# Ball thrown vertically with air resistance

Initial speed of ball = vo (up).
Air resistance modeled as Fair = -v2.

Then on the way up, need to solve:
dv dv dy dv
F = − m g − βv 2 = m a = m =m = mv
dt dy dt dy

so
−m v
dy = dv
m g + βv 2

Integrating from vo to v gives:

m  m g + β v 02 
y= ln  
2 β  m g + βv 2 

The maximum height, ymax , is obtained by substituting v = 0 in the above equation.

m  β v 02 
y m ax = ln  1 + 
2β  mg 

Alternatively, one can write
−m
dt = dv
m g + βv 2

which can be integrated to yield
m   vo   v 
t=  tan −1   − tan −1
  
gβ   β   β 
 m g / m g /

which can be inverted to give

mg   βv 2  gβ 
−1  0 
v (t ) = tan  tan   − t
β   m g  m 

need to solve: dv dv dy dv F = − m g + βv 2 = m a = m =m = mv dt dy dt dy so −v / g dy = dv 1 − ( v 2 / v t2 ) Integrating from v = 0 (at peak) to v (v<0) gives: . πv t t m ax = 2g a finite value.and defining mg vt = β this is  v  g  v ( t ) = v t tan  tan −1  0  − t    vt  vt  which can be substituted into the expression for y(t). this last expression can be integrated. or vt t≤ tan −1 ( v 0 / v t ) ≡ t m ax g It is interesting to note that if you throw the ball up with infinite velocity. yielding v t2  co s(tan −1 ( v 0 / v t ) )  y (t ) = ln   g  co s ( tan −1 ( v 0 / v t ) − g t / v ) t  which is valid only as long as v > 0 . On the way down. Alternatively.

using a different form for Newton’s law. 1 vt v −v t − t m ax = ln t 2 g vt + v and noting that 0 > v > -vt . v = 0 to v. the argument inside the absolute value is positive so this can be inverted to give  g  1 − exp  2 ( t − t m ax )   vt  v = vt  g 1 + exp  2 ( t − t m ax )   vt   g  = − vt tan h  ( t − t m ax )   vt  which can be integrated to get . v t2 y − y m ax = ln ( 1 − ( v 2 / v t2 ) ) 2g v 2 < v t2 and. m dv dv dt = = βv 2 − m g  v2  g  2 − 1  vt  and integrating for t = tmax to t.

v t2  g  y = y m ax − ln  co sh  ( t − t m ax )   g   v t  v t2  v 02  v t2  g  = ln  1 + 2  − ln  co sh  ( t − t m ax )   2 g  vt  g   vt      v t2  1 + ( v 02 / v t2 )  = ln g   gt −1 v 0   cosh  − tan    vt v t   valid only for t > t max . . So the objects returns to its original height after a total time vt   g y  t = t m ax + co sh −1  ex p  2m ax   g   vt    −1  v 0   = vt g  tan   + co sh   vt  −1 ( ) 1 + ( v 02 / v t2 )   Note: The ratio v 02 βv 02 = v t2 m g is the ratio of the initial air resistance to the pull of gravity.

Example: 12 12 β = 0.0 Time (s) .8 m/s -8 -8 -10 -10 0.5 1.5 2.0 1.01 N s 2/m 2 10 10 β = 0.50 8 8 6 6 4 4 Velocity (m/s) Height (m) 2 2 0 0 -2 -2 -4 -4 -6 m = 1 kg -6 vo = 9.0 0.

0 1 ∫a 2 2 2 = +b x ab tan −1    a  4 80 . .0 1 ∫ tan h x d x = lo g (co sh x ) Note: in most (if not all) integral tables. all logarithms are natural logarithms. That is.1 ∫ tan x d x = − lo g |co s x | dx 1 a − bx 1 4 0 .0 2 ∫ a 2 − b 2 x 2 2ab a + bx = lo g N o te th at a + bx [b x2 < a2] 1 1 bx lo g = tan h −1 2 2 ab a − bx ab a an d bx + a [b x2 > a2] 1 1 bx lo g = co th −1 2 2 ab bx − a ab a 6 9 1.1 ∫a 2 +x 2 = 2 lo g ( a 2 + x 2 ) dx 1  bx  1 2 0 . unless explicitly stated otherwise. you will see “log(x)” which means (“ln(x)”).Integral Table Entries Used (index numbers from Dwight’s “Tables of Integrals and other Mathematical Data”) In order of use: x dx 1 1 2 1.