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International Compressor Engineering Conference School of Mechanical Engineering


Experimental Analysis of Screw Compressor Noise
and Vibration
A. Fujiwara

N. Sakurai

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Fujiwara, A. and Sakurai, N., "Experimental Analysis of Screw Compressor Noise and Vibration" (1986). International Compressor
Engineering Conference. Paper 553.

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Pa Vi bUilt-in volume ratio Pi built-in pressure ratio= Vik(adiabat ic change) Zm male tooth number Zf female tooth number D rotor diameter. a series of extensive experimenta l analysis is performed. Ibaraki-Ken.long rotor). RPM Pd = discharge pressure. <MYOOM) Okubo. Hz Ff female rotor operating frequency. Hz k specific heat ratio n operating speed. Mayekawa Mfg. Analyzed results of these experiments help to explain the major noise and 'vibrational characteris- tics of standard oil injected screw compressors. Engineer Compressor Division. rotor shafts vibrations. mm 566 . Chief Engineer J I Noriyoshi Sakurai.EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SCREW COMPRESSOR NOISE AND VIBRATION Akinori Fujiwara. These experiments are done mainly with R-22 gas. Co. suction and discharge gas pulsations. It includes the measurement s and analysis of compressor casing vibrations. Ltd. Japan 302~01 ABSTRACT Very few reports have been presented to date on the noise and vibrational characteris tics of oil in- jected screw compressors. Hz Fm male rotor operating frequency. Nomenclature Fo = fundamental screw frequency. This time. Moriya-Mach i. The tested compressors are mainly 1SOL<163mm . Pa Ps suction pressure. and the operating speed of compressor continuously varied up to 4400 RPM in some test conditions.. pressure trans~ ient in one thread of rotors ana compressor noise. torsional <rotational) vibrations. mm L rotor length.

l!: c-roove a$ through the :Port by b TRANSFER PHASE thesl! St:al"t •eshin" d D!SCHAROE PHASE !urthe:r l'Otation.uall. & s:pace towa:rcl th! diecharr:e voluae j_s created end axi&ll. Oil i. o! r.nl@'t a.nd ou"tlf!t.s d::t&Wn in volume o! trapped tllroui'h suction :go:rt.ischargea.e pa. technical papers deal- ing with the fundamental characteristics of noise and vibration of the compressors seem to be very few. !or ccol- a Sll'CTlOU PHASE c OOMPRESSION PHASl!: in~ sealing and 1 'b: The tra.tel eased through th~ Q. INTRODUCTION Today. the oil injected screw compressors are known as high-performanc ed and highly durable compre- ssor and their application range has become very wide. Vi :rotation a. The noise and vi- brations generated Rotor by a screw compressor have a distinct relationship to its gas compression mechanism. engages full:Y a. i.echari'l! c:As rotation port and t)'l.~~ in- enti. tl'ie consequent~.1c) 'becin to llle5h poJ. to aid the better under- standing of these.:r of lo'oe the suction end.. So. another C:OID:Pl'e5sed te. 1. determined bY en"ti. o:f gas i.hich th~ .s as th~ roto:r~ rotate.i..s the inter-lobe CFeaa.p:ped poc:ke't. their fundamental characteristics must be well understood.'t~Q. F-ig.s male lob!.v Until the moment at :redue l!d and the: . !':roll the i.l! l. In spite of the amount of information concerning its applications and performances.s J.v the 1 and razr. we will present this summerized report of our series of experiments concerning noise and vibration of screw compressors.S . d:At a. In this !ill eel up wi. fo:r lu'b:rication. Fig.Jroceeds. <Male) ana."': 'tlle (built in volum~ c:ons'tant suc:'tion I ratio) 1 'tl:le pocke"!: pressure.suction :Pressure of the gas po:rt closes. a te•a. Compression Mechanism The screw compressor is classified as a positive displacement rotary compressor. momen"': i5 •cved ei:rcu!ll!er. &-roove A. So it is important to under- stand this mechanism.n-e move-s unmesh. In order to evaluate and reduce the noise and vibration of the compressors. 2 OompTession Mechanism <Ref. :pocket is g:rad. th cas phase.:r~ s:oace is c:reasl!!d.allY under t~:reaetermini!Q. A general arrangement of an oil injected screw compressor is shown in Fig. [1 J > 567 . Oil Injected Screw Compressor a: As "':h.as isola. injectl!':d..

er h:Plotter Fig.relativ e rotatio nal vibrat ion <male and female> . 4 Test Facili tY Arrang ement 568 .rotor shaft radial vibrat ions (relati ve to casing ) .pressu re transi ent in one thread of female rotor . So\lnd Level Meter d:Chal.lobe space as the rotors rotate .a A~eelel:'ometer b:: PreS!iiUt"e T-ransduce r e.torsio nal vibrat ion ..e. The FFT <Fast Fourie r Transfo rm> analys is is consid ered as a versat ile techni que within ~hese method s."ge /.alone FFT analyz ers are used as the main instrum ent to analyz e signal s from compre ssors.casing vibrat ion accele ration Cin three directi ons> . DC Amp.mp. f:Dat. 3 Instrum ent Genera l Set-Up Test Facili ties Fig. 3 shows genera l set-up of instrum ents and trans- ducers . The compre ssion of a gas is ~ttained by the a~rect volume reduct ion cf the inter.rotor shaft axiaJ. .discha rge and suctio n gas pulsat ions . e. EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQU:E: Instrum ents <Re£. . vibrat ions <relat ive to casing ) . The follow ings are the signal s s~udied in detail ed experi ments. stand.a P. For a prac- tical point of view. 2.[ 2]) A number of analyt ical tools and proced ures are availa ble to analyz e noise and vibrat ion. This is illust rated in Fig.compre ssor noise (norma lly at 1 meter> Fig.co:rde'r g FFT Analy:.

11 ... 65 ~!~e. MFILI:: TURN INC FINCI.L L/Dal...E: t 0~!0) Fig.---.~.~~~~.RELATioN Vi~) • 65 ~ "r-~~.. Shown in Fig.~~i'.v.. In this report we call this frequen cy lFoJ as "fundam ental screw frequen cy". 5 illustr ates an example of in operati onal period relatio nship between male rotor turning angle and pressur e transie nt in one rotor thread. For male drive Fo ~ n/60 X Zm For female drive Fo ~ n/60 X Zf These equatio ns indicat e that fundam ental frequen cy is simply determi ned by the drive rotor operati ng speed and its number of lobes. They are calcula ted by next equatio ns..1. ~.--.~.+.~~.. Detaile d experim ents includi ng variabl e-speed operati on are perform ed in laborat ory test facilit ies mainly on 1601.c .. 4 is the general arrange ment of the test facilit y.~B 16 0 L " ~L:oR.R-22 Gas ...--tl a:Pressu re Transien t b:Suctio n Pulsatio n ~ lil c:Discha rge Pulsatio n ~ a ffi:Disch arge Por~ Open ~~~~.c D~l63 TE..S Operati on-Peri od of Pressur e & Pulsati on 569 .....-Jd-. ~~I. . FUNDAMENTALS This section will Present materia ls found by experim ents on the fundam ental charac teristic s of screw compre ssor noise and vibrati on..:~: ~~e o.. For male drive Fro n/60 Ff n/60 X Zm/Zf Fm X Zm/Zf For female drive Ff n/60 Fm n/60 X Zf/Zm Ff X Zf/Zm Pressur e Transie nt in Rotor Thread Fig.. All these are pro- TE!:ij NO.. Fundam ental Screw Frequen cy The fundam ental frequen cy of noise and vibrati on can be determi ned by the followi ng equatio ns.! F'd P~ P.1.a..~+..c::.B .lil c.. Another fundam ental frequen cies are operati ng speed of male rotor and that of female rotor.---ro. pulsati on of dischar ge and that of suction .... Also some measure ments are taken on operati ng compre ssor in actual plant.

Exampl e of operat ing pulsat ions from 1BOL is shown in Fig. The vibrat ion is caused by dynami c gas torque and its freque ncy is also at the fundam ental screw freque ncy. their wavefo rms are simila r to sawtoo th I triang ular wave and these period s indica te that their freque ncies are at the fundam ental screw freque ncy. 7 Operat ing Torsio nal Vibrat ion Rotor Shaft Vibrat ions Result ing £rom the gas forces and rotor contac t 570 . the measur ed torsio nal ampli- tudes from torque meter would be well below 5% of the static torque when operat ed under normal condit ions with R-·22 gas.rr6 mSec 1me Fig._. The pressu re transi ent domina - tes gas forces induce d on rotors and thereb y contro ls the fundam ental noise and vibrat ion chara cteris tics. fsr=====J N 1601 D~163 L/D~1. p.65 R-22Ga s oo. Accord ing to the Figure . Po.65 C/l ~ REAL R-22 Gas . B. The discha rged gas pulsat ion is influe nced by the pressu re differe nce betwee n operat ing discha rge pressu re and thread pressu re at the moment of the be- ginnin g of the discha rge phase. w 1601 H E*-!.i . Pressu re Pulsat ions Pulsat ions are caused bY interm ittent gas dis- charge and suctio n accori ng to the compre ssion mech- anism.a~JmSEC 4400RPM Fig.l D~163 L/D~1. a:Disc harge -.lilmSEC TIME 50. In genera l.bable causes of noise.981 b:Suct ion E+5 . 7 shows a typica l exampl e of operat ing tor- sional vibrat ion signal from the output of the torque meter. 6 Operat ing Pulsat ion Wavefo rm Torsio nal Vibrat ion CTorqu e Fluctu ation> Fig.

the ~ . A typical example of operating axial shaft vibration is shown in Fig. 6 5 noise at discrete "' "' // l \ ~2 Gas ~ frequencies and ~80 are al: harmonical- ly related.. 200L.oo broad-band random noise g of a frequency spectrum : is heard as a rushing soqnd. 0 2 6 . dynamic forces are induced on the rotors and thereby radial and axial shaft vibrations of the rotors occur.. ~6-zz. 1 0 shows the Fig. can be noted. and dB other peaks are broad 250L • D=255 and not well defined.. 8.forces. 9 lndicates a ~so broad-band random noise ~ radiated by gas £low. 65 The dotted line in the S R-22 300DRPM Fig.--~100 Harmonics L/Dml. c: 160L o~l63 a"' L/0=1. dBA 200L This compressor Dz2Q4 again genera-ces .10 2kHz Range Operating random noise Noise Frequency Spectrum 571 .. ope- rating at 3000 RPM.<>til .. Noise Spectrum pressor. well above 1kHz.. 9 shows the noise spectrum from 250L oper- ating at 3000 RPM.. ><=> ~6.The fundamental frequencY component of rotor shaft vibra- tions both in radial and axial directions are iden- tical to the fundamental screw frequency. ~ L/D•l.e 10 1:2 1& ~~ 18 frequency kHz Fig.22L--------------------------------8-0~mSec 0 Time Fig... E In general. They are ~igher harmonics of the fundamental screw 2 frequency 00 Hz> kHz and the broad-band Fig. 3 Overall Operatlng spectrum of another com-.---------------------------------. 8 Operating Axial Shaft Vibration General Noise Characteristics Fig. These vibrations are transmitted through the bearings to the casing of compressor. Several discrete peaks. ~' .65 "' "'" R-22 • p..--< Female .

.11-c indicates more definite tendency of series of pulses. The velocity spectrum... ..~nd~cates gas flow no~se. ••~~~.!..11-d Arrangement Fig..~~~.. the acceleration spectrum contains more harmonics.11-a Displacemen t Fig. The wave- form of velocity shows appearances of sawtooth wave hence its harmonics may decrease approximate ly -BdB/ octave in amplitude.ll~ ~ T1me ~-z~iiJ----------i "" 1!1 ""'"" 1i -. the peak at so Hz indicates ou·tput shaft operating speed and its unbalance. In contrast with the velocity signal.c. And the waveform of displacemen t indicates the "beat" between 50Hz and 60 Hz operating frequency signals.1. shown in Fig..u}. ~r-.11-a.. The a~splacement spectrum. EquallY.11 shows examples of vibration from 3201 op- erating at 3600 RP~ employing a multiplying gear box.HJ1 '. 11 Operating Vibration Waveform and Spectrum 572 .. Fig....11-c Acceleration Fig.""c. conta~ns 3 aom~nant discrete spectrum and the peak occurring at 240 Hz is the fundamental screw frequency. It should be noted that the magnitudes of harmonics are approx~mately at a constant level up to several order harmon~cs. And according to its waveform.:'' ~..Motor ~-1~--------j " 8 Compresso r-- "'"" - Skid FH!~ueney Fig.---. the accel- eration signal shown in Fig.~----:.~ L4~~..coupli ng and drive gear ) . 1-.. The higher harmonics should come ~. indi- cate the fundamental screw frequency and harmonics decreasing their amplitude with frequency...11-b Velocity Multiplying Gear Box . The spec- trum at 50Hz shows operating speed of input shaft ana its unbalance<in cluding motor. General Vibration Characteris tics F~g.11-b.....~ frequency Fig.

. Vibratio n Paramete r Selectio n Accordin g to extensiv e vibratio n measurem ents.8 m/sec2 < = 1 G>. I ::: the preferre d paramete r a"-40 except in case of un. ~-< HRG 65 ~ m/s> I R-22 Gas <ll u ! I 3600RPM . 13 Displ. 0: .. the displace ment probe !proximi ty probe> is lhe only transduc er when measurin g shaft vibratio n relative to the casing. . ""' ~YelocHv Nil! Di:spla.A ~.. I 1601 D~l63 <d I L/D~l..~ E•l . i 0 fl/R Sf R Ll N 2kHz Frequenc y Fig...12. Fig. Relation It is recommen ded that one should choose accele- ration as a Paramete r ~hen measurin g screw compress or vibratio n in detail... as Frd~uency lOO " 1000 shown in Fig. Jtw Jl I u Axial < Ill Jww.. Ju. 0 selectio n of vibratio n I measurem ent paramete r. Generall y. larger vibratio n level result in higher sound level. of its low sensitiv ity ' at high frequenc y.regar ding the . Care must be taken to avoid mounted resonanc e of accelero meters within the fre- quency range of intresT.13.. It should be noted that. ~ 20 I displace ment is not ["--... As a separate considerat~on. in general.ion .. Acce:lerat. The "Axial" directio n shows the maximum vi- bration accelera tion level from normallY operatin g compress ors.400 . 12 Opera~ing Accelera tion Spectrum dB So... measured vibra- tion accelera tion values may not exceed 9. data indicate that the vibratio n of screw compress or has several harmonic s of the fundame ntal screw fre- quency at a constant level in accelera tion in certain range of frequenc ies. An example is shown in Fig.Nl I I ill .mainly from rotor meshing. EFFECT OF OPER~TING CONDITIONS Operatin g Pressure Conditio n The operatin g ~re3sure conditio n has a distinct 573 ..Vel.ceme*~ "' balance problem because 60 .& Ace..

Fig. In this case. In general. can be determined. SPL No Pd M a SPL 1 0.2 +2.24MPa. Ps X Pi ) without economizer.Acc. The peaks C at 100 Hz. Operat~ng pressures also affect tors~onal vibrat~on.No.N 0. 3 7 +2. 275Hz and 545 Hz) are indications of various resonances.1 +3.30 0 0 0 0 2 l. Table 1 (dB) Table 2 (dB) Noise & Vibration at Varying Ps Noise at Varying Pd No. The use of economizer also has some effect on above mentioned vibrations. the operating compressor noise and casing vibration level ~ill increaae with the in- crease in the pressure difference.~nfluence upon compressor no~se. H-port generally shows the best effect on meas- ured noise and vibration from refrigeratio n compres- sors because of its least gas mass flow rate within three ports under normal operating condition.91 +0. 07 0 3 0. Operating Speed Operating data is used to determine not onlY the level of noise ana vibration but also. is only determined the- oretically by the mult~plication between suction pressure and built-in pressure ratio ( i.16 +0. A measured example of compressor noise and casing vibration shown in Table 1 indicates above mentioned tendency under an operating discharge pressure condi- tion. shaft vibration and pressure pulsations. the maximum amplitude peak at 545 Hz comes from a relative rotational resonance between 574 .1 +2.Acc. the effect on frequency spectrum can be seen and the various resonances. By varying the operating speed of the compressor.Acc. A. casing vibrations and performance.50 +4.1 +1. more importan- tly.e. Ps MPa V. Another example under a constant operating suction pressure condition is shown in Table 2. As -!.4 3 l. H. Regardless of the magnitude. so there exists only one actual operating discharge pressure which will exactly agree with the theoretic~llY determined discharge pressure. the discharge port size cH.2 as a reference as a ref.2 2 0. 220 Hz. value In addition. the frequency components of these signals.1 +3.he pr·essure in a rotc:r thread.1 1 0. 14 shows an example of a three-dimen tional RPM spectrum map of generated sound pressure levels from 160L. .just prior to the start of discharge phase.2 *Pd=l.9 +3.37MPa. ~nherent in the compressor system. M and L). there exists a certain pressure difference between these two discharge pres- sures. 4 value *Ps~0.

15 3-D RPM Pulsa tion Spectr um Map Relat ive to the casing vibra tion accel eratio n.5 Hz in highe r freque ncy resolu tion analY with more fine pitch chang e in the opera ting speedsis comin g from a tors~onal resona nce in the system . finall Y determ ined at 87. The magni a increa ses with operat~ng speed .is . it canno t be accou nted for its effec of compr essor no~se.65 JFo R-22 Gas Pa / 4400 E+5 " . &27 * not in dB-sca le. 1500 0 Freque ncy 2kHz PWR SP Fig. E+S in linear scale l60L D-163 L/D~l. but on the bas~s tude our data.:: 0'-' . 15. 0 . <I) U) p. 65 V1-J. "" a .14 3-D RPM Spectr um Map of Gener ated No~se For the discha rge gas pressu re pulsa tion.65 Vi-5.as a resul t of our experiment.490• •. . t on l60L D~l63 L/Oal.~t can be assure d that accel eratio n level wlll incre~se propo rtiona lly the with the increa se in opera ting speed when no resona nce 575 . the male and female rotor s.. And the peaks at 220 Hz and 275 Hz are confir med to be resona nces of skid membe rs by hammer~ng metho d. and can be determ ined the metho d of detec ting the phase differ ence betwe bY two sinus oidal tooth passin g signa ls £rom invol en gears attach ed to each rotor s. ule The peak at 100Hz in Fig.8 R-22 .u <I) <U <I) H p. .'"""' ~ 1200 "' 0 Frequen cy 2kHz Fig.14 . typic al examp le is shown in Fig.--<:>:: ~4300 ·rl"" <UP-< Q.:.

. 160L D•l63 L/D•l.~0--~2~0--~ discha rge pressu re Load(%) also would be varied Fig...25 even in the L- H-Port port.has occure d.16 Vi Change in Unload ing with unload ing.-! ... Part Load Condit ion An outsta nding featur e of the standa rd screw compre ssor is the abilit y of steple ss capaci ty con- trol with the slide valve system . 17 Under Part Load Operat ion From full unload ed operat ion data. 16. it can be assume d that the return ing oil from the bearin gs and the mecha nical seal will someti mes obstru ct a stable operat ion of compre ssor under reduce d gas flow. ~ .63 (100% Load) ro. 576 .. under part load operat ions the change in Vi ranges from 3. More- over the slide valve someti mes vibrat es at the funda- mental screw freque ncy and. 65 Vi•2. . it would cause an excess ive noise and I or vibrat ion problem in extrem e case. by impact ing on the casing ./s~ de~... <o1&~~~~~~~~ 0 . As shown in Fig.. " "'"'"' . .""' 3-D Axial Vibrat ion Spectru m Map Fig..22 Gas ~ 4 . 00 " ..... 8 ....0 to s. The change in Vi result ing from the axial moveme nt of the slide valve affect s not onlY the perform ance oi compre ssor but also the chara cteris tics of noise and vibrat ion.. ".... 17 shows a 3-D vibrat ion spectru m plot from 160L op~rating at 3600RPM under part load. As the result of above ..it appear s that a comple x change occurs in the chara cteris tics of noise and vibrat ion under part load operat ion. H ..s o the differe nce betwee n theore tically determ ined discha rge pressu re (ps X Pi) and the actual operat ing ~0~0~~--~60~~. Fig... " ... ....6 1..

this phenom ena is clear some confir med by some exper iment s. Althou gh in this spectr um plot. Air SPL 1. the atttai ned impro ve- ment in sound pressu re level is 44~0--------~----------------~ well above 8 dB. (Pd/Ps)~Pi. but i t can assum ed that it is resul ting from a chang e in be molec ular weigh t of the gas to be compr essed the Which may affec t the leakag e inside the compr essors as as the effec t of oil. Other than this Table . well Table 3 Noise and Vibra tion Differ ence Gas Vert.r educe d injec - tion oil opera tion is quiet er by 4 dB.86m/ s 2 85.18 is an opera ting noise dB I04r-c-~~~-------------- from 320L opera ting -----. com- It is said that under a reduce d injec opera tion overa ll noise level somet imes can tion reduce d bY sever al dBs. as a typic al examp Table 3 is shown as refere nce. the The accur ate cause of the differ ence in noise and vibra tion canno t be confir med now. the measu red opera ting noise from 577 . L/0~1.53m/ s" l. data indic ates an existe nce of large differ ence axial shaft vibra tions ana the ampli tude under in opera - tion in some test condi tions during which the ampli - tude with helium gas is four times great er than ampli tude with air. Here. 0~321.34 93. and be light molec ular weigh t gas. Hori.Type of Gas Chang e in type of gas to be compr essed somet indic ates distin ct effec t on the compr essor noise imes and vibra tion chara cteris tics.5dB Helium 4. Ace. 3000RPM 3201. lnject~on at 3000RPM with he- . ly An examp le shown in Fig. 18 Injec tion Oil Effec t AFFECT OF SURROUNDING EQUIPMENTS In most cases .46m/s~ 1. Frequenc y Fig. Axial Ace. Other than R-22. Ace. le.50 7.80 3.Full· *Redu~ed lium gas.049MPa.8 Injec tion Oil Quant ity Injec tion oil flow rate somet imes affec noise level exper ienced in large refrig eratio nts the press ors. Vi~5.65.5 Operat ing Condit ion: Ps~0. in some tests .

. skid and so on. Here. / compre ssors contai ns many compon ents from variou s indivi dual source s. that peak has I6 20 come from separa tor kHz outlet resona nce. 9 . the accomp anYing broad~band random noise compon ent decrea ses with freque ncy in freque ncy spectru m plot. They all may combin e to yield a comple x freque ncy spectr a plot. emerge from genera l backgr ound.. can be reduce d by changi ng arrang e- ment of the piping . Fig. 20 Suctio n Piping Gas Flow Noise 578 ..band noise spectru m result ing from gas flow noise radiat ed from suctio n piping .in some cases as the typica l exampl e shown in Fig. oil separa tor. Oil Separa tor As alread y shown in Fig. 19 Separa tor Noise Piping Fig.. In this operat ing noise spec- trum. piping .65 3000RPM ~ ~ . coupli ng.• 320L D•32l • ~ ~ L/D•l. ~ ~ ~ 0 "' 44 0 Frequenc y 5kHz Fig. This may be due to resona nce noise radiat ed from a source other than the compre ssor.l The broad peak R-22 3000RPM presen t is seen to Noise. L/d•l. 19. gear box.• . The motor. some simpli fied exampl es are discus sed. dB lOj ~ > . 20 shows an exampl e of operat ing noise from 320L test stand. a broad dBr---------------------------~ peak appear s in oper~ 100 320S D•J2l ating noise spectru m..I n contra st with the Figure . The contai ned broad.

In the of its Figu re. 21 Gear Noise Spect rum DETECTION OF FAILURE Thru st Beari ng Flaki ng In screw comp resso rs.l 200S MFrG ~dB D"'204 •r-i 1/D"= l. there is a serie s of equal lY prima ry comp onent s of sideb ands.th e peak at abou t 3300 Hz is corre spond ing to .Gear Box <Ref. ll rwR sr R LIN !CkHz Fig. as shown in Fig. The exam ple shown in Fig. These beari ngs to £init e £atig ue li£e and some times £ail ngs have unex by £laki ng o£ racew ay as a resu lt o£ an abno pecte dlf rmali ty.frequ ency of this gear set.frequ ency.l 0 R-12 z 54 ~ Frequ ency 5kHz Fig. And aroun d the the mesh mesh .. [3J) In some appli catio ns. ~ 114 l> Cll t-. 21. space d These sideb ands indic ate exist ing gear pitch error . 22 is a typic ating vibra tion £rom 160L at 3600 RPM. rollin g-ele ment are usua lly emplo yed as rotor thrus t bearibeari ngs ensur e preci se axial posit ionin g. 22 Oper ating Abno rmal Vibra tion 579 .65 R-22 Gas 3600RPM TIME fl LIN u~sEc Ax:ial Ace. a multi PlYin g gear box emplo yed to attai n large r capa city than is that of direc t drive opera tion. Gear set withi n some times produ ces noise probl em becau se gear box impro per mesh. al oper- In the 160L D~l63 L/D~l.

23 Abso lute Aver aged Spec trum Tabl e 4 Bear ing Freq uenc ies Frequen~y !ypee of Damage Damaged Part Eccent ricity* 1 Inner Ra~eway n·Fr lnner R~ce~ay n·Z•Fi ~~ Rough Spot Outer Raceway n·Z·F~ Rolling Elemen t 2•n•Fb *~ * 1 :and / o~ Wear. .5 kHz indi cate s an abno And the wave form indi cate s that the th{~· comp resso r. oper ating at 3600 reco rded at nois e leve l of this comp resso r.t Angle ZcNumb er of Rolling Elemen ts n•l·2·3 . repe ating at rela tive ly low frequ ency abso lute In this case . The over all nois e leve l indi cate the orig in of nois e serio us the probl em is. The analy a frequ ency anal ysis fund amen tal spect rum cont ains many sub-h armo nics of indic ating tooth sepa ratio n and screw frequ ency . 24 Inne r Racew ay Fr . the techn ique of the oyed . the repe to this quen cy is confi rmed at 322.tc. 24. . scuf roto rs some times take plac e.c. frequ ency .I. 200L One typi cal exam ple of abno rmal noise £rom For the RPM is show n in Fig. Scuf fed Roto r Toot h [Inner Raceway Rotat~s and Outer is Station ary] fing o£ In a certa in oper ating cond ition s.h Diamete r P•Conr.5 Hz. 580 . ter of peak s vibr ation acce lerat ion spec trum . refe r to the Tabl e 4. impa cts in a serie s of unus ual sign al is gene rated . u u "" i"iiR Sf A LIN 11diz Frequ ency Fig. a clus rmal ity in at appr oxim ately 3. Fll! or ff Flak ing d•Diam eter of Rolling Elemen t D•P.BS dBA was of the plan t oper ation and it has in~ the begi nnin gs of the anal y- creas ed well abov e 100 dBA at the time s only how sis. To dete ct zed nois e is nece ssary . occur~ * 2 :~m?litude Modula tion may Where F1•l/2• Fr·(l+d /D•cos fi) Fo•l/2• Fr· (l-d/D· cosp) c Fb•l/2• Fr·D/d · [1-(d/D )'· cos'l'l Fig. 23.a . show n in Fig. Conc ng-e leme nt frequ enci es deriv ed by dama ge of rolli bear ing. .. 25. and g in the time doma in sign als is empl aver agin ating fre~ by ~ts spect rum. Acco rding a bear ing inne r racew ay. can be dete cted . the dama ge in ernin g the show n {n Fig.

Ana the shown spectru m contai ns a series of discre te freque ncy compo nents 581 ..ll Hz r: 10t.Sub-har monics X: OVII'r. 26 Simula ted Scuffe d Patter n <Male Rotor) Unpre cise Rotor The screw rotors are so strict ly contro lled and inspec ted in manuf acturin g that the accura cy has been mainta ined over a certai n level.. an exampl e is shown in Fig.aoSEC TIMER Se.!l. i f ever occur.s. the cause of this abnorm ality is confirm ed result ing from scuffe d and worn rotor tooth flanks .556~ ~·s 200L 0~204 RERL. Fig.00mHC . . As a seldom examp le. 65 ~u R-22 Gas -.s cuffin g of rotors is caused by oil compr ession at freque nt start.5<B Fig. L/Dgl.) In this case. 25 Abnorm al Noise Signal Drive Slde Flank Fig. and the proble m was resolv ed. The wavefo rm also shows one collis ion takes place per every two mesh. 3m Sec . 26. <The scuffe d patter n on the rotors can be reprod uced by compu ter simula tion. 35e 3600RPM t ~·s r t.ups.27 shows an operat ing noise on 2508 at 3000 RPM with unprec ise rotor set. The sauna is heard as a ~rattling" noise. Opera ting sequen ce is revise d to avoid unnec essari ly long oil pump oper- ation before compr essor starts . After inspec tion. collis ion at the point of rotor mesh contac t. The wavefo rm indica tes that three meshin g pulses occur repeat edly in abnorm al magnit ude at every revo- lution of the female rotor.

With respe ct to £requ ency. of JSME. May 1 . 0 fWR Sf A LIN lkH Fig. 1 R-22 Gas -.14 -12.SO . 12.. vol.97~ Fo 2Fo - _3Fo. 1783.. desig n and it is believ ed that compr tions manu£ acturi ng param eters. pp. More impo rtantl y. it can be assum ed that the £unda menta l screw £requ ency <Fa Fm X Zm ..6'~ 8000RPM ~+S TIME A LIN . REFERENCES [11 ASHRAE.~ E•S 2505 D-255 ""' L/D-1. N . Heric al Rotar y Comp ressor s. and other s.D . ru ' "' ~ - -- 0 "" 3 7 .• Origi ns of Noise .1 969. Trans .Mach ine Desig n. [3] Mitch el.no. 582 .we will prese nt a theor etica analy sis o£ screw compr essor vibra tion. .ther eby contr the chara cteris tics o£ noise and vibra tion. A£ter inspe cting o£ the £unda menta is the rotor set. and opera ting condi ure pulsa tions o£ disch arge and all in£1u ence on press suctio n gas. 4Fo ~dB . l In our next repor t. L.1789. £or essor noise = male drive ) domin ates all aspec ts in compr vibra tion.45 8. SUMMARY d The mater ial in this repor t is direc ted towar ding a basic under stand ing o£ the £unda menta l provi in- chara cteris tics o£ noise and vibra tion in the oil aecte d screw comp ressor . ~ -. 27 Opera ting Noise with Unpre~ise Rotor nics spacin g appro ximat ely 33 Hz<= F£ ) betwe en harmo l screw £requ ency.pp . [21 Tanak a. From the resul ts o£ these exper iment s and ession mecha nism. they in£1u ence on ni- dynam ic gas force s induc ed on rotor s and the mechaall ol cal conta ct force s betwe en rotor s. 1984. it is con£ir med that abnor mal noise six cause d by uneve n tooth thick ness o£ three o£ the £emal e rotor . 1979 Equip ment Handb ook.1 7.