EXPERIMENT 3 : TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS

Introduction

Basic structural differences among substances have enabled us to classify them
accordingly. Matter have been classified into solid, liquid or gas. Changes in matter can be
grouped into two, physical and chemical change. Chemical change occur as chemical
reactions wherein it is represented using chemical equations. Chemical reactions are the
heart of chemistry. The early people have always known their existence. Ancient Greeks have
pioneered the investigation of the composition of matter. Their works and findings have
greatly contributed in providing knowledge in this area. How matter changes around us have
been explained clearer through their works.
According to Brittanica.com, chemical reaction is an re-arrangement of the atoms to form
a new substance. It follows the law of conservation of mass in which it is stated that mass of
the products in a chemical reaction must equal the mass of the reactants. (Lavoiser, 1789)
Chemical changes have been playing a large part in the course of our daily lives, from aiding
plants in growing to producing medicines for curing different diseases.
A chemical reaction is presented using equations for easier interpretation in which in the
left side of the arrow shows the starting substances called reactants and the resulting
substances on the right side called products. Chemists have classified chemical reactions into
groups for easier recognizing and describing reactions. The first type is the combination
reaction or the synthesis reaction where two reactants combine to form a product. The
second type is the decomposition reaction in which a compound is separated into its
component elements to form simpler substances. The third type is the single replacement
wherein an element in a compound is being replaced by another pure element and form new
compound and a new free element. The fourth type of reaction is the double displacement
reaction where two elements from different compounds switch places to form new
compounds. Additionally, precipitation, acid-base and combustion reactions are also types of
double-displacement reactions in which a solid, a gas or a stable molecular compound is
formed.

Materials and Methods

In the first experiment, 2 grams of calcium oxide was placed in a beaker and 15 mL water
was slowly added. There must be enough water that will make the calcium oxide submerged.
The temperature was checked for an increase by touching the beaker with the fingers and
afterwards it must be left undisturbed for two minutes. There was a settling of the slaked lime
at the bottom. Afterwards, the solution was filtered with a paper towel and a glass funnel to
separate the clear solution from the slaked lime. The solution was then placed in a test tube.
In this experiment, a combination reaction was demonstrated based on the observed results.
For the second experiment, a 250 mL soda bottle was placed in a water trough. In a
beaker, a 15 mL of hydrogen peroxide, 7mL of dishwashing liquid and 3 drops of food color
was combineda and was poured into the empty soda bottle. Afterwards, 2 grams of active
yeast with 15 mL of warm water was mixed in a test tube and was left undisturbed for 1
minute. Then the contents of the test tube was added slowly into the soda bottle. The results
were observed and noticed a decomposition reaction occurred.
The third experiment started with a test tube filled with 3 mL of copper(II) sulfate and a
gram of iron fillings and was left to sit for 2 minutes and was observed afterwards.
The fourth experiment was for a double-displacement reaction. A small sized balloon was
prepared and was filled with 15 mL of baking soda using a spatula. On the other hand, an
empty 250 mL soda bottle was filled with 50 ml of white vinegar. Then the balloon was
carefully stretched over the mouth of the bottle. The reaction began when the baking soda
was slowly dropped down into the vinegar by lifting the balloon.

Discussion/Results

The first experiment demonstrated a combination reaction and can be represented by:
CaO + H2O ---> Ca(OH)2
Wherein the calcium oxide and water as the reactants of the chemical reaction and
Ca(OH)2 or calcium hydroxide as the product. The slaked lime obtained a creamy or milky

The color fades because of the formation of a new product which is copper. the balloon inflated. The reaction is represented as: 3CuSO4 + 2Fe ---> Fe2 (SO4)3 + 3Cu Wherein the reactants are copper sulfate and iron while the products are iron sulfate/ferrous sulfate and copper. These reactions plays very important roles in our everyday lives. This compound further undergoes a decomposition reaction. Different type of these reactions gives us the idea how chemical reactions differ and how one reaction occurs. The displacement reaction was possible due to the lower electronegativity of iron than copper and has a greater attraction to the oppositely charged SO4 ion. Though this endeavor leads to the discovery of certain substances and provides opportunities for invention of new scientific methods that will consequently help and improve the life of humans. The formation of a gas was very prominent in this experiment. producing more oxgen gas therefore producing more bubbles. The visible pink-brown precipitate that formed on the unreacted mass of solid iron left over was the copper displaced by iron. As per definition of single displacement reactions. © Krizzi Garcia . The vinegar is an acid and the baking soda is a base. However. Carbonic acid is a product of the reaction and is unstable. The reaction was prompted by the exchange of atoms of the reactants . when combined they release gas and water because of the received proton of the baking soda. the mixture began producing bubbles. After the yeast was added into the bottle. A decomposition reaction has occurred in the second experiment. chemists are still trying to further analyze the nature of matter. as the copper sulfate was added into the iron fillings. The yeast did not react with the hydrogen peroxide but rather acted as a catalyst to speed up the reaction. The transferred hydrogen by the acid to the base formed a new compound which is the carbonic acid. The fourth experiment showed a double-displacement reaction specifically acid-base reaction. The food coloring on the other hand added much prominence in the formation of bubbles. As the baking soda came in contact with the vinegar. The chemical reaction can be represented by: 2H2O2 ---> 2H2o + O2 Wherein the reactant is the hydrogen peroxide and the products are oxygen gas and water. the filtrated solution has resulted into a clear soluion which is also calcium hydroxide called lime water but is a diluted solution. the filling slowly became brownish in color and the blue color of the solution fades. The bubbles were produced as oxygen gas was trapped by the dishwashing liquid from the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen gas which are its component elements. The reaction can be represented by: NaHCO3 (aq) + HC2H3O2 (aq) → NaC2H3O2 (aq) + H2CO3 (aq) The decomposition of carbonic acid into water and carbon dioxide is represented by: H2CO3 (aq) ---> H2O (l) + CO2 (g) Conclusions Simple chemical compounds exist around us therefore chemical reactions occur around us without us being aware. Conitnuous learning and exploring more about them will have a large effect on what scientists can do in the future. chemical reactions plays a large part in chemistry. a new compound is formed.consistence because of the combination of the quick lime and water. As what is said earlier. Chemical reactions are continually played by scientists. For the third experiment which is a single replacement reaction. Until today. The products of the decomposition reaction are water and carbon dioxide.