CHAPTER 1.

A. Question and Answer
Q1. Define Research? What are the characteristics of Research?
Ans: RESEARCH:
Research is a systematic investigation to search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.
Research helps to arrive at new conclusions. It enables us to find solutions to certain
problems. Research is often referred to as ‘scientific inquiry’ into a specific problem or
solution. This is because the search for facts needs to be undertaken systematically and not
arbitrarily. The systematic approach to research enables the research to search for facts in a
rational manner to arrive at conclusions whereas the arbitrary approach attempts to find
solutions to problems based on one’s belief and imagination.Research involves a planned
approach to unravel the mystery or unexplained. A Researcher has to plan his work in
advance so as to anticipate any obstacles in the course of research. Such a plan help the
researcher to take decisions relating to the sample size, the type of data to be collected, the
analytical tools to be applied etc. Hence the research design could be defined as the blue print
specifying every stage of action in course of research. The ‘Research Design’ is the
arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to
combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure.

Definition of Research: -

According to William C. Emory in his book ‘Business Research Methods’, “Research is any
organized inquiry designed and carried out to provide information for solving a problem.”

According to V. Clover and H. Balsley,” Research is the process of systematically obtaining
accurate answers to significant and pertinent questions by use of scientific method for
gathering and interpreting information.”

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH:

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

Research uses scientific method to find facts or to provide solutions to specific problems. The
researcher needs to follow a systematic procedure to conduct research. There is a set of

procedures that have been tested over a period of time and are suitable to use in research.
Each step in the research procedure must follow the other.

OBJECTIVE AND LOGICAL

The scientific research is objective and logical in nature. Research is based on valid
procedures and principles. There is a need to collect relevant, accurate and objective data to
investigate into the research problem.

APPLIED AND BASIC RESEARCH

Research is broadly classified into two groups: -

Applied Research

Basic Research

Applied Research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to
acquire knowledge. The goal of applied research is to improve the human condition.

Basic or fundamental Research is driven by a scientist’s curiosity or interest in a scientific
question. The main goal of basic research is to expand man’s knowledge. There is no obvious
commercial value to discoveries that result from basic research.

EMPIRICAL NATURE OF RESEARCH

Research can be based on direct experience or observation by the research. Empirical
Research is undertaken to study certain situations or event based on experiments,
observations and surveys.

GENERALISATION

Research findings can be applied to larger population. A researcher can conduct a research on
a sample of respondents that represent the universe. The sample selection must be done
systematically so that it properly represents the whole population or the universe.

CONTROLLED NATURE OF BASIC RESEARCH

In real life experience there are many factors that affect the outcome. A single event is often
the result of several factors. When similar event is tested in research, due to the broader
nature of factors are taken as controlled factors while others are tested for possible effect.

DEVELOPMENT OF PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES

A systematic research helps to develop new principles and theories. Such principles and
theories can be useful to several organisations to manage and deal with people and things in a
better way.

MANIPULATION OF CONCEPTS

The researcher tries to manipulate things or concepts. The manipulation or purposeful control
of things or concepts is done with a definite purpose so as to arrive at statements of
generality.

MULTIPURPOSE ACTIVITY

Research is a multipurpose activity. It helps to discover new facts or verify old facts. It helps
not only to predict future events, but also may help to control such events. It establishes
casual relationship between variables.

QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATITVE RESEARCH

Research undertaken to measure quantity or amount is called as quantitative research. On the
other hand, research which is undertaken to find out the quality of a particular situation or
phenomenon is called as qualitative research.

Q2. Explain need of Research in Business & Social Science?

Ans: NEED OF RESEARCH IN BUSINESS:

Business organizations can gain significantly with the help of research. The research and
development to develop new products, improve the design and quality of existing ones, and
to reduce costs.

PRODUCT AND DEVELOPMENT

Through marketing research, a business firm can identify the customer requirements, and
therefore it is possible to design new models or to modify existing products to satisfy the
customers.

REDUCTION IN COSTS

Research in business helps a firm to reduce costs. The research may indicate the areas where
high costs are involved. It may be possible for the firm to cut down the costs in certain areas.

and enhance corporate image in the minds of stakeholders. producers. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY Development of Methodology to deal with social issues is one of the contributions of social research. and sociology. and other social development indicators. parents. dealers. to reduce poverty and unemployment and to overcome problems of social evils. Research in social sciences deal with the people’s behaviour in their different roles. NEED OF RESEARCH IN SOCIAL STUDIES: Social sciences refer to business. poor leadership styles etc… To overcome such problem. employees. SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Social Research contributes to societal development. Market Research enables a business firm to main good relationships with dealers. DEALER RELATIONSHIPS Dealer relationships are vital for the survival and success of business organisation. Social development can be measured in terms of literacy.. CORPORATE IMAGE Firms need to build. organisations face the problem of executive stress. the firm can get feedback from dealers regarding their expectations. teachers. maintain. especially the priority customers. Through research. trainers. employees. psychology. commerce. executive. For instance. certain methodology needs to be developed.. leaders. consultant. Research can be taken for social development standards of the society. Research can help the firm to collect valuable inputs about priorities customers.CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS Market research may help the firm to develop good relations with its customers. SOCIAL WELFARE Government organisations can undertake social research to enhance social welfare of the society. . Research can help to design suitable package of measures to reduce income inequalities. advisors etc. customers. artists. learners. such as consumers. life expectancy. demographic. lack of concern of ethics.

or the facts and data that are readily available. principles and theories which may not be immediately utilized.FORMULATION OF NEW THEORIES Social Research helps formulate new theories. It generates new ideas. The researcher attempts to critically evaluate fact and data so as to arrive at conclusions EMPIRICAL RESEARCH . DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH It is also known as Statistical research provides data about the population or universe being studied. ECONOMIC PLANNING Social Planning can be immense use in economic planning in a given society. The existing theories can be re-evaluated and modified with the help of social research. Discuss different types of Research? Ans: TYPES OF RESEARCH: BASIC RESEARCH It is also called ‘pure’ or ‘fundamental’ research. The main goal is to expand man’s knowledge. There is no commercial angle. hopes and problems of the people etc… Q3. Economic planning requires basic data on the various aspects of our society and economy. It is used to find solutions to everyday problems and develop innovative technologies. ANALYTICAL RESEARCH It is undertaken to collect facts or data. resource endowment and the needs. It is undertaken to develop a theory or a body of knowledge. It is used when the objective is to provide a systematic description that is factual and accurate as possible. APPLIED RESEARCH It is a scientific study designed to solve practical problems rather than merely acquiring knowledge.

Therefore. especially in social sciences. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. theories and hypothesis pertaining to phenomena. It is a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or experience or experiment. The objective is to develop and employ mathematical models. What is Research Methodology? What are requisite for Good Scientific Methods? Ans: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: Methodology is the systematic analysis of methods applied to a field of study. QUALITITATIVE RESEARCH It is explaining phenomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematically based methods. best methods that can be applied to a specific case. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH It is a method of inquiry employed in many disciplines. It offers the theoretical base for understanding which method. Researchers aim to gather an in depth understanding of human behaviour and reasons that govern the behaviour.It is defined as research based on experimentation or observation. REQUISITE OF GOOD SCIENTIFIC METHOD: CAREFUL LOGICAL ANALYSIS OF PROBLEM UNEQUIVOCAL DEFINITION OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS COLLECTION OF DATA PATIENT TO PROBLEM CLASSIFICATION OF DATA EXPRESSION OF DATA IN QUANTITATIVE TERM RIGOROUS EXPERIMENT SOUND & LOGICAL REASONING . Q4. it is not the same as method. Methodology does not set out to provide solutions.

measurement and analysis of data. observation and experimentation. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The researcher should undertake extensive literature survey relating to the problem. SAMPLING DESIGN . Explain steps/process in Scientific Research? Ans: STEPS/PROCESS IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH: IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION OF RESEARCH PROBLEM It is the first and the most important step of research process. It is a logical and systematic plan prepared for conducting a research study. RESEARCH DESIGN The researcher must prepare a research design. DESIGNING THE QUESTIONNAIRE If the researcher cannot solve the problem with the help of secondary data. FORMULATION OF HYPOTHESIS Researcher should formulate hypothesis. It can be called as a blue print for collection. He may consider various publications such as journals. books. It is identification of a destination before undertaking a journey. then he should make the effort to collect primary data from the field for which he requires a questionnaire. reports and other published matter. It is said that a problem half defined is a problem half solved. It is a tentative assumption made to test its logical or empirical consequences.EXACT CONCLUSION COMPLETE ELIMINATION OF PERSONAL EQUATION COMPREHENSIVE REPORT Q5.

coding. HYPOTHESIS TESTING After analysis and interpretation of data. The researcher should find out whether or not the research findings support the hypothesis or prove to be contrary. it needs to be processed. PREPERATION OF RESEARCH REPORT The research findings and conclusions are presented with the help of research report. The purpose of analysing data is to establish relation between information and problem. Interpretation refers to analysis and generalization of results. The data can be collected from various sources i. A business research report should be submitted to guide for approval and then to the concerned university. Therefore. It involves editing. classification and tabulation. the researcher must be in a position to test the hypothesis. It is divided into: - Preliminary Contents Main Body Conclusion Part FOLLOW UP REPORT The researcher should submit the report to concerned authorities. . COLLECTION OF DATA Problem solving is essentially a process of collecting information.e. the researcher needs to select a sample of respondents that represent the universe. It enables to clear the meaning and implication of study. DATA ANALYSIS Organisation of data is generally followed by its analysis and interpretation. PROCESSING OF DATA The data collected is mostly available in raw form and therefore. primary and secondary data.It is not possible to collect data from each member of the universe or people under study due to time constraints.

Select a limited number of works that are central to your area rather than trying to collect a large number of works that are not as closely connected to your topic area. A literature review goes beyond the search for information and includes the identification and articulation of relationships between the literature and your field of research. He evaluates the conclusion drawn from the research findings.Q6. While the form of the literature review may vary with different types of studies. A literature review is an evaluative report of studies found in the literature related to your selected area. The researcher reviews previous research studies. The research scholar reviews the findings of previous research studies. The review should describe. Such Review of Literature provides a good insight into the research problem. And this is perhaps the heart of the matter – analytical insight. Literature Review can be conducted throughout the research activity. It starts with identification and selection of the activity. He also analysis the impact of recommendations made by other researchers. The researcher gets familiar with all previous research studies undertaken by other researchers which are relevant to the research project. Review of Literature helps to identify the concepts relating to the research topic and potential relationship between them. Write a note on Review of Literature? Ans: REVIEW OF LITERATURE: Review of Literature is an important stage in research activity. evaluate and clarify this literature. It should give a theoretical basis for the research and help you determine the nature of your own research. a review must critically assess that literature. relevant reference books. It also helps in appropriate analysis of data. articles in specific journals and other published sources. summarize. It continues throughout the various stages of research process and ends with the writing of research report. where the ‘data’ are the readings that have been located and the major part of the report is the analysis of that ‘data’. Following literature is carefully reviewed and studied by the researcher. A literature review is a form of research report. the basic purposes remain constant: . It refers to extensive review of literature relating to research problem which the researcher intends to undertake. A review must not simply describe or summarise the literature. Moreover it gives broader vision and even the secondary data to the research.

The Research Design is the ground plan for conducting the research investigation. It is a plan or an overall scheme or a programme of research. The objectives differ depending on the type of the research. It provides guidelines to researcher to help him keep track of his actions and to know he is moving in the right direction in collecting data. What is Research Design? What are its essentials? Ans: RESEARCH DESIGN: According to David & Nachmias. ESSENTIALS OF GOOD RESEARCH DESIGN: FOCUS ON OBJECTIVES The research design must focus on its objectives. strategy and means of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers of research questions. FLEXIBILITY The research design should not be rigid. structure. “Research Design is the plan. measurement and analysis of the data.Provide a context for the research • Justify the research • Ensure the research hasn't been done before (or that it is not just a "replication study") • Show where the research fits into the existing body of knowledge • Enable the researcher to learn from previous theory on the subject • Illustrate how the subject has been studied previously • Highlight flaws in previous research • Outline gaps in previous research • Show that the work is adding to the understanding and knowledge of the field • Help refine. The objectives must be very clear to the researcher as well as to the researcher staff. Best. It must be flexible depending upon the situation. “Research Design actually constitutes the blue print for the collection.” According to John W. . refocus or even change the topic Q7.

manpower etc. ACCEPTANCE The research design should be acceptable to the persons concerned. TRAINING TO RESEARCH STAFF .PILOT STUDY It is always advisable to conduct a pilot study for finalizing the research design. In a commercial research. the research should be acceptable to the research guide. the research design should be acceptable social and other organisations that are going to finance or sponsor the research activity. Certain factors are considered while finalizing the research designs such as availability of funds. In case of academic research. In case of commercial research. The research design should avoid complicated procedures and techniques which are difficult to follow. The research design should enable proper collection and analysis of data which in turn should facilitate proper decision making. or whether or not the data would be relevant to solve the problem. In case of social research. SUITABILITY The research design must be suitable to achieve research objectives. the research work based on research design must bring benefits to the organisation. Pilot study is a research activity undertaken for small segment of research universe. time.… SIMPLICITY The research design should be simple and easy to understand. Technical jargons must be avoided. The research design must be supported by footnotes. The language used should be clear and simple. It is conducted to find out whether or not the researcher would be in a position to collect relevant data from it sources. EASE IN IMPLEMENTATION The research design should facilitate proper implementation of the research activity. COST – EFFECTIVE The research design should be cost effective. the research design should be acceptable to the higher authorities.

to develop hypothesis. to isolate key variables and to develop relationships among the variables for further examination or to establish priorities for further research etc. and social behaviour. Exploratory researches have certain uses such as. Methods used in exploratory research are: - Secondary data Analysis Experience Surveys Case Analysis Focus Groups and. to define the problem more clearly. increase in competition.To conduct effective research proper training must be given to the research staff. ineffective promotion mix. incompetence of sales. Training helps to improve knowledge. development of hypothesis and research priorities. Management may conduct exploratory research to find out the causes of declining sales in the past few months. Explain different types of Research Design? Ans: TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH EXPLORATORY RESEARCH: It is conducted to explore information about the nature or cause of research problem. It is conducted when the causes of the research problem are not known to the researcher. They may be declined due to certain number of factors such as : problem in quality of product . Projective Techniques DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH . Q8. to identify alternate courses of action. Exploratory research can be conducted for following purposes such as. force etc. background information. skills. attitude. poor management of channels of distribution .

e. What is sampling? Explain essentials of good sampling? Ans: SAMPLING Sampling is a process used in statistical analysis in which a predetermined number of observations are taken from a larger population. For instance. neither too large nor small but commensurate with the size of the population. Representative: The sample should truly represent the characteristics of the verse. BCOM exams of N. The methodology used to sample from a larger population depends on the type of analysis being performed. 3. Homogeneity: There should be homogeneity in the nature of all the units selected for the sample. gender. Independent ability: .It is conducted to obtain descriptive information about central aspects of a problem. Adequacy: The size of the sample should be adequate i. ESSENTIALS OF GOOD SAMPLING 1. but may include simple random sampling or systematic sampling. 2. If the units of the sample are of heterogeneous character it will impossible to make a comparative study with them. 4.M College in respect of age. it may be undertaken for commercial purposes. There are two types of descriptive research: Cross Sectional Studies Longitudinal Studies Q9. Through descriptive research it would be difficult to answer the question ‘why’. occupation etc. For this investigator should be free from bias and the method of collection should be appropriate. a researcher may like to know detailed information about students appearing for their TY.. a casual research is required. income. In order to answer the question ‘why’.

instead of selecting individual units. occupation. The following are the types of probability methods: - Simple Random Sampling This is the most popular method which is normally followed to collect data. religion. The technique provides every element or unit an equal chance of being selected in the sample. Explain different techniques and methods of Good Sampling? Ans: SAMPLING METHODS There are two types of sampling methods: - Probability Methods Non. NON – PROBABILITY METHODS . This technique is superior to simple random method. Therefore. Probability means possible chance. Stratified Sampling The population is divided into various strata or segments based on income. Q10. age. This means that lection of one item should not influence the selection of another item in any manner d that each item should be selected on the basis of its own merit. Systematic Sampling It is a variation of simple random method. researcher divides the population into clusters or groups and accordingly sample is selected. each element of the population has known chance or opportunity of being selected or included in the sample. In this method. gender etc.The method of selection of the sample should be such that the items of the sample are selected in an independent manner.Probability Methods PROBABILITY METHODS It is also known as random sampling. Cluster Sampling It is also called as ‘Area Sampling’.

Accidental Sampling The researcher may select the sample by chance without following a systematic procedure. Snowball Sampling It is a non-probability sampling technique that is used by researchers to identify potential subjects in studies where subjects are hard to locate. It is generally used in the case of academic research and to certain extent in the case of research. Every element of the universe does not get the chance of getting selected. income etc. Q11. Sequential Sampling It is a non-probability sampling technique wherein the researchers pick a single or a group of subjects in a given time interval. commercial research requires more of printing data as compared to secondary data.The following are the types of non-probability methods: - Convenience Sampling The sample is selected as per the convenience of the researcher. occupation. Judgement Sampling Sample is selected on the basis of judgment of the researcher or some other person assisting or advising the researcher. Quota Sampling The researcher allocates certain quota to certain groups under study. Every element of the population does not get a chance of being selected. . However. conducts his study. The quotas differ from each area depending upon factors such as age. What is Secondary Data? Explain its limitations? Ans: SECONDARY DATA Secondary data is readily available data from public printed sources. analyzes the results then picks another group of subjects if needed and so on. The researcher may consider factors to select the sample of respondents.

Therefore one must be cautious in using secondary data. Some sources provide unreliable and biased data. Therefore. but it may not provide in-depth information to solve the research problem. the researcher resorts to primary data. one may require primary data as it is first hand information and more reliable and accurate. PROBLEM OF ADEQUACY At times. To improve the quality of decisions. secondary data will be accurate and reliable. but instead collect specific data to resolve the specific problem. LIMITATIONS OF SECONDARY DATA PROBLEM OF ACCURACY The quality of secondary data is affected due to problem of accuracy. Therefore the decisions made are purely on the basis of secondary data would bring poor outcomes. One cannot be certain of the genuineness of data. when secondary data is insufficient and outdated. This is because the data may be inaccurate. However.The researcher makes first attempts to obtain information from secondary sources to solve the problem. The data may be outdated. For instance. therefore it may not serve the purpose of the current research work undertaken by the researcher. but the data may be insufficient to solve the current research problem. insufficient and unreliable. PROBLEM OF SPECIFIC DATA The secondary data may be more general in nature rather than specific. . It may not provide complete data to solve the problem. PROBLEM OF RELIABILITY The secondary data lacks reliability. LACK OF IN DEPTH INFORMATION Secondary data may not lack adequacy. commercial research requires in depth knowledge of consumer behaviour which can be obtained more through in depth questioning of the target respondents. the researcher cannot depend merely on secondary data. The records may not be well maintained or organised. PROBLEM OF QUALITY DECISION MAKING The secondary data may affect the quality of decision making. The researcher needs specific data to solve specific problems.

directive and non-directive. Therefore. structured or unstructured. individual or group. The interviews can be either personal. Secondary data may be of less use in case of commercial research. Under the survey method. Telephone interview: It is a method of conducting interview by telephoning the respondents. Personal Interview: It’s a face to face interaction between interviewer and respondent. A series of questions are asked on the phone and the answers of respondents are recorded. The secondary data may be badly influenced by the bias of the respondents and also that of the researcher. To solve business related problems. the data is collected through interviews. PROBLEM OF BIASED INFORMATION There is possibility of bias in secondary data. . The researcher has no control over the quality of secondary data. the entire universe is contacted to collect data. telephone or mail survey. It can be formal or informal.UNSUITABILITY The secondary data may not be suitable in certain cases. a researcher may require more of primary data rather than secondary data. In case of survey. The interviewer might ask questions and respondents answer accordingly. Explain different methods of collecting Primary Data? Ans: METHODS OF COLLECTING PRIMARY DATA: - SRURVEY/INTERVIEW METHOD OBSERVATION METHOD EXPERIMENTAL METHOD SURVEY/INTERVIEW METHOD: The survey can be census survey or sample survey. general or specific. The researcher may have casually collected the secondary data and got it published. Q12. one should not blindly depend on secondary data.

explaining the purpose of the questionnaire and request to complete and return it to the researcher. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD: The experimental method is mostly used in the case of scientific research study. . For instance. OBSERVATION METHOD: The researcher obtains information of the subjects under study with the help of observation rather than by the way of interviewing. It can be used in development of a new product. then we would visit the shopping malls and observe the behaviour of the customers.Mail survey: It is another method of data collection. A questionnaire is prepared containing a list of questions to solicit information from selected respondents. This questionnaire is sent through post or advertised in a newspaper or magazine. a researcher studying customer buying behaviour at shopping malls. the researcher may like to study the cause-effect relationship between two or more variables. With the help of experimentation.

1. a parent can help to mitigate negative or chronic stress in a child’s life. The education system in India is highly competitive because of a . and earn good grades -. Introduction to Core Topic ABOUT STRESS AMONG SCHOOL STUDENT : Stress is the body’s natural response to challenges. academic stressors may show in any aspect of the child’s environment: home. the CICSE (Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations) and the National Open School. the school education system is governed by two major categories of educational boards recognised by the government of India. B. Furthermore academic stress is a risk factor for psychopathology. The elaborate study routines that are expected by high school students span from the morning till late evening hours.as well as lead to poor physical. fifth and sixth-grade girls who have higher levels of academic stress are more likely to experience feelings of depression. When a student experiences high levels of stress or chronic stress. it can interfere with her ability to learn. By learning about common stressors. Academic stress involves mental distress regarding anticipated academic challenges or failure or even an awareness of the possibility of academic failure During the school years. emotional and mental health. studying. neighbourhood. In India. or friendship. Kouzma and Kennedy reported that school-related situations – such as tests. The first category includes the All-India Boards. substance use. as well as that induced by others – are the main sources of stress for high school students. grades. The Indian Education System The Indian school education system is textbook-oriented that focuses on rote memorisation of lessons and demands long hours of systematic study every day. leaving little time for socialisation and recreation. memorize. school. nutrition. For example. regardless of her age or grade. self-imposed need to succeed. fourth. like the CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education). The second category includes the State Level Boards that are authorised to carry on their activities within the states where they are registered. The impact of academic stress is also far- reaching: high levels of academic stress have led to poor outcomes in the areas of exercise. and self-care. 1.

and thereafter at the end of every year. The pressure of preparation for examinations creates a high degree of anxiety in many students. It determines.lack of an adequate number of good institutions to accommodate the ever-expanding population of children. medical and other specialized professional courses. Unlike the situation in many Western industrialised countries. in the form of examinations that determine their promotion to the next grade. The 12th grade. The performance in the 12thgrade final examination is crucial for getting admission into one’s preferred choice of college or university. to a very large extent. and high school life. the popular choice for most of the students and their guardians is the science stream in Grade 11. Tenth grade terminates with first board examination – in which the competition with other students expands from the school-level to the state and even the national level. the majority of senior high school students who specialise in science undergo further stress as they tend to also sit for entrance examinations for admission in engineering. often disregarding the comprehension level of students . There is a still larger percentage of children and adolescents in whom anxiety goes undiagnosed owing to the internalized nature of the symptoms. it is difficult for a student to switch stream of education after leaving school. ends with the second board examination. especially in those who are unable to perform at a level that matches the potential they have shown in less stressful situations. This is particularly the case for students specialising in commerce and humanities. Anxiety has substantial negative effects on . and whether or not they will be admitted into the institution of his/her choice. The choice made regarding stream of study is often irrevocable. The poor ratio of number of available institutions to the aspirants for college education ensures that the students face tremendous competition in getting admission to tertiary education. Performance on the 10th grade board examination is important for a number of reasons. In classrooms teachers attempt to cover all aspects of a vast syllabus. In addition. in India. ANXIETY AND STRESS IN SCHOOL CHILDREN Anxiety as a disorder is seen in about 8% of children and adolescents worldwide . Hence children face competition at the entry level of pre-primary education. Since the job prospects for students from the science stream is somewhat better than that for students of humanities and commerce. These structural factors exacerbate the academic stress experienced by senior high school students. whether a student will get to specialize in his/her preferred stream of education.

our purpose was to find out degree of academic stress of 11 th and 12th grade Indian students experiences. Ganesh and Magdalin found that Indian children from non-disrupted families have higher academic stress than children from disrupted families. It is likely that the children from disrupted families get less attention and guidance from their parents regarding academic matters than do their counterparts in non-disrupted families. The self-worth of students in the Indian society is mostly determined by good academic performance. every day 6. gender. irritability. helpless attribution style. This.causing high incidence of deaths by suicide. Psychiatrists have expressed concern at the emergence of education as a serious source of stress for school-going children . cognitive distortions and family conflict . Fear of school failure is reinforced by both the teachers and the parents. as well as with alienation from parents and peers. Because of academic stress and failure in examination. as well its association with various psycho-social factors and its effect on mental health. physical complaints. . Indian parents report removing their TV cable connections and vastly cutting down on their own social lives in order to monitor their children’s homework. Mental health problems among children and adolescents are frequent in India as well. Given the said background. high anxiety. phobia. Many adolescents in India are referred to hospital psychiatric units for school-related distress – exhibiting symptoms of depression. Depression is becoming the most common mental health problem suffering college students these days – caused by poor social problem- solving.children’s social. paradoxically. This is similar to the scenario in the East Asian countries where psychiatrists use the terms ‘high school senior symptoms’ or ‘entrance examination symptoms’ to indicate mental health problems among students. emotional and academic success. and not by vocational and/or other individual qualities. causing children to lose interest in studies.23 Indian students commit suicide – raising questions regarding the effects of the school system on the wellbeing of young people. weeping spells. frequent school refusal. reduces their academic stress – thus highlighting the negative impact of the parental vigilance and persuasion on the academic lives of their children. and perceived criticism from teachers . and decreased interest in school work.

moving. or illness of someone in the family. until such time when you can change it. are just some of the activities you might try. If you feel your problem is serious. Physical exercise will relieve that "up tight" feeling. It helps to talk to someone about your concerns and worries. Know your limits. family member.  Take care of yourself. When you are nervous. your body and your mind work together. think positive and simply relaxing are great ways for kids to handle stress. and turn the frowns into smiles. so it is helpful to teach your children how to handle stress. angry or upset. Learn to accept what is for now. divorce. relax you. Some good stressors including winning an award or getting straight As on your report card. you might seek professional help from a psychologist. and even something as simple as taking a test. release the pressure through exercise or physical activity. Running. COPING UP WITH THE STRESS:  Physical activity Try physical activity. . psychiatrist or social worker.  Talk about it Share your experience of stress. playing tennis or working in your garden. For example. teacher or counselor. If a problem is beyond your control and cannot be changed at the moment. can help you see your problem in a different light.CAUSES OF STRESS: Common causes of stress in children include good things as well as bad things. Causes of stress in children can have many consequences. taking a deep breath. talking to a teacher or family member. Remember. walking. Negative stressors include going to a new school. Knowing when to ask for help may help to avoid more serious problems later. death. don't fight the situation. Perhaps a friend.

You're on your way to making new friends and enjoying new activities. Schedule time for both work and recreation. and you will find they will be attracted to you. If you are irritable and tense from lack of sleep. Trying to take care of everything at once can seem overwhelming. it's better than fighting and always being "right. One way to keep from getting bored. and as a result. you need a break from your daily routine to just relax and have fun. sad. or if you are not eating correctly. Get involved in the world and the people around you. Play can be just as important to your well-being as work. you should ask your doctor for help." A little give and take on both sides will reduce the strain and make you both feel more comfortable. Instead.  Check off your tasks. get involved.  Emotional release .particularly when they don't do things your way? Try cooperation instead of confrontation. If stress repeatedly keeps you from sleeping. Get enough rest and eat well. Give priority to the most important ones and do those first. you may not accomplish anything.  Participate and get involved. you will have less ability to deal with stressful situations. Instead of feeling sorry for yourself. Help yourself by helping other people. checking them off as they're completed.  Must you always be right? Do other people upset you .You are special. Offer your services to a neighborhood or volunteer organizations.  Make time for fun. make a list of what tasks you have to do and do them one at a time. and lonely is to go where it's all happening. Sitting alone can make you feel frustrated.

Take some deep breaths. The best strategy for avoiding stress is to learn how to relax.It's OK to cry. and "doing it right.  Create a quiet scene. many people try to relax at the same pace that they lead the rest of their lives.  Avoid self-medication. Unfortunately. enjoyment. and it might even prevent a headache or other physical consequence." A quiet country scene. drugs do not remove the conditions that caused the stress in the first place. A good cry can be a healthy way to bring relief to your anxiety. without striving." You will find satisfaction in just being. Drugs. Forget about always winning and focus on relaxation. You can't always get away. and health. For a while. painted mentally or on canvas. They should be taken only on the advice of your doctor. but you can "dream the impossible dream. Be good to yourself . in fact. Although you can use drugs to relieve stress temporarily. Change the scene by reading a good book or playing beautiful music to create a sense of peace and tranquillity. tune out your worries about time. productivity. they also release tension. Find activities that give you pleasure and that are good for your mental and physical well-being. can take you out of the turmoil of a stressful situation. may be habit-forming and create more stress than they relieve.

.  Easily irritated and “on edge”.-Seeing only the negative.  Sleep disturbances.-  Repetitive or racing thoughts. . (becoming angry or upset easily and Irritability.  Restlessness and anxiety.-  Difficulty making decisions.-  Mood swings.-Obsessing about things: For example.  Feeling depressed-Confusion.SYMPTOMS OF STRESS: Intellectual symptoms (How stress can affect the Mind)  Memory problems. your weekly summaries.-  Difficulty in concentrating or Short attention span.-Feeling helpless.  Poor judgment. Emotional symptoms (How stress can make children feel)  Moody and hypersensitive.  Sense of being overwhelmed.  Muscle tension and pain. Physical symptoms: (How stress can affectthe Body)  Digestive problems.-  Feeling alert.  Desire to escape or run away.  Loss of objectivity.  Lack of confidence.).  Depression  Anger and resentment.

-Chest pain.  Asthma or shortness of breath. irregular heartbeat.  Skin problems.-  High blood pressure.  Tension headache or migraine-irritability  Overeating-loss of appetite-constipation CHAPTER 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY What is Research? .  Weight gain or loss.  Fatigue.

Researchers not only need to know how to develop certain indices or tests. but they also need to know which of these methods or techniques. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation. All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design his methodology for his problem as the same may differ from problem to problem. From what has been . or develop new theories. Similarly. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies. culture and society. In it we study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with the logic behind them.Research comprises "creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge. etc. To test the validity of instruments. marketing. the median or the standard deviation or chi-square. There are several forms of research: scientific. practitioner research. artistic. and what would they mean and indicate and why. He has to specify very clearly and precisely what decisions he selects and why he selects them so that they can be evaluated by others also. windows and ventilators. reaffirm the results of previous work. the mode. has to consciously evaluate the basis of his decisions. who designs a building. or the project as a whole. he has to evaluate why and on what basis he selects particular size. It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. It is necessary for the researcher to know not only the research methods/techniques but also the methodology. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. Researchers also need to understand the assumptions underlying various techniques and they need to know the criteria by which they can decide that certain techniques and procedures will be applicable to certain problems and others will not. interpretation. procedures.. For example." [1] It is used to establish or confirm facts. research may replicate elements of prior projects. business. humanities. which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. support theorems. uses particular materials and not others and the like. in research the scientist has to expose the research decisions to evaluation before they are implemented. an architect.e. discovery. solve new or existing problems. or experiments. or the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. how to apply particular research techniques. social. including knowledge of humans. and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications. technological. life. number and location of doors. are relevant and which are not. economic. how to calculate the mean. Research Methodology Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. i.

The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research methods. therefore. why particular technique of analysing data has been used and a host of similar other questions are usually answered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study. Thus. Instead. not the same as a method. can be.it is. when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods but also consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study and explain why we are using a particular method or technique and why we are not using others so that research results are capable of being evaluated either by the researcher himself or by others. Why a research study has been undertaken. It comprises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge. it encompasses concepts such as philosophical or theoretical frameworks. A methodology does not set out to provide solutions . and postulates employed by a discipline" 2. how the research problem has been defined. to calculate a specific result. we can say that research methodology has many dimensions and research methods do constitute a part of the research methodology. or have been applied within a discipline" 3.stated above. for example. what data have been collected and what particular method has been adopted. Typically. Methodology is the systematic. theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. phases and quantitative or qualitative techniques. or best practices can be applied to specific case. "the study or description of methods" . It has been defined also as follows: 1. rules. set of methods. "the systematic study of methods that are. theoretical model. "the analysis of the principles of methods. in what way and why the hypothesis has been formulated. a methodology offers the theoretical underpinning for understanding which method.

OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH An objective is the core reason on what basis research is carried out.TYPES OF RESEARCH The types of research used in this case study are as follows:- Applied Research Qualitative Research Conclusion-oriented Research APPLIED RESEARCH It is a scientific research that is used to solve practical problems rather than just acquiring knowledge. Causes of stress and how to overcome them HYPOTHESIS Hypothesis is a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation. 4. What are the reason of stress among children. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH It is important in the behavioural sciences where the main aim is to find out the underlying motives of human behaviour. CONCLUSION ORIENTED RESEARCH A researcher is free to pick up a problem. 2. To know the amount of percentage of stress among the children . 1. Majority of children are under stress when they study. 6. Which gender has more stress whether boys or girls . redesign the enquiry as he proceeds and is prepared to conceptualize as he wishes. 1. . It is used to find solutions to everyday problems. 3. How many children goes under depression and commit suicide . To help to improve stress condition among children. 5.

The sample size is an important feature of any empirical study in which the goal is to make inferences about a population from a sample. . 3. 2. and/or utility of findings that are the result of the ways in which you initially chose to design the study and/or the method used to establish internal and external validity. The sample size of my research is 50. It is normally used in the case of academic research and to a certain extent in case of social research. 4. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The limitations of the study are those characteristics of design or methodology that impacted or influenced the interpretation of the findings from your research. Stress level among boys are much high. They are the constraints on generalizability. Major reason for stress is among children are parents. SECONDARY DATA It refers to readily information available data from published or printed sources. Students studying in class 10 and 12th increases their stress level by more 75% DATA SOURCE PRIMARY DATA It refers to first hand information which is collected to solve a specific problem. Primary data is collected by interviewing respondents by building a questionnaire and getting required response. SAMPLE SIZE Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample. applications to practice.

5% of the higher secondary students in Kolkata experience academic stress. Purpose of the study had to be explained to the respondents because of which responses may be biased. especially in terms of academic stress and its impact has become a serious issue among researchers and policymakers because of increasing incidence of suicides among students across the globe. The present study revealed that 63. Secondly. the findings give some idea about prevalence of the academic stress among higher secondary students in Mumbai and its association with parental pressure. However. and also the fact that punishments are not usually deemed necessary in the Higher Secondary classes. Some respondents are reluctant to respond to questions. REVIEW OF LITERATURE: The mental health of students. number of private tutors and examination-related anxiety. further investigation is needed to ascertain if the ban has been implemented effectively. 3. 4. Therefore. 2. Parental pressure for better . caution should be used when generalising the findings of the study.Given the large population of the higher secondary students in Mumbai. The present study did not take into account the effect of punishment or threat of punishment in schools on the mental health of the students – keeping in view the recently imposed blanket ban on corporal punishments in Indian schools. responses are based on self-report. the sample size was relatively small. To further validate the findings. Sample size is very limited because of which conclusions drawn are not accurate and does not cover the full population. suspension or withdrawal of facilities – on students. as students are seen as mature enough to follow rules and regulations themselves. Research conducted may not be considered as comprehensive as only limited respondents could be contacted due to time constraints. and also to ascertain the impact of non-corporal punishments – such as scolding. another study with a larger sample is recommended. 1. However.

instead of friendship. Patel and Kleinman confirmed the association between indicators of poverty and the risk of common mental disorders . some students cannot cope with the demands anymore and emotionally collapse when the stress is high.graduates. The overall unemployment situation in India has also provoked parents to put pressure on their children for better performance. People from lower and middle class social strata want their children to do well in studies since this is often the only means to an honourable vocation for them. Parents put pressure on their children to succeed because of their concern for the welfare of their children and their awareness of the competition for getting admission in reputed institutions. All these have made a normal pursuit for adolescents [22] – leaving them to deal with the demands of the school as well as that of their tutors. number of private tutors and the academic performance of the students are some of the other factors associated with academic stress. More than half of the parents appoint 3 to 4 private tutors or even more for their wards.0% of the students. pressure their children more than the parents with graduation and post-graduation background do. non. On days when there are no academic tuitions. The data revealed that parents with low level of education i. Academic anxiety is found to be the least in case of adolescents from high socio-economic classes – which may be . to play or to interact with neighbours freely or even to get adequate sleep. there develops a sense of rivalry among classmates. some children develop deep rooted nervous disorders in early childhood . There are instances of mental health problems in secondary school students (10 th grade final examination) and senior high school student (12th grade final examination). Constantly pushed to perform better in both academic and extra-curricular activities. Naturally such students end up being nervous wrecks when the examination pressure mounts. The students hardly get time to watch TV.. The majority of the parents criticized their children by comparing the latter’s performance with that of the best performer in the class. In addition. Some parents even tend to demean the achievement of the top scorer of the class by stating that he/she might have been favoured by the teacher . Some of the parents wish to fulfil their unfulfilled dreams through their children. In a review of studies from low and middle income countries.e. as reported by 66. the child’s mother’s occupation. there are art or music lessons.academic performance was found to be mostly responsible for academic stress. As a result. Pushed by the parents to ‘be the best’ in art or music lessons and under pressure to score well in school.

female students experience more examination-related anxiety and psychiatric caseness than their male counterparts. More than three-fifths of the students reported to be involved in extra- curricular activities like games and sports.partly attributed to their secured future at least in material aspects.6% of the participants. and lower academic achievement. Gender was also found to be significantly associated with examination-related anxiety and psychiatric caseness. This could be because of either a lack of meaningful involvement in extracurricular activities or involvement for an insufficient period of time and requires further investigation. music. It is believed that extra-curricular activities could be one of the mediating factors for academic stress. This leads to anxiety – causing school avoidance. No significant difference is found between the academic stress of students who are involved in extra-curricular activities and who are not. Compelled to learn a foreign language at a late age and then to study all other participants in that ill- mastered language. psychiatric problems are found to present in 32. decreased problem-solving abilities. the students in these schools face communication and comprehension problems. and higher levels of generalised anxiety than do boys of the same age. especially the female students who are coming from Bengali medium schools and are not proficient in English. Unexplained headaches. Even recreational activities like sports. Deb. In the present study. The prevalence of anxiety disorders tends to decrease with higher socio-economic status . That is. Chatterjee and Walsh also found higher anxiety among female students in Bengali Medium schools in India. The students from the lower socio-economic strata get admitted in government-sponsored schools and study primarily in the local language – since in government schools in West Bengal. cultural programmes. migraine and hypertension are becoming alarmingly common among teenagers – often an outcome of their stressful lives. English education is introduced in year 8. Unfortunately. In the present study. Another study has also reported that social disadvantage is associated with increased stress among students . examination-related anxiety has been reported by 81. which affect their academic performance as well as their self-confidence. painting or swimming have become as competitive as studies. National Cadet Corps (NCC) and National Social Service (NSS) and so on.6% of the students. more separation anxiety. the magnitude of mental health problems of children and adolescents has not yet been recognised sufficiently by the policy makers in many countries. which is a serious an . This confirms previous findings that adolescent girls report a greater number of worries.

mother’s occupation. gender and father’s occupation were significantly associated. the State Board in Kolkata.6%) of the students are indicative of psychiatric caseness. India. Academic stress was found to be positively correlated with parental pressure and psychiatric problems. Even schools affiliated to the WBBSE (West Bengal Board of Secondary Education). As a result. Examination-related anxiety is also observed to be related to psychiatric problems. A number of previous studies reported psychiatric illnesses among children. the Government of India has made the Year 10 board examinations optional. the intense competition means that many students still experience high levels of academic stress. The understanding of a child’s development has presently shifted from just a marks-based assessment to a holistic assessment of students’ performance in Kolkata schools because of numerous reported incidents of academic failure among students. On the basis of the findings of the study. Academic stress is found to be positively correlated with parental pressure and psychiatric problems. Again. and academic performance. and other factors. Two-thirds of the students reported that their parents pressurize them for better academic performance. In order to reduce academic stress on students and parents. The incidence of reported parental pressure differed significantly by parental education levels. number of private tutors. have done away with ranks in report cards. Therefore. especially female students and those who are not proficient in English. In this regard. the CBSE has made the secondary examinations optional.5% of the students in the present study are stressed because of academic pressure. About one- third (32. While this policy has the potential to take some of the pressure of high school students. class. These students require immediate psychiatric attention for improving their mental health status – along with counseling for their parents. since a decision in 2009 by the Human Resource Development Minister. There were no significant differences in academic stress across gender. It is important to remember that mental constitution or coping capacities vary from one child to another. More than four-fifths of students suffer from examination-related anxiety.issue of concern for policy makers. This study found that 63. examination-related anxiety was positively related to psychiatric problems – which emphasises the need for psychological intervention. the following steps are suggested: . age. depression and fear of academic failure. children with poor coping capacities become more prone to anxiety.

scribd.co.wikipedia. BIBLIOGRAPHY : www.com www. adolescents should be trained on how to manage stress and anxiety • Knowledge about mental health and academic stress should be promoted among the parents of the adolescents and taught strategies to help improve the resilience and coping strategies of their children.• Immediate attention of mental health professionals is required for the students whose scores on the GHQ are indicative of psychiatric caseness for improving their mental health status.in . • At school.google.com www.

Livingstrong. Which age group are you in? S Agree Agree Neutral Disagree S Disagree .org www.com QUESTIONNAIRE : NAME: ______________________ GENDER: Male Female Q1.sapub.www.article.

Should there be reservation system? Yes . What is your School Board? State Board CBSE Board ICSE Board Other Q3. How many Students have more pressure only during exam? Yes No Q7. When is the pressure more? During class 10th During class 12th Other Specify: ________________________ Q5.04-15 years 15 – 18 years Q2. What Kind of pressure you have more? Parents Competition Willingly Classes Q4. Exams should be there or should not? Yes No Q6.

Is extracurricular activities and projects burden on children? YES NO . Punishment in schools should be given or not YES NO Q10.No Q8.How many of them suffer from stream pressure that is want to take their career as Science? YES NO Both Q9.