Lecture 0

CLASS
POLICIES
ES 12 WBC2

ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R.
1
Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler)
First Semester AY 2015-2016

Class Policies

1. ATTENDANCE. Attendance is required!

2. Any form of intellectual dishonesty will be strictly
penalized according to prevailing university rules.

3. NON-ACADEMIC REQUIREMENTS. Students in this
course are expected to have great minds, good hearts, and
passion for learning. Courtesy towards each member of the
class is expected; thus, any behavior that will impede
learning will not be tolerated. You must always understand
and apply the ideals of a true “Iskolar ng Bayan!”.

ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R.
Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R. Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler) 2
Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler)
First Semester AY 2015-2016

Class Policies

4. SOME ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS
 Fully accomplished Info Card with Picture
 Blue Book for Quizzes

Engr. Maxell P. Lumbera
09173118190
maxell_lumbera@yahoo.com
Consultation Hours/Place: TTh 10-5PM,
NCTS 2F Envi Office

ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R.
Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R. Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler) 3
Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler)
First Semester AY 2015-2016

Students’ Performances in ES 12

ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R.
Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R. Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler) 4
Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler)
First Semester AY 2015-2016

Lecture 0

OVERVIEW OF
MECHANICS
Engr. Maxell P. Lumbera

Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R.
Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler)

ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.R.
5
Johnston, Notes by J.W. Oler)
First Semester AY 2015-2016

velocity. Johnston. with time.R.P. displacement. you are expected to: 1. Classify rectilinear motion into uniform. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Beer and E. speed. Notes by J. and non-uniformly accelerated. uniformly accelerated. Lesson Objectives At the end of the lecture. Identify the particle model in a given problem. distance. and acceleration. Define and relate position. 3.P. Notes by J. velocity. Beer and E.W. displacement. or acceleration for a rectilinear motion problem.R. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) 6 Johnston. 2. and 4. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.W. Calculate position.

7 Johnston.W.P.R. Overview of Mechanics Mechanics is concerned with the analysis of the action of forces on objects. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Notes by J. Beer and E. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.

Kinematics is used to relate displacement.W.P. Beer and E. .W. Kinematics of Particles (by F.R. velocity. Oler) 8 Johnston. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . What is Kinematics? Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion. Notes by J.P. Notes by J. acceleration. Beer and E. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.R. and time without reference to the cause of motion. Johnston.

. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . the mass of the body. What is Kinetics? Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a body.W. Oler) 9 Johnston. Johnston. and the motion of the body.P.W.R. Kinetics is used to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces required to produce a given motion.R. Notes by J. Notes by J. Beer and E.

Beer and E. 10 Johnston. Notes by J.W. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Overview of Kinematics of Particles ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.R.P.

W.R.W. Notes by J. 11 Johnston. Oler) ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Maxell P. Beer and E. Notes by J. Lumbera Kinematics of Particles (by F.P.R.P. Johnston. Beer and E. Lecture 1 RECTILINEAR MOTION Engr. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .

ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.R. Beer and E.W. Rectilinear Motion A particle moving along a straight line is said to be in rectilinear motion. Johnston. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Beer and E.R. Notes by J.W.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Notes by J. Oler) 12 Johnston.P.

Kinematics of Particles (by F. Johnston.R. Oler) 13 Johnston. Notes by J. Beer and E. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Notes by J. Position Coordinate The position coordinate of a particle is defined by the positive or negative distance of the particle from a fixed origin on the line.P. Beer and E.W.W. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .R.

x  6t  t 2 3 ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. The motion of the particle may be expressed in the form of a function. Beer and E.P.R.P. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .W. Oler) 14 Johnston.R. t. Notes by J. Johnston.W. Beer and E. Kinematics of Particles (by F. or in the form of a graph x vs. The motion is known if… The motion of a particle is known if the position coordinate for the particle is known for every value of time t. Notes by J.

Notes by J.R. Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. x Average Velocity  vave  t x Instantaneous Velocity  v  lim t 0 t ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.W. Average/Instantaneous Velocity Consider a particle which occupies position P at time t and P’ at t + Δt. Johnston.R. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .P. Beer and E. Oler) 15 Johnston.W. Beer and E. Notes by J.

Beer and E.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F. x dx e.g. The magnitude of velocity is referred to as the particle speed. Notes by J. Particle Speed Instantaneous velocity may be positive or negative..W. Johnston.R. Notes by J. Beer and E. v  lim  t 0 t dt x  6t 2  t 3 dx v  12t  3t 2 dt ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P.W. From the definition of a derivative. Oler) 16 Johnston.R. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .

v Instantaneous Acceleration  a  lim t  0  t ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.R.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F.W. Notes by J.R. Beer and E. Johnston.W. Notes by J. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .P. Instantaneous Acceleration Consider a particle with velocity v at time t and v’ at t + Δt. Oler) 17 Johnston. Beer and E.

Johnston. Beer and E.W. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Instantaneous Acceleration Instantaneous acceleration may be: . Beer and E.P. Notes by J.R. Notes by J.positive: increasing positive velocity or decreasing negative velocity ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) 18 Johnston. Kinematics of Particles (by F.R.W.P.

Instantaneous Acceleration Instantaneous acceleration may be: . Kinematics of Particles (by F.R. Notes by J. Oler) 19 Johnston. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Beer and E. Johnston. Notes by J.W.negative: decreasing positive velocity or increasing negative velocity ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P.P. Beer and E.W.R.

Beer and E. Kinematics of Particles (by F.W.R. Oler) 20 Johnston.P.W. Notes by J. Johnston. Beer and E. Notes by J.g. v  12t  3t 2 dv a  12  6t dt ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .P.R. v dv d 2 x a  lim   2 t 0 t dt dt e. Instantaneous Acceleration From the definition of a derivative.

Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Johnston.R. Beer and E. Rectilinear Motion ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Beer and E.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Notes by J. Notes by J. Oler) 21 Johnston.P.P.W.R.

• Typically. the conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration experienced by the particle.R. Oler) 22 Johnston.acceleration given as a function of time. Notes by J. Beer and E. Non-uniformly Accelerated Motion • Recall: The motion of a particle is known if its position is known for all time t. Notes by J.P.acceleration given as a function of velocity. a = f (t) . a = f (x) .W.W.acceleration given as a function of position. a = f (v) ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Determination of velocity and position requires two successive integrations. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Kinematics of Particles (by F. Johnston. Beer and E.R.P. • Three classes of motion may be defined for: .

P. Johnston. Oler) 23 Johnston.R. Beer and E. a = f (t): v t  t t  a  f t  dv  f t  dt  dv   f t  dt vt   v0   f t  dt dv dt v0 0 0 t vt   v0   f t  dt 0 x t  t t  vt  dx  vt  dt  dx   vt  dt xt   x0   vt  dt dx dt x0 0 0 t xt   x0   vt  dt 0 ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F.R.P. Beer and E.W. Notes by J. Notes by J. Non-uniformly Accelerated Motion Acceleration given as a function of time. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .

Notes by J. Non-uniformly Accelerated Motion Acceleration given as a function of position. a = f (x):  f x  dx dx dv dv v or dt  a or a  v dt v dt dx vx  x x v dv  f  x dx  v dv   f x dx vx   12 v   f x dx 1 2 2 2 0 v0 x0 x0 x v x   v02  2  f  x dx 2 x0 ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) 24 Johnston. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .R.P. Beer and E. Notes by J. Johnston.W.P. Beer and E.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F.R.

Oler) 25 Johnston.R.R. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Beer and E.W. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Non-uniformly Accelerated Motion Acceleration given as a function of velocity. Notes by J. Johnston. Beer and E. a = f (v): v t  t  a  f v  dv dv dv dt f v   dt  v0   dt f v  0 v t  dv  v0 f v  t x t  v t   a  f v  dv v dv v dv v dx dx  f v  x0  dx   v0 f v  v t  xt   x0  v dv  v0 f v  v t  xt   x0  v dv  v0 f v  ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.W. Notes by J.P.P.

R. Notes by J. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. x (t). the piston moves and the oil is forced through the orifices in the piston.W. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .W. Beer and E. Beer and E.P. and v (x). Sample Problem 1 The brake mechanism used to reduce a gun recoil consists of a piston attached to a barrel moving in the fixed cylinder filled with oil. Johnston. As the barrel recoils with an initial velocity v0. Notes by J. Determine v (t). Kinematics of Particles (by F. causing a  kv the piston and the cylinder to decelerate at a rate proportional to their velocities.R.P. Oler) 26 Johnston.

Oler) 27 Johnston. Uniform Rectilinear Motion For a particle in uniform rectilinear motion.W. Beer and E. dx  v  constant dt x t  dx  v  dt x0 0 x  x0  vt x  x0  vt ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. the acceleration is zero and the velocity is constant. Notes by J.P. Beer and E.R.R.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Johnston. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Notes by J.P.

R. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Notes by J. Johnston. Beer and E.W. Notes by J. Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion For a particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion. the acceleration of the particle is constant. Beer and E. v t dv  a  constant  dv  a  dt v  v0  at dt v0 0 v  v0  at x t dx dt  v0  at  dx   v0  at dt x  x0  v0t  12 at 2 x0 0 x  x0  v0t  12 at 2 v 2  v02   ax  x0  v x dv v  a  constant  v dv  a  dx 1 2 dx v0 x0 v 2  v02  2a x  x0  ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P.R. Oler) 28 Johnston.P.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F.

P. Beer and E. Johnston. At the same instant.W. an open-platform elevator passes the 5 m level moving upward at 2 m/s. Kinematics of Particles (by F.W. Beer and E.R. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Sample Problem 2 A ball is thrown vertically from the 12 m level in the elevator shaft with an initial velocity of 18 m/s. Oler) 29 Johnston. Notes by J. Determine when and where the ball hits the elevator.P. Notes by J.R.

P. Beer and E. Find its initial velocity and its constant acceleration. Notes by J.R.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.46) A train moving with a constant acceleration travels 7 m/s during the 10th sec of its motion and 5 m/s during the 12th sec of its motion. Beer and E.R.W. Quiz (Prob 11. Johnston. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .W. Oler) 30 Johnston. Notes by J.

P. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Oler) 31 Johnston.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F.P.R. Johnston. Beer and E.W.R. Beer and E. Rectilinear Motion END OF LECTURE ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Notes by J. Notes by J.

Beer and E. The driver takes one second to react before he applies the brakes. Rectilinear Morion Example The car is traveling at 48 km/h when the traffic light 90 m ahead turns yellow. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .R. Beer and E.R.P. Oler) 32 Johnston.W. Johnston. Notes by J. Notes by J. (a) After he applies the brakes.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F. what constant rate of deceleration will cause the car to come to a stop just as it reached the light? (b) How long does it take the car to travel the 90 m? ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P.

Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . you are expected to: 1. distance. displacement. 3. with time. Beer and E. Johnston. Identify the particle model in a given problem. Beer and E.R. uniformly accelerated.P. and acceleration. velocity. 2. displacement. Oler) 33 Johnston. Classify rectilinear motion into uniform. and 4. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. and non-uniformly accelerated. Notes by J. Notes by J. Calculate position.P. or acceleration for a rectilinear motion problem.R.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F. velocity.W. Define and relate position. Checklist At the end of the lecture. speed.

P. 34 Johnston.P.R. Beer and E. Johnston.W. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Maxell P. Lecture 2 CURVILINEAR MOTION Use of Rectangular Components Engr. Notes by J. Lumbera Kinematics of Particles (by F.R. Notes by J. Beer and E.W. Oler) ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.

Beer and E.P.W. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .R. velocity. Distinguish curvilinear motion from rectilinear motion 2. and acceleration. Notes by J. Johnston. with time. Analyze projectile motion in terms of horizontal and vertical components ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Lesson Objectives At the end of the lecture. Notes by J. Beer and E. Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Define and relate position. displacement.R. Oler) 35 Johnston. you are expected to: 1.W. 3.

W. Notes by J.R. Curvilinear Motion A particle moving along a curve other than a straight line is in curvilinear motion. Johnston. Notes by J. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.R.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) 36 Johnston. Beer and E. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .W.P. Beer and E.

Johnston. Oler) 37 Johnston.R. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Notes by J.P. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Beer and E.R.P. Curvilinear Motion The position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a vector between the origin O of a fixed reference frame and the position occupied by the particle. Notes by J.W. Beer and E.W.

Oler) 38 Johnston. Beer and E. Beer and E.R.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Notes by J. Curvilinear Motion The position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a vector between the origin O of a fixed reference frame and the position occupied by the particle.W.R. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Johnston.W.P. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Notes by J.

W. Kinematics of Particles (by F.P.P.    r d r v  lim  t  0 t dt  Instantaneous Velocity (vector) s ds v  lim  t  0 t dt  Instantaneous Speed (scalar) ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Notes by J. Johnston. Notes by J. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .W.R. Beer and E. Curvilinear Motion  a particle which occupies Consider  position P defined by r at time t and P’ defined by r  at t + Δt. Oler) 39 Johnston. Beer and E.R.

P. Beer and E.    v dv a  lim  t 0 t dt  Instantaneous Acceleration (vector) ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Johnston. Beer and E. Oler) 40 Johnston. Notes by J.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Notes by J.W.W. Curvilinear Motion   Consider velocity v of the particle at time t and velocity v  at t + Δt.R.R.

R.P. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Beer and E. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Johnston. Oler) 41 Johnston. Curvilinear Motion In general. Beer and E.R.W. the acceleration vector is not tangent to the particle path and the velocity vector.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Notes by J. Notes by J.P.

Notes by J. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Notes by J.W.     dP P Pu  u   Pu   lim  lim du u 0 u u 0 u ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Preliminary: Vector Functions Let P(u) be a vector function of scalar variable u. Beer and E. Beer and E.W.P. Johnston.P. Oler) 42 Johnston.R.R. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .

Notes by J. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Notes by J. Beer and E. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Preliminary: Vector Functions Derivative of vector  sum.P.   d  f P  df  dP  P f du du du Derivative of scalar  product   and vector  product. Johnston.P.R. Oler) 43 Johnston.R.W.W. Beer and E.    d P  Q  dP dQ   du du du Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions. d P  Q  dP   dQ  Q  P du du du     d P  Q  dP   dQ  Q  P du du du ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.

P.  dx  dy  dz     v  i  j  k  xi  y j  zk dt dt dt     vx i  v y j  vz k ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .R. Notes by J. Beer and E.W. Rectangular Components When the position vector of the particle P is given by its rectangular components. Oler) 44 Johnston.P. Notes by J. Johnston.     r  xi  y j  zk the velocity vector is then given by. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Beer and E.R.W.

 d 2 x d 2 y  d 2 z     a  2 i  2 j  2 k  xi  y j  zk dt dt dt     ax i  a y j  az k ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. Beer and E. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Johnston. Beer and E. Notes by J.R.W. Kinematics of Particles (by F.R.P.W. Rectangular Components and the acceleration vector is expressed as. Oler) 45 Johnston. Notes by J.P.

Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Notes by J.P. Beer and E. (e.W. Projectile Motion Rectangular components are particularly effective when the component accelerations can be integrated independently. z0  0 vz 0  0 ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.R. Johnston.g..W. Kinematics of Particles (by F.R. Beer and E.P. motion of a projectile) a x  x  0 a y  y   g a z  z  0 with initial conditions. Oler) 46 Johnston. Notes by J.

Beer and E. Notes by J.P. Projectile Motion Integrating twice yields v x  v x 0 v y  v y 0  gt vz  0 x  x 0  v x 0 t y  y 0  v y 0 t  12 gt 2 z0 • Motion in the horizontal direction is uniform. Oler) 47 Johnston. Johnston. Notes by J.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F.W. Beer and E. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .R. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. • Motion of the projectile could be replaced by two independent rectilinear motions. • Motion in the vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.W.R.

P.P.R. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Notes by J. Notes by J. Sample Problem 1 A sack slides off the ramp with a horizontal velocity of 12 m/s. Johnston. determine the time needed for the sack to strike the floor and the range R where sacks begin to pile up. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.W. Beer and E. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) 48 Johnston. Beer and E.R. If the height of the ramp is 6 m from the floor.W.

Sample Problem 2 A projectile is fired with a speed v = 60 m/s at an angle of 60o.R. Beer and E. Notes by J.y) will this happen? ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F. A second projectile is then fired with the same speed 0. At what position (x.P. Kinematics of Particles (by F. Oler) 49 Johnston.P. Beer and E. Notes by J. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .R.5 s later.W. Determine the angle ϴ of the second projectile so that the two projectiles collide. Johnston.W.

Notes by J. Kinematics of Particles (by F. assuming that the ice will not melt throughout its motion. Beer and E.P. Take note that the target is to hit the bucket. Quiz (Exam Problem 1-14-15) An ES 12 student (at point B) challenges his instructor (at point A) in a different Ice Bucket Challenge. standing 15 m from the building will throw a block of ice at the instant the bucket is released. with an initial speed vo at an angle θ from the horizontal. Beer and E. The block of ice will be thrown at a height of 2 m from the ground. Determine the angle θ. the student will stand on top of a building and will release a bucket from rest 20 m above the base of the building as shown His instructor. Oler) 50 Johnston. Neglect air resistance. ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.P.R.W. Johnston. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 .R. In this challenge. Notes by J.W.

Beer and E. Oler) First Semester AY 2015-2016 . Kinematics of Particles (by F.P. Beer and E.W. Oler) 51 Johnston. Notes by J.P.W. Curvilinear Motion: Rectangular Components END OF LECTURE ES 12 Dynamics of Rigid Bodies Kinematics of Particles (by F.R.R. Notes by J. Johnston.