Cultivation of Tropical

,
Subtropical, Vegetables, Spices,
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Introduction

Plant spices grown in tropical countries on small scale
family farms of commercial farms, to provide foods for
human or live stock, in dry or humid regions are highly
abundant and taxonomically diversified. Vegetables
comprise of a large number of plants, mostly annual, of
which different parts like leaf, steam, flowers, fruit, root etc.
are eaten. T hey are rich in nutrients and are essential items
of a balanced diet. Vegetables are called protective food as
their consumption can prevent several diseases. M any
vegetables are important items of commerce and thus can
play a major role in the economic development. G enerally
classification of horticulture plants are based on nature of
growth climatic requirement continuation of growth

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types of fruit parts used botanical relationship, salinity
tolerance, ripening behaviour , botanical relationship,
hardness or temperature tolerance, cool season vegtables,
warm season vegetables, parts used as food, methods of
raising, etc. Medicinal and aromatic plants are important
for human health. T hese plants have been used from the
prehistoric times to present day. T hese plants based
medicines are consumed in all civilizations. It is believed
that the herbal medicine can give good effect to body
without causing side effects to human life. Besides, the
usage of medical plants has been increasing as an important
role that can support the economic system. T he medical and
aromatic plants for health are used as herbal treatments and
therapies that can be new habits for culture.

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Medicinal and aromatic plants constitute a large segment of
the flora, which provide raw materials for use by various
industries. T hey have been used in the country for a long
time for their medicinal properties. T he decision to cultivate
medicinal herbs should only be made in response to demand
for particular herbs. T he market is very competitive and
could easily be oversupplied.

T his book majorly deals with classification of horticultural
plants, classification of flowers, classification of spices, soil
and climatic requirements of horticultural plants, beet root,
bottle gourd, har vesting and post har vest management, poly
house vegetable production in temperate regions, vegetables
growing in containers, tea, performance of plants from
cutting, vegetative propagation, rubber

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Biofertilizers in vegetable cultivation, posthar vest
management of tropical tuber crops, etc.

T his is an informative resource of the cultivation,
irrigation, manuring, fertilization, har vesting and post
har vest management of tropical, subtropical, vegetables,
spices, medicinal and aromatic plants. T his book is useful
for entrepreneurs, ayur vedic institutes, libraries and
consultants.

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Table of Contents
VEGETABLE CROPS

1. CLASSIFICATION OF HORTICULTURAL
PLANTS

 Plant Kingdom

 C lassification of Fruits

 Based on Nature of G rowth

 Based on C limatic Requirement

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 Based on C ontinuation of G rowth

 Based on Types of Fruit

 Based on Parts Used

 Based on Botanical Relationship

 Based on Salinity Tolerance

 Based on Ripening Behaviour

 Based on Ethylene Evolution

 Based on Bearing Behaviour

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 C lassification of Vegetables

 Based on Botanical Relationship

 Based on Hardness or Temperature Tolerance

 C ool S eason Vegetables

 W arm S eason Vegetables

 Based on Tolerance to S oil Acidity

 Based on Tolerance to Salt

 Based on Parts Used as Food

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 Based on M ethods of Raising

 Based on Forcing

 Based on Rate of Respiration

 C lassification of Flowers

 Based on S eason of G rowing

 Based on C olour of Flower

 Based on Purpose of G rowing

 Based on Nature of G rowth

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 Based on M ode of Propagation

 Based on G rowth Behaviour

 C lassification of Spices

 Based on C ompletion of Life C ycle

 Based on G rowth Behaviour

 Based on Importance

 Based on Part Used

 Based on Utility

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 Based on C ultural M anagement

 Based on Botanical Relationship

 C lassification of Plantatoin C rops

 Based on Botanical Relationship

 Based on G rowth Behaviour

 Based on Utility

 Based on Extent of G rowing

 Based on Intensity of C ultivation

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2. SOIL AND CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS
OF HORTICULTURAL PLANTS

 S oil

 Alluvial S oils

 Tarai S oils

 Arid S oils

 Black S oils

 Red S oils

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 Laterite S oils

 M arshy S oils

 C limate

 Temperate C limate

 Tropical C limate

 S ub-Tropical C limate

 Different Types of Horticulturally Potential Zones of
the C ountry

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 Temperate Zone

 North-W estern S ub-Tropical Zone

 North-Eastern S ub-Tropical Zone

 C entral Tropical Zone

 S outhern Tropical Zone

 C oastal/Tropical Zone

 Influence of C limatic Factors

 O n the G rowth of Plants

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 Temperature

 Humidity

 W ind

 Rainfall

 S olar Radiation

3. VARIETAL WEALTH OF HORTICULTURAL
CROPS

 Fruits

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 Vegetables

 Flowers

 Plantation C rops

 S eed S pices

4. AGATHI Climate and Soil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 M anuring and Fertilization

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 Aftercare

 Yield

5. AMARANTH Climte and Soil

 Varieties

 Badi C haulai

 C hhoti C haulai

 Pusa Kiran

 Pusa Lal C haulai

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 Pusa Kirti

 C ultivation

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Irrigation

 Interculture

 S eed Production

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

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6. ASH GOURD
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Apau S hakthi

 C ultivation

 Irrigation

 C rop Regulation

 M anuring and Fertilization

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 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

7. BEET ROOT

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Detroit Dark Red

 C rimson G lobe

 Propagation and Rootstock

 C ultivation

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 Planting

 Training and Pruning

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorders

8. BITTER GOURD

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 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 S owing

 Irrigation

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Intercultural O perations

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

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9. BOTTLE GOURD
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Arka Bahar

 K alyanpur Hari Lambi

 Punjab Komal

 Punjab Long

 Punjab Round

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 Pusa M anjari

 Pusa M eghdut

 Pusa Naveen

 Pusa S ummer Prolific Long

 Pusa S ummer Prolific Round

 Rajendera C hamatkar

 C ultivation

 Field Preparation

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 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Training

 Interculture

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

10. BRINJAL

 C limate and S oil

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 Varieties

 C ultivation

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Interculture

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

11. BROCCOLI

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 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Palam Samridhi

 C ultivation

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Irrigation

 Interculture

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

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 Physiological Disorders

12. BRUSSELS SPROUT
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Jade C ross

 Hilds Ideal

 Rubine

 C ultivation

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 M anuring and Fertilization

 Irrigation

 Interculture

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

13. CABBAGE

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C openhagen M arket

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 Drumhead Savoy

 G olden Acre

 Pride of India

 Pusa Drumhead

 Pusa M ukta

 Red C abbage

 S eptember

 C ultivation

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 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Interculture

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

14. CAPSICUM

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

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 S owing

 Planting

 Training and Pruning

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

15. CARROT

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 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Tropical or Asiatic Types

 Temperate or European Types

 C ultivation

 Land Preparation

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

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 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorders

16. CAULIFLOWER

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

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 Raising of Nursery

 Transplanting

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorders

 Riceyness

 Fuzziness

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 Leafy C urds

 Blindness

 Buttoning

 C hlorosis

 Hollow S tem

 Browning (brown-rot or red-rot)

 W hiptail

17. CELERY

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 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Fork Hook Emperor

 S tandard Beared

 W right G rove G iant

 C ultivation

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Irrigation

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 Interculture

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

18. CHILLI

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 Raising S eedlings

 M anuring and Fertilization

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 Irrigation and Interculture

 W eed C ontrol

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

19. COWPEA

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Arka G arima

 Pusa Barsati

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 Pusa Dofasali

 Pusa Komal

 Pusa Phalguni

 Pusa Rituraj

 Philippines Early

 Yard Long Bean

 C ultivation

 S owing

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 M anuring and Fertilization

 Irrigation

 Aftercare

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

20. CUCUMBER

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Himangi

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 Japanese Long G reen

 Poinsett

 Poona Khira

 Pusa Sanyog

 S heetal

 C ultivation

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

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21. CURRY LEAF
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 Propagation

 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

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 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

22. DRUMSTICK
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C havakacheri M uringai

 C hemmurungai

 Jaffna Type

 K attumurungai

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 Kodikalmurungai

 Palmurungai

 Punamurungai

 Yazphanam M uringa

 C ultivation

 S owing

 C rop Production

 M anuring and Fertilization

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 Aftercare

 W eeding

 Intercropping

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

23. FRENCH BEAN

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Arka Komal

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 Bountiful

 C ontender

 Jampa

 Kentucky W onder

 Lakshmi

 Pant Anupma

 Premier

 Pusa Par vati

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 C ultivation

 S owing

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorders

24. GARLIC
 C limate and S oil

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 Varieties

 Propagation and Planting M aterial

 C ultivation

 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

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 Physiological Disorders

25. KALE

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Irrigation

 Interculture

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 Interculture

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

26. KNOL-KHOL
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 King of North

 Large G reen

 Purple Vienna

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 W hite Vienna

 C ultivation

 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

27. LABLAB BEAN

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 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Pusa Early Prolific

 C ultivation

 Field Preparation

 Aftercare

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

28. LETTUCE

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 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 Propagation

 Planting

 M anuring

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

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29. MUSKMELON
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Arka Jeet

 Arka Rajhans

 D urgapura M adhu

 Hara M adhu

 Hisar M adhur

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 Hisar Saras

 Punjab Hybrid

 Pusa M adhuras

 Pusa Rasraj

 Punjab Rasila

 Pusa S harbati

 Punjab S unehri

 C ultivation

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 S owing

 Land Preparation

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Hoeing and W eeding

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

30. OKRA
 C limate and S oil

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 Varieties

 Arka A bhay

 Arka Anamika

 Azad Kranti

 Harbhajan Bhindi

 Hisar Unnat

 Parbhani Kranti

 Perkins Long G reen

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 Punjab Padmini

 Pusa M akhmali

 Pusa Sawani

 Red Bhindi

 Varsha Uphar

 C ultivation

 S owing

 Training and Pruning

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 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

31. ONION

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

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 Planting

 Transplanting

 Planting by Bulbs

 Direct S owing

 Planting by S ets

 M anuring and Fertilization

 C ultural O perations

 Irrigation

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 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

32. PALAK OR INDIAN SPINACH
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 S owing

 Planting

 M anuring

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 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

33. PARSLEY

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 M anuring and Fertilization

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 Irrigation

 Interculture

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

34. PEA
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Arkel

 Bonneville

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 Harbhajan

 Lincoln

 C ultivation

 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

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35. POINTED GOURD
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C HES Elite Line

 C hhota Hilli

 Dandali

 Hilli

 S hankolia

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 S warna Alaukik

 S warna Rekha

 Propagation

 C ultivation

 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Training

 Interculture

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 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

36. PUMPKIN
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Ambili

 Arka C handan

 Pusa Vikas

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 C ultivation

 S owing

 Land Preparation

 Interculture

 Irrigation

 O ff-season C ultivation

 S eed Production

 Hybrid S eed Production

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 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

37. RADISH

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Asiatic or Tropical

 Arka Nishant

 Japanese W hite

 Jaunpuri G iant or Newari

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 K alyani W hite

 Nadauni

 Punjab Safed

 Pusa C hetki

 Pusa Desi

 Pusa Himani

 Pusa Reshmi

 European or Temperate Varieties

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 C hinese Pink

 Rapid Red W hite Tipped

 Scarlet G lobe

 W hite Icicle

 C ultivation

 Preparation of Land

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

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 Interculture

 Irrigation

 G rowth Regulators

 S eed Production

 Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorders

38. RIDGE GOURD

 C limate and S oil

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 Varieties

 Pusa Nasdar

 Satputia

 C ultivation

 S owing

 Interculture

39. ROUND MELON
 C limate and S oil

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 Varieties

 Arka Tinda

 Tinda Ludhiana

 Tinda Tonk

 Tamil Nadu S election

 C ultivation

 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

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 Interculture

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

40. SNAKE GOURD

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 S owing

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 Interculture

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

41. SPINACH
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 Propagation

 Planting

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 M anuring

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

42. SPONGE GOURD

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

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 S owing

 Interculture

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

43. TOMATO
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 Raising seedlings

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 Direct S eeding

 Planting

 Training and Pruning

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 S eed Production

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorders

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44. TURNIP
 C limage and S oil

 Varieties

 Early M ilan Red Top

 G olden Ball

 Purple Top W hite G lobe

 Pusa C handrima

 Pusa K anchan

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 Pusa S warnima

 Pusa S weti

 Snow Ball

 C ultivation

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Irrigation

 Interculture

 S eed Production

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 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorder

45. WATERMELON
 C limage and S oil

 Varieties

 Arka Jyoti

 Arka M anik

 Asahi Yamato

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 D urgapura Kesar

 D urgapura M eetha

 Improved S hipper

 New Hampshire M idget

 Pusa Bedana

 S ugar Baby

 C ultivation

 Pruning and Training

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 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Forcing W atermelons out of S eason

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

46. POLYHOUSE VEGETABLE
PRODUCTION IN SUBTROPICS
 S election of S ites

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 Polyhouse S tructures

 Frames and C ladding M aterial

 Environment C ontrol

 S election of Vegetables

 Nursery Raising

 O ff-season Vegetables Production

 Aftercare

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47. POLYHOUSE VEGETABLE
PRODUCTION IN TEMPERATE REGIONS
 Polyhouses

 Benefits

 S tatus

 Indian Polyhouses

 Plastic Low Tunnels

 S oil Trench

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 S ite S election

 Polyhouse S tructure

 Vegetable Production

 Nursery Raising

 Vegetable Production

 S eed Production

 Hydroponics and M icropropagated Vegetables

 Polyhouse Pests and Diseases

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 S ome Problems

 Prospects in India

48. VEGETABLES GROWING IN
CONTAINERS
 Types of C ontainers

 Tools, M anures, S eeds, Fungicides and Insecticides

 S uitable Vegetables and their Varieties

 C ultivation

 S owing/planting

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 Aftercare

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 PRO PAG ATIO N O F PLANTATI O N CROPS

49. TEA

 S eed Propagation

 S torage

 G ermination

 S eed-S ize

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 S eed-C oat

 Treatment with G rowth S ubstance

 Treatment with Fungicides

 Temperature

 Biochemical C hanges during G ermination

 S eedling G rowth

 S eed S ize

 Effect of Insecticides

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 Irradiation

 Vegetative Propagation

 C utting

 Type of C utting

 Etiolation and G irdling

 M edia

 S eason

 C lonal Variations

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 Effect of G rowth S ubstances

 S tock Plant

 O xygen

 Fungicide and Nematicide

 Type of C utting and G rowth S ubstances

 Type of C utting and M edia

 Type of C utting and S eason

 Type of C utting, M edia and Temperature

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 Type of C utting, S eason and G rowth S ubstances

 Type of C utting, M edia and G rowth S ubstance

 Type of C utting and Treatment with Nutrients

 G rowth S ubstance, M edia and Temperature

 Type of C utting, Light, Humidity, M edia and G rowth

 S ubstance

 S torage of C utting

 O ther Treatments

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 Root C utting

 Performance of Plants from C utting

 Layering

 G rafting

 M ethods

 Budding

 Rootstock

 Effect on G rowth and Yield

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 M icropropagation

50. CACAO
 S eed Propagation

 S torage and Viability

 G ermination

 S tage of Har vest

 Depth of S owing

 Air Drying

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 S ize of Pod

 Position of S eed in Pod

 Temperature

 M edia

 S ugar

 Endogenous S ubstances

 S eedling S ur vival and G rowth

 S tage of Har vest of S eeds

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 C ontainer and M edia

 Effect of G rowth S ubstance and Antitranspirant

 Hybrids

 A ge of S eedling at Transplanting

 Vegetative Propagation

 C utting

 S tock Plant

 Type of C utting

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 M edia

 Humidity

 Light

 Effect of G rowth S ubstances

 Type of S hoot and G rowth S ubstances

 Etiolation

 G rowth S ubstance and Fungicides

 Type of C utting and G rowth S ubstance

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 M edia and Light

 M edia and G rowth S ubstance

 Type of cutting and Humidity

 Type of C utting, M edia and Humidity

 Type of C utting, G rowth S ubstance and M edia

 Type of C utting, M edia, Humidity and Temperature

 Type of C utting, M edia, Light and G rowth S ubstances

 Humidity, Temperature, G rowth S ubstance and Light

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 C lonal Variation

 Hardening of C utting

 Layering

 G rafting

 Budding

 M ethods

 Preparation of Budwood

 Top W orking

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 Rootstock

 Effect on G rowth and Yield

 Incompatibility

 Effect of Different M ethods of Propagation

 M icropropagation

51. COFFEE
 S eed Propagation

 Viability

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 G ermination

 C ollection of S eed

 M oisture C ontent of S eed

 Effect of C over

 M edia

 S eed Treatment

 S eedling G rowth

 Depth of S owing

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 C ontainer

 M edia

 G rowth S ubstances, Fungicides and Nutrition

 Vegetative Propagation

 Root S ucker

 C utting

 Type of C utting

 Time of Taking C utting

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 M edia

 Humidity

 Temperature

 Effect of G rowth S ubstances

 Type of C utting and G rowth S ubstances

 Type of C utting, M edia and Temperature

 Type of C utting, M edia and G rowth S ubstances

 G rowth S ubstances and M edia

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 M edia, Temperature and Humidity

 Root C utting

 Leaf C utting

 Layering

 S tooling

 G rafting

 M ethods

 Type of Scion

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 S eason

 Effect of Leaves

 G rowth of G rafted Plants

 Top W orking

 Budding

 S torage of Budwood

 Rootstock

 C ompatibility

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 G rowth and Adaptibility to Environment

 Nematode, Disease and Pest Resistdant Rootstock

 M icropropagation

52. RUBBER

 S eed Propagation

 Har vesting

 Viability

 G ermination

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 S eedling G rowth

 Vegetative Propagation

 C utting

 Type of C utting

 Juvenility

 Ringing

 Effect of Light

 Effect of G rowth S ubstances

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 Effect of Fungicides

 Humidity and Temperature

 Type of C utting and G rowth S ubstances

 G rafting

 M ethods

 Performance of G rafted and Budded Plants

 Budding

 M ethods

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 S election of Budwood

 A ge of Rootstock

 Budding M aterial

 Treatment

 C are of Budded Plants

 Performance of Budded Plants

 Top W orking

 Rootstock

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 Effect on G rowth and Yield

 Resistant to Pests and Diseases

 Influence of Scion on G rowth and Yield

 M icropropagation

53. OIL PALM

 S eed Propagation

 S torage and Viability

 G ermination

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 Effect of M edia and Temperature

 Effect of O xygen

 Effect of Irradiation

 Effect of G rowth S ubstances

 Biochemical C hanges

 S eedling G rowth

 S torage of C lone

 Vegetative Propagation

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 M icropropagation

54. ARECANUT

 S eed Propagation

 S election of S eed Nuts and Viability

 G ermination

 Raising of S eedling

 S election of S eedlings

 Vegetative Propagation

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 Layering

 SPIC ES

55. BETELVINE

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Propagation

 C ultivation

 C onstruction of Bareja or Boroj

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 Raising of S upport Plant in O pen C ultivation

 Land Preparation

 S oil Treatment

 Planting

 Training/pruning

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

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 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

56. BLACK PEPPER
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Propagation

 C ultivation

 Planting

 Training/pruning

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 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

57. CARDAMOM (SMALL)

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Propagation

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 C ultivation

 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

58. CARDAMOM (LARGE)
 C limate and S oil

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 Varieties

 Bebo

 Bharlangey

 G olsey

 Ramla

 Ramsey

 Sawney

 Propagation

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 Primary Nursery

 S econdary Nursery

 C ultivation

 Planting

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 S hade Regulation

 Roguing and G ap-filling

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 M anuring and Fertilization

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

59. CINNAMON

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Propagation

 C ultivation

 Planting

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 M anuring and Fertilization

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

60. CLOVE

 C limate and S oil

 Propagation

 C ultivation

 Planting

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 M anuring and Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Posthar vest M anagement

61. CORIANDER

 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 S idhu

 Sadhna

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 S wathi

 C ultivation

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

 W eed C ontrol

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorders

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62. CUMIN
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

 W eed C ontrol

 Irrigation

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 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

62. FENNEL
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 C ultivation

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

 W eed control

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 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

 Physiological Disorder

64. FENUGREEK
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Rajendra K anti

 Hissar S onali

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 C ultivation

 S owing

 M anuring and Fertilization

 W eed C ontrol

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

65. GINGER
 C limate and S oil

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 Varieties

 C ultivation

 Planting

 M anuring and Fertilization

 W eeding and M ulching

 Rotation and Intercropping of G inger

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

66. NUTMEG

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 Varieties

 Propagation and Rootstock

 C ultivation

 Nursery

 Planting

 Aftercare

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

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67. TAMARIND
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Urigam

 C ultivation

 Propagation

 Planting

 Aftercare

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 Har vesting and Posthar vest M anagement

68. TURMERIC
 C limate and S oil

 Varieties

 Propagation

 C ultivation

 M anuring and Fertilization

 Aftercare

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 Intercropping

 Irrigation

 Har vesting and Posthar vest Technology

 M EDIC INAL PLANTS

69. ASGAND

70. DILL

71. GUGGAL

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72. HENBANE

73. ISABGOL

74. KHASI KATERI

75. LIQUORICE

76. OPIUM POPPY

77. PERIWINKLE

78. PIPALI

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79. RAUVOLFIA

80. SENNA

AROMATIC PLANTS

81. AMBRETTE SEED OR MUSKDANA

82. CELERY

83. CHAMOMILE

84. DAVANA

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85. FRENCH JASMINE

86. INDIAN BASIL

87. JAVA CITRONELLA

88. KEWADA

89. LEMON GRASS

90. MINT
 Peppermint

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 Spearmint

 Bergamot M int

91. PALMAROSA OIL GRASS

92. PATCHOULI

93. ROSE GERANIUM

94. SCENTED ROSE

95. VETIVER

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96. BIOFERTILIZERS
 Nitrogen Fixing Biofertilizers

 S ymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

 Asymbiotic Nitrogen Fixation

 Azotobacter

 Phosphate S olubilizing Biofertilizers

 M ycorrhizal Fungi

 Actinorhizal Plants

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 Biofertilizers in Vegetable C ultivation

 S eed Treatment

 C utting/S et Treatment

 S eedling Treatment

97. MANAGEMENT OF DISEASES
 Disease M anagement

 Escape From Pathogen

 Preventing Entry of Inoculum

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 Eradication

 Protection

 Reaction of Host C rop

 Prophylactic M easures (T herapeutics)

 Biological C ontrol

 C hemical C ontrol

98. POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF
POTATO

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 Har vesting

 Posthar vest M anagement

 Drying, C uring and G rading

 Dormancy

 Posthar vest Losses

 Physiological Losses

 Pathogenic Losses

 Refrigerated S torage

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99. POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF
TROPICAL TUBER CROPS
 C assava

 Har vesting and Handling

 S torage

 Utilization

 Processing

 Toxic Principles

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 S weet Potato

 Har vesting and Handling

 S torage

 Utilization

 Processing

 Anti-nutritional Factors

 Elephant-Foot Yam

 Har vesting and Handling

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 S torage

 Utilization

 Processing

 Anti-nutritional Factors

 Elephant-Foot Yam

 Har vesting and Handling

 Utilization

 Anti-nutritional Factors

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 Taro

 Har vesting and Handling

 S torage

 Utilization

 Anti-Nutritional Factors

 Tannia

 Har vesting and Handling

 S torage

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 Utilization

 Anti-Nutritional Factors

 Lesser Yam

 Har vesting and Handling

 S torage

 Utilization

 G reater Yam

 Har vesting and Handling

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 S torage

 Utilization

 W hite Yam

 Har vestinig and Handling

 S torage

 Utilization

 Arrow-Root

 Har vesting and Handling

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 Utilization

 C hinese Potato

 Har vesting and Handling

 S torage

 Utilization

 Yam Bean

 Har vesting and Handling

 S torage

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 Utilization

 W inged Bean

 Har vesting and Handling

 W inged Bean

 S torage

 Utilization

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100. POSTHARVEST MANAGEMENT OF
MUSHROOM

 Posthar vest Technologies

 Handling Fresh M ushrooms

 Har vesting

 Pre-C ooling

 S orting

 Dipping/Treatments

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 Packaging

 Transportation

 S torage

 Processing

 Low Temperature

 High Temperature

 Drying

 C hemicals

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 Pickling and Lactic Acid Fermentation

 Irradiation

 M inimal Processing

 O ther Products

 Future T hrust and Export

101. Tools and Equipments used in
Horticulture

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Tags
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cilmates, plant that grow in tropical climates, tropical food
plants, vegetables for tropical and subtropical, vegetable
production in tropical, subtropical, production of aromatic
plants and medicinal, aromatic plants and medicinal, spices
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grow in tropical climates, W hat crops grow in tropical
climates, Top 1 0 subtropical vegetables, vegetables in the
tropics, selecting suitable tropical crops, how to grow
vegetables, useful tropical plant list,

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Tags

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G rowing unusual and subtropical fruit and vegetables,
tropical vegetables that anyone can grow, G rowing Vegetables
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G ardening, C ultivation O f Tropical S ubtropical Vegetables
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India, ayur vedic medicinal plants farming, C ultivation of
medicinal plants getting popular, cultivation of medicinal
plants for improving, C ultivation and Marketing of Medicinal
Plants

www.entrepreneurindia.co
Tags
, S uitability and profitability of medicinal and aromatic
plants, A griculture becomes profitable, Medicinal Plants
C ultivation & Uses, Exploration and C haracterization of
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, aromatic plants cultivation
processing, aromatic plants farming, commercial cultivation
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tropical and subtropical vegetables and spices production,
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sustainable use of medicinal plants, C ultivation of medicinal
plants in developing nations, Top 1 0 subtropical vegetables,
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O f Tropical And S ubtropical Vegetables And O ther Plants,
Spices facts, information, pictures, Medicinal Plants
Utilisation and C onser vation,

www.entrepreneurindia.co
Tags

Aromatic Plants Trade Production and M anagement,
M edicinal and aromatic plants in agroforestry systems,
S pice crops agroforestry systems, C ultivation of various
S pices in India, Production Technology of Spices, spice
production in India, Demand for S ustainable Spices, Role
of S pices Board in the cultivation and export of Spices,
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processing of spices, Spice Farming, Scope of M edicinal
and Aromatic Plants farming, organic farming medicinal
and aromatic plants, O rganic Farming in spices,
Commercialization of aromatic and medicinal plants,
C ultivation, M arketing of M edicinal And Aromatic Plants
,C ommercial cultivation of medicinal plants,

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Niir Project Consultancy Services (NPCS)
can provide Process Technology Book on
Cultivation of Tropical, Subtropical,
Vegetables, Spices, Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants

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Niir Project Consultancy Services
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Who are we?

o One of the leading reliable names in industrial world for
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o We adopt a systematic approach to provide the strong
fundamental support needed for the effective delivery of services
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We at NPCS want to grow with you by providing solutions scale
to suit your new operations and help you reduce risk and give a
high return on application investments. We have successfully
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o Bamboo And Cane Based Projects
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Sectors We Cover Cont…

o Copper & Copper Based Projects
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o Essential Oils, Oils & Fats And Allied
o Engineering Goods
o Fibre Glass & Float Glass
o Fast Moving Consumer Goods
o Food, Bakery, Agro Processing

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Sectors We Cover Cont…

o Fruits & Vegetables Processing
o Ferro Alloys Based Projects
o Fertilizers & Biofertilizers
o Ginger & Ginger Based Projects
o Herbs And Medicinal Cultivation And Jatropha (Biofuel)
o Hotel & Hospitability Projects
o Hospital Based Projects
o Herbal Based Projects
o Inks, Stationery And Export Industries

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Sectors We Cover Cont…

o Infrastructure Projects
o Jute & Jute Based Products
o Leather And Leather Based Projects
o Leisure & Entertainment Based Projects
o Livestock Farming Of Birds & Animals
o Minerals And Minerals
o Maize Processing(Wet Milling) & Maize Based Projects
o Medical Plastics, Disposables Plastic Syringe, Blood Bags
o Organic Farming, Neem Products Etc.

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Sectors We Cover Cont…

o Paints, Pigments, Varnish & Lacquer
o Paper And Paper Board, Paper Recycling Projects
o Printing Inks
o Packaging Based Projects
o Perfumes, Cosmetics And Flavours
o Power Generation Based Projects & Renewable Energy Based Projects
o Pharmaceuticals And Drugs
o Plantations, Farming And Cultivations
o Plastic Film, Plastic Waste And Plastic Compounds
o Plastic, PVC, PET, HDPE, LDPE Etc.

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Sectors We Cover Cont…

o Potato And Potato Based Projects
o Printing And Packaging
o Real Estate, Leisure And Hospitality
o Rubber And Rubber Products
o Soaps And Detergents
o Stationary Products
o Spices And Snacks Food
o Steel & Steel Products
o Textile Auxiliary And Chemicals

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Sectors We Cover Cont…

o Township & Residential Complex
o Textiles And Readymade Garments
o Waste Management & Recycling
o Wood & Wood Products
o Water Industry(Packaged Drinking Water & Mineral
Water)
o Wire & Cable

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Contact us
Niir Project Consultancy Services
106-E, Kamla Nagar, Opp. Spark Mall,
New Delhi-110007, India.
Email: npcs.ei@gmail.com , info@entrepreneurindia.co
Tel: +91-11-23843955, 23845654, 23845886, 8800733955
Mobile: +91-9811043595
Fax: +91-11-2385886
Website : www.entrepreneurindia.co , www.niir.org
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