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CODESandSTANDARDS Piping
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ForPipingSystemsproperselectionofMaterialofConstructionalongwithSpecifications, P&IDiagrams
AdherencetoCodesandStandardsisessential.Standardizationreducescost,confusionand 2DPiping
inconvenience. Standards are published by Professional Societies, Committees and Trade 3DPiping
Organizations. It is also accepted by Governments. The main objective is to have Models
StandardizationandSafety.
LISPTraining
CODE:AgroupofgeneralrulesorsystematicproceduresforDesign,Fabrication, PipingTraining
InstallationandInspectionmethodspreparedinsuchamannerthatitcanbeadopted
bylegaljurisdictionandmadeintoalaw. DesignInfo
Tubular
STANDARDS:DocumentspreparedbyaProfessionalgrouporCommitteewhich Exchanger
are believed to be good and proper Engineering Practices and which contain Agitator/Mixer
mandatoryrequirement.
Design&
RECOMMENDED PRACTICES : Documents prepared by professional group or Drawings
committeeindicatingGoodEngineeringPracticesbutwhichareoptional. Tubular
Exchanger
CompaniesalsodevelopGuidesinordertohaveconsistencyinthedocumentation.These Agitator/Mixer
covervariousengineeringmethodswhichareconsideredgoodpractices,withoutspecific ZeroHoldup
recommendationsorrequirements. Filter
ProcessVessel
CodesandStandards,besidesbeingregulations,mightalsobeconsideredasDesignAids JibCrane
sincetheyprovideguidancefromexperts.
AboutMe
Each country has its own Codes and Standards. On global basis, American National MyResume
Standardsarethemostwidelyusedandcompliancewiththoserequirementsareaccepted ContactMe
worldover.InIndia,otherthanAmericanStandards,BritishandIndianStandardsarealso
usedfordesignandselectionofPipingSystems. CrossCountry
Piping
1.AMERICANSTANDARDS:
Not all American Standards are issued directly by American National Standards
Institute. The Material Standards are covered under ASTM (American Society for
Testing and Materials) and Dimension Standards under ANSI (American National
Standards Institute). Most of these Standards are adapted by ASME (American
SocietyforMechanicalEngineers).
TheAmericanStandardsreferredbyPipingEngineersare:

The American Petroleum Institute (API) : The Standards referred by Piping


Engineersare:

1.API5LSpecificationforLinePipe
2.API6DPipeLineValves,EndClosures,ConnectorsandSwivels
3.API6FRecommendedPracticeforFireTestforvalves
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4.API593DuctileIronPlugValvesFlangedEnds
5.API598ValveInspectionandTest
6.API600SteelGateValves
7.API601MetallicGasketsforRefineryPiping
8.API602CompactDesignCarbonSteelGateValves
9.API604DuctileIronGateValvesFlangedEnds
10.API605LargeDiameterCarbonSteelFlanges
11.API607FireTestforSoftSeatedBallValves
12.API609ButterflyValves
13.API1104StandardforWeldingPipelineandFacilities

TheAmericanIronandSteelInstitute(AISI):Thesespecifythematerialby
itsChemicalandPhysicalproperties.Whenspecificmodelofmanufactureof
theelementisnottobespecified,thenthematerialcanbeidentifiedbyANSI
Standards.ThemostcommonlyusedAISIspecificationsare:

1.AISI41013%ChromiumAlloySteel
2.AISI30418/8AusteniticStainlessSteel
3.AISI31618/8/3AusteniticStainlessSteel

American National Standard Institute (ANSI) and The American Society for
MechanicalEngineers(ASME):TheAmericanNationalStandardsInstitute's
standardsusedinthedesignofthePipingSystemsare:

1.B31.1 2001 Power Piping: Piping for industrial plants and marine
applications.Thiscodeprescribesminimumrequirementsforthedesign,
materials, fabrication, erection, test, and inspection of power and
auxiliary service piping systems for electric generation stations,
industrialinstitutionalplants,centralanddistrictheatingplants.
The code covers boiler external piping for power boilers and high
temperature, high pressure water boilers in which steam or vapor is
generatedatapressureofmorethan15poundspersquareinch(PSIG)
or1Kgpersquarecentimeters,andhightemperaturewaterisgenerated
at pressures exceeding 160 pounds per square inch (PSIG) or 12.5 Kg
per square centimeters and / or temperatures exceeding 250 degrees F.
(120degreesC.)

2.B31.21968FuelGasPiping:ThishasbeenwithdrawnasaNational
Standard and replaced by ANSI/NFPA Z223.1, but B31.2 is still
available from ASME and is a good reference for the design of gas
pipingsystems(fromthemetertotheappliance).

3.B31.3 2002 Process Piping : Design of chemical and petroleum


plantsandrefineriesprocessingchemicalsandhydrocarbons,waterand
steam.ThisCodecontainsrulesforpipingtypicallyfoundinpetroleum
refineries chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and
cryogenicplantsandrelatedprocessingplantsandterminals.
This Code prescribes requirements for materials and components,
design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and
testingofpiping.ThisCodeappliestopipingforallfluidsincluding:

Raw,intermediate,andfinishedchemicals
Petroleumproducts
Gas,steam,airandwater
Fluidizedsolids
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Fluidizedsolids
Refrigerants
Cryogenicfluids

Also included is piping which interconnects pieces or stages within a


packagedequipmentassembly.
TheprincipaldesigncodesusedforpipingdesignaretheANSI/ASME
B31.1(Code for Power Piping) and ANSI/ASME B31.3 (Code for
ProcessPiping).ComplementingthesecodesareASMEVIII(Codefor
PressureVessel)andBritishStandardBS5500forunfiredfusionwelded
pressurevessel.
ThebasicconsiderationofB31.1Codeissafety.Itincludes:
a.Materialandcomponentstandards
b.Designationofdimensionalstandardsforelementsofpipingsystem
c.Requirementsfordesignofcomponents,includingsupports
d.Requirementsforevaluationandlimitationofstresses,reactionsand
movementsassociatedwithpressure,temperaturesandexternalforces
e.Requirementsforfabrication,assemblyanderection
f.Requirementsfortestingandinspectionbeforeandafterassembly.
Pipes: For pipes, the materials used in geothermal application are
normally A53B, A106B and API 5LB pipe , with mill tolerance.
Commercial available pipes normally have a mill tolerance of 12.5%
andpipeschedulenumbersbasedinB36.10.
Fittings:Forelbows,tees,andreducers,thematerialusedingeothermal
application is normally A234 WPB. All dimensions are in accordance
withB16.9.FlangesandvalvesratingFlangesareratedtoANSIB16.5
standard, For those up to 24 diameter, they are rated to ANSI 150,
ANSI 300, ANSI 600 and ANSI 900. For flanges of 26 and bigger ,
ANSI B16.47 applies. The flanges are usually classified series A and
seriesB.ThematerialusedfortheseflangesareA181gradeIandA105
gradeI.Valveratingissimilartotheflangeratingselectedforthepipe.

4.B31.4 2002 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid


Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids : This Code prescribes requirements
forthedesign,materials,construction,assembly,inspection,andtesting
of piping transporting liquids such as crude oil, condensate, natural
gasoline, natural gas liquids, liquefied petroleum gas, carbon dioxide,
liquidalcohol,liquidanhydrousammoniaandliquidpetroleumproducts
between producers' lease facilities, tank farms, natural gas processing
plants, refineries, stations, ammonia plants, terminals (marine, rail and
truck)andotherdeliveryandreceivingpoints.
Pipingconsistsofpipe,flanges,bolting,gaskets,valves,reliefdevices,
fittingsandthepressurecontainingpartsofotherpipingcomponents.It
alsoincludeshangersandsupports,andotherequipmentitemsnecessary
topreventoverstressingthepressurecontainingparts.Itdoesnotinclude
support structures such as frames of buildings, buildings stanchions or
foundations.

5.B31.5 2001 Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components :


ThisCodeprescribesrequirementsforthematerials,design,fabrication,
assembly, erection, test, and inspection of refrigerant, heat transfer
components, and secondary coolant piping for temperatures as low as
320 deg F (196 deg C), whether erected on the premises or factory
assembled,exceptasspecificallyexcludedinthefollowingparagraphs.
Users are advised that other piping Code Sections may provide
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requirements for refrigeration piping in their respective jurisdictions.


ThisCodeshallnotapplyto:

1.anyselfcontainedorunitsystemssubjecttotherequirementsof
Underwriters Laboratories or other nationally recognized testing
laboratory.

2.waterpiping

3.piping designed for external or internal gage pressure not


exceeding15psi(105kPa)regardlessofsize

4.pressure vessels, compressors, or pumps, but does include all


connectingrefrigerantandsecondarycoolantpipingstartingatthe
firstjointadjacenttosuchapparatus.

6.B31.82003GasTransmissionandDistributionPipingSystems:This
Codecoversthedesign,fabrication,installation,inspection,andtesting
of pipeline facilities used for the transportation of gas. This Code also
covers safety aspects of the operation and maintenance of those
facilities.

7.B31.8S2001 2002 Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines :


This Standard applies to onshore pipeline systems constructed with
ferrousmaterialsandthattransportgas.Pipelinesystemmeansallparts
of physical facilities through which gas is transported, including pipe,
valves, appurtenances attached to pipe, compressor units, metering
stations, regulator stations, delivery stations, holders and fabricated
assemblies. The principles and processes embodied in integrity
management are applicable to all pipeline systems. This Standard is
specificallydesigned to provide the operator (as defined in section 13)
with the information necessary to develop and implement an effective
integrity management program utilizing proven industry practices and
processes. The processes and approaches within this Standard are
applicabletotheentirepipelinesystem.

8.B31.91996BuildingServicesPiping:ThisCodeSectionhasrules
for the piping in industrial, institutional, commercial and public
buildings,andmultiunitresidences,whichdoesnotrequiretherangeof
sizes, pressures, and temperatures covered in B31.1. This Code
prescribes requirements for the design, materials, fabrication,
installation, inspection, examination and testing of piping systems for
buildingservices.Itincludespipingsystemsinthebuildingorwithinthe
propertylimits.

9.B31.11 2002 Slurry Transportation Piping Systems : Design,


construction,inspection,securityrequirementsofslurrypipingsystems.
Covers piping systems that transport aqueous slurries of no hazardous
materials, such as coal, mineral ores and other solids between a slurry
processingplantandthereceivingplant.

Oftheabove,themostcommonlyusedcodeisASMEB31.3.Refineriesand
ChemicalPlantsaredesignedbasedonthesame.AllPowerPlantsare
designedasperASMEB31.1.OthermajorANSI/ASMEStandardsrefereed
forthepipingelementsare:
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1.ANSIB1.1UnifiedInchScrewThreads
2.ANSI/ASMEB1.20.1Pipethreadsforgeneralpurposes
3.ANSI/ASMEB16.1CastIronPipeFlangesandFlangedFittings
4.ANSI/ASMEB16.3MalleableIronThreadedFittings
5.ANSI/ASMEB16.4CastIronThreadedFittings
6.ANSI/ASMEB16.5SteelPipeFlangesandFlangedFittings
7.ANSI/ASMEB16.9SteelButtWeldingFittings
8.ANSI/ASMEB16.10FacetoFaceandEndtoEnddimensionsof
Valves
9.ANSI/ASMEB16.11ForgedSteelSocketWeldingandThreaded
fittings
10.ANSIB16.20MetallicGasketsforPipeFlangesringjoint,spiral
wound
11.ANSI/ASMEB16.21NonMetallicGasketsforPipeFlanges
12.ANSI/ASMEB16.25ButtWeldingEnds
13.ANSI/ASMEB16.28ShortRadiusElbowsandReturns
14.ANSI/ASMEB16.34SteelValves,Flangedandbuttweldingends
15.ANSI/ASMEB16.42DuctileIronPipeFlangesandFlangedFittings
Class150#and300#
16.ANSI/ASMEB16.47LargeDiameterSteelFlangesNPS26"to
60"
17.ANSI/ASMEB18.21and2SquareandHexagonalheadBoltsand
Nuts(Inchandmm)
18.ANSI/ASMEB36.10WeldedandSeamlessWroughtSteelPipes
19.ANSI/ASMEB36.19WeldedandSeamlessAustiniticStainlessSteel
Pipe

AmericanSocietyforTestingMaterials(ASTM):Theseconsistof16sections
on definitions and classifications of materials of construction and Test
methods. Most of the ASTM Standards are adapted by ASME and are
specifiedinASMESectionII.TheSectionIIhasfourparts.

PartAFerrousMaterials
PartBNonFerrousMaterials
PartCWeldingMaterials
PartDPropertiesofMaterials

InSectionII,thematerialsarelistedintheindexbasedontheavailableforms
suchasplates,castings,tubesetc.,andalsoonthenumericalindex.
The selection of ASTM Specification depends on the manufacturer, form of
material,itsmechanicalstrengthandcorrosionproperties.
ThespecificationnumberisgivenanAlphabeticalprefix"A"forferrousand
"B"fornonferrousmaterials.
ASTM also specifies standard practice for numbering metal and alloys as
UnifiedNumberingSystem.
UnifiedNumberingSystem(UNS)establishes18seriesnumbersofmetalsand
alloys. Each UNS number consists of a single letter prefix followed by 5
digits. In most cases the alphabet is suggestive of the family of the metal
identified.

A00001A99999AluminumandAluminumalloys
C00001C99999CopperandCopperAlloys
E00001E99999Rareearthandrareearthlikemetalsandalloys
L00001L99999LowMeltingmetalsandalloys
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M00001M99999Miscellaneousnonferrousmetalsandalloys
N00001N99999NickelandNickelAlloys
P00001P99999PreciousMetalsandAlloys
R00001R99999ReactiveandRefractorymetalsandalloys
Z00001Z99999Zincandzincalloys
D00001D99999SpecifiedmechanicalpropertiesofSteel
F00001F99999CastIronandCastSteel
G00001G99999AISIandASECarbonandalloysteels
H00001H99999AISIHSteels
J00001J99999CastSteel
K00001K99999MiscellaneousSteelsandFerrousalloys
S00001S99999StainlessSteel
T00001T99999ToolSteel
W00001W99999WeldingFillerMetalsandElectrodes

American Welding Society (AWS) : These standards provide information on


theweldingfundamentals,welddesign,welder'strainingqualifications,testing
andinspectionoftheweldsandguidanceontheapplicationanduseofwelds.
Individualelectrodemanufacturershavegiventheirownbrandnamesforthe
variouselectrodesandthesamearesoldunderthesenames.

American Water Works Association (AWWA) : These standards refer to the


piping elements required for low pressure water services. These are less
stringentthanotherstandards.Valves,Flangesetc.,requiredforlargediameter
water pipelines are covered under this standard and are refereed rarely by
pipingengineers.

C500:GateValvesforWaterandsewagesystem
C504:RubberSeatedButterflyValves
C507:BallValves6"to48"
C508:SwingCheckValves2"to24"
C509:ResilientSeatedGateValvesforwaterandsewage
C510:CastIronSluiceGateValves

The manufacturers Standardization Society of Valves and Fitting Industry


StandardPractices(MSSSP):Inadditiontotheabovestandardsandmaterial
codes, there are standard practices followed by manufacturers. These are
publishedasadvisory standards and are widely followed. The most common
MSSSPstandardsreferredforpipingare:

MSSSP6:StandardFinishesforcontactsurfaceforflanges
MSSSP25:Standardmarkingsystemforvalves,fittings,flanges
MSSSP42:Class150corrosionresistantgate,globeandcheckvalves
MSSSP43:Wroughtstainlesssteelbuttweldfittings
MSSSP56:PipehangersupportsMaterial,designandmanufacture
MSSSP61:Pressuretestingofvalves
MSSSP67:ButterflyValves
MSSSP68:HighPressureoffseatbutterflyvalves
MSSSP69:Pipehangersupportsselectionandapplications
MSSSP70:Castirongatevalves
MSSSP71:Castironcheckvalves
MSSSP72:BallValves
MSSSP78:Castironplugvalves
MSSSP80:Bronzegate,globeandcheckvalves
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MSSSP81:Stainlesssteelbonnetlessknifegatevalves
MSSSP83:Pipeunions
MSSSP85:Castironglobevalves
MSSSP88:Diaphragmvalves
MSSSP89:Pipehangersandsupportsfabricationandinstallation
practices
MSSSP90:Pipehangersandsupportsguidelinesonterminology
MSSSP92:MSSvalvesuserguide
MSSSP108:ResilientseatedeccentricCIplugvalves

2.BRITISHSTANDARDS:Inmanyinstances,itispossibletofindaBritishStandard
which may be substitutes for American Standards. For example, BS 2080 (British
Standard for Face to Face or End to End dimensions of valves) is identical to
ANSI/ASMEB16.10.SimilarlyBS3799andANSI/ASMEB16.11alsocompare.
TherearecertainBritishStandardsreferredbyIndianManufacturersforPipingand
Valves.ThemostcommonlyreferredBritishStandardsinthePipingIndustryare:

BS10:Flanges
BS806:PipesandFittingsforBoilers
BS916:BlackBolts,NutsandScrews
BS970:SteelforForging,Bars,Rods,valvesteel,etc.
BS1212:SpecificationforFloatOperatedValves
BS1306:CopperandCopperalloypressurepipingsystem
BS1414:GateValvesforPetroleumIndustry
BS1560:SteelPipeFlanges
BS1600:DimensionsofSteelPipes
BS1640:ButtWeldingFittings
BS1740:WroughtSteelscrewedpipefittings
BS1868:SteelCheckValvesforPetroleumIndustry
BS1873:SteelGlobeandCheckValvesforPetroleumIndustry
BS1965:Buttweldingpipefittings
BS2080:FacetoFace/EndtoEnddimensionsofValves
BS2598:GlassPipelinesandFittings
BS3059:BoilerandSuperheaterTubes
BS3063:DimensionsofGasketsforPipeFlanges
BS3381:MetallicSpiralWoundGaskets
BS3600:DimensionsofWeldedandSeamlessPipesandTubes
BS3601:C.S.PipesandTubesforpressurepurposesatroom
temperature
BS3602:C.S.PipesandTubesforpressurepurposesathigh
temperature
BS3603:C.S.andAlloySteelPipesandTubesforpressure
purposesatlowtemperature
BS3604:AlloySteelPipesandTubesforhightemperature
BS3605:SSPipesandTubesforpressurepurposes
BS3799:SocketWeld/ScrewedFittings
BS3974:Pipehangers,SlidesandRollertypesupports
BS4346:PVCpressurepipejointsandfittings
BS4504:Steel,CastIronandCopperalloyfittings
BS5150:CastIronWedgeandDoubleDiscGateValvesfor
generalpurposes
BS5151:CastIronGate(parallelslide)Valvesforgeneral
purposes
BS5152:CastIronGlobeandCheckValvesforgeneralpurposes
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BS5153:CastIronCheckValvesforgeneralpurposes
BS5154:CopperalloyGlobe,GateandCheckValves
BS5155:CastIronandCastSteelButterflyValvesforgeneral
purposes
BS5156:DiaphragmValvesforgeneralpurposes
BS5157:SteelGate(parallelslide)Valvesforgeneralpurposes
BS5158:CastIronandCastSteelPlugValvesforgeneral
purposes
BS5159:CastIronandCastSteelBallValvesforgeneral
purposes
BS5160:FlangedSteelGlobeandCheckValvesforgeneral
purposes
BS5163:FlangedCastIronWedgeGateValvesforgeneral
purposes
BS5351:SteelBallValvesforPetroleumIndustry
BS5352:SteelGate,GlobeandCheckValves,smallerthan2"
NB
BS5353:SpecificationsforPlugValves
BS5391:SpecificationsforABSpressurepipes
BS5392:SpecificationsforABSfittings
BS5433:Specificationsforundergroundstopvalvesforwater
services
BS5480:SpecificationsforGRPpipesandfittings
BS6364:SpecificationsforValvesforCryogenicservices
BS6755:TestingofValves
BS6759:SafetyValves

3.INDIAN STANDARDS : Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) have so far not


developed an Indian Standard for the design of Piping Systems. Hence, ANSI
StandardsASME31.1and31.3arewidelyusedforthedesign.Thesestandardsalso
accept materials covered in other standards. Unlike American Standards, Indian
Standards cover dimensions and material specifications under the same standard
number.Therearenogroupingsbasedonbranchofengineering.Someofthemost
commonlyreferredIndianStandardsbyPipingEngineersare:

IS210:GreyIronCastings
IS226:StructuralSteel(supersededbyIS2062)
IS554:DimensionsofPipeThreads
IS778:SpecificationforCopperAlloyGate,GlobeandCheckValves
IS780:SpecificationforSluiceValves50NBto300NB
IS1239(PartIandII):SpecificationforMildSteeltubesandfittings
IS1363:HexagonalBolts,ScrewsandnutsGradeC
IS1364:HexagonalBolts,ScrewsandnutsGradeAandB
IS1367:Technicalsupplyconditionsforthreadedsteelfastners
IS1536:CentrifugallyCastIronPipes
IS1537:VerticallyCastIronPipes
IS1538:CastIronFittings
IS1870:ComparisonofIndianandOverseasStandards
IS1879:MalleableIronPipeFittings
IS1978:LinePipe
IS1979:HighTestLinePipe
IS2002:SteelPlates
IS2016:PlainWashers

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IS2041:SteelPlatesforPressureVesselsusedatmoderateandlow
temperature
IS2062:Steelforgeneralstructuralpurposes
IS2379:ColorCodeforIdentificationofPipelines
IS2712:CompressedAsbestosFiberJointing
IS2825:CodeforUnfiredPressureVessels
IS2906:SpecificationforSluiceValves350NBto1200NB
IS3076:SpecificationforLDPEPipes
IS3114:CodeofPracticeforlayingpipes
IS3516:CastIronflangesandflangedfittingsforPetroleumIndustry
IS3589:SeamlessorERWPipes(150NBto2000NB)
IS4038:SpecificationsforFootValves
IS4179:Sizesforpressurevesselsandleadingdimensions
IS4853:RadiographicExaminationofButtWeldJointsinpipes
IS4864toIS4870:ShellFlangesforvesselsandequipments
IS4984:SpecificationforHDPEPipes
IS4985:SpecificationforPVCPipes
IS5312:SpecificationforCheckValves
IS5572:ClassificationofHazardousareaforElectricalInstallation
IS5822:Codeofpracticeforlayingweldedsteelpipes
IS6157:InspectionandTestingofValve
IS6286:SeamlessandWeldedpipesforSubzerotemperatures
IS6392:SteelPipeFlanges
IS6630:Seamlessalloysteelpipesforhightemperatureservice
IS6913:StainlessSteeltubesforfoodandbeverageindustry
IS7181:Horizontallycastironpipes
IS7240:CodeofPracticeforColdInsulation
IS7413:CodeofPracticeforHotInsulation
IS7719:Metallicspiralwoundgaskets
IS7806:StainlessSteelCastings
IS7899:AlloySteelcastingsforpressureservices
IS8008:SpecificationformoldedHDPEFittings
IS8360:SpecificationforfabricatedHDPEFittings
IS9890:BallValvesforgeneralpurposes
IS10221:CodeofPracticeforcoatingandwrappingofundergroundMS
pipelines
IS10592:Eyewashandsafetyshowers
IS10605:SteelGlobeValvesforPetroleumIndustries
IS10611:SteelGateValvesforPetroleumIndustries
IS10711:SizeofDrawingSheets
IS10805:FootValves
IS10989:Cast/ForgedSteelCheckValvesforPetroleumIndustry
IS10990:TechnicaldrawingsSimplifiedrepresentationofpipelines
IS11790:CodeofPracticeforpreparationofButtweldingendsforvalves,
flangesandfittings
IS11791:DiaphragmValvesforgeneralpurposes
IS11792:SteelBallValvesforPetroleumIndustry
IS12709:SpecificationsforGRPpipes
IS13049:SpecificationsforDiaphragmtypefloatoperatedvalves
IS13095:ButterflyValves
IS13257:Ringtypejointgasketandgroovesforflanges

There are certain other international standards, which are also referred in Piping
Industry. These are DIN standards of Germany and JIS standards of Japan. DIN
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standardsaremorepopularandequivalent.
Periodicreviewofthestandardsbythecommitteearedoneandthesearerevisedto
incorporatethemodifiedfeaturesbasedontheresearchandfeedbackfromindustry.
Itis,hence,necessarythatthelatesteditionsofthecodesandstandardsarereferred
forthedesign.

togetalltheinformationasaeBook

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