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Introduction

If we slide or try to slide a body over a surface, the motion is resisted by a bonding between the

body and the surface. This resistance is represented by a single force and is called friction force.

The force of friction is parallel to the surface and opposite to the direction of intended motion.

Types of Friction

(1) Static friction : The opposing force that comes into play when one body R

tends to move over the surface of another, but the actual motion has yet not P

started is called static friction. F

(i) If applied force is P and the body remains at rest then static friction F = P.

(ii) If a body is at rest and no pulling force is acting on it, force of friction on mg

it is zero.

(iii) Static friction is a self-adjusting force because it changes itself in

accordance with the applied force and is always equal to net external force.

(2) Limiting friction : If the applied force is increased, the force of static friction also increases. If

the applied force exceeds a certain (maximum) value, the body starts moving. This maximum value

of static friction upto which body does not move is called limiting friction.

(i) The magnitude of limiting friction between any two bodies in contact is directly proportional to

the normal reaction between them.

Force of static friction Fs s R . But force of maximum static friction is Fmax static or Fl s R

(ii) Direction of the force of limiting friction is always opposite to the direction in which one body is

at the verge of moving over the other

(iii) Coefficient of static friction :

(a) s is called coefficient of static friction and is defined as the ratio of force of limiting friction and

F

normal reaction s

R

(b) Dimension : [ M 0 L0T 0 ]

(c) Unit : It has no unit.

(d) Value of depends on material and nature of surfaces in contact that means whether dry or

wet ; rough or smooth polished or non-polished.

(e) Value of does not depend upon apparent area of contact.

(f) Hence the force of limiting friction is a parameter which decides whether the object will slide over

or not. It is not always equal to force of friction.

(3) Kinetic or dynamic friction : If the applied force is increased further and sets the body in

motion, the friction opposing the motion is called kinetic friction.

(i) Kinetic friction depends upon the normal reaction.

Fk R or Fk k R where k is called the coefficient of kinetic friction

(ii) Value of k depends upon the nature of surface in contact.

(iii) Kinetic friction is always lesser than limiting friction Fk Fl k s i.e. coefficient of kinetic

friction is always less than coefficient of static friction. Thus we require more force to start a

motion than to maintain it against friction. This is because once the motion starts actually ; inertia

of rest has been overcome. Also when motion has actually started, irregularities of one surface

have little time to get locked again into the irregularities of the other surface.

(iv) Kinetic friction does not depend upon the velocity of the body (provided velocity should not be

too large).

(v) Types of kinetic friction

(a) Sliding friction : The opposing force that comes into play when one body is actually sliding over

the surface of the other body is called sliding friction. e.g. A flat block is moving over a horizontal

table.

(b) Rolling friction : When objects such as a wheel (disc or ring), sphere or a cylinder rolls over a

surface, the force of friction that comes into play is called rolling friction.

*Rolling friction is directly proportional to the normal reaction (R) and inversely proportional to the

radius (r) of the rolling cylinder or wheel.

R

Frolling r

r

r is called coefficient of rolling friction. It would have the dimensions of length and would be

measured in metre.

* Rolling friction is often quite small as compared to the sliding friction. That is why heavy loads

are transported by placing them on carts with wheels.

* In rolling the surfaces at contact do not rub each other.

* The velocity of point of contact with respect to the surface remains zero all the times although the

centre of the wheel moves forward.

Graph Between Applied Force and Force of Friction

A

(1) Part OA of the curve represents static friction ( Fs ) . Its value C

Force of friction

B

increases linearly with the applied force Fs

(2) At point A the static friction is maximum. This represent

Fl Fk

limiting friction ( Fl ) .

(3) Beyond A, the force of friction is seen to decrease slightly. The

portion BC of the curve represents the kinetic friction ( Fk ) . O Applied force

(4) As the portion BC of the curve is parallel to x-axis therefore

kinetic friction does not change with the applied force, it remains

constant, whatever be the applied force. S R

Angle of Friction

Angle of friction may be defined as the angle which the resultant of limiting F P

friction and normal reaction makes with the normal reaction.

By definition angle is called the angle of friction

Fl mg

tan

R

tan = s [As we know Fl ]

s

R

or tan 1 ( L )

Hence coefficient of static friction is equal to tangent of the angle of friction.

Resultant Force Exerted by Surface on Block

In the above figure resultant force S F 2 R 2

S ( mg ) 2 (mg ) 2

S mg 2 1

when there is no friction ( 0) S will be minimum

i.e. S = mg

Hence the range of S can be given by, mg S mg 2 1

R F

Angle of Repose

Angle of repose is defined as the angle of the inclined plane with

horizontal such that a body placed on it is just begins to slide. mg sin

By definition, is called the angle of repose.

In limiting condition F mg sin and R mg cos mg cos

mg

So F tan

R

F F

s tan tan [As we know s tan ]

R R

Thus the coefficient of limiting friction is equal to the tangent of angle of repose.

As well as i.e. angle of repose = angle of friction. P

Calculation of Required Force in Different Situation

If W = weight of the body, = angle of friction, tan coefficient of

friction

Then we can calculate required force for different situation in the following

R

manner :

P sin

(1) Minimum pulling force P at an angle from the horizontal

By resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in figure) F P cos

For the condition of equilibrium

F P cos and R W P sin

W

By substituting these value in F R

P cos (W P sin )

P cos sin (W P sin ) [As tan ]

cos

W sin

P

cos ( )

(2) Minimum pushing force P at an angle from the horizontal P

By Resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in the figure)

For the condition of equilibrium

F P cos and R W P sin

By substituting these value in F R

P cos (W P sin )

R

P cos sin (W P sin ) [As tan ]

cos

F P cos

W sin

P

cos ( )

(3) Minimum pulling force P to move the body up on an inclined P sin

W

plane

By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the

plane (as shown in the figure)

R + P sin

P

P cos

F + W sin

W cos

W

**For the condition of equilibrium
**

R P sin W cos

R W cos P sin and F W sin P cos

F P cos W sin

By substituting these values in F R and solving we get

W sin ( )

P

cos ( )

(4) Minimum force to move a body in downward direction along the surface of inclined plane

R + P sin

P F

P cos

+

W cos

W

**By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the plane (as shown in the figure)
**

For the condition of equilibrium

R P sin W cos

R W cos P sin and F P cos W sin

By substituting these values in F R and solving we get

W sin( )

P

cos ( )

(5) Minimum force to avoid sliding of a body down on an inclined plane

P

R + P sin F + P cos

W sin W cos

W

**By Resolving P in the direction of the plane and perpendicular to the plane (as shown in the figure)
**

For the condition of equilibrium

R P sin W cos

R W cos P sin and P cos F W sin

F W sin P cos

By substituting these values in F R and solving we get

sin ( )

P W

cos ( )

(6) Minimum force for motion along horizontal surface and its direction

P

R + P sin

F P cos

Let the force P be applied at an angle with the horizontal.

By resolving P in horizontal and vertical direction (as shown in figure)

For vertical equilibrium

mg

R P sin mg

R mg P sin …(i)

and for horizontal motion

P cos F

i.e. P cos R …(ii)

Substituting value of R from (i) in (ii)

P cos (mg P sin )

mg …(iii)

P

cos sin

For the force P to be minimum (cos sin ) must be maximum i.e. 1

2

d

[cos sin ] 0

d

sin cos 0 1

tan

or tan 1 ( ) angle of friction

i.e. For minimum value of P its angle from the horizontal should be equal to angle of friction

As tan so from the figure, sin

1 2

and cos 1

1 2

By substituting these value in equation (iii)

mg

mg P mg

P min

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 2 1 2

Acceleration of a Block Against Friction R

(1) Acceleration of a block on horizontal surface ma

When body is moving under application of force P, then kinetic friction Fk P

opposes its motion.

Let a is the net acceleration of the body

From the figure

mg

ma P Fk

a P Fk

m

(2) Acceleration of a block sliding down over a rough inclined plane

When angle of inclined plane is more than angle of repose, the body placed on the inclined plane

slides down with an acceleration a. R

F

From the figure ma mg sin F ma

ma mg sin R

ma mg sin mg cos

mg sin mg cos

Acceleration a g [sin cos ] mg

Note : For frictionless inclined plane 0 a g sin . ma

R

(3) Retardation of a block sliding up over a rough inclined plane

When angle of inclined plane is less than angle of repose, then for

the upward motion

ma mg sin F mg cos

mg sin + F

ma mg sin mg cos mg

Retardation a g [sin cos ]

Note : For frictionless inclined plane 0 a g sin

Motion of Two Bodies one Resting on the Other

When a body A of mass m is resting on a body B of mass M then two conditions are possible

(1) A force F is applied to the upper body, (2) A force F is applied to the lower body

m A F

L

M B

**We will discuss above two cases one by one in the following manner:
**

(1) A force F is applied to the upper body, then following four situations are possible

(i) When there is no friction

(a) The body A will move on body B with acceleration (F/m).

aA F / m

(b) The body B will remain at rest

aB 0

(c) If L is the length of B as shown in figure, A will fall from B after time t

2L 2mL 1 2

t As s 2 a t and a F/m

a F

(ii) If friction is present between A and B only and applied force is less than limiting friction

(F < Fl)

(F = Applied force on the upper body, Fl = limiting friction between A and B, Fk = Kinetic friction

between A and B)

(a) The body A will not slide on body B till F Fl i.e. F s mg

(b) Combined system (m + M) will move together with common acceleration a A a B F

M m

(iii) If friction is present between A and B only and applied force is greater than limiting

friction (F > Fl)

In this condition the two bodies will move in the same direction (i.e. of applied force) but with

different acceleration. Here force of kinetic friction k mg will oppose the motion of A while cause the

motion of B.

**F Fk m a A Free body diagram of A
**

F Fk

aA

i.e. m maA

(F k mg )

aA A F

m

Fk

**Free body diagram of B
**

Fk M a B

Fk MaB

aB

i.e. M

FK

mg

aB k B

M

**Note : As both the bodies are moving in the same direction.
**

Acceleration of body A relative to B will be

MF k mg (m M )

a a A aB

mM

So, A will fall from B after time

2L 2 m ML

t

a MF k mg (m M )

(iv) If there is friction between B and floor

(where Fl ( M m) g = limiting friction between B and floor, Fk = kinetic friction between A and B)

B will move only if Fk Fl and then Fk Fl M a B

MaB

FK

B

Fl

However if B does not move then static friction will work (not limiting friction) between body B and

the floor i.e. friction force = applied force (= Fk) not Fl .

(2) A force F is applied to the lower body, then following four situations are possible

(i) When there is no friction

(a) B will move with acceleration (F/M) while A will remain at rest (relative to ground) as there is no

pulling force on A.

F

a B and a A 0

M

(b) As relative to B, A will move backwards with acceleration (F/M) and so will fall from it in time t.

A m

2L 2 ML

t

a F L F

M B

**(ii) If friction is present between A and B only and F < Fl
**

(where F = Pseudo force on body A and Fl = limiting friction between body A and B)

(a) Both the body will move together with common acceleration a F

M m

(b) Pseudo force on the body A,

mF and

F ma Fl s mg

mM

(c) F Fl mF mg F s ( m M ) g

s

mM

So both bodies will move together with acceleration a A a B F if F s [m M ] g

mM

(iii) If friction is present between A and B only and F > Fl

(where Fl = s mg = limiting friction between body A and B)

Both the body will move with different acceleration. Here force of kinetic friction k mg will oppose

the motion of B while will cause the motion of A.

**ma A k mg Free body diagram of A
**

i.e. a A k g

A maA

Fk

**F Fk Ma B Free body diagram of B
**

[F k mg ]

aB MaB

i.e. M

FK

F

B

**Note : As both the bodies are moving in the same direction
**

Acceleration of body A relative to B will be

F k g (m M )

a a A a B

M

Negative sign implies that relative to B, A will move backwards and will fall it after time

2L 2 ML

t

a F k g (m M )

(iv) If there is friction between B and floor and F > Fl :

(where Fl = s(m+M)g = limiting friction between body B and surface)

The system will move only if F Fl '' then replacing F by F Fl . The entire case (iii) will be valid.

However if F F1 the system will not move and friction between B and floor will be F while between

A and B is zero.

Motion of an Insect in the Rough Bowl

The insect crawl up the bowl, up to a certain height h only till the component of its weight along

the bowl is balanced by limiting frictional force.

r

O

Fl R

y

A

mg sin h

mg cos

mg

**Let m = mass of the insect, r = radius of the bowl, = coefficient of friction
**

for limiting condition at point A

R mg cos ......(i) and Fl mg sin ......(ii)

Dividing (ii) by (i)

Fl

tan As Fl R

R

r2 y2 or r

y

y 1 2

1 , 1

So h r y r 1 h r 1

1 2 1 2

Minimum Mass Hung from the String to Just Start the Motion

(1) When a mass m1 placed on a rough horizontal plane Another mass m2 hung from the string

connected by frictionless pulley, the tension (T) produced in string will try to start the motion of

R

mass m1 .

T

Fl m1

T

m1g

m2

m2g

At limiting condition T Fl

m2 g R m2 g m1 g

m2 m1 this is the minimum value of m to start the motion.

2

**Note: In the above condition Coefficient of friction m2
**

m1

(2) When a mass m1 placed on a rough inclined plane Another mass m2 hung from the string

connected by frictionless pulley, the tension (T) produced in string will try to start the motion of

mass m1 .

At limiting condition

For m2 T m2 g …(i) T

R

For m1 T m1 g sin F T

m1

T m1 g sin R m2

T m1 g sin m1 g cos …(ii)

m1g sin + F m1g cos m2g

From equation (i) and (ii) m2 m1 [sin cos ]

this is the minimum value of m2 to start the motion m1g

Note : In the above condition Coefficient of friction

m2

tan

m

1 cos

Maximum Length of Hung Chain

A uniform chain of length l is placed on the table in such a manner that its l ' part is hanging over

the edge of table without sliding. Since the chain have uniform linear density therefore the ratio of

mass and ratio of length for any part of the chain will be equal.

We know m mass hanging from the table

2

m1 mass lying on the table

For this case we can rewrite above expression in the following manner

length hanging from the table [As chain have uniform linear density]

length lying on the table

l ( l – l )

l l

by solving l l l

( 1)

Coefficient of Friction Between a Body and Wedge

A body slides on a smooth wedge of angle and its time of descent is t.

S S

**Smooth wedge Rough wedge
**

If the same wedge made rough then time taken by it to come down becomes n times more (i.e. nt)

The length of path in both the cases are same.

For smooth wedge, S u t 1 at 2

2

1 …(i)

S ( g sin ) t 2

2

[ As u 0 and a g sin ]

For rough wedge, S u t 1 at 2

2

1 …(ii)

S g (sin cos ) (nt ) 2

2

[ As u 0 and a g (sin cos )]

From equation (i) and (ii)

1 1

( g sin ) t 2 = g (sin cos ) ( nt )

2

2 2

sin (sin cos ) n 2

tan 1 1

n2

Stopping of Block Due to Friction

(1) On horizontal road

(i) Distance travelled before coming to rest : A block of mass m is moving initially with velocity u

on a rough surface and due to friction, it comes to rest after covering a distance S.

S

v=0

u

Retarding force F ma R ma mg

a g

From v 2 u 2 2aS 0 u 2 2 g S

[As v 0, a g ]

S

u2 or S

P2

2g 2m 2 g

[As momentum P = mu]

(ii) Time taken to come to rest

From equation v u a t 0 u g t

[ As v 0, a g ]

t u

g

(2) On inclined road : When block starts with velocity u its kinetic energy will be converted into

potential energy and some part of it goes against friction and after travelling distance S it comes to

rest i.e. v = 0. v=0

We know that retardation a g [sin cos ]

S

By substituting the value of v and a in the following equation

u

v 2 u 2 2a S

0 u 2 2 g [sin cos ] S

u2

S

2 g (sin cos )

Stopping of Two Blocks Due to Friction

When two masses compressed towards each other and suddenly released then energy acquired by

each block will be dissipated against friction and finally block comes to rest

i.e., F × S = E

[Where F = Friction, S = Distance covered by block, E = Initial kinetic energy of the block]

A B

m1 m1 m2 m2

S1 S2

2

FS P [Where P = momentum of block]

2m

P2 [As F = mg]

mg S

2m

P2

S

2m 2 g

In the given condition P and are same for both the blocks.

2

So, S 1 ; S1 m2

m2

S 2 m1

Sticking of a Block With Accelerated Cart

When a cart moves with some acceleration toward right then a pseudo force (ma) acts on block

toward left.

This force (ma) is action force by a block on cart.

a

F

ma m F

R M m

CART

mg

**Now block will remain static w.r.t. cart. If friction force R mg
**

[As R ma ]

ma mg

a g

a g

min

This is the minimum acceleration of the cart so that block does not fall.

and the minimum force to hold the block together

Fmin ( M m) a min

g

Fmin ( M m)

Understanding Concept:-

1. Determine the maximum acceleration of the train in which a box lying on its floor will remain

stationary, given that the co-efficient of static friction between the box and the train’s floor is 0.15.

2. See Fig. A mass of 4 kg rests on a horizontal plane. The plane is gradually inclined until at an

angle θ = 15° with the horizontal, the mass just begins to slide. What is the coefficient of static

friction between the block and the surface?

**3. What is the acceleration of the block and trolley system shown in a Fig., if the coefficient of
**

kinetic friction between the trolley and the surface is 0.04? What is the tension in the string? (Take

g = 10 m s-2). Neglect the mass of the string.

**4. Two bodies A and B of masses 5 kg and 10 kg in contact with each other rest on a table against
**

a rigid wall (Fig.). The coefficient of friction between the bodies and the table is 0.15. A force of 200

N is applied horizontally to A. What are (a) the reaction of the partition (b) the action-reaction

forces between A and B ? What happens when the wall is removed? Does the answer to (b) change,

when the bodies are in motion? Ignore the difference between μs and μk.

**5. A block of mass 15 kg is placed on a long trolley. The coefficient of static friction between the
**

block and the trolley is 0.18. The trolley accelerates from rest with 0.5 m s-2 for 20 s and then

moves with uniform velocity. Discuss the motion of the block as viewed by (a) a stationary observer

on the ground, (b) an observer moving with the trolley.

6. The rear side of a truck is open and a box of 40 kg mass is

placed 5 m away from the open end as shown in Fig. The

coefficient of friction between the box and the surface below it is

0.15. On a straight road, the truck starts from rest and accelerates

with 2 m s-2. At what distance from the starting point does the box

fall off the truck? (Ignore the size of the box).

7. A brick slides on a horizontal surface. Which of the following will increase the magnitude of the

frictional force on it?

A. Putting a second brick on top

B. Decreasing the surface area of contact

C. Increasing the surface area of contact

D. Decreasing the mass of the brick

E. None of the above

8. The coefficient of kinetic friction:

A. is in the direction of the frictional force

B. is in the direction of the normal force

C. is the ratio of force to area

D. can have units of newtons

E. is none of the above

9. When the brakes of an automobile are applied, the road exerts the greatest retarding force:

A. while the wheels are sliding

B. just before the wheels start to slide

C. when the automobile is going fastest

D. when the acceleration is least

E. at the instant when the speed begins to change

10. A forward horizontal force of 12N is used to pull a 240-N crate at constant velocity across a

horizontal floor. The coefficient of friction is:

A. 0.5 B. 0.05 C. 2 D. 0.2 E. 20

11. The speed of a 4.0-N hockey puck, sliding across a level ice surface, decreases at the rate of

0.61m/s2. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the puck and ice is:

A. 0.062 B. 0.41 C. 0.62 D. 1.2 E. 9.8

12. A crate rests on a horizontal surface and a

woman pulls on it with a 10-N force. No matter what

the orientation of the force, the crate does not move.

Rank the situations shown below according to the

magnitude of the frictional force of the surface on the

crate, least to greatest.

A. 1, 2, 3 B. 2, 1, 3 C. 2, 3, 1 D. 1, 3, 2 E. 3, 2, 1

13. A crate with a weight of 50N rests on a horizontal surface. A person

pulls horizontally on it with a force of 10N and it does not move. To start it

moving, a second person pulls vertically upward on the crate. If the

coefficient of static friction is 0.4, what is the smallest vertical force for

which the crate moves?

A. 4N B. 10N C. 14N D. 25N E. 35N

14. A 40-N crate rests on a rough horizontal floor. A 12-N horizontal force is then applied to it. If

the coefficients of friction are s = 0.5 and k = 0.4, the magnitude of the frictional force on the

crate is:

A. 8N B. 12N C. 16N D. 20N E. 40N

15. A 24-N horizontal force is applied to a 40-N block initially at rest on a rough horizontal surface.

If the coefficients of friction are s = 0.5 and k = 0.4, the magnitude of the frictional force on the

block is:

A. 8N B. 12N C. 16N D. 20N E. 400N

16. A horizontal shove of at least 200N is required to start moving a 800-N crate initially at rest on

a horizontal floor. The coefficient of static friction is:

A. 0.25 B. 0.125 C. 0.50 D. 4.00 E. none of these

17. A force F (larger than the largest possible force of static friction) is applied to the left to an

object moving to the right on a horizontal surface. Then:

A. the object must be moving at constant speed

B. F and the friction force act in opposite directions

C. the object must be slowing down

D. the object must be speeding up

E. the object must come to rest and remain at rest

18. A bureau rests on a rough horizontal surface (s = 0.50, k = 0.40). A constant horizontal

force, just sufficient to start the bureau in motion, is then applied. The acceleration of the bureau

is:

A. 0 B. 0.98m/s2 C. 3.3m/s2 D. 4.5m/s2 E. 8.9m/s2

19. A car is traveling at 15m/s on a horizontal road. The brakes are applied and the car skids to a

stop in 4.0 s. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the tires and road is:

A. 0.38 B. 0.69 C. 0.76 D. 0.92 E. 1.11

20. A boy pulls a wooden box along a rough horizontal floor at

constant speed by means of a force P as shown. In the

diagram f is the magnitude of the force of friction, N is the

magnitude of the normal force, and Fg is the magnitude of the

force of gravity. Which of the following must be true?

A. P = f and N = Fg B. P = f and N >Fg C. P >f and N <Fg

D. P >f and N = Fg E. none of these

21. A boy pulls a wooden box along a rough

horizontal floor at constant speed by means of a force

P as shown. In the diagram f is the magnitude of the

force of friction, N is the magnitude of the normal

force, and Fg is the magnitude of the force of gravity.

Which of the following must be true?

A. P = f and N = Fg B. P = f and N >Fg

C. P >f and N <Fg D. P >f and N = Fg

E. none of these

22. A 400-N block is dragged along a horizontal surface

by an applied force F as shown. The coefficient of kinetic

friction is k = 0.4 and the block moves at constant

velocity. The magnitude of F is:

A. 100N B. 150N

C. 200N D. 290N

E. 400 N

23. A block of mass m is pulled at constant velocity along a

rough horizontal floor by an applied force T as shown. The

magnitude of the frictional force is:

A. T cos B. T sin

C. zero D. mg

E. mg cos

24. A block of mass m is pulled along a rough horizontal floor

by an applied force T as shown. The vertical component of the

force exerted on the block by the floor is:

A. mg B. mg - T cos

C. mg + T cos D. mg - T sin

E. mg + T sin

25. A 12-kg crate rests on a horizontal surface and a boy pulls

on it with a force that is 300 below the horizontal. If the

coefficient of static friction is 0.40, the minimum magnitude force he needs to start the crate

moving is:

A. 44N B. 47N C. 54N D. 56N E. 71N

26. A crate resting on a rough horizontal floor is to be moved horizontally. The coefficient of static

friction is 0.40. To start the crate moving with the weakest possible applied force, in what direction

should the force be applied?

A. Horizontal B. 240below the horizontal C. 220 above the horizontal

D. 240 above the horizontal E. 660 below the horizontal

27. A 50-N force is applied to a crate on a horizontal rough floor, causing it to move horizontally. If

the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.50, in what direction should the force be applied to obtain the

greatest acceleration?

A. Horizontal B. 600above the horizontal C. 300 above the horizontal

D. 27 above the horizontal

0 E. 30 below the horizontal

0

**28. A professor holds an eraser against a vertical chalkboard by pushing horizontally on it. He
**

pushes with a force that is much greater than is required to hold the eraser. The force of friction

exerted by the board on the eraser increases if he:

A. pushes with slightly greater force

B. pushes with slightly less force

C. stops pushing

D. pushes so his force is slightly downward but has the same magnitude

E. pushes so his force is slightly upward but has the same magnitude

29. A horizontal force of 12N pushes a 0.5-kg book against a vertical wall. The book is initially at

rest. If the coefficients of friction are s = 0.6 and k = 0.8 which of the following is true?

A. The magnitude of the frictional force is 4.9N

B. The magnitude of the frictional force is 7.2N

C. The normal force is 4.9N

D. The book will start moving and accelerate

E. If started moving downward, the book will decelerate

30. A horizontal force of 5.0N pushes a 0.50-kg book against a vertical wall. The book is initially at

rest. If the coefficients of friction are s = 0.6 and k = 0.80, the magnitude of the frictional force is:

A. 0 B. 4.9N C. 3.0N D. 5.0N E. 4.0N

31. A horizontal force of 12N pushes a 0.50-kg book against a vertical wall. The book is initially at

rest. Ifs = 0.6 and k = 0.80, the acceleration of the book in m/s2 is:

A. 0 B. 9.4m/s2 C. 9.8m/s2 D. 14.4m/s2 E. 19.2m/s2

32. A horizontal force of 5.0N pushes a 0.50-kg block against a vertical wall. The block is initially

at rest. If s = 0.60 and k = 0.80, the acceleration of the block in m/s2 is:

A. 0 B. 1.8 C. 6.0 D. 8.0 E. 9.8

33. A heavy wooden block is dragged by a force F along a

rough steel plate, as shown below for two possible situations.

The magnitude of F is the same for the two situations. The

magnitude of the frictional force in (ii), as compared with that

in (i) is:

A. the same B. greater C. less

D. less for some angles and greater for others

E. can be less or greater, depending on the magnitude of the applied force.

34. A block is first placed on its long side and then on

its short side on the same inclined plane, as shown.

The block slides down the plane on its short side but

remains at rest on its long side. A possible explanation

is:

A. the short side is smoother

B. the frictional force is less because the contact area is

less

C. the center of gravity is higher in the second case

D. the normal force is less in the second case

E. the force of gravity is more nearly down the plane in the second case

35. A box rests on a rough board 10 meters long. When one end of the board is slowly raised to a

height of 6 meters above the other end, the box begins to slide. The coefficient of static friction is:

A. 0.8 B. 0.25 C. 0.4 D. 0.6 E. 0.75

36. A block is placed on a rough wooden plane. It is found that when the plane is tilted 30 to the

horizontal, the block will slide down at constant speed. The coefficient of kinetic friction of the

block with the plane is:

A. 0.500 B. 0.577 C. 1.73 D. 0.866 E. 4.90

37. A crate is sliding down an incline that is 350 above the horizontal. If the coefficient of kinetic

friction is 0.40, the acceleration of the crate is:

A. 0 B. 2.4m/s2 C. 5.8m/s2 D. 8.8m/s2 E.10.3m/s2

38. A 5.0-kg crate is resting on a horizontal plank. The coefficient of static friction is 0.50 and the

coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.40. After one end of the plank is raised so the plank makes an

angle of 250 with the horizontal, the force of friction is:

A. 0 B. 18N C. 21N D. 22N E. 44N

39. A 5.0-kg crate is resting on a horizontal plank. The coefficient of static friction is 0.50 and the

coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.40. After one end of the plank is raised so the plank makes an

angle of 300 with the horizontal, the force of friction is:

A. 0 B. 18N C. 21N D. 22N E. 44N

40. A 5.0-kg crate is on an incline that makes an angle of 300 with the horizontal. If the coefficient

of static friction is 0.50, the minimum force that can be applied parallel to the plane to hold the

crate at rest is:

A. 0 B. 3.3N C. 30N D. 46N E. 55N

41. A 5.0-kg crate is on an incline that makes an angle of 300 with the horizontal. If the coefficient

of static friction is 0.5, the maximum force that can be applied parallel to the plane without moving

the crate is:

A. 0 B. 3.3N C. 30N D. 46N E. 55N

42. Block A, with mass mA, is initially at rest on a horizontal floor. Block B, with mass mB, is

initially at rest on the horizontal top surface of A. The coefficient of static friction between the two

blocks is s. Block A is pulled with a horizontal force. It begins to slide out from under B if the

force is greater than:

A. mAg B. mBg C. s mA g D. s mB g E. s (mA +mB) g

43. The system shown remains at rest. Each block weighs 20 N.

The force of friction on the upper block is:

A. 4N B. 8N

C. 12N D. 16N

E. 20N

**44. Block A, with a mass of 50 kg, rests on a horizontal table top. The
**

coefficient of static friction is 0.40. A horizontal string is attached to A

and passes over a massless frictionless pulley as shown. The smallest

mass mB of block B, attached to the dangling end, that will start A

moving when it is attached to the other end of the string is:

A. 20 kg B. 30 kg

C. 40 kg D. 50 kg

E. 70 kg

**45. Block A, with a mass of 10 kg, rests on a 350 incline. The coefficient
**

of static friction is 0.40. An attached string is parallel to the incline and

passes over a massless, frictionless pulley at the top. The largest mass

mB of block B, attached to the dangling end, for which A begins to

slide down the incline is:

A. 2.5kg B. 3.5kg

C. 5.9kg D. 9.0kg

E. 10.5kg

46. Block A, with a mass of 10 kg, rests on a 350 incline. The coefficient

of static friction is 0.40. An attached string is parallel to the incline and

passes over a massless, frictionless pulley at the top. The largest mass

mB, attached to the dangling end, for which A remains at rest is:

A. 2.5kg B. 3.5kg

C. 5.9kg D. 9.0kg

E. 10.5kg

47. Block A, with a mass of 10 kg, rests on a 300 incline. The coefficient of

kinetic friction is 0.20. The attached string is parallel to the incline and

passes over a massless, frictionless pulley at the top. Block B, with a mass

of 8.0 kg, is attached to the dangling end of the string. The acceleration of B

is:

A. 0.69m/s2, up the plane

B. 0.69m/s2, down the plane

C. 2.6m/s2, up the plane

D. 2.6m/s2, down the plane

E. 0

48. Block A, with a mass of 10 kg, rests on a 300 incline. The coefficient

of kinetic friction is 0.20. The attached string is parallel to the incline

and passes over a massless, frictionless pulley at the top. Block B, with

a mass of 3.0 kg, is attached to the dangling end of the string. The

acceleration of B is:

A. 0.20m/s2, up

B. 0.20m/s2, down

C. 2.8m/s2, up

D. 2.8m/s2, down

E. 0

49. A 1000-kg airplane moves in straight flight at constant speed. The force of air friction is 1800

N. The net force on the plane is:

A. zero B. 11800N C. 1800N D. 9800N E. none of these

50. Why do raindrops fall with constant speed during the later stages of their descent?

A. The gravitational force is the same for all drops

B. Air resistance just balances the force of gravity

C. The drops all fall from the same height

D. The force of gravity is negligible for objects as small as raindrops

E. Gravity cannot increase the speed of a falling object to more than 9.8m/s

51. A ball is thrown downward from the edge of a cliff with an initial speed that is three times the

terminal speed. Initially its acceleration is

A. upward and greater than g

B. upward and less than g

C. downward and greater than g

D. downward and less than g

E. downward and equal to g

52. A ball is thrown upward into the air with a speed that is greater than terminal speed. On the

way up it slows down and, after its speed equals the terminal speed but before it gets to the top of

its trajectory:

A. its speed is constant

B. it continues to slow down

C. it speeds up

D. its motion becomes jerky

E. none of the above

53. A ball is thrown upward into the air with a speed that is greater than terminal speed. It lands

at the place where it was thrown. During its flight the force of air resistance is the greatest:

A. just after it is thrown

B. halfway up

C. at the top of its trajectory

D. halfway down

E. just before it lands.

54. In a situation the contact force by a rough horizontal surface on a body placed on it has

constant magnitude. If the angle between this force and the vertical is decreased , the force and the

vertical is decreased, the friction force between the surface and the body will

(a) increse (b*) decrease (c) remain the same (d) may increase or decrease

55. While walking on ice, one should take small steps to avoid slipping . This is because smaller

steps to avoid slipping. This is because smaller steps ensure

(a) larger friction (b*) smaller friction (c) larger normal force (d) smaller normal force

56. A body of mass M is kept on a rough horizontal surface (friction coefficient = ). A person is

trying to pull the body by applying a horizontal force but the body is not moving. The force by the

surface on A is F where

(a) F = Mg (b) F = Mg (c*) Mg F Mg 1 2 (d) Mg F Mg 1 2

57. A scooter starting from rest moves with a constant acceleration for a time Δt1, then with a

constant deceleration for the next Δt2 and finally with a constant deceleration for the next Δt3 to

come to rest. A 500N man sitting on the scooter behind the driver manges to stay at rest with

respect to the scooter without touching any other part. The force exerted by the seat on the man is

(a) 500 N throughout the journey (b*) less than 500N throughout the journey

(c) more than 500N throughout the journey (d) > 500 N for time Δt1 and Δt3 and 500 N for Δt2.

58. Consider the situation shown in figure. The wall is smooth but the surface of

A and B in contact are rough. The friction on B due to A in equilibrium

(a) is upward (b) is downward

(c) is zero (d*) the system cannot remain in equilibrium.

59. Suppose all the surfaces in the previous problem are rough. The direction of friction on B due

to A

(a*) is upward (b) is downward

(c) is zero (d) depends on the masses of A and B.

60. Two cars of unequal masses use similar tyres. If they are moving at the same initial speed, the

minimum stopping distance

(a) is smaller for the heavier car (b) is smaller for the lighter car

(c*) is same for both cars (d) depends on the volume of the car.

61. In order to stop a car in shortest distance on a horizontal road, one should

(a) apply the brakes very hard so that the wheels stop rotating

(b*) apply the brakes hard enough to just prevent slipping

(c) pump the brakes (press and release)

(d) shut the engine off and not apply brakes .

62. A block A kept on an inclined surface just begins to slide if the inclination is 30º. The block is

replaced by another block B and it is found that it just begins to slide if the inclination is 40º.

(a) mass of A > mass of B (b) mass of A < mass of B

(c) mass of A = mass of B (d*) all the three are possible.

63. A boy of mass M is applying a horizontal force to slide a box of mass M’ on a rough horizontal

surface . The coefficient of friction between the shoes of the boy and the floor is and that between

the box and the floor is ’. In which of the following cases it is certainly not possible to slide the box

?

(a*) <’, M < M’ (b) >’, M < M’

(c) <’, M > M’ (d) >’, M > M

64. Let F, FN and f denote the magnitudes of the contact force , normal force and the friction

exerted by one surface on the other kept in contact. If none of these is zero,

(a*) F > FN (b*) F > f (c) FN > f (d*) FN – f < F < FN + f

65. The contact force exerted by a body A on another body B is equal to the normal force between

the bodies. We conclude that

(a) the surface must be frictionless

(b*) the force of friction between the bodies is zero

(c) the magnitude of normal force equals that of friction

(d*) the bodies may be rough but they don’t slip on each other.

66. Mark the correct statements about the friction between two bodies.

(a) Static friction is always greater than the kinetic friction.

(b*) Coefficient of static friction is always greater than the coefficient of kinetic friction.

(c*) Limiting friction is always greater than the kinetic friction.

(d*) Limiting friction is never less than static friction.

67. A block is placed on a rough floor and a horizontal force F is applied on it. The force of friction f

by the floor on the block is measured for different values of F and a graph is plotted between them.

(a) The graph is a straight line of slope 45º

(b) The graph is straight line parallel to the F-axis.

(c*) The graph is a straight line of slope 45º for small F and a straight line parallel to the F-axis for

large F.

(d*) There is a small kink on the graph.

68. Consider a vehicle going on a horizontal road towards east. Neglect any force by the air. The

frictional forces on the vehicle by the road.

(a*) is towards east if the vehicle is accelerating

(b*) is zero if the vehicle is moving with a uniform velocity

(c) must be towards east.

(d) must be towards east.

FRICTION

{H Series}

1. A body of mass 400 g slides on a rough horizontal surface. If the frictional force is 3.0 N, find (a)

the angle made by the contact force on the body with the vertical and (b) the magnitude of the

contact force. Take g = 10m/s2.

2. The coefficient of static friction between a block of mass m and an incline is s = 0.3. (a) What

can be the maximum angle of the incline with the horizontal so that the block does not slip on

the plane? (b) If the incline makes an angle /2 with the horizontal, find the frictional force on the

block.

3. A horizontal force of 20 N is applied to a block of mass 4 kg resting on a rough horizontal table.

If the block does not moue on the table, how much frictional force the table is applying on the

block? What can be said about the coefficient of static friction between the block and the table?

Take g = 10m/s2.

4. The coefficient of static friction between the block of 2 kg and the table shown in figure1 is s =

0.2. What should be the maximum value of m so that the blocks do not move? Take g = 10m/s2.

The string and the pulley are light and smooth.

Fig.1

**5. The coefficient of static friction between the two blocks shown in figure 2 is µ and the table is
**

smooth. What maximum horizontal force F can be applied to the block of mass M so that the

blocks moue together?

Fig.2

6. A block slides down an incline of angle 30° with acceleration g/4. Find the kinetic friction

coefficient.

7. A block of mass 2.5 kg is kept on a rough horizontal surface. It is found that the block does not

slide if a horizontal force less than 15 N is applied to it. Also it is found that it takes 5 seconds to

slide through the first 10 m if a horizontal force of 15 N is applied and the block is gently pushed to

start the motion. Taking g =10 m/s2, calculate the coefficients of static and kinetic friction between

the block and the surface.

8. A block placed on a horizontal surface is being pushed by a force F making an angle with the

vertical. If the friction coefficient is µ, how much force is needed to get the block just started.

Discuss the situation when tan<.

9. Find the maximum value of M/m in the situation shown in figure 3 so that the system remains

at rest. Friction coefficient at both the contacts is Discuss the situation when tan < µ.

Fig.3

**10. Consider the situation shown in figure 4. The horizontal surface below the bigger block is
**

smooth. The coefficient of friction between the blocks is µ. Find the minimum and the maximum

force F that can be applied in order to keep the smaller blocks at rest with respect to the bigger

block.

Fig.4

11. Figure 5 shows two blocks connected by a light string placed on the two inclined parts of a

triangular structure. The coefficients of static and kinetic friction are 0.28 and 0.25 respectively at

each of the surfaces. (a) Find the minimum and maximum values of m for which the system

remains at rest. (b) Find the acceleration of either block if m is given the minimum value calculated

in the first part and is gently pushed up the incline for a short while.

Fig.5

12. If the tension in the string in figure 6 is 16 N and the acceleration of each block is 0.5 m/s2,

find the friction coefficients at the two contacts with the blocks.

Fig.6

13. The friction coefficient between the table and the block shown in figure 7 is 0.2. Find the

tensions in the two strings.

Fig.7

14. The friction coefficient between a road and the tyre of a vehicle is 4/3. Find the maximum

incline the road may have so that once hard brakes are applied and the wheel starts skidding, the

vehicle going down at a speed of 36 km/hr is stopped within 5 m.

15. Figure 8 shows two blocks in contact sliding down an inclined surface of inclination 30°. The

friction coefficient between the block of mass 2.0 kg and the incline is 1, and that between the

block of mass 4.0 kg and the incline is 2. Calculate the acceleration of the 2.0 kg block if (a) 1 =

0.20 and 2 = 0.30, (b) 1 = 0.30 and 1= 0.20. Take g = 10 m/s2.

Fig.8

16. Two masses Ml and M2 are connected by a light rod and the system is slipping down a rough

incline of angle with the horizontal. The friction coefficient at both the contacts is . Find the

acceleration of the system and the force by the rod on one of the blocks.

17. A block of mass M is kept on a rough horizontal surface. The coefficient of static friction

between the block and the surface is . The block is to be pulled by applying a force to it. What

minimum force is needed to slide the block ? In which direction should this force act?

18. The friction coefficient between the board and the floor shown in figure 9 is . Find the

maximum force that the man can exert on the rope so that the board does not slip on the floor.

Fig.9

19. A 2 kg block is placed over a 4 kg block and both are placed on a smooth horizontal surface.

The coefficient of friction between the blocks is 0.20. Find the acceleration of the two blocks if a

horizontal force of 12 N is applied to (a) the upper block, (b) the lower block. Take g=10m/s2.

20. Find the accelerations a1, a2, a3 of the three block; shown in figure 10 if a horizontal force of 10

N ii applied on (a) 2 kg block, (b) 3 kg block, (c) 7 kg block. Take g=10m/s2.

Fig.10

21. The friction coefficient between the two blocks shown it y figure 11 is but the floor is smooth.

(a) What maximum horizontal force F can be applied without disturbing the equilibrium of the

system? (b) Suppose the horizontal force applied is double of that found in part (a). Find the

accelerations of the two masses.

Fig.11

22. Suppose the entire system of the previous question is kept inside an elevator which is coming

down with an acceleration a <g. Repeat parts (a) and (b).

23. Consider the situation shown in figure 11. Suppose small electric field E exists in the space in

the vertically upward direction and the upper block carries a positive charge Q on its top surface.

The friction coefficient between the two blocks is N but the floor is smooth. What maximum

horizontal force F can be applied without disturbing the equilibrium?

24. A block of mass m slips on a rough horizontal table under the action of a horizontal force

applied to it. The coefficient of friction between the block and the table is . The table does not

move on the floor. Find the total frictional force applied by the floor on the legs of the table: Do you

need the friction coefficient between the table and the floor or the mass of the table?

25. Find the acceleration of the block of mass M in the 1ituation of figure 12. The coefficient of

friction between the two blocks is and that between the bigger block and the ground is µ2.

Fig.12

26. A block of mass 2 kg is pushed against a rough vertical wall with a force of 40 N, coefficient of

static friction being 0.5. Another horizontal force of 15 N, is applied on the block in a direction

parallel to the wall. Will the block move? If yes, in which direction? If no, find the frictional force

exerted by the wall on the block.

27. A person (40 kg) is managing to be at rest between two vertical walls by pressing one wall A by

his hands and feet and the other wall B by his back 13. Assume that the friction coefficient

between his body and the walls is 0.8 and that limiting friction acts at all the contacts. (a) Show

that the person pushes the two walls with equal force. (b) Find the normal force exerted by either

wall on the person. Take g=10m/s2.

Fig.13

28. Figure 14 shows a small block of mass m kept at the left end of a larger block of mass M and

length L. The system can slide on a horizontal road. The system is started towards right with an

initial velocity v. The friction coefficient between the road and the bigger block is µ and that

between the blocks is 2. Find the time elapsed before the smaller block separates from the bigger

block.

Fig.14

ANSWERS

1. (a) 370 (b) 5.0N

2. (a) tan-1(0.3) (b) mg sin(/2)

3. s≥0.5

4. 0.4 kg

5. g(M+m)

6. 1/2 3

7. s = 0.60,k = 0.52

8. mg/ (sin cos)

9. /( sin cos)

10. 1 M 2m g and 1 (M 2m) g

1 1-

11. (a) 9/8 kg, 32/9 kg (b) 0.31m/s2

12. 1 = 0.75,2 = 0.06

13. 96 N in the left string and 68 N in the right string

14. 160

15. 2.7 m/s2, 2.4 m/s2.

16. a = g(sin cos), zero

17. mg/( 1 2 ) at an angle tan-1 with the horizontal.

18. m) g/ (1+ )

19. (a) upper block 4 m/s2, lower block 1 m/s2.

(b) both blocks 2 m/s2.

20. (a) a1 = 3 m/s2, a2 = a3 = 0.4 m/s2

(b) a1 = a2 = a3 = 5/6 m/s2 (c) same as (b)

21. (a) 2mg (b) 2mg/(M + m) in opposite direction.

22. (a) 2mg (b) 2m(g-a) /(M + m)

23. 2mg-QE)

24. mg

[ 2m 2 M m ]g

25.

M m[5 2(1 2 )]

26. it will move at an angle of 530 with the 15 N force.

27. (b) 250 N

28. 4Ml

M m g

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