curves. important invariants of algebraic surfaces: the Finer results include the representability of Picard geometric genus and the canonical class. 1971. Danilov a) Resolution of singularities. Poincare and S. Artin and. and others. 14A20 birationally projected in CP3 on a surface with ordi- nary singularities . 643-648. congress mathematicians Nice. F. Affme scheme). Owing to the theorem on the resolu- variety of ideas used to solve them makes the theory of tion of singularities of algebraic surfaces. Walker and O. Topological and tran- example. larities). 1970. Severi. an algebraic space permits a algebraic surfaces by E.: Algebraic spaces. 1971.: AlgebraiC spaces. the local study of singular points of algebraic surfaces. Resolution of singu- spaces'.: 'AlgebraiC varieties and compact complex characteristic was given in 1956 (cf. The latter include the classification algebraic spaces are schemes. in which they were defined by a single alge. while other results up and dense in the Zariski topology and that is a scheme. ite number of ordinary cusp points and triple points. Finally. Such (cf. Cremona. yields an algebraic space (such a situation occurs. in a slightly different but given in the nineteen-thirties by R. If a flat equivalence relation is given on an alge. M. G. The proof of due to him. and its representations were considered to be b) Numerical invariants of algebraic surfaces. [8]. Xl> X2. till now have not been generalized to higher- One-dimensional and non-singular two-dimensional dimensional cases. braic variety. pp. algebraically-independent meromorphic functions. two-dimensional singularities and proved that the tOp<r braic geometry (1868 . the class of algebraic surfaces is surfaces represented the principal object of studies dur- the class of algebraic varieties which has been most ing the classical stage of development of the theory of thoroughly studied. contraction of a subspace with an ample conormal Lefschetz. Clebsch the theorem of finiteness and existence of a proper and M. Bertini. Noether (ca. Any non-singular algebraic surface can be AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14JXX. but this is not true of of algebraic surfaces by numerical invariants.. when there is a free action of a finite group scendental methods were introduced into the theory of on the space). The previous geometrical proofs given by the theorem cited at the end of the article (on subspaces) is Italian workers had contained lacunae [9].1920) algebraic surfaces were logical space of a normal algebraic surface is a topolog- understood to mean a class of birationally equivalent ical manifold if and only if the surface is non-singular. The first rigorous Editorial comments. The imbedded in complex three-dimensional projective concept of the geometric genus Pg(V) of an algebraic space Cp3. a projective algebraic surface over an algebraically [2] KNurSON. E. criteria of three-dimensional or singular two-dimensional algebraic rationality and ruledness of algebraic surfaces. F. D. who deduced important invariants of During the classical period of the development of alge. ALGEBRAIC SURFACE such as Serre's affinity criterion (cf. who defined the first morphism. The subse- and Hilbert functors in the category of algebraic quent development of the theory of algebraic surfaces is spaces. X3)=0. can be applied to algebraic spaces. closed field k. The foundations of of an algebraic curve in the theory of algebraic sur- 111 . for Enriques. Algebraic curve). L. Yale Univ. Mumford (1961). proved to be valid for algebraic varieties and schemes All algebraic spaces contain a subspace that is open of arbitrary dimension as well. it was studied by B. Moishezon [A 1]. global algebraic surfaces one of the most interesting fields of methods of the theory of schemes may be applied to algebraic geometry. and the theory of algebraic surfaces were laid by A. 1969. an algebraic surface will be understood to mean [1] ARTIN.A two-dimensional alge. then the factorization by this relation Segre. surface is a generalization of the concept of the genus braic equation f(xo. Springer. [5]. internat.ordinary double curves with a fin- ALGEBRAIC SURFACE . Castelnuovo. Complete algebraic spaces of critically reviewed and demonstrated once again in the dimension n over the field of complex numbers have nineteen-fifties and nineteen-sixties using modem coho- the natural structure of a compact analytic space with n mological methods (1]. surfaces. Most of these results were a field is a scheme. VI. The notion of an algebraic space proofs of the existence of a non-singular model were was introduced by M. Together with the class of algebraic curves which are triplanar singular points of the surface. two birationally isomorphic The fundamental work on this subject was done by D. a group in the category of algebraic spaces over theory of minimal models. Zar- equivalent form. in Proc. Gauthiers-Villars. Many general facts arrived at in these studies sheaf. the existence of a non-singular model of an algebraic References surface for the case of a ground field with positive [A 1] MOISHEZON. General features of algebraic surfaces. The iski. The richness of problems and the algebraic surfaces. Unless otherwise References stated. B. H. 1870).

theory. the number N m of linearly independent forms of that this inequality becomes an equality. The number dim I Ki I + 1 is theorem asserts the inequality referred to as the i-th (pluri-) genus and is denoted by dim I D I . the Riemann-Roch of the algebraic surface V. Castelnuovo).D I is known as the special- everywhere-regular i-tuple two-dimensional differential ity index of the divisor D. was introduced in 1875 for alge. 1904). for non-singular surfaces principal method used by Italian geometers was their t =r =d=O and p = 1). and nineteenth century (A. see [5]). genus p and with t triple points and HI(V. the lar if q(V)=O and irregular if q(V»O. ~ v)-l.. The number I=deg(c2)-4 is the divisors in the canonical system I K y I of an alge- known as the Zeuten .ALGEBRAIC SURFACE faces. Pg( V) is the maximum number of linearly deg(c1 )+deg(c2) independent regular two-dimensional differentials on V I +Pa(V) = 12 ' (cf. q is not less than the dimension of the classes of the tangent bundle to V by the formula: Picard variety.. The points of the double curve V. braic surface V is known as the linear genus and is c) The Riemann . Grothendieck. Cayley. then the by the formula inequality becomes an equality for any ample divisor Pa(V) = [nil] -d(n-I)+2t+'T+p-1 D. This condition a sufficiently high degree m passing through a space is the vanishing of the cohomology group curve of degree d. H2(V. as well as subsequent prcofs by algebraic surfaces is given by the formulas: Severi.m. tual degree n =(D2) and virtual genus tems I Ki I = I iKy I are called pluri-canonical systems '1T={(D 2 )+(DKy )} /2+1. base of the fibration being a variety of dimension q ples of irregular surfaces date back to the end of the (Enriques. general curve on an algebraic surface V with irregular- it is called the irregularity of the algebraic surface V and ity q is contained in a maximal algebraic family which is denoted by q(V). where i>O and where H is a hyperplane section of the surface V (J. It has been proved that. The cohomological proof of forms on V.Severi theorem concerning the regularity of the (where d is the degree. Irregular.Ky is the first Chern class of the tangent and a complete linear system I D I of divisors of vir- bundle to the surface V. Riemann. ~v). this theorem is not valid in the The arithmetic genus Pa(V) of a non-singular alge. Serre. The first rigorous transcenden- Pa(V) = -dimk H1(V.Segre invariant. defined If the characteristic of the ground field is zero.Roch theorem for algebraic surfaces. contain lacunae. fibrates into linear systems of equal dimension. see [9]). p is the genus and t is the number of triple d) Systems of curves on an algebraic surface. 1955). denoted by p(l). 112 . for any divisor 'T double points. An algebraic surface is called regu. This result is a generalization of the classical Picard .Roch theorem for the following equation is valid: algebraic curves to algebraic surfaces is due to Castel- p(1) = (~)+ I = deg(cD+ I. 1910. The virtual arithmetic genus of called Noether's formula. 1896). 1955).. Any sufficiently The difference Pg(V)-Pa(V) is always non-negative. ~ v)+di. It has been shown that.. The first exam. This variety is an Abelian variety. The proof of Enriques' result linear system which is cut out by the system I C + K v I (known as the 'fundamental theorem in the theory of on the curve C (Enriques. For a non-singular algebraic surface V where CI = .Noether postulation for- stipulation of a necessary and sufficient condition such mula. nuovo (1897). 'T is the number of double adjoint system [9]. this theorem (cf. (!) y(D». p. The multiple canonical sys.P. These concepts only coincide for regular alge- braic surfaces (Castelnuovo. The concept of the arithmetic genus Pa(V). ~ v) = tal proof of this theorem was given by Poincare in = xCV. is given by the formula D and all sufficiently large numbers n. Other algebraic surface. For a non-singular algebraic surface The generalization of the Riemann . If the characteristic of the q(V) = dimkHI(V. Hi(V. (!) y(D +nH»=O. Geometric genus). points. ground field is positive. The concepts of algebraic and linear equivalent definitions of pi V) were given subsequently equivalence of divisors are closely connected with this (cf. Picard scheme).. 1896. general case (J. and the algebraic proof came 50 years later (A.. Here. theory of linear and algebraic systems of curves on an braic surfaces with ordinary singularities. or the 'theorem of completeness of cohomological definition of pa and q for non-singular characteristic series'). A irregular surfaces'.. n-?T+Pa(V)+I-i. Igusa. is known as the Picard variety of the algebraic surface ity can be described as the maximal insufficiency of the V (cf.. Arithmetic genus). it is identical with the dimension of the space of " The number i = dim IKy . one has N m = [mj3] -dm+2t+'T+p-1.Roch theorem) permits the According to the Cayley. in braic surface V is expressed in terms of the Chern the general case.

According to the curves on a surface and on the study of the topology of classification of Enriques [2]. The dimension form which is defined on H 2(V. A non-singular e) Topological properties of an algebraic surface. For an alge- defined for such an algebraic surface. Z) and the integral cohomology for classes of ruled surfaces. i.. This fact is a special case of the equality development of the transcendental theory of algebraic dimHP(V. Each divisor on braic surface to constitute a minimal model it is neces- an algebraic surface V specifies a two-dimensional sary and sufficient for it not to contain exceptional cycle. not yet been solved. irreducible curves which do zero correspond to cycles homologous to zero. Z) by the intersection of the space of such differentials in the case where index equals 2pg(V) + 1. [2]. Minimal models of algebraic surfaces.'p+2pg(V). The analogues of these results k=C coincides with the irregularity (Castelnuovo. Pg = 1 and pa = . algebraic surfaces are 113 . If char k >0.V. Except homology groups Hi(V. A algebraic surface V is called a minimal model if each non-singular projective algebraic surface over the field birational morphism V ~ V' onto a non-singular alge- of complex numbers is a compact four-dimensional braic surface V' is an isomorphism. (l'). in particular. have been unique up to an isomorphism [1]. Ample sheaf). Its rank is denoted by p and is called the Picard a projective space. and surfaces of general type correspond groups Hj( V). the l-adic cohomology elliptic curves. sequently applied to studies on the topology of mani. based on the study of a linear pencil of Classification of algebraic surfaces. K3-surface). in particular. arbitrary compact Kibler manifold V. satisfying Poincare duality. The contract to a non-singular point for some birational intersection index of divisors is identical with the topo. the context of the abstract concept of an algebraic The group of divisor classes with respect to algebraic variety there arose the problem of the existence of equivalence is finitely generated (see Neron-Severi (abstract) algebraic surfaces that are not immersible in group). [8]. [9]. to one of the following types. In particular. The order of the complete algebraic surface is always projective [8]. ing requirements: C must be a rational non-singular sion group of the group H 2(V. on an algebraic surface implies that everywhere-regular that the number of positive squares in the quadratic one-dimensional differentials exist on it. This method was sub. the fundamental group and the homotopy to curves of genus g> 1. They are characterized by the follow- equalities are valid: (1 is equal to the order of the tor. 1905). gq)=dimHq(V. characterized by the condition p 12 = 0. the divisors which are algebraically equivalent to curves of the first kind. The Severi. Z). Hodge.A. each non-singular alge- the curves which vary in this pencil. Picard [6] initiated the theory of integrals on an values of its numerical invariants. was developed for braic surface over a field of characteristic zero belongs the investigation of the topology of algebraic surfaces. These results yielded. There are various numerical criteria for the Severi also laid the foundations of the theory of projectivity of an algebraic surface (cf. type-c). two-dimensional Abelian varieties (cf. It was proved. b) in CP3 are simply connected [6]. rational curves correspond to ruled surfaces for surfaces defined over a field of arbitrary surface. Moreover.. for fields of finite characteristic are not true. morphism.1. model of an algebraic surface is determined by the E. The following Noether in 1895. General-type algebraic surface). the integral exists in each class of birational equivalence. Z) and b 1(V)=2q(V).e. [4]. the ine. It was proved that a non-singular number of the algebraic surface V.Abelian variety). up to a birational It was proved in this way that non-singular hyperplanes equivalence: a) ruled surfaces (cf. c) K3-surfaces (cf. This classification possible to formulate and prove algebraic analogues of is highly analogous to the classification of algebraic many classical statements in the topology of algebraic curves. [2]). surfaces are characterized by the conditions P12 =1. Such curves were first studied by M. Elliptic surface). this Any non-singular two-dimensional algebraic space is an theory contains many interesting problems that have algebraic surface. The type of the minimal type of an algebraic surface have all been defined [9]. moreover. torsion subgroup of this group is denoted by (1 and is There exist complete singular non-projective algebraic known as the Severi divisor of V [9]. A method. Ruled surfaces are algebraic surface. this f) Projective immersions of an algebraiC surface. His results were subsequently general. type-b) algebraic ized to manifolds of higher dimension (W. this minimal model is groups Hi(V.d) correspond to characteristic. ALGEBRAIC SURF ACE The non-identity of algebraic and linear equivalence quality b 2 (V). curve and (C 2 )= -1 ([1]. logical intersection index of cycles. surfaces. A minimal model oriented real manifold. folds of higher dimension. ca. In result is invalid. Griffiths. which is valid for an surfaces is due to the work of P.D. surfaces of the types b) . 1940). or e) general-type algebraic surfaces The study of etale cohomology of schemes makes it (cf. zero-dimensional cycles on an algebraic surface. Ruled surface). Minimal models of ruled where b 1(V) is the first Betti number of the surface V surfaces have been completely classified. d) elliptic surfaces (cf.

This is the Aut(V) coincides with the group of birational problem of the classification of algebraic surfaces up to transformations of V. The existence of a global a definite answer to the Liiroth problem in the two- moduli variety of an algebraic surface has been proved dimensional case).Ea). number of moduli. 1949.M' is called the number of faces (cf. [3] lUNG. 1925. The group of birational of moduli is identical with the dimension of the Zariski automorphisms has been studied for a certain class of space tangent to the local (or. The number (J turns [I] 'Algebraic surfaces'. the curve (cf. Tv». intersection theory) to the wider class the surface V by the structure sheaf (!) v. The moduli variety for general- Many different results in the theory of the classifica- type surfaces and K 3-surfaces exists as an analytic tion of algebraic surfaces concern the problem of the space or as an algebraic space. Formula (*) is a consequence of this exact sequence References and the Riemann . only for certain cases. type. formal) moduli scheme S a for the polarized surface The results of the theory of algebraic surfaces are (V. then of the geometrical language in the study of algebraic M = dim Im(Hl(V.)=O andpl2>1 orp12=1 andPg=O. ~H2(V. M = lOpa -Pg-2p(l) + 12+8. Rational surface). MordeU conjecture).Roch theorem. which are characterized by obstructions to the deformation. in the algebraic case. The difference w = M . if used in the study of algebraic curves over function fields (d. construction of an algebraic surface with given numeri- cal invariants. i. This shows that the 'actual' the conditions (Kf. Inst. If V is not a ruled surface and if surface are not known (1986). If Pg=l=I or if Pg= I obtained in connection with the classification have and P2 > I. The classification of rational surfaces over The modem theory of deformations gives the follow. where study.: Aigebraische Fiiichen. 75 (1965) (in out to be the sum Russian). geometry). Moreover.. Steklov. Hannover. the inequality d) algebraic surfaces are characterized by the condi.. Also. Tv). Ea)~Hl(V. defined by the of regular two-dimensional schemes [7] permits the use fundamental class of the polarization a. Finally. Kodaira generalized the classification and Auto(V) are Abelian surfaces [2]. the such stafaces. F. Diophantine under consideration [2]. dimk H2(V. [2] ENRIQUES. K.: 1£ superjicie algebraiche. The automor- face with given invariants Pa' Pg and p(l) for one class phism group of affine algebraic surfaces (cf. Ea)+dimk H2(V. If the surface V is not ruled.E. H. a) of this class of algebraic surfaces. Analytic surface (in algebraic group. M' = dim Sa. Number-theoretic problems in the theory of algebraic where (J is a birational invariant of the algebraic surface surfaces involve Diophantine problems (cf. has now been completed. The local moduli scheme S a can be singu- algebraic surfaces of general type are characterized by lar. can be less than The class of ruled surfaces comprises rational sur- M. even if char(k)=O.W. then The moduli problem for algebraic surfaces. Trudy Mat. For general-type results obtained by Enriques to include complex. The number M Segre. Some of the results dim Auto(V»O.. the estimate the conditions P2 =Pa =0 (this makes it possible to give wE. Double plane).. The automor- constructed by representing them as a double covering phism group Aut(V) of a complete algebraic surface V of the projective plane with a specially selected branch is the group of k-points of a certain group scheme. begun by Enriques.»0 and p 12 > 1. This group has no algebraic an isomorphism. variety.. The group Aut(V) for K3-surfaces over the field geometry». surfaces Aut(V) is a finite subgroup of a projective analytic surfaces (cf. is valid [9]. The values that can be connected component Auto(V) of which is an algebraic assumed by the invariants p(l) and Pa of a general-type group. Ea) is known. then Pa = -1. Algebraic of algebraic surfaces was given by Noether in 1888.ALGEBRAIC SURFACE characterized by the conditions Kv=O and q=O. (*) Algebraic surfaces over algebraically non-closed fields. automorphism of an) is now under intensive Non-ruled surfaces with given invariants Pa' Pg and p(l) depend on M moduli. then V is an elliptic surface and Auto(V) is recently been extended to include fields of arbitrary a one-dimensional Abelian variety. Bologna.' 2pg-Pa-1 tions (Kf. curves over number fields. The generalization of certain results of the theory of algebraic surfaces is the canonical extension of the tangent sheaf Tv to (minimal models. In the other cases V characteristic. Algebraic surfaces are most frequently Automorphisms of algebraic surfaces.dimH 2(V. 114 . non-closed fields.e. Comessatti and ing interpretation of this classical result. [9]. The first formula for the number of structure for ruled surfaces and has not been parameters (moduli) which determine an algebraic sur- thoroughly studied (cf. Cremona group).. of complex numbers and for ruled surfaces has been thoroughly studied.

os. Subsystems of algebras are called relations defined on it. of A and for all i EI. finite and it is called of finite type if the set I U J is [9) ZAIuSKI. Thus. [A2] BAllTH..(at. ...am)Erj' then one holds for all a I. A = <A.".q. algebraic system A = <A. Basic operations OJ. . 1958. Tata Inst. where Cj denotes the i-th Chern class of an tional system if the set 0 of basic operations is empty. 1971. called the type of the algebraiC system A.H. unlike other opera. i. E. are called similar.". Soc. 1. C... Similarly. 1966. J. of B the value oj(b J.LB. Translated into English as a London Math.". The pair of families <{nj: iE/}. . 1978. 1969. {m/ jEJ}> is 1924.») = O..).E. .bn. h EH with respect to the basic operation 0: H X H. Y. linear algebras. (1) (aJ.: 'On the Chern numbers of surfaces of general type'. 1-2.. P.am) <=> rj(q. 225-237.(am)). 0'. A groupoid H with a distinguished unit e is A= <A. with identical indices in I. PETERs. A. V. Unlike algebras.an. mj of the Cartesian powers of A under consideration a distinguished unit e contains e. reprint.0>. and basic relations rj' rj of two algebraic systems A. OJ. An algebraic system A of finite type is written as Springer. .".an. VAN DE: Compact com. 0. 0> does not necessarily contain e. a an algebra of type <2. (i EI) and the relations rj (j EJ). R> is called closed if for [A3] BBAUVll. mapping cp of the set A into the set A' such that tem A. The concept of a subalgebra strongly depends has been developed in depth. J =f and [6) PICARD. ••• . R> is called a Editorial comments. .. Paris. • • .A set with operations and algebraic system A.. . ••• .(an.A (iEI) and a family R of relations (cf. Japan. of which has the property o(e. ..A is riat. Springer. h)=o(h. . J transformtJtions of two-dimensional schemes. One of the more important achieve.. S. Math. ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM [4] LEFSCHETZ. 1984.a of A are in relation mj mapping cp possessing these properties is called an iso- rj' and one writes ria J. under the mapping oj:An'.an.(q.Yao. a groupoid G is an algebra of type face between algebra and mathematical logic. Res. a class basic or primitive. <2>.. linear References spaces. An algebraic system is one of subalgebras. sideration. . and the work took place on the inter.3C2.bn.: 'Surfaces algebrique complexes'. The cardinality I A I of A is system A' of the same type if there exists a one-ta-one said to be the cardinality or order of the algebraic sys. 1971.(ad. etc.. mj =mj for all i EI. Princeton Univ.'" . rings.: Lectures on minimal models and birational A' of the same type. 0. whenever 115 . W. and it is called a model or a rela- quality ~ o. The indices mj For this reason any subgroupoid of a groupoid H with nj.G.q. de deux variables indepentiantes. A non-empty subset B of the underlying set A of an plex surfaces. . G.. and YEN. 0.. Algebraic opera. the algebraic system A. a2. [8) ZAIusIa. ordered groups.Bogomolov ine. 0. . . totally [A1] MIYAOKA. The image oj(al.. rJ.. respectively. . . A..R.rt >.A.)EA n.: Algebraic surfaces. Fundam. totally ordered sets. R' > which is of the same type as the given algebraic system and is called a subsystem of the ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM . are called understood to mean only an abstract class.: L'anolysis situs et la geometrie a1gebrique. . Soc. of algebraic systems of the same type which. an algebra with one basic operation Fundamental concepts. 1-2. 1966..(al).»). 0. The operations OJ morphism.an) of the element q. algebraic surface [A1].. . any non-empty subset of a model may The set A is called the carrier or the underlying set of be considered as a submodel. An algebraic system is an object G X G. Dolgachev An algebraic system A= <A. Invent. j EJ. while a subgroupoid are assumed to be non-negative integers and are said to of a groupoid <H. • • .e. lattices. e)=h for all tion) oj:An'.: Lectures on curves on an algebraic surface. Two algebraic [5] MUMFORD. while its elements are called the An algebraic system A is isomorphic to an algebraic elements of this system. the distinguished element family 0 of algebraic operations (cf. 42 (1977).: Introduction to the problem of minimal models in An algebraic system A is called finite if the set A is the theory of algebraic surfaces. . one obtains an algebraic system AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14JXX B= <B. [10] ZAIuSKI. By [A4] GllIFFITIIS. Springer. universal algebra or an algebra if the set R of its basic ments is the proof of the Miyaoka. A' have the same type if 1=]'. [7] SHAFAREVICH. systems A. 0. a class of algebraic systems will be tions and relations that may be defined on A. Chelsea. relations is empty. This was done in the on the set of basic operations of the algebra under con- nineteen-fifties. (2) called the value of the operation OJ at the point (aJ. . D. R> consisting of a non-empty set A. Press.' . Math. i.. 0. be the arities of the respective operations and relations. .am).. I. A says that the elements a I. and HAIuus. if (aI.. . finite. any elements b J. Asterique 54 (1958).: An introduction to the theory of algebraiC surfaces. Classical algebraic systems are groups. A recent reference is [A2]. . In the following. .(o.: Principles of algebraic considering the operations of 0 and the relations of R geometry. and SIMART. j EJ. Wiley. while subsystems of models are called sub- the basic mathematical concepts and its general theory models.: Theorie desfonctions algebriques nj =n. of each basic operation OJ EO also belongs to B.} Lecture Notes.e. on a closed subset B. Relation) rj ~A (j EJ) defined on A. ••• .

for all Fi EQj... . of A and all F j EQj . X2. .bm) = T implies the language of the theory of algebraic systems is the first- existence in A of pre-images a].am) ~ Picp(aj). (3) The Cartesian product of Q-systems Aa = <Aa. . one j j ... The alphabet of the language L in the given signature concepts of a homomorphism and of a strong Q=<g.) . .) ---'II.CP(am)).Fj(b). . . . . .... of A. images of subsystems of A are subsystems in A'... . ~A is a basic operation in it. con- homomorphism of algebras are identical.. g. for any ele. ] . .bm... considered in one signature Q. . .JXk . . Let the type of the class for all a J. 1/. .am)=F(false) and or -... bd.).)Erj' then one writes P/a]. ... v(Pj)=mj obtains the algebraic system A / fJ. .CP(an)). . then the element and for each element a EA the set oj(a].. In considering a class Sf of algebraic sys. . . . . cal mapping 4>( a) = a / () (a EA) is a homomorphism of written in the signature Q. . p(m. . The ments b l .2. To each iEI is each homomorphism 4> of an algebraic system A the assigned some symbol Fj.. that fJ(b] . .. and have one-to. FiEAf) is the element dED with coor- Pia]. a / fJ = {x EA: fJ(x.(dJ.). is known as an Q-system and A onto the quotient system A / fJ for which the given is denoted by A= <A. .am) ~ Picp(aj). while to binary relation fJ(a.fJ(bm . . congruence of the Q-system A if and the auxiliary symbols: brackets and commas. .an. \. (4) the Cartesian product of the underlying sets A a (a E A) A homomorphism of an Q-system A into an Q-system and the basic operations and the basic relations on D A' is any mapping 4>: A ~A' which fulfils both condi.. . . cm ) and Pj'(CI. A finite signature is written as a string of the algebraic system A by the congruence fJ. .8(an" bn) ~ morphic to A.am). EQj' Pj EQp' (true) or simply P/a].. .. b].bm. are given by the conditions: F. ..cmj in A such Qj U Qp into the set of natural numbers {a.P/a] . An algebraic system A... b) which holds if and only if each j EJ is assigned a symbol Pj' called a predicate. Q> in which D is Pia]. aEA=I= 0. ..dm)=T (PjEQp) if and only if homomorphism 4>: A~A' is called strong if.an)/fJ (a]. .. . symbols Fi (i EI). the relation P/ b J. . .. a2. For < 1'1 ---'II..an. . . . .dn. Qj={Fi: iE/}. P/b j /fJ. a)} is called a coset of the algebraic larly. which is of the same (j EJ). ... .)) tems.. . p(m. . called its kernel an algebraic system A belongs to the class st and if congruence. . The basic formal Pj of Qp. .cp(amj )) (5) dinates d(a)=Fi(dl(a). On the assumption that.. . . equations (1) and (2) the quotient system A / fJ into the algebraic system A'. congruence () is the kernel congruence. .(a].ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM it contains a system A. Qp' v> is the signature of type as the given system. the one homomorphisms that are not isomorphisms.. am. Fj(aj /fJ. ..Qp'v>. is an isomorphism. .. it is called the quotient system the class st. more bne . Thus. called a functional. . 116 . 8(a].... .all" bll.am)=T. defined by the formulas v(Fi)=ni (iEI). the predicate symbols Pj (j EJ).am). .. . }. ..cm ). For any congruence 0 of an Q-system A OJ: A II. . .. the quantifiers: images of subsystems of A' are subsystems in A. Under logical connectives a homomorphism 4>: A~A'. Simi. Q>. Models have sists of the object variables x I. . For Sf be <{nj: iEI}.am)flrj' one writes P/a].dn.. each congruence () of an algebraic system A the canoni- <F]. dm.Fs.PI>.. Q>... PI. ..(a)) = Tfor all aEA. . . 1. . Pj EQp and for all a I.1'~ . as follows. . P/dl(a). ... .all) of A is written as F. assume the form If the homomorphism 4> is strong. . {m/ JEJ}>. . .) lo > r . 'there exists an element Xk'. . Let Qj = {Fj: i EI}. . if Fi (i EJ) and Pj then the mapping 1/. the function homomorphisms that are not strong.. such that Pj(a].. The object Q= <Qj . cd. . .. . . .p={Pj:jEJ}.am.. . An equivalence relation () CA X A is called a 3Xk . ... . /fJ) = Fj(a]..dn) tion (3) and the condition (d l .'for each element Xk'. on the other hand. .. ments b I..all).an)) = Fj(cp(a j)... .. if rj CA mj is a basic relation in A and the element system A by the congruence (). If. cp(Fj(a j. . . all systems in this class are usually written in a definite signature. .(a)) (aEA). .. and non-empty complete pre. . of A' and for any predicate symbol A language of the first order. fly. ED. .bn.{a / fJ)=4>(a) is a homomorphism of (j EJ) are the signature symbols. order language L which is constructed as follows. .. also contains all systems iso. ..bmj /fJ) = T Qp = {Pj : j EJ} and let v be the mapping of the union if and only if there exist elements c].j. of the ele. A P/dJ. ~ 8(Fj(a)... . ..am)=T for each F. If 4> is a The conditions (I) and (2) for an isomorphism of the homomorphism of an algebraic system A into an alge- systems A and A' become simplified if the systems are braic system A' and () is the kernel congruence for 4>. is the Q-system D= <D. . (a].. . If 4>(a)=4>(b) is a congruence in A..

. Identities . and fl' .In) is also a term.. . (3Xkm are again formulas in in XI. Op or equality signs.. or words. . where P is some predicate symbol from 0 or the equal- 4) If an object variable Xk occurs free in a formula ~..In are terms and if n =p(Fj)..~ are those and only those if and only if there exists a set S of closed formulas of variables which are free (bound) in ~.ak in A. .. ••• .. . and of which all formulas of S are true will be denoted by KS. .CP(ak)).gm.xk=ak. . .. then Axiomatizable classes.ak from fI.. . ./k... .. .. . . .Mal'tsev f(al> .ak) = fficp(a 1). is also defined The set Th ~ of all closed formulas of a signature 0 inductively: which are true in all O-systems of the given class ~. Th A.. A class ~ of O-systems is axiomatizable variables in the formula . . . It is inductively assumed that each word of the form Xk or F. . true or false in A.. The class of all O-systems in The concept of a formula of the signature n. then one obtains a where ~ is a formula of the signature 0 not containing definite statement which may be true or false.gm)~ mula ~ remain free or bound in the formulas 0txkm..Xk by some elements given signature n is said to be realizable or consistent if a I. terms and formulas. then Th(A) is said to be the elementary P(fJ. .. . .. . .. object variables. the formulas (6) as well. ... .fm). then structed in accordance with specific rules and known as ffia J. .fm) is a formula in which all object variables theory of the n-system A and is simply denoted by are free. ity sign =. Let S be some set of closed for- qij(aJ. . then the class KS is 117 .. .. .. while ables x I. . &Q(gJ.the formulas Object variables which are free (bound) in at least one of the formulas ~I' ~2 are called free (bound) in (Vxd· . if (A) sign =.. If <I> is a of closed formulas of a given signature 0 is realizable. .the formulas 0tx I) . .XS.ak).ad) = j(cp(ad.~. . . .fm is the class of n-systems isomorphic to the given 0- are arbitrary terms of the signature n. . m (3Xk as well. .. if for all a J.. con.ak from A.cp(ad)· mulas of a signature O. . The special formulas of a (6) given signature which are the most important in alge- bra are: are also formulas. which form part of both formulas are free in both for.hn are terms of the sig- A and if one interprets the function and the predicate nature 0 in x I> ••• . hl> .. . .. A set S of closed formulas of a then if one replaces x I> ••• . . Q. . m = p(P) or 2 respectively.Xk.. . and executes the operations in A on there exists an n-system in which all formulas from S the latter elements corresponding to the symbols of f n are true. .. . .gl> .the formulas object variables which occur free or bound in the for- (VXl)··· (Vxs)[P(jJ...··· . .. axiomatizability using first-order formulas of a special mulas. . while all the other Quasi-identities ... then A formula ~ is called closed if it contains no free Fj(fl> .jk)& . .. homomorphism of an n-system A into an n-system A'. . One quantifiers. and if fl' .XS • symbols forming part of ~ as the respective basic Universal formulas .fm are terms of the signature 0 then the words 0txkm.xn ) is a term of ture n and any n-system A one may speak of ~ being the signature n containing object variables x I.Xk from ~ some values a I. then the words kind may also be considered. forming part of this term. accordingly assigns to the formula ~ the value T or F... If a set S of identities (quasi-identities or universal for XI =aJ. . R are certain predicate symbols from n be given. is a term if p(Fj)=O. .hn )]. (Vxs)P(jJ.. is I) If P is any predicate symbol for n or the equality called the elementary theory of ~. 0txsm. . then one obtains an element The compactness theorem or the Godel. n-system A'. operations and basic relations in A.. . . free and bound object variables in it. .ak) from A.. .. fl> . For any closed formula ~ of the signa- If A is an n-system and if f(x I.. ~R(hJ. . If one now assigns to all free object vari... so is .. . ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM The (first-order) properties of n-systems are expressed is an isomorphic mapping of an n-system A into an <I> by finite sequences of alphabet symbols. Free (bound) object if ~ = K Th~.Xk) for XI =aJ. In particular... which is called the value of the theorem states: If each finite subset of an infinite set S term f(xJ. 3) If ~I' fu are formulas and if the object variables Along with the general concept ofaxiomatizability. .. then the entire set S is realizable as well. Let an n-system A and a formula ~ of the signature where P. If formulas) of a signature n is given. . then the word system A. A class ~ of O-systems is said to be axiomatizable 2) If ~ is a formula.. . which the variable Xk is bound. the signature 0 such that ~=KS.xk=ak denoted by ffial.

such that 53 = KS n Sl'. Q> is said to be a unit if its submodel Aa = <A a.EfJp ). then for any ele- systems is a variety if and only if it is closed with ments d J. For any non.dm} let» ~ of. . . References [I] MAL'TSEV. . any axiomatizable class of n-systems is one obtains a model A· = <A..I. [3] GRATZER. from nf for a predicate In particular... and SLOMSON..' I Qf U np I and if all n-systems in Sl' are infinite.M.: F. ..L.. Alge- {a: F.g. G.ani' a) ~ Fi(a###BOT_TEXT###gt; . The relation of n-systems is called complete if for any n-systems A. For each element d ED.: Algebraic systems. A. Aap = <A a . automorphism of an. H.(dj(a).dm/a»} E et> (P.J. A non-empty class ~ some filter over A.8> for a suitable Completeness and categoricity. 1971.(a]. Any categorical axiomatizable universal (or universally axiomatizable) in ~ if there class of Q-systems consists of one (up to an isomor- exists a set S of universal formulas of the signature n phism) finite n-system.(d j Iet>. An n. and if Pie. For example. let d / cI> be m. . n· > for which closed with respect to ultraproducts. arbitrary formula of the signature n in which Birkhoffs theorem: A non-empty class ~ of Q. Springer. the class of all algebraically closed F. products (through an arbitrary filter). is true in the ultraproduct D / cI> of the n-systems Au for elements a J.an) = a. . which from the Russian). Cartesian products and 'is{d j let>. Putting In particular. the coset by this equivalence and let then ~ is a complete class. . of arity n. variety of. . 1973. n. . . .dk let» = T ~ homomorphic images. Q> is some n-system.8 > is called a finite depletion of the finite An n-system E= < {e}.n>.ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM known as a variety (quasi-variety or universal class) of of the n-systems Aa (aEA) and if ffixJ. D / cI> = {d / cI>: d ED}. 1979.8 en·.Holland. a closed formula iY of the signature n symbol F.. N orth. an ultrafilter introduction. n. and KEISLER.Los theorem: A subclass 53 of a class ~ nality m if it contains an n-system of cardinality m and of n-systems is universal in ~ if and only if 53 contains if all Q-systems from ~ of cardinality m are mutually all systems from ~ which are locally imbeddable in 53. closed fields of fixed characteristic is categorical in any duct of the n-systems Aa (a E A.dk(a»=T} E et>. then.. . the model ultraproducts.. P.· .dn. n· > of the n-system A. the filtered product D / cI> is known as the [5] CHANG. . A class ~ of n-systems is called categorical in cardi- The Tarski .. the class of algebraically Filtered products.c. F.(a»=d(a)} E et> (FiEfJj ).. The ultraproduct theorem: If D / cI> is the ultraproduct D. $=> braic systems. Algebraic systems.M. . .: Model theory. morphic to the model BaP=<Ba. x I. an ele- system A is said to be locally imbeddable in a class ~ of ment e.B. and is closed with respect to subsystems and filtered tion Aap) such that the model Aap = <A a. c. . class P/d j Iet>. isomorphic.. is called the product of the n-systems Au (aEA)filtered [2] COHN.: Universal algebra. over A. 1973 (translated one obtains the n-system D/cI>=<D /cI>. Algebraic systems. The n-systems Au (aEA) are said [4] BELL.e)=T for all PjEnp- n-systems if for each finite depletion Aap of any finite Mal'tsev's theorem: A class ~ of n-systems is a submodel Aa of the n-system A there exists in the class quasi-variety if and only if it contains a unit n-system ~ an n-system B (depending on the chosen finite deple.xd is an Q-systems. A=r'= 0) and let cI> be uncountable infinite cardinality. through the filter cI>. . . If cI> is. North-Holland. A. . Springer. ultraproduct of the Q-systems Au (aEA). Smirnov 118 . • . B from ~ the equality ThA=ThB is valid..: Universal algebra.. 1981. .ani' a from A (aEA) if and only if the set of numbers of factors in which the formula iY is true belongs to the ultrafilter cI>. . A non-empty class ~ of subset Ba CB. Reidel.n..Xk are free object variables. + I (higher by one) and putting. h ED) Vaught's theorem. and only if it is closed with respect to subsystems and empty finite subsets Aa CA.. . See also Algebraic system. . e. If A= <A. n. quasi-variety of.. n.dk ED: respect to subsystems. Let D = ITAa be the Cartesian pro..Enf }· Submodels of the model A· A class L of n-systems is universally axiomatizable if are called submodels of the n-system A. underlying set consists of a single element.··· . d=lph ~ {a:EA: d(a:) =h(a:)} Eet> (d. Therefore.=np U {F. If an axiomatizable class Sl' of n- is an equivalence relation on the underlying set D of systems is categorical in some cardinality the n-system D..8 > is iso. . J. . n-systems is called categorical if all n-systems from ~ A subclass 53 of a class ~ of n-systems is called are mutually isomorphic. ~ {a: P/dj(a). . ~ {a: 'is{dj(a).: Models and ultraproducts: an to be the factors of this product. by exchang- ing each function symbol F. . let» = det> ~ fields of fixed characteristic is complete.dn.

what can one say (x.xm ) ~ P(CP(Xl).. relations. For the more general a one-to-one mapping cp of the set A onto itself having concept of a formula automorphism of O-systems. An automorphism of an O-system A= <A. t/I of the system A. By replacing each basic operation F in A by the predicate CP(F(XIo .p of the system A.a2. it is of subgroups of groups from the class Aut(~). . is again an approximable (cf. In particular.p = () for any congruence () of the system A.p ~ (cp-l(X). The subgroups of the group Aut(A) SAut(~) consists of groups which are isomorphically are simply called automorphism groups of the system A.y) ~ F(XIo .: 'Der Wahrheitsbegriff in den formalisierten Spra- chen'. Putting automorphism groups of algebraic systems. Cambridge Phi/os. ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM. 0> and A' = <A. Does automorphism cp is known as an Ie-automorphism if there exist a class ~ of O-systems with a given signature 8. . the following properties: Let A be an algebraic system. The terminology in use for this sub.'" . in the largely developed in the nineteen-fifties (principally through unknowns XI. 1 (1935). and for this reason cp-I EG. Studia Phi/os. ALGEBIlAIC SYSTEM. 1) Given a class ~ of O-systems. Since multiplication of and let Aut(~) be the class of all isomorphic copies of mappings is associative. AI.. Let cp be an automorphism of the system A and let 8 The following two problems arose in the study of be a congruence of this system. The other class of O-systems comprising free systems of any underlying set of a structure is sometimes called its (non-zero) rank. They are Birkhoff's theorem characterizing varieties of algebras [A1] and Tarski's defini. < G. is valid.xn » = F(CP(XI). Let G system A. . x. finitely approximable. is an automorphism of this system for any arbitrary [A2] TARSKI.xn. (2) (X. (1) R(XIo . group Aut(A) / IC(A) is isomorphic to an automor- ject in English-speaking countries differs in a number of phism group of the lattice of all congruences of the sys- respects from the Russian terminology. . Soc.Xn in the system B. the group Aut(A) is also finitely defined by the formula a(x)=t/I(cp(x». . AE~.. about the classes Aut(~) and SAut(~)? one again obtains a congruence 8. An automorphism cp of a system A of universe.an such that for each ele- son and A. Mal'tsev.. and the quotient models the class of groups SAut(~) is universally 119 . . The class denoted by Aut(A). Tarski)..Y)E8. " -I > is a group. the exam- o has been specified). for all x].261-405. two important precursors dating from ment x EA the equality 1935 should be mentioned..an) tion of validity of formulas in a first-order structure [A2]. any inner automorphism an algebraic system is usually called a (first-order) structure x ~a -I xa of a group defined by a fixed element a of (a structure of type 0. x2.(x) = !. 03CXX the class ~ is a normal subgroup of the group Aut(A).YEA). . cp-I(y))E8. it is not normally used in the sense defined above.. and if 0 CO'. 0> is automorphism of the group [2].xn ) of the signature 0. . .p(xlo'" .q. . The product If the O-system A with a finite number of generators is a=# of two automorphisms cp.xn. AE~. the inverse mapping cp-I also has the properties common carrier A. ••. G. . The term model is reserved for a structure which Let ~ be a non-trivial" variety of O-systems or any satisfies a given set of first-order sentences (closed formu- las). there exist elements a 2. 31 (1935). A. from A and for all F. .xn)=y P(XIo . . In the class ~ of all groups the concept of an 1- An isomorphic mapping of an algebraic system onto automorphism coincides with the concept of an inner itself.cp(xn ».. The set I(A) of all I-automorphisms for each system A of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 08AXX. 433-454. If be the set of all automorphisms of the system A. . In other words.. . Proc. . known the groups Aut(A). . P from O. the class ~ is called an I -automorphism if there exists a Although the text is correct in saying that the subject was term f. see [3]. then Aut(A) d Aut(A'). the term algebra is often used ple of a cyclic group of prime order shows that not all instead of 'structure' in the case when 0 has no primitive IC-automorphisms of a group are inner. . AUTOMORPHISM OF AN Editorial comments.. .xn .YEA. 0' > have a cpEG.(xm )). and let SAut(~) be the class as the group of all automorphisms of the system A. AUTOMORPIDSM OF AN .. . an automorphism of an O-system A is an one obtains the so-called model A* which represents the isomorphic mapping of the system A onto itself.: 'On the structure of abstract algebras'. [1 D. . What is here called tem A [1]. and 2) for any system B of the class ~ the References mapping [A 1] BIRKHOFF. The set o such that K=Aut(~) or even K=SAut(~)? It has IC(A) of all IC-automorphisms of the system A is a been proved that for any axiomatizable class ~ of normal subgroup of the group Aut(A). for which: 1) in the system A work of LA Henkin [L. imbeddable into the groups Aut(A). . A Robin. The equality Aut(A*)=Aut(A) is valid.p(x.. selection of elements X2.A Khenkin]. However. . (1) and (2). q. If the systems A= <A. if a given signature or similarity type this group is an IC-automorphism. . Let ~ be a class of O-systems automorphism of the system A. xEA... The 2) Let an (abstract) class K of groups be given.

North-Holland. 41-59 (in Russian). OS. There is also A class ~ of ~-systems is called (finitely) axiomatiz- no topological group whose group of all topological able if there exists a (finite) set S of first-order closed automorphisms is isomorphic to Cs [7]. (i E/). A class ~ is homomorphically closed if it Aut(~) is the class of all groups [1].: 'Universal groups of automorphisms of models'.. and 7 do not belong to the class Aut(~).M. 1965. Math. The no.J. let RO be the tem 2{ is called finitely apprOXimable (or residually fin- class of right-ordered groups and let OA be the class of ite). Oxford (2) 18 (1967).: 'Right-ordered groups'.A class of Algebraic systems. It has also been proved [1]. C5 . 274-284. Pj (j EI) of a that an 12-system A has a local set of ~-subsystems if fixed signature 12 are added predicate variables there exists an inclusion-directed set {A.CP(an»=F. J. Math. theory ofaxiomatizable classes of algebraic systems [7] WILLE. whenever it contains a system A. E = < {e }. One says predicate signature symbols F. pp. ment (in the class of all ~-systems) is closed with in Theory of models. it formulas. axiomatizability by special second-order also contains all 12-systems isomorphic to A. approximable system is itself ~-approximable..e. 5 homomorphically-closed classes are local [5].ALGEBRAIC SYSTEM. bEH. Math. A class ~ of 12-systems In addition to axiomatizability by first-order closed is called abstract if. which preserves the given total order OS..O. If an abstract class ~ has a unit system ordered automorphism groups of free Abelian groups.: 'Automorphisms definable by formulas'. plement are closed with respect to ultra-products. >.. sian product of systems from the class ~ [3].: Groups of automorphisms of algebraic systems. is called residual if all ~-approximable systems belong phisms of some ~-algebra. MS' perties of these classes and the syntactic features of the . for each of its ~-systems A. a os.: 'The existence of a topological group with auto- morphism group C 7 '. if <B. It has been shown [5] with the aid [2] CsAKANY.: 'Inner automorphisms of universal algebras'. of this group P(cp(a)). and 2) a group of ordered automorphisms of an aJ. true.: ilEA} of R 1 . .an)=F. OS. Axiomatizable classes which play an espe- cially important role in algebra include varieties (cf. exists a homomorphism cp: A~B of the system A into morphic to some automorphism group of the group H some system B of the class ~ for which. The residual) if. 1972. . Mathematika 4 (1957). To the function and Let ~ be an abstract class of ~-systems. Algebra i Logika 5. establish the local nature of given abstract classes are then there exists a model AE~ such that A ~B. and its comple- [4] RABIN. Finitely-axiomatizable classes are also referred to Wolters-Noordhoff. . C7 of the respective orders 3. P. MaI'tsev local theorems). . an ~-system A is ~-approximable if Then [4]. . A class ~ Each group is isomorphic to the group of all automor.: 'Groups of order automorphisms of ordered sets'. 107-115. R. D.. > is a totally ordered set and if G subsystems belongs to the class ~.. to the class ~. again.e.. M. algebraic systems of the same type. . Debrecen 12 (1965). consisting of function and predicate signa- 120 . Pacific J. also all ~-systems the class of all groups. Any subsystem of a ~­ (i.b=>cp(a)os. which are local and given type are assumed to be written in a given signa. .M. CPEG). if ~ is contains. Quart. >.. mlrnov formal language in which these classes may be AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 08A35 specified. and for called local (cf. the that are homomorphic images of A. Theorems which is an automorphism group of the model <B.. Aut(~)=F~.. A class ~ is called ~ is an axiomatizable class of models comprising infin. deals with the connection between the structural pro- 53-57. respect to ultra-powers. of the generalized continuum hypothesis that: 1) a class Pub!. ~ of algebraic systems is axiomatizable if and only if it [3] GRANT. for example. tems is elementary if and only if both it and its com- [6] SMlRNOV. as elementary classes. residual. J. B. Totally ordered group) if G is iso. ~ >. each element g E G there exists an automorphism cp of An ~-system A is called ~-approximable (or ~­ the system A such that g(x)=cp(x) for all XEB..I. [51 [6]: and only if it is isomorphically imbeddable in a Carte- SAut(l) = U = RO = ~A. . closed formulas is also considered. CLASS OF . If ~ is the class of all rings. quasi-variety of). R 2. All residual cyclic groups C3 .331-333. AUTOMORPHISM OF AN axiomatizable [1]. =} (i. the class of all finite ~-systems. first order. a ~-approximable sys- let U be the class of universal groups. .. 6 (1966).. is closed with respect to ultra-products.. variety of) and quasi-varieties (cf. ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS. 2) a class ~ of algebraic sys- [5] COHN. Let 0: be a quantifier-free formula of the subsystems A" of the system A which cover A (i.e.. for any group G is called 1) universal if GESAut(~) for any basic predicate as well as for the predicate coinciding axiomatizable class ~ of models comprising infinite with the equality relation in A) and for any elements models. OS.. . D. for any predicate P E {~p.. ture ~ and are called ~-systems..CP(b) for all a. If ~ is Let I be the class of totally ordered sets <M. All systems of a Algebraic systems.. local if each ~-system A with a local set of ~­ ite models. 41-50. 44 (1973). there ordered group H (cf. [4] that if U a Aa=A) and which belong to~. B.an in A for which P(aJ. However. formulas of the signature 12 such that ~ consists of exactly those ~-systems in which all formulas of S are References [1] PLOTKIN.

PkEQp U{=}. Let Sl' be an arbitrary (not necessarily abstract) class D. . sub-quasi-varieties constitute a groupoid with respect to where Po.P. 2.I. Trans!. [2]. 1. 1973 (translated cellation is defined by the two quasi-identities from the Russian). QUASI-VARIETY OF ture symbols. no.J. . where E is Translations of the articles [1]. A minimal quasi-identities or conditional identities. Congress 1961. 4-th AI/-Union Math. Uchen. J. Smirnov of Q-systems.I. Every quasi-variety with a non-unit system [P1((fl). is said to have a finite basis of quasi- [I] MA!. all its ~ Po((f°) . Len- ingrad. If Sl' is a quasi-variety of Q-systems of finite signature n. Sl" with signature Q':2 Q. ill: is called a generating class of 'local class'. . .A plete lattice with respect to set-theoretic inclusion. predicate variables R I. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 08C10. sists of the n-systems in which all formulas of S are the class of semi-groups imbeddable into groups is a true. Rs and terms of the signature Q in the object variables object variables x I. For SSSR Ser. instance. with respect to subsystems and filtered products [1]. Trans!. A quasi-variety Sl' is generated by one system if and only if for any two systems A. Ivanovsk. Nauk which all the formulas from the set S are true. 03C52 The quasi-varieties of n-systems contained in some given quasi-variety Sl' of signature n constitute a com- ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS. . . 1981. ducts of Q-systems of the class Sl' U {E}. Springer. Any quasi-variety Sl' [A2] MAL'CEV. 477-495. 11 and 26... 1-48. containing systems other than one-element systems has braic systems. -. J.M. and which is closed with universal formulas without free object variables. of the form quasi-variety we is generated by anyone of its non-unit (\iXl)' . . models'. the smallest quasi-variety containing Sl' is Editorial comments. A quasi-universal class quasi-variety. Zap. [2]. ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS. .313-336 (in Russian).: Algebraic systems.. . 23 (1961). systems isomorphic to A and B [l]. The class of algebraic systems (Q-systems) axiomatized by atoms of the lattice of all quasi-varieties of signature Q special formulas of a first-order logical language. 1 (1941). B of Sl' References [A1] KEISLER. A class Sl' of n-systems is class Sl'l of systems of Sl' that are isomorphically called quasi-universal if there exists a set S of Boolean. Keisler [A1]. 1971. Gas. .. in Proc. [4] MAL'rsEv. 44 (1969)..1. (3Ri) or ('Vxd is known as crypto-universal. there exists in the class Sl' a system C containing sub- Math. P. 121-130. Soc. . of Q such that Sl' consists of only those Q-systems in Inst. groups has no finite basis of quasi-identities [l]. A. Xs' By virtue of Mal'tsev's theorem [1] a Q 0:.: 'Model correspondences'. class. x. Izv.vith can- [3] MA!. Soc. Thus. Mal'tsev divisors imbeddable into associative skew-fields is also [4] gave a more detailed definition of a quasi-universal a quasi-variety. . A.~. An the aid of the logical connectives &. [2] and [4] may (also) be the unit Q-system. MAL'rsEv]: The metamathematics of alge.: 'Local properties of systems'.f. . xz=yz ~ x=y. the sub- formulas of the signature n.1. and is therefore finitely definable.'rsEv. Ped. and frO). V.. A. . 121 . A. QUASI-VARIETY OF . . free systems of any rank.. Math. Chapts. [5] COHN... London Math. It con- generalized continuum hypothesis) ofaxiomatizable and ele. .1967.J. Reidel. called are called minimal quasi-varieties of n. North-Holland. . also be defined as an abstract class of Q-systems con- The second-order formulas formed from the crypto. the class of associative rings without zero of Q-systems is local (Mal'tsev's theorem). Mat.f'!:') are the Mal'tsev Sl'-multiplication [3].'rsEv. taining the unit Q-system E. the quasi-variety of all semi-groups . A. (VxS> systems. . in: Amer. [2] MAL'rsEv.: 'A general method for obtaining local identities) if there exists a finite set S of quasi-identities theorems in group theory'. and only of such systems. 23 (1959).: 'Ultraproducts and elementary classes'. A. The term inductive class is sometimes used instead of class ill: of n-systems.I... Akad.I. The characterization (under the said to be the implicative closure of the class Sl'. [A. A second-order formula x I.f"?~)].. are called Boolean-universal ducts. the quasi-variety Sl'.. . On the other hand. . If Sl' is a quasi-variety of signature n. . the quasi-variety of semi-groups imbeddable into [6] CLEAVE.!!)&'" & Pk((fk) . which are at the same time free systems in the equational closure of the class Sl'. If Sl' is the implicative closure of a found in [A2]. and with axiomatizable class of n-systems is a quasi-variety if subsequent quantification by V on all free predicate and only if it contains the unit Q-system E and is variables encountered in the representations of the closed with respect to subsystems and Cartesian pro- crypto-universal formulas. sists of subsystems of isomorphic copies of filtered pro- mentary classes is due to H. respectively.: 'Some problems in the theory of classes of zx=zy ~ x=y. imbeddable into suitable systems of some quasi-variety universal formulas of the signature n such that Sl' con. 1963 (in Russian).M. Indag.f'!:') ~ contains at least one minimal quasi-variety. is itself a quasi-variety. H.: Universal algebra. Collected papers: 1936 . where Q is some sequence of quantifiers of the quasi-variety Sl' of algebraic systems of signature n can type ('VR i ).I. . A quasi-variety Sl' of signature n is called finitely References definable (or. (2) 83 (1969). 3-9 (in Russian).

V.535-596. The varieties of n-systems contained in some fixed 1971. if the class ~ consists minimal variety. Any non-trivial variety we in each system from we the identities e (x) =e (y). Wraith (eds..xn ) (PEn). axiomatizable by identities. 1981. 254-267. by the variety IDe is non-trivial.. . contain a given (not necessarily abstract) class ~ of n. If fixed signature n.. S is known as a basis for [n. then the variety var A contains only a finite by var A. The exact value of braic systems is also known as an equational class.: 'Abstract Horn theories'. If the n-system A is finite and of finite of a single n-system A. quasi- identities are commonly called Horn sentences (cf.: 'Multiplication of classes of algebraic systems'. AI. let S!l' be the class systems. [8]. . The Mal'tsev product 2!9J(01S denotes the class of subsystems of systems of !l'.Xs • A variety of alge. (Sibirsk Mat. 1975.. for var A is also known as a basis of identities of the system their finitary analogue. 14-21. 1973 (translated [n = var F Ko (IDe) [1]. (VXs)P(jh . pp.. A variety we of n-systems is called polarized A variety is said to be trivial if the identity x = y is true if there exists a term e(x) of the signature n such that in each one of its systems.. 0. variety IDe of signature n constitute under inclusion a complete lattice L(IDe) with a zero and a unit. algebraic systems (cf. J.ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS. P. which are sys- II!l' be the class of isomorphic copies of Cartesian pro. from the Russian). then the [2] is valid for an arbitrary non-empty class ~ of n. ties of S are true. If the equality IDe = KS is satisfied for no. belong to 2!. there exists a six-element semi- Maurer and C. 8. all group varieties is modular. [2]. consists of predicate symbols only. finite lattice <A. Springer. Let 21:. 32. tems in we. class of) of a P(x\. I'.w.e. On the other hand. or a the cardinality of the infinite lattice Lo is known [1]. Mal'tsev's article [A3] may A. Smirnov a variety IDe of signature n. group [5] and a three-element groupoid [6] without a Notes in Math. Any finite group has a finite basis of identities [3]. [A4] MAL'CEV. in F. . Amer. In particular.. Collected papers: 1936 .1967. A: 'On sentences which are true of direct unions of [n has a finite basis of identities [10]. systems in the variety var A are also finite [1]. except for the case when the set n is finite and in the object variables x \. finite basis of identities. and all cosets a/() (aEA).f. AI. i. Atoms of the lattice Lo of all varieties of signature n systems is called the equational closure of the class ~ are known as minimal varieties of signature n. 445. finite basis S.. ties. finite signature and if all algebras of IDe have distribu- References tive congruence lattices. If the system A is finite. MAL'TSEV): The metamathematics of alge- braic systems.A. . Let S be a set of identities of the signature n and let [3] MAL'TSEV. 15-50. KS be the class of all n-systems in which all the identi- Siberian Math.M. A variety of signature n can also be The lattice of all lattice varieties is distributive and has defined (Birkhoffs theorem) as a non-empty class of n. 94 (1972). Every (or the variety generated by the class ~). but it is not distributive homomorphic images and Cartesian products. . 2 (1967). [2]. 1\ > has a finite basis of identi- [A2] ISBELL. Algebraic systems. North-Holland. . Math. Zh. Vol. [3].): Model theory and topoi.. Springer. The zero of ALGEBRAIC SYSTEMS.I. 8. Symbolic Logic 16 (1951). J. are terms of the signature n infinite. [2] COHN. Reidel.. and let (A/()EIS. The product of varieties of semi-groups need not be var st = HS IIR a variety. .M. [AI. A variety IDe is known as finitely baseable if it has a Editorial comments.. its equational closure is denoted type. 346-365) D. let H!l' be the class of of those systems A of we with a congruence () such that homomorphic images of the systems from !l'. and is variety with a non-unit system contains at least one denoted by var~. [A3] KEANE. C. IS be subvarieties of a fixed variety we of n- Let !l' be a class of n-systems. l.: Algebraic systems. a basis of the variety For a categorical treatment of quasi-varieties. In the Western literature. The lattice of systems closed with respect to subsystems. Lawvere. while its unit is the variety IDe. The lattice of varieties of commutative semi- The intersection of all varieties of signature n which groups is not modular [9]. see [A2]. the cardinality of the continuum [7].A class of this lattice is the variety with the basis x =y. The following relation [1]. any algebras'. The lattice Lo of all varieties of signature n is ity sign. In particular.. QUASI-VARIETY OF References has free systems FmOIR) of any rank m and [1] MAL'TSEV.). [1]. no. If [n is a finitely-baseable variety of algebras of a also be found in [A4] as Chapt. Fully-characteristic congruence) of the (Vx I) . primitive class. For any system A. while f\.. J. Lec!. [4]. [A1]).: 'General functional semantics.: Universal algebra. product 21: IJJ/oSB is identical with the Neumann product systems: [3]. the lattice L(IDe) is anti- formulas of the type isomorphic to the lattice of all fully-characteristic congruences (cf. 122 .R. all finitely-generated number of minimal subvarieties [1]. known as AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 08C15 the lattice of subvarieties of the variety [)C. groups and if 21: and IS are subvarieties of it.f. system F ~o (IDe) of countable rank which is free in IDe where P is some predicate symbol from n or the equal. 2 (1967). then each finite algebra A of [A1] HORN. If we is the variety of all ducts of the systems of !l'. see [A3]. VARIEI'Y OF .

Akad. . theory (and the theory of links) in three-dimensional AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 08BXX space. smooth.: Algebraic theories. Math.: 'Bases of equational theories of semigroups'. 1981. Pub!. analytic. in particular. [9] ScHWABAUER. not having a finite system of identities'. which may be simplicial. Many fundamental originates from the decisive role of algebraic notions facts were discovered for the fixed points of compact and algebraic methods in solving problems in this field. Math. including cyclic The most important classes of objects whose properties groups of finite order.A. Springer. B. . Nat. G.I. of all objects for ants of the position of various sets in a Euclidean space which one can speak of continuity). by homeomorphisms (continuous..e.A. cel.. then the Mal'tsev pro. i.: Varieties of groups. 25. An important intermediate role in the solu- for lattices and other algebras'. Math. J. cf. F. into each other. References I) The problem of imbedding is usually considered [A1] LAWVERE. braid theory is a related case. [3] NEUMANN. The principal types of deformations from the Russian).G. tion of these problems is played by the problem of the D. Amer. complex. 1973.: 'The existence in three-valued logic of a closed tion the mapping is a homomorphism. The polarized variety of algebras and the congruences in all principal types of mappings considered in algebraic algebras in !In are commutable. (cf. K. H. Dokl. topology are arbitrary continuous.) References A very important notion in algebraic topology is that [I] MAL'TSEV. smooth. include: a homotopy. Soc.9-15. 125-150. Soc. linear). no. connecting the homology of a set and its complement. 1020-1024. 28 (1969). ogy. varieties of algebraic systems was introduced by F.: Universal algebra. no. 815-818) [7] J6NSSON.. of Algebra 11. an immersion at any moment of time.e(x»=e(x) (FED) are true. imbed- [5] PERKINS. If ID1 is a. R: 'A note on commutative semi-groups'. 1976.: 'Algebras whose congruence lattices are distribLl.: Algebraic systems. arose in the context of the corp. Soviet Math. piecewise-linear or topological. are studied in algebraic topology include complexes 4) Of major technical importance in the development (polyhedra. of the groupoid are: homeomorphisms. an arbitrary continuous [2] COHN.M. dngs. Acad. etc. with respect to isotopies (regular homotopies). somewhat special. G[(!In) of subvarieties of an arbitrary variety !In of piecewise-linear or smooth (diffeomorphisms). 6. of algebraic topology were methods developed to solve lular.putation of the homo- 123 . mappings. In principle. Diffeomor- zero. 503-504. 1973 (translated of a deformation. dings or immersions where in the process of deforma- [6] MURSKIi. cf. Fibration) and their sections. phism. and their mappings and the duality laws (cf. and the Amer.: 'Functional semantics of algebraic theories'. which was one of the origins of algebraic topology. Amer. 869-873. piecewise-linear and duct 2(ID/0!8 of any subvarieties 2( and !8 in !In is a smooth mappings. V. Springer. etc. classification of general continuous mappings up to [10] BAKER. closed or with boundary. If ID1 is the variety of all groups or dings of one object into another and also immersions all Lie algebras over a fixed field P of characteristic (local imbeddings).: Lattice theory. Sci. and may in tum be with boundary (cobordism) with a given closed mani- divided into smooth (differentiable). for a detailed account of this approach see important role in the development of algebraic topol- [A2]. Complex). dIes (fibrations. but rather as imbedding into a Proc. Pacific linear). Trans. piecewise- Soc. 1967. 110-121. 20 (1969). not in its general form. Homeomorphism. A very important special case is knot [A2] MANES. A. 4 (1965). The following. smooth groups of transformations. (Dokl.. Reidel. Math. The very name of algebraic topology a mapping of a manifold into itself. problems played an Lawvere [A1]. 298-314. K. an isotopy (continuous. in particular. Duality in algebraic topology). Scand 21 (1967). the classification of imbeddings (or immersions) J. which remain unchanged under con. Euclidean space. Proc. include the problem of the classification of manifolds tive'. imbed- groups. P. A categorical characterization of called homotopy equivalence or homotopy type. which may be the problems on so-called cobordism: Does a manifold open.e. and their most important subclasses variety.: 'Primitive satisfaction and equational problems homotopy. i..L.: 'Equational classes of modular lattices'. Math. then G[(!In) is a free semi-group [I]. no. an imbedding or class with finite basis. and fibre bun. piecewise- [8] BAKER. Manifold).w. Smirnov classification of complexes or manifolds by the so- Editorial comments. ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY The branch of 2) An important role in the history of algebraic mathematics in which one studies such properties of topology was played by the theory of homology invari- geometrical figures (in a wider sense.M. a deformation of homeomorphisms.W. The principal internal problems of algebraic topology Nauk SSSR 163. P. piecewise-linear) deformation of continuous [4] BlRKHOFF. 190 (1974). the 3) A number of fundamental results concerned the objective of algebraic topology is a complete listing of computation of the algebraic number of fixed points of such properties. 2 (1968). manifolds (cf. 4 (1965). tinuous deformations (homotopies). continuous. Colloq. USA 50 (1963). Springer. E. ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY F(e(x). (smooth. fold as boundary exist? Problems of this kind originally analytic. One may speak.

manner. groups (cf' Lie group). able in actual examples. inary triangulation. in particular. the develop. a base struction of all the principal invariants up to space. the knowledge of the table is closely connected with their algebraic structure. the structure of all the basic homeomorphism A universal method for the solution of all principal invariants for smooth manifolds involves their prelim- problems in algebraic topology involves the construc. them and the difficulty in their calculation have deter- ities of smooth mappings of manifolds. against expectation. The results obtained for the Most algebraic-topological invariants are a so-called topological structure of Lie groups form the base of functor on the category of topological spaces of the numerous methods and facts of algebraic topology type studied. reduction to complexes. (Betti group). example. etc. whereas the result of such a con- tion). is the fact that their effective con- with the fundamental principles of Riemannian struction is usually connected with an essential comple- geometry. their connection with homogeneous spaces required much effort and involved homology theory is important in the clarification of the the use of complicated methods. roughly speaking. tion of homology invariants of Lie groups and of many als on path spaces (extremals). their of these homotypy groups for Lie groups made the representations and the calculus of variations on Lie classification of certain vector bundles possible. quently encountered manifolds (e. This means. For instance. the simplest and most frequently encountered mani- cially important case is that of stationary points of folds is not always a simple matter. and the application of almost-all algebraic-topological folds with discrete groups of motions). Vector bun. to characteristic classes. For of Lie groups. the Euler characteristic. the most important homotypy groups for Lie groups 6) The study of the algebraic-topological properties was calculated. or else tion of algebraic invariants which are effectively calcul. the homology group Principal fibre bundles and vector bundles are espe. that the which apply to arbitrary manifolds. operations (cf. in conjunction invariants are based. one of the central problems in algebraic ous homeomorphisms. A number of lower bounds for the number of extremals. Impor. struction has to be invariant with respect to all continu- In this context. led to the notion of a fibre bundle. such 124 . on the image of this element. Algebraic topology values of the invariant undergo natural transformations of homogeneous manifolds is closely related to methods when the spaces are mapped into each other. and the structure group of fibre transformations. class of mappings for the study of which the invariant 5) Many facts are now available concerning the has been constructed. into Euclidean space. mology) is converted. into simplices or cells. in particular mined the features of modem algebraic topology. on which the study geneous spaces. group. invariants. One of the principal properties. phism of manifolds. and even with respect to homo- topology is the problem of the classification with topy equivalences.stable algebra or algebraic K-theory. the fundamental groups of arbitrary spaces or 7) A major role in algebraic topology is played by their homology (cohomology) groups (rings) are con- special invariants connected with various algebraic nected by homomorphisms induced by continuous structures over the fundamental group.e. after a continuous mapping of 8) The analysis of the geometrical structure of a very the space. Homotopy group).g. tional theory of geodesics. the abundance of algebraic links between frame fields and tensor fields. to a significant extent the use of analytical tools. the result of cohomology opera- stantial progress. as well as of the singular. The calculation of geometrical structure of manifolds and in obtaining homotypy groups is even more difficult. the calcula- smooth functions on manifolds or of various function.Lie groups . Lie groups. a fibre (homeomorphic to a 'fibre' of the projec. the cohomology ring and the cohomology cially important (cf' Principal fibre bundle. tions performed on an element of the homology (coho- cipline . The simplest mappings. In a similar dle). into the result of this operation performed large number of examples of the simplest and most fre. An espe. and eventually formed a separate dis. homo. i. a projection of the total space onto the base homeomorphism for complexes involves a subdivision space. Characteristic not vary during deformations in the corresponding class). the con- consists of a space (the total or fibre space). The solution of this problem The calculation of algebraic-topological invariants of leads. using the varia- of an important kind of special spaces . the value of the invariant may language of characteristic classes (cf. other by the homomorphism corresponding to a mor- ment of their algebraic theory subsequently made sub. and which assume some tant cases of the cobordism problem are solved in the discrete set of values. examples are the fundamental respect to homotopy of fibre bundles and their sections. manifolds of line elements and mani. which mentary geometrical structure. Thus. the characteristic classes (distinguished ele- invariants of this type appeared in knot theory and in ments in (co)homology groups) are mapped into each the theory of three-dimensional manifolds. Cohomology operation). A large number of essential homology invariants of the singularities of vector fields.ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY topy groups of spheres (cf.

which only the mappings of closed manifolds into the On the contrary. struction of the ordinary homology groups. 3) A certain form of interconnection is postulated teristic classes using the singularities of vector fields. 1967. products of these homomorphisms (functoriality). Press. 1980. 2) The homology groups are homomorphically Springer. Studies. The most rational characteristic classes (or integrals of classes important example is K-theory. reprint. which is based on vec- over cycles) proved to be topologically invariant and tor bundles over the space studied instead of their homotopically non-invariant. culation methods of algebraic topology. algebra. despite the homeomorphisms (smooth. However. 1965. J. Chel- triangulation or differential forms are effectively com. [7] SwITzER. in Ann. J. 1974. the definitions of the characteristic 5) Normalization: Only the homology groups for a classes of a manifold or of a fibre bundle in terms of point need be known. 125 . ogy that homology theory can be completely defined by [5] MILNOR. 1968.: Lehrbuch der Topologie. S. spectral sequences. sea. The totality of charac.M. J.: Algebraic topology . Another invariant with respect to continuous or even piecewise. problems connected with three- The method of classification of classes of homotopic dimensional and four-dimensional manifolds.: K-theory: lectures. and in the solution of fundamental problems in calculations in the course of development of algebraic the classification of imbeddings and immersions. tions .homotopy equivalences). mapped into each other under continuous mappings of [8] Hu. H. it may also be and a quotient complex (exactness axiom). Princeton Univ. of Math.F. Homotopy group). between the cohomology of a complex. the appearance gether different geometrical nature may display all of of basic. continu- large number of methods which were proposed for such ous). some classes are taken instead of arbitrary boundaries. Academic Press. with the theory of fibre bundles with its apparatus of represent an exception. J. 1) Homotopic invariance of homology groups. though the result is invariant wih respect to all continu. modem efforts in algebraic arose on the basis of the complicated computational topology tend to concentrate on the application of tools of algebraic topology is known as homological these ideas in other fields.: Singular points of complex hypersurfaces. and they must be known to van- the Riemannian curvature play an important role. and STASHEFF. 1959. its computational tools are based: [6] MILNOR. noted in the course of development of algebraic topol. spaces. 1975. [4] MILNOR. The most ogy with a small number of pure geometric facts important invariants of this type are the homotopy applied to the structure of manifolds and their groups of classes of homotopic mappings of a sphere homeomorphism groups eventually resulted in the solu- into the space under study. Moreover. [2] SEIFERT. if an invariant is so constructed that space under study are taken instead of arbitrary cycles.: Morse theory. important example is cobordism (bordism) theory.homotopy and homology. in linear homeomorphisms. J. it is invariant (by definition) with respect to continuous and only mappings of manifolds with boundary of homeomorphisms (or some wider class of transforma.: Homotopy theory.-T. The calculation of even the tion (which. tain cases. tial operations on them. Princeton Univ. mayor simplest examples of homotopy groups involves major may not be considered complete) of classification prob- difficulties. as well as cohomology operations Since most of the fundamental internal problems and their generalizations. e. or the construction of charac. Press. 4) The so-called excision axiom. R. binatorial . Thus. 1963. cycles or differential forms which served for the con- teristic classes over the integers proved to be non. and products of mappings correspond to the ferential forms (skew-symmetric tensors) and differen. It was subsequently noted that objects of an alto- ous homeomorphisms. Princeton a small number of formal properties (axioms) on which Univ. The algebraic discipline which have now been solved.algebraic or analytic. and TmlELFALL. In this context. Benjamin. Strangely enough.: 'Characteristic classes'.g. They were used to improve the cal- of problem dealt with by algebraic topology. ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY as the construction of a homology ring by way of dif. effectively calculable invariants in the history the above properties. Thus. M. This is another type homology theories. All the basic primary constructions of homology References theory for complexes and smooth manifolds by way of [1] ATIYAH. then the calculation The combination of the methods of algebraic topol- of such an invariant is usually difficult. from the modem point of view. topology (cf. piecewise-linear. Press. it was [3] MILNOR. Such of topology involved the difficult problem of proving objects were called generalized or extra-ordinary the invariance of these quantities. except for normalization. necessary to use tools of Riemannian geometry in cer. W. Princeton Univ. a subcomplex frame fields or tensor fields. the homotopy groups of the spheres lems of manifolds with respect to all kinds of themselves are only incompletely known. Press. even ish in non-zero dimensions.: Lectures on the h-cobordism theorem. where the mappings is based on homology theory in conjunction fundamental problems are still (1977) unsolved.

in Modem geometry. J.S. To appear (translated from the Russian). G. of Math. Math.A. (Probleme de Cauchy III)" Bull. 1978 (translated from the German).: The topology offibre bundles. braic torus over k that is isomorphic to a product of [11] LERAY. Nauk 21.e.. J. N. between the category of algebraic tori over k and the Press. and Tu. S.: 'Le calcule differentiel et integrale sur une variete groups Gm over its ground field k is called split over k. i. If X is an algebraic variety (or scheme) over a local ogy. metical algebraic geometry . This description of the reduction is diffi- rank equal to the dimension of T.a language suitable for a closure of k.: 'The Cartan-Serre theorem and intrinsic Math. T. S. played by tori in the theory of Lie groups. E. P. its Editorial comments. in Modem geometry. Addison. In the case of a finite field. no.W.: Lie groups and differential geometry. Springer. 1951. Springer.S. A. congruences (or points of the variety over a finite field) 1973. is used in these studies strongly influenced the develop- [A2] . extension of k.: Differential forms in algebraic topol. R.: Smooth manifolds and their applications in Tamagawa number.A. Ann. [3] ONO. other fields.5) for a main subject is the study of the number of rational (co)homology theory are often known as the points of the algebraic variety in this field and in finite Eilenberg . or reduction.W. An introduction.P. no. and NOVIKOV.: Introduction to Riemann surfaces.81-180. McGraw-Hill. and NOVIKOV. 1-2. The zeta-function of the variety which axioms). ment of the methods of algebraic geometry. Russian Math.F. homology theory. Estimates References from below of the number of (rational) points [1].: TopolOgical methods in algebraic geometry. S. [16] PONTRYAGIN. L. any algebraic torus over k splits over a finite separable Math. N. mathematics. 1956 (translated from the Russian). S. analytique complexe.T. then it is pos- sible to define the reduction of this variety by the same ALGEBRAIC TORUS . 3. T is defined over a field k. Univ. then T has a G-module This was one of the reasons for the introduction of the structure. Gamkrelidze (ed.: Cohomology and differential forms.: Complex manifolds without potential theory. ARITHMETIC OF. such as finite fields. Ann. [1] BOREL. Press. in R. groups Gm • The group T of all algebraic homomor- phisms of an algebraic torus T in Gm is known as the Red: X(K) __ Xo(k) character group of T. 1978. 5 (1966» AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 20G15 [20] HlRzEBRUCH. To appear no. 1979. [18] NOVIKOV. A. finite. Novikov or algebraic functions. M. References [17] SPANIER. [A2] BOIT. The role played by algebraic tori in the [12] CHERN. B. The study of Wesley. are also important. no. Graylock. If the variety X is defined by a set of equations with coefficients from the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 55-XX ring A of integral elements of the field K.: Stable homotopy and generalized homology. FOMENKO. 1952.S. Vol. 1978. 1957. Vol.Eilenberg extensions of it. 1982. 1 (1961).: 'On the Tamagawa number of algebraic tori'. The functor T ~ T defines a duality rigorous description of the process. and STEENROD. Vol. occupies an important [15] PONTRYAGIN. Verlag Wissenschaft. local and global fields of algebraic numbers S.P.: Algebraic topology. 101-139. S. Linear algebraic group. tine equations (cf.: Elements of homotopy theory.: Linear algebraic groups.P. Steenrod . The main problem 126 . A. Springer. 209-224. 1966. Springer. [A4] KAROUBI. 1956 (translated from the Rus. but with coefficients taken modulo the isomorphic over some extension of the ground field to maximal ideal of A. varieties defined over fields of so-called arithmetic type. T. Surveys 21. The axioms 1) . 5 (1966). If the algebraic torus cult to explain in terms of classical algebraic geometry. [A3]. field K with field of residues k.. K.: 'Arithmetic of algebraic tori'. then the study of the [A3] ElLENBERG.P.[A6]. M. Dekker.47-73.The branch of algebraic [22] DUBROVIN. Princeton Univ. Soc. of [19] NOVIKOV. 1976 (in Russian).An algebraic group that is set of equations. place in problems of arithmetic and in the classification Deutsch. [4] [A1] ADAMS. [A4] .ALGEBRAIC TOPOLOGY [9] STEENROD.T..V. (2) 74.H.E. France 87 (1959). (Original: Moscow. VE T7 k k'- homology'. Hasse principle).Steenrod axioms (cf. Benjamin. 1969. B.fundamental directions.: Foundations of algebraic set X (K) of rational points with values in K combines topology. of Chicago Press.: Grundzuge der kombinatorischen Topologie. Springer. L.: geometry in which one studies properties of algebraic 'Methods of homology theory'.: ALGEBRAIC VARIETIES. and to find integral or rational solutions of Diophan- [A6] WHITEHEAD. sian). L. A 'variety' X 0 over the field of the direct product of a finite number of multiplicative residues k and a canonical mapping. Springer.P. J. F. (2) 78.: K-theory. FOMENKO. [21] DUBROVIN.: 'Topology'. algebraic tori defined over algebraic number fields and [14] ALEKsANDROV. Some additional good references are [A1J.S.: Combinatorial topology. • • y os resens II (Uspekhi Mat. category of Z-free G-modules of finite rank. Springer. where G is the Galois gr~oup of the separable concept of a scheme . 1986). 1 (1963). 1974. G. Cf. 1985 (translated from the Russian). Soc. 1956. I. (translated from the Russian). An alge- [10] NOMIZU. S. Japan. Roches- ter. Princeton Univ. theory of algebraic groups greatly resembles the role [13] SPRINGER.): Modem [2] ONO. of algebraic groups. it is a free Abelian group of a are obtained. two different problems: To find solutions of [AS] VAISMAN. arith- 'Methods and applications'. Moscow.

J. Math.B. [3]. Such a possibility was ringed space on an algebraic variety makes it possible first demonstrated by the development of class field to simplify various constructions with abstract algebraic theory in the nineteen-thirties.I. became known as affine (or projective) varieties (cf. After the foundations of this theory had been esta- 90-100.-P. A. 594-620. All n>d2 . Artin's conjecture is that if the isomorphic open subsets W. It was proved for p-adic fields that braic varieties. arithmetic of. [4].) involve the study of algebraic varieties over finite set. Vol. of Symp. It was shown in 1966 that the set A (4) is algebraic varieties (d. which proved Artin's conjecture to be false analogues of projective algebraic sets. The inclusion of algebraic [5) SWINNERTON-DYER. It is not yet (1977) known whether or not it is valid J. 1. in Proc. that of reduced schemes of finite type geometrie algebrique'.: 'Number theory and algebraic geometry'. A. All these theories were developed in parallel lar functions on it. 127 . modular forms.F. For more idea of the construction of differentiable manifolds by general results on this subject see [4]. etc. Z.: 'Arithmetic on algebraic varieties'. Amer. to algebraic variety was subjected to significant algebrai- find the points x EXo(k) that come from the rational zation. in Proc. Ringed space). 14GXX Another generalization of the concept of an algebraic variety is related to the concept of an algebraic space. Examples of abstract alge- of function fields. 5 (1973). are chosen. H.). The modern numbers has the structure of a complex analytic space. At the International Mathematical Congress in Edin- References burgh in 1958. A. class field defined as ringed spaces (cf. As a result of the studies fields and over algebraic number fields (d. They used complete d. 2.8. The supplementary structure of a for number and function fields. 20. 1950. corresponding to degree d over a local field.e.Ba C V. which made it possible to consider algebraic K-points of the variety. and SHAFAREVICH. it is based on the rough varieties. A. IHES 4. Hironaka [2]. It is known that this statement is true in the case transferred to such varieties. the moduli prob- lem. pp. Publ. definition of an algebraic variety as a reduced scheme which makes it possible to use topological and tran- of finite type over a field k is the result of a long evolu.17. An abstract algebraic Another type of problems concerned with the local variety is obtained in this way and is defined as a sys- arithmetic of algebraic varieties is the study of forms tem (Va) of affine algebraic sets over a field k.. geometry (resolution of singularities. Affine algebraic etc..28. then the equation F=O has a non-trivial solu. i. were subsequently constructed by M. The classical definition of an algebraic variety was Many problems in number theory (the theory of limited to affine and projective algebraic sets over the congruences. 14K15.24. and study them using methods of homological analogy between these fields which is most clearly man.20. in each over such fields. Reduced scheme).One of the principal Any algebraic variety over the field of complex objects of study in algebraic geometry. ifested in the construction of the theory of schemes. Serre [5] has noted that the unified definition of for forms of odd degree. 1969 summer inst. 1966 (translated from the Russian). Geom 19701 (1970). Vol. Congress Cambridge. locally iso- theory. van der varieties.N. Parshm .11. Zeta- Waerden. A. It includes Diophantine geometry. Kahler manifold).32. [4) PARSHIN. AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14J20. Wei! [6] applied the is such a point if x is a non-singular point.R.: 'Applications of algebraic geometry to number theory'. Complete algebraic variety) as the non-empty. Pure Math. no. non-isomorphic to algebraic subsets of a for each d there exists a finite number A (d) of primes projective space.P. such affine (or projective) schemes Math. Projective algebraic set). 1950. algebra which involve sheaf theory. [2) WElL. if P gA(d). number varieties in the broader framework of schemes also theory. the theory of zeta-functions of varieties. ties of a further generalization of the concept of an Press. differentiable manifolds and analytic spaces as ringed The arithmetic of algebraic varieties over global topological spaces has its analogue in algebraic fields is the largest and most diverse part of algebraic geometry as well. Noether and others. Soviet over a field k. Algebraic initiated in the late nineteen-twenties by B. basic concepts of classical algebraic geometry could be tion. fields of real or complex numbers (d. such that Artin's conjecture holds for forms of degree Nagata and H.: Number theory. blished [4] a new meaning was imparted to algebraic [3) GROTHENDIECK.L. Accordingly. Diophantine equations. scendental methods in its study (d. Algebra Topol. algebraic variety by relating it to the theory of schemes. 1. and DIEUDONNE. Soc. tion. Math. (Itogi Nauk. glueing to algebraic varieties. The Hensel lemma states that x varieties over arbitrary fields. A. 111-152) Scheme. Acad. Proc. Grothendieck outlined the possibili- [1) BOREVICH. algebraic varieties were geometry. ALGEBRAIC VARIETY . Internat. Math. Diophantine geometry. the concept of an function in algebraic geometry). and morphic to an affine algebraic set over a field k with complex multiplication of Abelian functions (or the Zariski topology and with a sheaf of germs of regu- varieties). I. proved useful in a number of problems in algebraic 1971.viz.: 'Elements de varieties .N. ALGEBRAIC VARIETY is to determine the iniage of the mapping Red. E. Let F be a form in n variables of one of which open subsets WaP C Va.

It is a free product of two of then anyone of its automorphisms is a linear projective its subgroups with as amalgamated subgroup their transformation and Aut pn becomes identical with the intersection.: 'On some infinite-dimensional groups'. while f(x) is an arbitrary 1 ~ A (k) ~ AutA ~ G ~ 1 polynomial in x [4]. a*O.-P. no. (2) SHAFAREVICH. Soviet modern approach to automorphism groups of algebraic Math. transformations of the form Abelian variety A. Math.: 'Ganze Cremona-Transformationen von Prim- d~3 is finite [1]. not always representable in the category of schemes. J. which is usually denoted by case of proper flat schemes of morphisms. 25 (1966). The structure of the group Aut X is known for a Apart from the simple case of the affine straight line. and OORT. 1946. 3 (1974). schemes. see [6]. however. i. fields of moduli and gen- In the case of algebraic varieties with an ample eralized Kummer varieties of polarized Abelian varieties'.. Invent. [5] SHAFAREVICH. I.208-212. If the variety X is complete. and MONSKY. 1956. the automorphism functor is automorphism group is identical with the group of representable in the category of inductive limits of biholomorphic automorphisms. i Tekhn. 136 (1958). 128 . M. V.: Algebraic varieties. then the group Aut X is finite. the second factor.: 'Abstract algebraic geometry'. Math. complete algebraic curve of morphism group. 1977 (translated from the Russian).ALGEBRAIC VARIETY References number of connected components. and the smooth curve or a smooth hypersurface. J. is an important invariant of X. A. zahlgrad in der Ebene'. in general.: 'Representability of group morphism group is an algebraic subgroup of the group functors and automorphisms of algebraic schemes'. Fonn) of an algebraic variety. 2 (1955). I. PLG(N. is an extension of the group G of x' = ax+b. this is also true in [1) BALDASSARRI. k) for some N.V. AUTOMORPIDSM OF AN countable number of connected components [3]. of any i. Ann.R. The scheme Aut X. The automorphism group of a Math. For the treatment of affine algebraic surfaces transitively acted upon by the auto- is exact. di Mat. Representable functor) by an algebraic group scheme with at most a ALGEBRAIC VARIETY. then the con- cohomology group are a tool used in the study of the nected component of the unit of this scheme is a varieties themselves. A. I. Soc. Geom 10 (1972). 4 (1967). Rend. Publ. cEk. an estimate of its order as a function of g is known (cf. Algebra varieties. For complete alge. the Chow ring. no. the K-functor. algebraic variety is important for the concept of forms For incomplete varieties the automorphism functor is (cf. canonical or anti-canonical invertible sheaf the auto. braic varieties over the field of complex numbers. For instance.: 'Polarized varieties. Kyoto Univ. [31 MATSUMURA.47-112) with parameter scheme T is a set of automorphisms of (4) GROTIJENDIECK. see Algebraic [II MATSUMURA.e. 264-303. 45-82. (Itogi Nauk. For automorphisms of surfaces. 80 (1958). b. 2. the general case [2]. of Math. . perhaps with an infinite [6] GIZATULLlN. Doigachev TI-+AutT(XX T). J. IHES 4 (1960). the sequence of groups where a. The group of all automorphisms of varieties. surface. F.. [2) MATSUSAKA. if X for the affine spaces only the automorphism group of is projective n-dimensional space pn over a field k. Aut X has the natural struc. 197-278. k).: 'Faiseaux algebriques coherentes'.319-325. c*O.: 'Elements de geometrie algebrique'. the product XX T that commute with projection onto (5) SERRE. the For an affine variety. 1-25. If X is a smooth. phism group of an elliptic curve and. Math. Studies of the representing this functor is not necessarily reduced even action of the automorphism group of an algebraic if X is a smooth projective surface. [5]. Ann. H. The automor. viz. or if X is a the Picard group. the set of families of automorphisms (2) 61. P. A. e Appl. smooth hypersurface of dimension n. by the group A (k) of translations in y' = cy +f(x}.KH. Springer. the subgroup of linear affine transfor- projective linear group PLG(n + 1. genus g> 1. T. One thus obtains a contravariant functor I. Math. the affine plane is known.: 'Quasi homogeneous affine surfaces'.. and DIEUDONNE. then this AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14A10 functor is locally representable (cf. J. W.e.: 'On the automorphisms of hypersurfaces'. A family of automorphisms of a variety X Topol.: Foundations of algebraic geometry. with parameter scheme T is denoted by AutT(XX T). The automorphism group of an variety.347-361. if the variety on objects functorially connected with X such as characteristic of the ground field is zero. 3 (1964). Amer. automorphisms which preserve the structure of the Abelian variety. Springer.An invertible morphism of an algebraic variety (or Grothendieck gave a proof of this fact for projective scheme) into itself. J. Amer. H. Algebraic References curve). Families of automorphisms are considered in the (3) DOLGACHEV. ture of an algebraic group. and this theorem has been extended to the an algebraic variety X.R.: Basic algebraic geometry. M. number of simple algebraic varieties. In the above examples. Math.' 2: and degree [4] ENGEL. mations and the subgroup of triangular automorphisms. the points of A. (6) WElL.

cantly different structure. with the given identifier. VAN. P. Num. A group of state- from the ring of polynomials k[x] is of degree one. Danilov of the language further entities are formed according to VA. S. An expression may contain 1975.: Algebra. 1-236. depending on the outcome of the logical expression cally closed field k each polynomial of degree n over k contained in it. ZARISKI.1968 by a team of scien- Algol are decimal numbers. 1974. crete implementations. 5. A.e. which has a signifi- automatic programming and for the publication of algo. procedures expressed in some other The field of complex numbers is the algebraic closure language (e.: Commutative algebra. Math. there exists a unique (up to isomorphism) cedures. The language is machine-independent and language Algol 68'. This is the fundamental procedure may be called with the aid of a procedure theorem of algebra (d. [IB] NAUR. The definition of a procedure includes a head- algebraic extension of k that is algebraically closed.g. Num. machine language) may be employed. computation of a value. The proposed successor to rithmic languages (d. Akad. S. 'array'). list of actual parameters corresponding to the formal References parameters provided in the heading of the procedure [I] O. A. and each one is a language accepted by the compiler of the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 68BXX individual machine. other SSSR Ser. contains many new concepts rithms (it is an abbreviation of 'ALGOrithmic and possibilities. The basic symbols in was developed during 1964 . the upper-case and lower.. more flexible. 1-17. ET AL. It does not involve much labour. expressions. suited for the description of algorithms of numerical [3A] WUNGAARDEN.: A universal programming language (Algol-60). 'end'. sim- AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 14JXX. 'begin'. For tion of an algorithm may include definitiOns of pro- any field k. P. The procedure call may be o. and comments. each irreducible polynomial ments. Mat. and SAMUEL. function designators.A field k in several basic types of statements: an assignment state- which any polynomial of non-zero degree over k has at ment. The 1960 International [lA] NAUR. i. Ivanova recursive. 'real'. a call which provides for the re-call of the AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 12F05 same procedure while executing it. subscripted variables. 14A 10 ple variables.: 'Revised report on the algorithmic language Conference in Paris adopted the language 'Algol-60'.: 'Revised report on the algo- rithmic language Algol 68'. P. A ments may be combined into a compound statement or field k is algebraically closed if and only if it has no a block (which contains declarations).. From the basic symbols VI.: 'Revised report on the algorithmic language dent like Pascal. ET AL. Addison-Wesley. In order to render the Algol language k contains a subfield isomorphic to k. The body of a procedure may be a is called th~ algebraic closure of k and is usually statement (most often a block) described in the usual denoted by k. actuates one of its own inner state- has exactly n roots in k. which call the procedure for the [2] LANG. VAN. output operations. 349-367. 79-218. 'integer'. 4 (1963). ET AL. Algol-60.g. Comm ACM 6 (1963). The language poten- tialities of standard Algol are often restricted in its con- ALGOL .. P.. and is designed for more powerful Language'). fundamental theorem statement consisting of the procedure identifier and a of). Acta Inform. such as numbers. As a rule. 1967 (in Russian). ET AL. 420-453. L. 5 (1975). 14 (1969). and a for statement (a loop).: 'Report on the algorithmic analysis.A general name for a number of algo.e. ET AL. Springer. Moscow. 1047-1071) special symbols and certain English words (e. It is especially [2] LAVROV. no. ing group on Algol of the International Federation for 129 . I. USSR-Izv. it ing and a body. There are ALGEBRAICALLY CLOSED FIELD .S. in the framework of the work- case letters of the English alphabet. (lzv. A of the field of real numbers. statements. [7] ROTH. a conditional statement which.A universal algorithmic language. Springer. In fact. function designa- tors. a goto statement. Special concrete versions of standard V V Martynyuk Algol may be developed for individual computers. Algol 60'. machines. Iskhovskikh certain rules. 1955. identifiers (names). gained widespread use and the name Algol 60'.: Algebraic threefolds. least one root. 1057-1082. The Algol nota- proper algebraic extension (d. Algebra. it follows that for an algebrai.: 'Revised report on the algorithmic language which combined several useful features of the program- Algol 60'. ALGOL-68 Math. [lC] NAUR. Math. ming languages then known. The Computer Journal 5 (1963). tists from 12 countries.A. 5 (1971). Algorithmic language) used for Algol-60 is the language A1gol-68. and its descen. The first variant of Algol was developed in 1958 by References an international scientific team. Nauk symbols of arithmetical and logical operations. punctuation marks. the transition from the standard language to its concrete version is natural and ALGOL-68 . does not provide standard ways of performing input or [3B] WUNGAARDEN. Extension of a field). Any algebraically clo~ed field containing Algol notation. 35 (1971). i. Algol now usually refers to 'Algol-60'.

of the relations thus introduced as a function of the puted' when a program is executed in Algol-68. grammatical units of the meta-language. 130 . including procedures and names). formulated as context conditions (static semantics). becomes symbol. 'E has 1'. mental concepts. 'integer' and 'Boolean'. in addition to the between external (E) and internal (I) objects are intro- Algol-60 'real'. and as gram using of a small number of independent funda- a means of their study. condi. for example. MODE. defined by its own gen- by induction. in if x >0 then u else z Ii the meta-linguistic notation of Algol-60. An expression in Algol-68 may contain an assign. whose produc- ing initial values. which makes it pos. chain of NOTIONs separated by SEPARATORs. ity relations between the infix operators introduced. Collateral clauses signify non-ordered sets of ensure contextual relations which must otherwise be component phrases and are used. rithmic language Algol 68'. SEPARATOR. to give a syntactic expression compound statement and conditional expression and to the attributive information of the notions and to statement. VAN. ET AL. Together with the possibility of com. cate parallel branches in the course of execution of the program. these types may be homogeneous index. < reference to integer assignation> :: = < refer- ence to integer destination > : = < integer source >. example. 'E) contains ~'. 'I) names 12 '. The basic data types. duction of parenthesis pairs for conditional expressions. An Algol-68 program consists of closed. composite types texts in some meta-language. The proper production rules of Algol-68 are obtained this permits Algol-68 constructions such as illustrated by systematically replacing the metanotions of the by the following example: meta-language in the syntax rules by some terminal 1) Algol-68: production of these metanotions. in particular. which are also of a more (data. reference to MODE destination. While similar in style to Algol. Algol-68 differs substantially from it in having respect to the structure of the program) and internal many more constructions. < identifier > I < identifier >. can have an infinite number of productions. 1-236. are the general construction for defining variables. procedures. even analysis of the program. is a The capitalized words. a procedure out given in the form of a two-level grammar. serial. to reduce the number of production rules of the clauses generalize such Algol-60 concepts as block. Acta Inform. called 'metanotions'. reference to MODE. names and routines etc. 14 (1969). The first three types of first. to indi. or else ordered lists of data of arbitrary type chain of NOTIONs separated by SEPARATORs: (structured values). 'format' (to describe ~'. ' I) is a component of 12 '. < chain of identifiers r : = a + if m <n then sin(t) else cos(t). In addition to the conventional approach for defining NOTION. The resulting rules. tional and collateral clauses. SEPARATOR: comma.: 'Report on the algorithmic language Algol 68'. 5 (1975). in which the of a given finite population of 'routine texts'. For example. same type and. names and procedures can be 'com. called infix operators of the type x +y. Math. NOTION: identifier. for the transmission of actual parame. secondly. or any sequence of statements that MODE: integral. tion rules may have forms such as: ters in procedures and for creating synonyms. Some of the concepts of the meta-language. may have. Num. A. 'E) identifies (for alpha-numeric information). Thus. The identity definition.g. sible to give a description of the execution of a pro- their effective realization by various computers. operator. A. separated by commas > if x>O then u: =r else z: =r. The presence of reference to MODE assignation: a priority definition makes it possible to establish prior. 79-218. and also by the intro. for : = a +(m<n Isin Icos)(t : = xj2). The objects may be external (with 60. erating grammar. for assign. grammatical rules of able sequences of data of the same type (multiple Algol-68 may have the following form: values). The use of a two-level grammar makes it possible. MODE source. VAN. References The description of the semantics of· Algol-68 is [lA) WUNGAARDEN. Algol-68 contains means for defining so.ALGOL-68 Information Processing. ment statement. characterized by a profound analysis of the principal [I B) WUNGAARDEN. such as puting names and procedures. though such a computation is limited by the necessity A typical syntactic feature of Algol-68 is that it is of selecting the value of. The execution of a program is described in terms (procedures). which is typical of Algol-68. ET AL. for the exchange of algorithms. Boolean. semi-colon. are 'character' duced as axioms. the format of the external data). produces a value. NOTION. the following form: 2) Algol-60: < chain of identifiers separated by commas > :: = t := xj2. e. The basic Algol-68 production rules are themselves well-formed types may be used to construct new. The relations general nature.: 'Revised report on the algo- concepts of algorithmic languages.

an addition algorithm such as the well- are used. the concept certain number of inputs which are possible for the of an algorithm is one of the central ideas in cybernet- given algorithm). One may speak of an algorithm A. problem instances.babababa. baabab. the rules taught in elemen- the possible results be all possible words over the alpha- tary schools for column-wise addition. the problem of numerically solving sider 'non-linear' objects .P. (does not terminate). The significance of algorithms. In particular. the term 'computational pro.e. then halt and let word P be the from this input) may also terminate without a result result'. These instructions constitute an algorithm. an algorithmic process which proceeds starting aaP is obtained. bbabab. obtaining a result (or output) which is fully determined Example of an algorithm. It is accord. and. Their problem Intuitively. and the 131 . It is. or 2) X is of the form baP. The instructions are formulated assumed that the result is necessarily obtained: the pro- as follows: 'designating some word as the input. It struct an algorithm a such that there is no algorithm to can be shown that this process will never end (i. It is also possible to con. equality ing a problem is formalized as solving an algorithmic signs.algebraic matrices. C. However. abbaba. of AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 68BXX an algorithm of an air traffic controller (processing ALGORITHM . Take the word babaa as or may not terminate at all. in succession. 'Generally' solv- symbols which are not numbers (parentheses. cepts in modem mathematics. 1977. bababab. The transition from a word X to a word Y tiplication and division are algorithms. VAN DER: Informal introduc. the numerical solution of equations of a given type is tantamount to constructing an algorithm which con. and MEULEN. as used in the context of an algorithm. The found for the solution of all of them.. Thus. Standard arithmetic calculations involve some known column-wise addition method. the sum of any two numbers. algorithms verts an arbitrary equation of this type and an arbitrary are encountered everywhere: a 'general' solution to a positive rational number t: into a number (or a set of problem requires an algorithm. Thus. not Y is of the form Paba. Let the possible inputs and by the input. Here the algo- suitable (is not suitable) for the algorithm in question. exe- cess of applying an algorithm to some possible input cute the permitted transitions until a word of the form (i. An example is given below. which begins with an arbitrary input (out of a described control processes. the least requirement on inputs and results instances are. none decide whether or not some arbitrary input which is of the generated words will ever begin with aa). b }. abababa. i. It is possible to con- abaaba. (d. Finding and abaab are not. In science. translation are algorithmic problems. rithm halts with baaba as result. Consequently. and a single algorithm needs to be trary symbols and objects composed from symbols. is unsolvable. being obtained (in such a case one has a no-result stop) which will be denoted by m. one obtains aabaaba. symbols for arithmetic operators). no further permissible transi- possible inputs is the set of natural numbers. Consider another An important result in this area is the undecidability input baaba. Now possible for a is also suitable for a.. respectively.G. One obtains. One obtains can find such an algorithm a for which the set of its baabb. Not the fact that he by less than t:. can find. the concept of an algo- tion to Algol 68. Ershov for the translation from one language into another. equations of a given type and the problem of automatic tion trees of some formal language and general graphs. The ability of man to numbers) which differs from the root(s) of this equation add numbers is an example of this. mul- bet {a. in these algo- is 'permissible' in the following two cases (where P rithms the possible results are non-negative integers denotes an arbitrary word): 1) X is of the form aP. and with instructions aimed at ics and computer science. the termina- The notion of an algorithm is one of the central con- tion condition is not satisfied. cess'. fixed rules). one take abaab as input. and other examples of algorithmically rithmic).Detailed instructions defining a information on the motions of aircraft according to computational process (which is then said to be algo. then one says that the input is after the second. For instance. one says that the algorithmic problem of symbols forming a word. Constructive object). to find the numerical solu- of algorithms is that they must be constructive objects tion of individual equations of the given type.. North-Holland. An algorithmic problem consists of separate ingly expedient to consider algorithms involving arbi.e. One has a no-result stop. After one transition one obtains baaaba. and written in the decimal system. at the same time. in general.H. especially in the area of Thus. tions are possible. S. If the process terminates the input.. If there is no simplest example of such an object is a linear sequence such algorithm. deriva. subtraction. rithm is very general.e. of the so-called halting problem. ALGORITHM [2) LINDSEY. while the possible inputs Y is of the form Pb. problem. must not but rather in the sense that he possesses a method for be understood to mean merely numerical calculations: the unique addition of any two numbers given in writ- even in elementary algebra computations with letters ten form. and inputs baaba computations. while are ordered pairs of such numbers. input babaa is suitable for m. sooner or later.

etc. each successive constructive object is rithm is also important since it serves as the basis of fully determined (in the framework of the given algo- the key concept of a calculus. the . when applying the algorithm 2{ to from each other by the selection of such classes. name of the nineth century Arab mathematician AI. 6) the termination rule. of an algorithm in its general form is a fundamental tion (twelfth century) of the treatise of AI-Khwarizmi mathematical concept which cannot be defined in terms that the positional system was introduced in Europe. Khwarizrni.49 algorithmic problem of recognition of the deducibility . Since the word baaba. what. with dots over some of the digits. Thus. one has not only a set of possible earliest times. this transformation itself is not determined by the lem instance. This process has made a signifi. but this is cant contribution to scientific knowledge. each step consisting given of some class within which each one of the of the replacement of one constructive object by parameters may vary.ALGORITHM translation of individual phrases. over. 4) the starting rule. but only its algorithm-limited part. Ages was 'the decimal-positional system and the art of Formalizing the concept of an algorithm. In each such formalization an exact definition is structive objects by discrete 'steps'. the one immediately following it is sufficiently 'elementary' problem of establishing the truth or demonstrability of . However. 49>. symbolic notations. specific local (it is not the entire constructive object which is problem instances of that problem can only be solved transformed. The concept calculating with it'. choice of parameter domains determines some class of rithm of column-wise subtraction to the pair of algorithms. only the following constructive objects: if one can be sure that for any 'intuitive' algorithm 132 . of simpler concepts.49 . complete preceding object. successively. enriched by the while p is the written record of a number in the decimal concept of an algorithm which had crystallized in the system. in succession. in a series of successive con- logic. An 'algorithm' in the Europe of the Middle and 7) the rule for the retrieval of the result. formalizations of The structure of an algorithmic process. the words the parameters unambiguously define some algorithm. formalization of the intuitive concept of algorithm. baabab. all these three sets coincide.) The establishment of the that the transition from any constructive object to the unsolvability of a given algorithmic problem (e. the latter being the Latin transliteration of the set of possible intermediate results. Strictly speaking. but only by a limited part The scientific importance of the concept of an algo. representing the working usually benefitted from the new availability of suitable medium in which the algorithmic process is evolving.in the sense that the one-step transformation of the sentences in some logical-mathematical language) is preceding into the immediately succeeding object is important. It is only after -q a period of rapid development of this concept (which r did not involve problems of constructive methods in their modem sense).). decimal system. say. but this was done on a different level. As a rule. it is also assumed 'proof and 'demonstration'. because it shows that.g. which is a generalization rithm) by the constructive object immediately preceding and a more precise form of the intuitive concepts of it. since it is through the Latin transla. of it). Other examples are 307 307 307 307 the verification of algebraic equalities in algebra. In the more rigorous approach. several (not independent) parameters which are charac- structive trend in mathematics.49 . 3) the itmi'. that it was possible in the mid. of possible inputs. Since the Accordingly. there follow. people have looked for constructive inputs and a set of possible results. such a choice may claim to be a numbers <307. teristic of an algorithm may be distinguished: 1) the set The word 'algorithm' comes from the word 'algor. After it results are numbers (all in the decimal system). especially so not true of the algorithm of column-wise subtraction - after it had become clear that some problems are the possible inputs are pairs of numbers. The various formalizations differ another one. in principle. rithm has been recognized for a long time. but also a set of methods to solve mathematical problems. 2) the set of possible results.49 . An algorithmic the concept of an algorithm actually restrict it some- process is a process of consecutive conversion of con. the algo. more- by methods which are specific to each individual prob. Such efforts possible intermediate results. structive objects. . r is a similar record or the empty word. etc. the possible inherently unsolvable (squaring the circle. the theoretical concept of records of the type p a set was born in the nineteenth century. where q is the written record of the number in the twentieth century to return to constructive problems. Regarding m. This concept forms the base of the con. a baaba. then one obtains. abaaba. meantime.8 ----s8 258' of propositions from given axioms in mathematical It will be noted that. while had been recognized that certain problems cannot be the possible intermediate results are 'three-storey' solved by direct calculations. 5) the direct transition rule. (In mathematical logic the concept of an algo. If one applies.

if Tis -. H. Amer. of some theoretical computer consisting of 1) an infin. London Math. Nonnal algo. For a more exact and more detailed with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem". Proc. is replaced by rithms defined by the choice under consideration. tion. SA and RECKHOW. . 65 (1943). 68C05 letter of C. let the second fundamental hypothesis. COMPLEXITY OF DESCRIPTION OF AN there exists an equivalent algorithm in the class of algo. The finite control can move along the and Post are also given.A. J. In each of these formalizations the fundamental By its very nature of identifying an intuitive informal notion hypothesis is in satisfactory agreement with practice. the follow- posed are equivalent..L. the Church . Turing machine. [A5] SHEPHERDSON.M. Compo Mach. B. Computer and System Sciences 7 possible inputs and the possible outputs are words over (1973). computations conducted on such a machine (a 'Turing [A1B] TuIuNG. [4]. The word produced by this The first formalizations of this type are due to E. Ser. 243 (1937).Turing thesis or rithm) and by AN. exchange is A'. The access machines'. and change the contents of the References [A1A] TUluNG. ALGORITHM. which was extended into a of containing some symbol out of the 'tape alphabet' of more realistic computer model by SA Cook and RA Reck- the machine. Q=fT/q. and 2) a 'finite control. as can be demonstrated. of the form qJ~. 345-363. [11] (cf. with a distinguished letter A in D [A4] POST. theory of. D. 58 (1936). COMPLEXITY OF DESCRIPTION that an intermediate result which contains '" is final. i. At present (1987) there is as yet no generally A into A' is as follows. if T is +. Uspenskii modern computers are based. Sturgis. A. 197-268. T/Tq> where p.T/EB U D. [12]. Math. this was a description tions by lambda terms. Soc. pairs of the form <p~.: 'Formal reductions of the general combinatorial and distinguished letters IX and '" in C. tape. J. while T is one of the three symbols recursive functions'.' which at each how. ing references are the most standard ones in the West: An an example. each cell capable Shepherdson and H. [10].354-375. while the possible intermediate results are words AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 03D03. with an application cells it passes. sions (of effective computability) which have been pro- Apart from the formalizations mentioned above. J. J. C. Ann. Q =qfT/.c.: 'Corrections to 'On computable numbers. in the present state of term of this pair be T/Tq . Assoc. S. a formally defined notion of algorithm. OF AN. The termination rule is ALGORITHM. who based Turing's hypothesis. tioned above is usually called the Church.: 'Computability of ~. Turing [3]. Math. A. all the formal ver- no formalization has turned out to be strictly more powerful. and fact that.M.: 'Time-bounded random are no two pairs with the same first coordinate. of the finite control constitutes the algorithm for the 242 (1936). which makes it possible to express more constitutes an effective process. over BUD U C which contain not more than one 68CXX. and the most frequently and to the right of A. 03D10. 133 . The starting rule is that the initial word P is converted to the word AaPA. consider the formalization proposed Church's formalization of numbers and computable func- by Turing. whose construc. For completeness the original references to Turing list of states). a Turing algorithm. E. +. The fundamental hypothesis men- formulated by AA Markov [10].E. Ser. one specifies a) pairwise disjoint [A3] KLEENE.C. Soc. [5]. if T=O. J. see [3]. characterizes the length of description of an algorithm. Amer. which. For references. in this set (which is called a program) there [A6] COOK. and the register machine model proposed by J. can also be computed by a precisely the property of 'being local' of a transforma. alphabets B. Post [5] and to AM. tions anticipated in many respects the ideas on which V. description see Turing machine. knowledge. Here a modernized [A2] CHuRCH. ite tape. with a formal precise definition. one cell at a time.727-742. 10 (1963). This a word Q in accordance with the rule: a pair with the requirement is formulated for each formalization as a first term p~ is sought in the program.A measure which The rule for the retrieval of the output is that the out. [4]. Proc. divided into consecutive cells. [13].e. the part occurring cases are reviewed below. Kolmogorov [12].L.: 'On computable numbers. A program which monitors the motion to the Entscheidungsproblem'. Another argument in favour of this hypothesis is the Many formalizations have turned out to be equivalent. where p EC. in the word thus formed. 230-265.C. The transformation rule which converts tion. Math. Q =£qT/. Markov's and Kolmogorov's versions are less well moment of time is in some 'state' (out of a given finite known. and STURGIS. Kleene's general recursive schemes.E. There are also versions Editorial comments. This thesis states that what can be the approach on constructive topological complexes of effectively computed according to one's intuition about what a certain type. depending on the specific defini- belonging to B. [11]. 0. The letter A is written to the left valid definition of the concept. R. cannot be mathematically demonstrated. qEC. algorithm'). A. In its original form. 544-546.: 'General recursive functions of natural numbers'. 112 (1936). program-size compleXity . £~EB U D.Turing thesis cannot be formally proved. put is the sequence of letters in the final intermediate The complexity of description of an algorithm is result which follows '" and precedes the first letter not defined differently.A. 217-255.: 'An unsolvable problem of elementary number exposition of Turing's construction is given. London Math. [13] of Algorithms. and b) a set of decision problem'. To define theory'.

. 37-39) [5] ZVONKIN. an ing.e.A. Nauk SSSR Ser.. any function of the algebra of logic in N variables. 10. 1. its program) may be recursively bounded.A.: 'Algorithms connected with predicates and ~2N /10& m. AA Markov Ya. the complexity V. effectively (i. no. that there by the number of internal states of a Turing machine exist primitive recursive functions whose lowest com. Rus- unsolvable problems (the so-called bounded algorithmic lian Math. Mat. for is usually understood to mean the length of its encod. If U is an arbitrary. This minimum complexity is often named sim- finite number of machines with complexity y. A Turing machine may also be characterized Another problem which has been studied is the com- by the number of commands of the machine in ques. 294- letter external alphabet with complexity 297. through M () . [4] that the complexity of a normal means the number of its internal states and external algorithm which solves this problem is of the order 2N. with an external m-letter alphabet: plexity in the primitive recursive form (i. no. 13 (1965). no. The com. COMPLEXITY OF DESCRIPTION OF AN The complexity of description of a nonnal algorithm considered the following problem: To construct. Soviet Math.e. Surveys 25. 85-127) problems) began in the nineteen-sixties. Boolean functions'. information theory). 161-208 (in Russian).ALGORITHM. Kolmogorov (cf. Boolean function) [3]: a) by a normal Problemy Kibernet. no. then there exists a machine T belonging to plexity K(x) according to Kolmogorov. L. symbols. and the exponent may attain value n. plexity of algorithms which solve. N.M. i. 6 (1970). and the complexity Tm(x) expressed that of T. 2 (1969). There also exist sets application of this definition to Turing machines will defined by simple diagonalization of which the n- be discussed. M. and the of recursively enumerable sets may increase exponen- number of the machine may be effectively reconstituted tially.e. the length of all its substitution formulas when encoding of a normal algorithm in the alphabet written in one line (a special separating character is cP = {O. Izv. algorithm in an m-Ietter alphabet with complexity [4] PETRI.322-336. . It was found that the following algorithmically) enumerable infinite subclass of Turing asymptotically exact relations exist between the com- machines. Akad.V. It has plexity of description of a Turing machine usually been shown [1]. complexity y. A definition of the complexity of finite objects was Let s be an arbitrary measure of the complexity of a first proposed by AN. and that this estimate cannot be tion of an algorithm has been proposed [2]. not more than 10& n. all the machines with algorithm). has least complexity among all such algorithms. . and there exists a machine T' (which mayor may Mm(x) of the same objects when expressed through the not belong to V) such that T' and T compute the same length of the encoding of a normal algorithm into an function. 1. Recursive numbers. and b) by a Turing machine with an m.e. 75-96 (in Russian). I (1969). i =0. Let (Mj ). The study of the complexity of algo.: 'Realization of functions of the algehra of logic by automata. of recursive functions'. Then it will be pos. A.: 'A machine independent theory of the complexity and the number of internal states. In the case of recursive functions (cf.e.. from its program). through schemes of general recursion).: 'The complexity of finite ~2N / N(m -1). ACM 14 (1967). the length of the encoding [2] BLUM.. nonnal algorithms and Turing machines'. sible to realize any function of the algebra of logic in N [3] KUZ'MIN. Hence it follows. J. c} which realizes the function and which interposed between the individual formulas). the problem of belonging to a recursively function) given by recursion schemes. in particular. respectively. machines mean. Barzdin' 134 . Dokl. Let the [I] MARKov. from the machine (i. b. for the first n natural tion. Algorithmic Turing machine. and the complexity of T' is much lower than m-letter alphabet.KJ& T ( ) K(x) schemes of primitive recursion) is much higher than m x ~ lO&1 m ' m x ~ (m-l)log2 K (x)' their lowest complexity in the general recursive form References (i.: 'Nonnal algorithms connected with the com- complexity of normal algorithms and of Turing putation of Boolean functions'. Akad. (Ulpekhi Mat. It was shown that in the case of their complexity. variables (cf. a. A. (Dokl. specification of the complexity of description of an sible to determine. and LEVIN. the number of enumerable set (the complexity of n-segments of recur- letters in these schemes usually serves as the measure of Sively enumerable sets). objects and the developments of the concepts of information rithms solving the finite restrictions of algorithmically and randomness hy means of the theory of algorithms'.A. normal algorithms. 6 (1970). Nauk SSSR 185. It was also shown numbering of Turing machines characterized by the that if the time of operation of algorithms is general- fact that the machine itself (i. A general Complexity of description of an algorithm is used in recursive function s is a measure of the complexity of the formalizations of the problem of the minimum com- machines (s(i) being the complexity of the machine M j ) plexity of an algorithm which constructs some finite if and only if: a) for any y there exists not more than a object. Nauk 25. 82-124. be the natural segments have complexity order n.e. for any y. the order of such a complexity is An axiomatic definition of the complexity of descrip. V. 31 (1967). and b) ply the complexity of the finite object (for this particular there exists an effective procedure which makes it pos. Below the reduced in the general case. then the complexity of n-segments effectively reconstituted from its number.K.

for its program). cost function R a . More precisely. natural number>. such References a formulation is not always well-posed.say. in particular for a Turing a function defined on this domain which can assume machine or. J.A function giving a numerical estimate of the which computes f the function R /3 in a certain sense difficulty (amount of time/storage involved) of the pro. measure of complexity is usually equivalent to consider- rithmic processes are considered.e. as for almost all x. ALGORITHM. 0 and l. an effective mutual simulation of the algo- space function) SM(P) is defined as the number of cells rithms of the type under consideration and ordinary on the tape scanned by the head of the machine. property that for any algorithm a and any input x the Secondly. t)= 1 is true for not more than one which may in principle be improved as much as one natural number t. plexity for various types of algorithms (automata): the cability of the algorithm. majorizes g.E. any non-negative integer t. and 2) it has the is false only in a finite number of cases. Thus. there exist functions. effective procedure is assumed) an algorithm /3 which This last equality is equivalent to the statement 'the also computes f and such that for all x (except for a computational complexity a on x is t (in the measure finite set) r)'. negative integers to non-negative integers. transition to another algorithmic system and another Usually. Time Turing machines. and then which computes f it will always be possible to find (no Ra(x)=t. multi-head and multi-tape Turing machines computing functions from non- Turing machines. cess of application of an algorithm to the inputs. and which has a includes problems of comparative computational com- range of definition coinciding with the range of appli. there exist functions whose computation may of applying a to x will terminate with complexity t. input.e. are defined in a similar manner. for any This observation leads to the abstract theory of compu. for a Turing ing a new measure for the first algorithmic system. the inequal- called a computational measure if: 1) it always ends in ity the result 0 or 1 when applied to triplets of the form Ra(x) > T(x) <algorithm. 444-475. This branch also applicable and the natural numbers. whether or not the process First. J. x. any computation of equality rea. Computable fact that there exists an effective procedure establishing function) on the domain of the algorithms. for the final configuration. it is and storage costs for normal algorithms (d. pleases.g. ACM 18 (1971). and HOPCROYf. exemplified by the speed-up theorem (see below). t)= 1. x. as long as there exists. machine M the time cost function (duration of work) Below a few fundamental results are given which are TM(P) is the number t of cycles of work of M required independent of the choice of measure of complexity for the conversion of the initial configuration of Pinto (and of the formalization). tional complexity is the study of complexity classes - ity of an algorithm is the concept of a cost function sets of functions for which there exist computations (step-counting function) . be as complex as one pleases. A Another important branch of the theory of computa- more precise definition of the computational complex. An effective procedure r is that for any algorithm a which computes f. where a computes f For example. However. and such that for any algorithm /3 OF AN .. h(t)=2/) it is possible to find a cost function Ra with respect to the measure r for a is computable function f such that for any algorithm a introduced if and only if rea. two functions G(x) and g(x) such that there exists a computation a for the function f for ALGORITHM. Nonnal assumed that the subject is the computation time of algorithm). this t existing if and only if the pro. The For any function h (e. the memory cost function (or example. with a complexity not exceeding some bound out of the tion between the objects to which the algorithm is set of bounds which defines the class. and let f be for any algorithm a (i. the speed-up theorem is valid: cess of application of a to x eventually terminates. that of finding an algorithm a which Rf3(x) < 10& Ra(x) computes f 'better than other algorithms'.for example. 135 . Given some computational measure. one can con- In case h (t) = 21 this yields sider the complexity of computation of a given function f . The real prob- [A1] liARTMANIS. function T there exists a computable function f such tational complexity [1]. h(Rf3(x)) < Ra(x). i. find upper and lower bounds for the computational AMS 1980 Subject Classification: 68C25.: 'An overview of the lem may be the description of the rate of growth of the theory of computational complexity'. iterative arrays. (For the sake of simplicity. the time and space characteristics of algo. etc.defined as a decidable rela. COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY which Ra(x)~G(x).) Let T and h The common feature of such cost functions is the be computable integer-valued functions (d. any input x and two values only . COMPUTATIONAL COMPLEXITY OF AN Editorial comments. rather. 68C05 complexity of f. J. More exactly.

However. Ra(P)~R(n) for all words P of computational complexity is understood to mean the length n in the alphabet under consideration). ginal version only (single input/work tape. primitive alternatives can simulate each other with a constant multipli- recursive functions coincide with the functions comput. Algorithm. for many way. the computational complexity usually changes. Multi-head Turing key references [A1]. in connection with their realistically models the 'von Neumann' computer. Its a which computes it. tain combinatorial problems which are formalized (in multicounter machines can be simulated in real time (step- one variant) as problems of finding. for cer. J. hold for Turing machines in the ori- be simulated on Turing machines. iterative arrays can achieve this in real time. machines and multi-tape Turing machines can simulat