I.

2-18 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES

Table I.2.5. Recommended accuracy (uncertainty levels) expressed
at the 95 per cent confidence interval

Precipitation (amount and form) 3–7%
Rainfall intensity 1 mm h–1
Snow depth (point) 1 cm below 20 cm or 10% above 20 cm
Water content of snow 2.5–10%
Evaporation (point) 2–5%, 0.5 mm
Wind speed 0.5 m s–1
Water level 10–20 min
Wave height 10%
Water depth 0.1 m, 2%
Width of water surface 0.5%
Velocity of flow 2–5%
Discharge 5%
Suspended sediment concentration 10%
Suspended sediment transport 10%
Bed-load transport 25%
Water temperature 0.1–0.5˚C
Dissolved oxygen (water temperature is more than 10˚C) 3%
Turbidity 5–10%
Colour 5%
pH 0.05–0.1 pH unit
Electrical conductivity 5%
Ice thickness 1–2 cm, 5%
Ice coverage 5% for ≥ 20 kg m–3
Soil moisture 1 kg m–3 ≥ 20 kg m–3

Notes:
1. When a range of accuracy levels is recommended, the lower value is applicable to measurements under relatively good conditions and the
higher value is applicable to measurements under difficult situations.
2. Obtaining the recommended accuracy of precipitation measurements, 3–7 per cent, will depend on many factors, including gauge
characteristics. For gauges having their orifice above the ground, the gauge catch deficiency is strongly determined by wind speed and
precipitation type. The catch deficiency for light snow falling during strong wind can for example be 50 per cent or more.

2.4 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF or gauge may be included in more than one network
HYDROLOGICAL NETWORKS if its data are being used for more than one purpose.
In most parts of the world this is more commonly
the case than not. Alternatively, a single network
2.4.1 General concepts of network design
may consist of several types of station or gauge if
A hydrological data network is a group of data- they are all contributing information to the
collection activities that is designed and operated network’s objective. For example, both raingauges
to address a single objective or a set of compatible and stream gauges might be included in a flood
objectives. Frequently, the objectives are associated forecasting network.
with a particular use that is anticipated for the data
being collected in the network – for example, for a The term network is frequently used in a less rigor-
water resources assessment, a development plan, or ous sense. It is often possible to hear of surface-water
a project design. A particular hydrological station network, groundwater network, precipitation

CHAPTER 2. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I.2-19

network, or water-quality network when the speaker (b) Where do they need to be observed?
is referring to an aggregation of gauges and stations (c) How often do they need to be observed?
that have no coherence in their objectives. Data- (d) What is the duration of the observation
collection sites included in a network under this programme?
looser definition may even have disparate uses for (e) How accurate should the observations be?
the data being collected. This disparity of usage is
more than just a semantical oddity. It can cause To answer these questions, network design can be
confusion and false expectations when network conceptualized as a pyramid, as shown in
analysis and design are being discussed among Figure I.2.5. The base of the pyramid is the science
programme managers and hydrologists. of hydrology. Without a thorough understanding
of the hydrological setting of the area in which the
A network design could be based on a maximiza- network is to be established, there is little chance
tion of the economic worth of the data that are to that the resulting network will generate informa-
be collected. However, such is not the case in the tion in an effective manner. Hydrological
real world. Generally, in water resources decision- understanding comes from both education and
making, the economic impacts of hydrological data experience, but there is no substitute for experience
are never considered. Decisions are made based on when initiating a hydrological network in an area
the available data; the option of delaying the deci- where little or no historical data are available.
sion to collect more data is not explored, or deemed
unacceptable. However, several examples of excep- The right-hand side of the pyramid deals with
tions to this general rule are contained in the quantitative methods for coping with hydrological
Cost–benefit Assessment Techniques and User uncertainty. Because of measurement errors and
Requirements for Hydrological Data (WMO-No. 717) errors caused by sampling in space and time, there
and in the Proceedings of the Technical Conference on will always be hydrological uncertainty. Perfect
the Economic and Social Benefits of Meteorological and hydrological information can never exist.
Hydrological Services (WMO-No. 733). A review of Probabilistic descriptions of these errors are the
the hydrometric network in one Canadian province most effective means of dealing with the resulting
indicated that the cost–benefit ratio of the existing uncertainty. Probability theory provides the
provincial network was 19 and that the network theorems and the language for doing so and also
could be tripled in size to maximize economic yields the understanding that is necessary for
benefits (Azar and others, 2003). Even in nations appropriate use of the tools of statistics. In
with very dense hydrometric networks, such as the Figure I.2.5, statistical tools are represented by
United Kingdom, economic analysis inevitably sampling theory and by correlation and regression
demonstrates that benefits of hydrometric networks analyses, which are commonly used in quantitative
exceed the cost (CNS, 1991). Nonetheless many network-design approaches. However, there are
countries suffered considerable reductions in their many other branches of statistics that may be found
hydrological networks in the 1980s and 1990s as a useful in network analysis and design. The capstone
consequence of budget reductions for monitoring of uncertainty is Bayesian analysis, which pertains
agencies (Pearson, 1998). For example, network to the level of uncertainty in the descriptions of
reductions in Canada, Finland, New Zealand
and the United States of America were 21, 7, 20
and 6 per cent, respectively. Network reductions,
with rare exceptions such as New Zealand, Decision theory
continue.
Bayesian
In lieu of complete economic analyses, network analysis
designs are usually based on surrogate measures of Socio-
Optimization Corre-
the economics or on guidance such as that presented economic Sampling
theory lation and
subsequently in this chapter. analysis theory
regression

2.4.1.1 Definition of network design Probability

A complete network design answers the following Hydrology
questions pertaining to the collection of hydrologi-
cal data:
(a) What hydrological variables need to be Figure I.2.5. The basic building blocks of
observed? network design

I.2-20 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES

hydrological uncertainty. In other words, the Nevertheless, hydrological data-collection sites
probabilistic descriptions of uncertainty, based on are often installed to meet pressing social needs
statistics of finite samples of hydrological and economic constraints with relatively little
data, are uncertain in themselves. Reduction of thought to meeting long-term hydrological
uncertainty about uncertainty is a key aspect of information needs. Aside from meeting scien-
taking full advantage of the information tific needs, data-collection sites may be installed
contained in the data that the network will to assist water mangers in responding to extreme
generate. events such as floods or droughts, allocating
water supplies among competing uses, or meet-
The column in the middle of the structure, labelled ing regulatory requirements. Sites operated for
optimization theory, is often included taxonomi- these latter purposes may also lead to increased
cally as a part of socio-economic analysis. However, hydrological understanding, but the resulting
even in the absence of socio-economics, the opti- network is by no means optimized for that
mization theory is often used in hydrological purpose.
network design. Thus, it is included here as a sepa-
rate component of the structure. A suite of
2.4.1.2 Surrogate approaches
mathematical programmes, each with its own util-
ity and shortcomings, comprises optimization Since full-scale and complete network design is
theory, which is often referred to as operations either impossible or impractical in today’s world,
research. The context of the network-design prob- approaches that substitute surrogate measures,
lem determines which, if any, of the mathematical objectives, or criteria are actually used to answer
programmes can be used in a given situation. Often, the questions that comprise network design. For
the choice between two or more network designs example, a common substitution is to maximize
must be made on the basis of judgement because information content from a network in lieu of
appropriate optimization tools either do not exist optimizing the economic value of the data. Studies
or are too consuming of computer resources to be have shown that, if information is used properly,
efficient. it can be expected to contribute to the economic
worth resulting from a decision. The more infor-
Atop the pyramid is decision theory, which is a mation, the better the decision. However, the
formal mechanism for integrating all of the under- economic impact of information is not linearly
lying components. The application of decision related to its magnitude and the marginal worth of
theory in network design is not required – it is not additional information decreases with the amount
even possible in most circumstances. However, an of information that is available. Thus, the use of
understanding of its pretexts and premises can this surrogate criterion can lead a Hydrological
make a network designer more cognizant of the Service in the right direction if only sparse hydro-
impacts of his or her final decisions. logical information is available, but its use can
cause the collection of excess data if the region of
The left-hand side of the pyramid represents a interest already has a reasonably adequate infor-
rather amorphous group of technologies under the mation base.
heading of socio-economic analysis. In addition to
social sciences and economics, this part of the Among the basic analytical techniques that take
network-design structure also encompasses policy advantage of surrogates in the design of networks
science and even politics. The latter plays a very are cartographic analysis, correlation and
important role in the realization of the potential regression methods, probabilistic modelling,
benefits of water and, thus, also in the ultimate deterministic modelling and regionalization
value of the data from the network. The left-hand techniques. Each method has particular
side of the structure is the part that usually receives applications and the choice depends on the limi-
little rigorous consideration in the design of the tations of available data and the type of problem
data network. This is probably attributable to two under consideration. Quite often the different
causes: the subject matter is difficult to treat in an techniques are combined in certain applications.
objective, mathematical way; and to do so in a The Casebook on Hydrological Network Design
substantive manner requires the synthesis of Practice (WMO-No. 324) presents applications of
inputs from many disciplines beyond those of these techniques as a means of determining
hydrology and water resources engineering. Thus, network requirements. Further examples are
a network design that includes a significant socio- contained in other publications (WMO/IHD
economic analysis will probably be both expensive Project Report No. 12; WMO-Nos. 433, 580,
and time-consuming. 806).

CHAPTER 2. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I.2-21

2.4.1.3 The basic network formulation of detailed development plans and
will not meet the numerous requirements of a
The worth of the data that derive from a network is developed region for the operation of projects
a function of the subsequent uses that are made of and the management of water resources.
them. Nevertheless, many of the uses of hydrologi-
cal data are not apparent at the time of the network 2.4.1.3.2 Expanding the information base
design and, therefore, cannot be used to justify the
collection of specific data that ultimately may be of Once the minimum network is operational, region-
great value. In fact, few hydrological data would be alized hydrological relationships, interpreted
collected if a priori economic justifications were information and models can be formulated for esti-
required. However, modern societies have devel- mating general hydrological characteristics,
oped a sense that information is a commodity that, including rainfall and runoff at any location in the
like insurance, should be purchased for protection area. The basic network of observing stations should
against an uncertain future. Such an investment in be adjusted over time until regional hydrological
the case of hydrological data is the basic network, relationships can be developed for ungauged areas
which is established to provide hydrological infor- that provide the appropriate level of information.
mation for unanticipated future water resources In most cases, this adjustment will result in increases
decisions. The basic network should provide a level in the densities of hydrological stations. However,
of hydrological information at any location within this is not always the case. Since models are used to
its region of applicability that would preclude any transfer the information from the gauged to the
gross mistakes in water resources decision-making. ungauged sites, the quality of the model is also a
To accomplish this aim, at least three criteria must factor in determining the density of the basic
be fulfilled: network. If a model is particularly good, it can distil
(a) A mechanism must be available to transfer the information from the existing data better than
the hydrological information from the sites at a poorer model, and the better model would require
which the data are collected to any other site in less data to attain a given level of regional informa-
the area; tion than would the poorer one. In an extreme
(b) A means for estimating the amount of hydro- situation, the regional model might be so good that
logical information (or, conversely, uncertainty) the level of data collection in the basic network
at any site must also exist; could be reduced.
(c) The suite of decisions must include the option
of collecting more data before the final decision Owing to the broad dependence on the stations in
is made. the basic network, it is very important that the
records from all of these stations be of high quality.
Even if the installation of a station is adequate, its
2.4.1.3.1 The minimum network
records may be of little value if it is not operated
In the early stages of development of a hydrologi- correctly. Continuous operation may be difficult –
cal network, the first step should be the especially over a period of 20 years or more. A
establishment of a minimum network. Such a minimum network, in which stations are aban-
network should be composed of the minimum doned or irregularly observed, will have its effective
number of stations which the collective experi- density reduced and is, therefore, no longer an
ence of hydrological agencies of many countries adequate minimum network. For that reason, care
has indicated to be necessary to initiate planning should be taken not only in establishing, but also in
for the economic development of the water providing for, the continuing operation of these
resources. stations and for monitoring the reliability and accu-
racy of the collected records.
The minimum network is one that will avoid seri-
ous deficiencies in developing and managing Economic as well as technical considerations are
water resources on a scale commensurate with involved in the design and implementation of basic
the overall level of economic development of the networks, and the number of stations requiring
country. It should be developed as rapidly as observation over an indefinitely long period cannot
possible by incorporating existing stations as be excessive. Consequently, a sampling procedure
appropriate. In other words, this pragmatic may be adopted to maximize the cost-effectiveness
network will provide the basic framework for of the basic network. One such approach catego-
network expansion to meet future needs for rizes the stations as either principal or base stations,
specifi c purposes. It is emphasized that a mini- or secondary stations. The secondary stations are
mum network will not be adequate for the operated only long enough to establish a stable

2. station.1. the specific purpose to be served tional to the degree of hydrological understanding may require observations on only one particular that is captured in the models that are used to route aspect of an element. A groundwater observation well may such stations may or may not be included in a perform a similar role for malfunctions of the basic hydrological network.4. network and used as initial given conditions for its ued site by means of the base-station records and design.1 Stations for operational purposes potential changes in the hydrological cycle that could be caused by land-use changes or by increases Stations may be established for such specific in stratospheric greenhouse gases. The length of operation of special The hydrological cycle is a continuum. stations is related to the purpose for which they connections permit the partial transfer of were installed. Networks with more site or at its related base station(s) have changed. with assessment will generally have less specific require- one or more of the base stations. provide a continuing series of consistent observa- Ideally. In spite of Reference Hydrometric Basin Network of Canada is this technological shortcoming. for enced by past or future anthropogenic changes. This is particularly important in the light of 2. For example.1.4. purposes. naviga- tion. it may be when designing generalized networks. example. they could be opti. Benchmark or reference stations would also belong 2. In some cases. it will be likely station can then be established with the equipment that many of the gauges of the flood-forecasting and funds that had been in use at the discontinued network can be incorporated into the assessment site. If the economic trade-offs between the Since long records are the essence of a benchmark two networks could be defined. water-quality monitoring or flood forecasting. A new secondary ments for its information sources. like the basic necessary to re-establish secondary stations if it is network on the basis of networks.1. they do not provide the data required during times when all gauges were functioning for general hydrological analyses.4. networks should one such example (Harvey and others. precipitation records on may consist of a crest gauge for recording only the or near a gauged drainage basin permit the recon. At times.I. term trends in hydrological conditions in the region. and its inter. this can be illustrated. irrigation.4. little has been done to include these inter. Hydrological benchmark stations should flood-forecasting network could be used in design. As the water resources region – especially in those regions where great . be established in areas that are relatively uninflu- ing a network for water resources assessment. the complementarity between the rain. with more restric- believed that the conditions either at the secondary tive information demands. purposes as reservoir operation. This iterative approach is particularly useful the inter-station relationship. The efficiency of such transfers is propor.1.4 Integrated network design to this category.2-22 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES relationship.3 Representative basins ing network will probably have stream gauges and precipitation gauges at rather specific locations to A representative basin is desirable in each natural meet its information needs.4. Each country and each natural region of large coun- To date. usually by means of correlations. tries should contain one benchmark station to actions in network designs in an explicit manner. maximum flood peak or a storage gauge for meas- struction of streamflow records during periods uring the total precipitation during a season.4. For example. The generation could be attained for both. properly.2 Benchmark stations stream. consideration should be given to existing mized together and peak efficiencies in information stations if they meet the other requirements. and the outcomes of an Climatological benchmark stations are known as existing design should become starting points for reference stations.4. be designed iteratively. By extension of the above example. information obtained in one part of the cycle to another. stream gauge if the well is monitoring the water table of an aquifer that is directly connected to the 2. when the stream-gauge malfunctions if a valid Although such stations may perform a valuable precipitation-runoff model has been calibrated function. 1999). subsequent designs. Consequently. restrictive demands include benchmark stations. tions on hydrological and related climatological gauges and the stream gauges that are operated in a variables. or be confined to one season the water (and the information) between the parts of the year. Records can be reconstructed at the discontin. a hydrometric station of the cycle. The perpetual nature of the principal stations in the representative basins and networks for operational basic network provides a basis for monitoring long. The flood-forecast.

2-23 economic growth is expected or where the analysis and to tune the network to any changes hydrological problems are particularly difficult. An indication of the consequences of not being able to provide this information may prove useful later. In in the socio-economic environment that may have their simplest form. then the lower- priority objectives may not be met fully. an objective about by the added data since the last network or set of objectives can be established in terms of the information required. for specific purposes. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. These are stations established for a limited span of particularly legislative responsibilities.4.2. Such reviews should be Objectives of the network conducted periodically to take advantage of the reduction in hydrological uncertainty brought Based on the purpose of the network.4. The purposes of the network in terms of the users (b) Data quality depending on purpose. Project stations are Purposes of the network characterized by: (a) Limited lifetime. Establish priorities However. time.2.6 lays out the steps that should be taken well. The roles and aims of all of the organizations involved in various aspects of water resources 2. Implementation Network design Review Depending on the available information and the Direct linkages objectives defined. catchment. The steps of the analysis are discussed study of precipitation and runoff. priorities need Objectives of the network to be set for later evaluation. Assess existing networks Network design Assess existing networks Information on the existing networks should be Optimize operations compiled and interpreted to determine if the current networks fulfil the objectives. This may Budget include comparisons with other basins and/or networks. and uses of the data should be identifi ed. in conducting a review and redesign of an existing hydrological network. If all objectives can be met within the budget. Communication links between these organizations Other frequent objectives may be investigations should be improved to ensure coordination and before or after physical interventions in the integration of data-collection networks.4. regression relationships. or for supplementing the regional coverage of the basic network. then this is not needed. they permit the simultaneous transpired. or more complex Figure I.5 Conducting a network analysis needs and incorporate these into the design as Figure I. the most appropriate network- design technique or techniques should be applied. There is also a need to identify potential future 2. Data users and uses can vary temporally and spatially. thus helping to individually below. A framework for network analysis network analysis using generalized least squares and redesign methods. Institutional set-up Purposes of the network Establish priorities If there is more than one objective. CHAPTER 2. make up for deficiencies in short periods of observation and low densities of minimum Institutional set-up networks.6. .4 Project stations management should be defined and identified. often research oriented. if they cannot be met. Feedback mechanisms This may be simple hydrological characteristics.1.1.

operational procedures should be adopted. where data are the types of instrument. This includes techniques should also be applied. frequency of station visits available. changes in users or uses. However. To be ready to meet such changes. minimum densities of reduced information and net impacts. funding must be obtained or the objectives and/or In other words. the design densities must be adjusted to reflect actual socio-economic and physio-climatic Operational procedures account for a significant conditions.1. or changes in the It is impossible to define a sufficient number of budget. such a network will provide the priorities need to be examined to determine where framework for expansion to meet the information costs may be reduced. The minimum-cost to satisfy specific needs. could be developed from this. allow the designer to express the impact of insuffi- cient funding in terms of not meeting objectives or In the following sections. 671) and are presented in and long-term planning horizons. It should be developed as rapidly as possi- next step can be followed. Computer-based mathematical analysis portion of the cost of data collection. the country. These recommendations are Implementation based on the 1991 review of Members’ responses The redesigned network needs to be implemented regarding the WMO basic network assessment in a planned manner. project (WMO/TD-No. If not. to optimize the network density required and structure of field trips. a review can be required at the the Guide.2 Density of stations for a network fall.4.1. instigation of any particular component – for example.2-24 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES Optimize operations As such. Each country could present a good map of The concept of network density is intended to serve annual precipitation and a minimum network as a general guideline if specific guidance is lacking.I.2. If this is within the budget.4. Table I. The simplest and most precise criterion for the classification of zones would be on the basis of the areal and seasonal variation of rain- 2. this would Table I. a zones to represent the complete variety of hydro- continuous review process is essential. as appropriate.6. incorporating existing stations.6. As stated in 2. However. The process adopted should needs of specific water uses. the cost of the operation of the network development and environmental needs of the can be established. This will include both short. the minimum network is one that will avoid serious deficiencies in developing Budget and managing water resources on a scale commen- Based on the identified network and operational surate with the overall level of economic procedures. various types of hydrological stations are recommended for different climatic and geographic zones. either additional ble.2. logical conditions. these recommended network densities are being revisited through a study undertaken by the Commission for Hydrology and Review the revised recommended densities will be placed Since a number of the above components are on the Website as part of the electronic version of variable in time.3. Recommended minimum densities of stations (area in km2 per station) Physiographic Precipitation Evaporation Streamflow Sediments Water quality unit Non-recording Recording Coastal 900 9 000 50 000 2 750 18 300 55 000 Mountains 250 2 500 50 000 1 000 6 700 20 000 Interior plains 575 5 750 5 000 1 875 12 500 37 500 Hilly/undulating 575 5 750 50 000 1 875 12 500 47 500 Small islands 25 250 50 000 300 2 000 6 000 Urban areas – 10–20 – – – – Polar/arid 10 000 100 000 100 000 20 000 200 000 200 000 .

or whenever it is possible to inspect the stations. In bution need to be considered as a special category. or for other economic ing-raingauge installations. tological station in the basic network: precipitation. it is not advisable to base the classifi. storage gauges may be used. data and the location of volunteer observers.2. or remote regions. regions. that evaporation or snow-measuring stations. tipping- For the last type of region. coin. such as arid network. and duration of (b) Mountainous. needed for rainfall measurements is of the order (e) Small islands (surface areas less than 500 km2). In they have very few prior records. precipitation at high altitudes. attention must be given to In such cases. automated. precipitation. because of sparse population. will generally measure temperature. 2. in general. For reliable measurements.4. the small number of stations in the minimum are available for extending streamflow records.2.1. either through the addition of shield- almost impossible to install and operate. Precipitation gauges may be designed specifically to measure snow-water Population density also affects network design. it is necessary to group bucket raingauges with an electronic memory the areas in which it does not seem currently poss. In addition to daily depth of design. of areas should be given priority: urban areas (population in excess of 10 000) where exten- sive drainage systems are likely to be constructed. mountainous regions. vertical zonality by using storage gauges to measure cation on this one characteristic. the countries with very irregular rainfall distri. CHAPTER 2. seasonally. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. From these considerations. partic. It is understood here ing network and special research projects.1 Climatological stations river basins in which major river control The following types of data are collected at a clima. be paid to the time synchronization of the raingauges. general. short-duration rainfalls. For urban areas where the time resolution (d) Hilly/undulating. The greatest density of record- adopting some general rules. The network should consist of three kinds of At the other extreme. .1 Precipitation stations Location of precipitation gauges relative to stream- If one follows certain principles of installation and gauging stations – To ensure that precipitation data use. (or another computer readable medium) are ible to achieve completely acceptable densities recommended.4. precipitation gauges should be as uniformly ment of a good precipitation map is not possible. the storm-drainage systems and for other engineering depth of snow on the ground and the state of applications. (c) Interior plains. These gauges are read monthly. elements affect evaporation and melting. large areas inadequately covered by the exist- snow survey and evaporation. ing stations should be achieved in those areas graphic regions have been defined for minimum subject to intense. systems are anticipated or are in operation. management and real-time control of the precipitation. such as in desert or moun- humidity and wind because these meteorological tainous terrain. (c) Storage gauges (totalizers) – In sparsely settled ularly the former. poor development of In assigning priorities to locations for record- communications facilities. distribution. polar regions or tropical forests. the following types reasons. special attention should (f) Polar/arid. and the establish. densely-populated urban gauge: areas need a very dense raingauge network for both (a) Standard gauges – These gauges are read daily temporal and spatial resolution of storms and for for quantity. it is advis- larger zones have been defined for the definition of able to aim to have at least 10 per cent of density norms in a somewhat arbitrary manner such stations. distributed as is consistent with practical needs for Also. the weather are to be made at each standard precipitation station. observations of snowfall. on the intensity. a number of stations where the use of pressure sensors. Periodic manual snow population is sparse unless the stations are highly surveys may be used to supplement the network. but they should not be counted as part of the cide with various climatic extremes. of one to two minutes. Six types of physio. 2. ing to reduce under-catch due to wind or through factory manner. in a satis. networks: Such stations will provide valuable information (a) Coastal. a limited number of (b) Recorders – In developing networks. Sparsely settled zones.2-25 not help countries that need a network most as network can furnish the most immediate needs. It is equivalent.

2 Snow surveys temperature. The full range of elevation stations should be established along the main stems and the types of exposure and vegetation cover in of large streams to permit interpolation of discharge the area of interest should be considered in select. energy-budget and aerodynamic stream gauge only if the observations will be repre. stream-gauging stations that bracket the mouth of cover surveys will usually be made only once a the tributary. interest in such a case.2.2. located so that basin precipitation can be estimated for each stream-gauging station. The specific location of these ing representative courses. Such 2.2. The vals throughout the snowfall season. snow. It is suggested that one stations should be governed by topographic and course for 2 000 to 3 000 km2 is a reasonably good climatic considerations. near the expected time of maximum accu.2.2-26 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES flood-forecasting purposes or hydrological analysis. These will usually 2. However.2. daily observations of evaporation are made. The number of snow courses and their loca. Where applicable. Where the tributary flow is of special year. and these generalities must not be this context. later on. The main objective of the stream-gauging network is to obtain information on the availability of Snow-cover surveys are conducted by personnel surface-water resources. . tion and length will depend upon the topography of the catchments and the purposes for which the In general. a station on the tributary mulation.1. Evaporation can be estimated indirectly in the tation gauge should be located at the site of the water-budget. discharge of a small tributary cannot be determined accurately by subtracting the flows at two main In the early stages of network development.4. water equivalent of snow and depth of snow on the Evaporation plays an important role for long-term ground should be made at all precipitation stations studies of the water regime of lakes and reservoirs in the minimum network.4. As soon as it streamflow stations may be interspersed with stage becomes feasible. observations of snowfall. with daily observations of precipitation. a sufficient number of streamflow data are being collected. secondary station in the minimum network. Magnitude and for determining its depth and water equivalent frequency of floods and droughts are of particular (3. to extend will be required. In such regions. wind movement and relative humidity or dewpoint 2.4. Precipitation gauges should be temperature and wind velocity.I. winter snow melt are insignificant. approaches. An evaporation station gauge some distance away from the stream gauge. these periodic snow surveys stations (2. between the stations. by extrapolation from pan measure- sentative of the general area. together deep valley. If the difference in flow density for less homogeneous regions. such as radiation.2.2 Hydrometric stations useful in estimating seasonal precipitation at points where the normal observations are unavailable. It will be desirable.5). consists of a pan of standard national design where as for instance when the stream gauge is in a narrow. each case must be considered on its station. then an additional station is unjustified. It will usually take its place as a the operation to include surveys at regular inter.4. and one between two points on the same river is not greater course for 5 000 km2 in homogeneous and plain than the limit of error of measurement at the areas. soil of great importance. importance in this regard. A precipi. maximum and minimum water and air temperatures.4.1.1 Streamflow stations snow-cover surveys will also provide useful informa- tion for river forecasting and flood studies. should be augmented by regular measurements of coordination of the locations of the precipitation snow precipitation and observations of related gauges with respect to those of the stream gauges is meteorological factors. In such cases. In own merits.2. and for water management. the number and distribution of evaporation stations The water equivalent of snow at the time of maxi.3 Evaporation stations be located at or near the stream gauge and in the upper part of the gauged drainage basin. are determined according to the area and configura- mum accumulation is an indication of total seasonal tion of the lakes and the climatic region or regions precipitation in regions where winter thaws and involved. it must also be stressed that the applied indiscriminately. their geographical distribu- equipped for sampling the accumulated snow and tion and their variability in time. There can be cases in ments or directly through use of eddy-correlation which it is desirable to locate the precipitation equipment (Chapter 4).2). surveys of the snow cover on selected courses may be 2.

consideration should be given to stations in districts containing numerous lakes. After a few the foothills to the higher regions. Stations should also and reservoirs with surface areas greater than be located where rivers issue from mountains and 100 km2. from where erosion is known to be severe. below the points of entry of the major tributaries. .2-27 Wherever possible. However. particularly in those regions underlain regions. Emphasis should be placed on those areas evenly. information obtained in this way is not 2. the Sediment-transport data may be supplemented by influence of which can be determined only through surveys of sediment trapped in lakes or reservoirs. which may vary with exposure and other to be of importance. emphasis should be placed To ensure adequate sampling. it may be desirable to be taken of the varying exposure of slopes. basin. as it is important river discharging into the sea. where even the smallest watercourses are by friable soils and in mountainous regions where. as 10 km2. the amount of sedi- keenly felt even on streams draining areas as small ment loads should be known. there should be at on erosion. but provisions will have to be made ing stations.2. great care must be exercised in select- mountains. transport and deposition of sediment least as many gauging stations on small streams as within a country. at the outlets from lakes. load are covered in 5.2.4 Sediment discharge and sedimentation considerable extent. Where water level only are needed as part of a minimum this is impractical. Similarly. Stations should be established on lakes where the rivers cross borders. sediment within a country. ure total sediment discharge to the ocean or to Hydrometric stations are often established at major measure the erosion. and Sediment stations may be designed either to meas- where large structures are likely to be built. An optimum network would on the main streams. Account should years of experience. The discharge of small rivers is strongly Sediment transport by rivers is a major problem in influenced by local factors. ice formation. network deficiencies are for engineering applications.2. the installation of additional stations. which is discontinue sediment measurements at those of great significance in rough terrain.. temperature. Computed flows past hydro. river stages are the necessary data to reconstruct the natural flows used for flood forecasting. sive to collect than other hydrological records. Other hydrometric stations are situated at loca- tions. a sampling procedure contain a sediment station at the mouth of each for small streams becomes necessary. factors. economically important. the base stations should be There are places where additional observations of located on streams with natural regimes. immediately above etc.4. the basic network stations must be ing the number and location of sediment-transport located in such a way that they can. electric plants or control dams may be useful for (b) On major rivers.2. salinity.2 River stages considered a substitute for sediment-transport measurements at river stations. Echo-sounding devices are useful for this purpose. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. Sediment discharge Stage (height of water surface) is observed at all measurement and the computation of sediment stream-gauging stations to determine discharge. serve all parts of a mountainous area. In designing a minimum network.3 Lake and reservoir stages Stations should be located on the lower reaches of Stage. the network should above the points of withdrawal for irrigation water. transportation purposes. records of river stage may be used for calibration of the control structures and turbines for flood routing and forecasting purposes. and for the periodic checking of such calibrations during the life of the plants. CHAPTER 2. should be observed at lake and reservoir the river mouths (usually above tidal influence) or stations.2. Because runoff varies greatly with elevation in Consequently. As in the case of rivers. 2. etc. it may be necessary to establish network: additional stations on canals or reservoirs to obtain (a) At all major cities along rivers. such as where the discharge varies to a 2. and to land stations where sediment transport no longer appears cover. water supply and at the base stations. However.4. In highly developed arid regions. impracticable to establish gauging stations on all of them. at points between stream-gaug- this purpose. The designer of a basic network must be forewarned Stations should be installed to gauge the runoff in that sediment-transport data are much more expen- different geologic and topographic environments. surge. more or less stations. sample some smaller lakes and reservoirs as well.2.5. the major rivers of the country. transport and deposition of cities to meet a number of societal needs.4.

both microbiological. fluoride. on its chemical quality.3. stream-gauging stations and analyses of the by repeated short-term surveys. where concentrations. to a large degree. ISO Technical common approach. solubility of mineral constituents.3 Specific requirements for water quality The usefulness of a water supply depends. where concentrations of dissolved (e) Accessibility.4. (iii) General quality for aquatic life. the following factors: (a) Existing water problems and conditions. In humid (d) Climate.5 Water-quality stations 2. chloride.4. polycyclic 2. temperature obser- 2. (i) Safety of personnel. including physical life.2. chlorinated hydrocarbons. stations.2.6 Water temperature The temperature of water should be measured The design of a sampling programme should be and recorded each time a hydrometric station is tested and assessed during its initial phase to ensure visited to measure discharge or to obtain a sample the effectiveness and efficiency with respect to the of the water. laboratory data handling facilities. and A second classification is done according to the date at which the ice has vanished completely. The time of day of the measurement objectives of the study.2. funding. for the purposes of this Guide. . 2005). (h) Travel time to the laboratory (for deteriorating samples). conductivity.4. date of total cover. and macrobiotic. fewer observations are needed (f) Available human resources. should also be recorded.2.I.4. (a) Visual observations of various processes of ice plankton and fish. field and than in dry climates. inorganic ment transport. colour and turbidity). geography and geology. and biolog- Regular observations of ice cover should include ical components. the location of stations should take into account quality and analytical methods. oxygen. This will These observations should be made on a daily vary with the type of water body. date of break-up of the ice. standards pertaining to field sampling for water. be high. At stations where daily stage observations are made. may The parameters that characterize water quality may provide data which are useful in studies of aquatic be classified in several ways. at the beginning of the observing period of the (ii) Irrigation. frequency of measurement required. temperature effects on sedi.4. such as the following: faecal coliforms. regions. the water-quality fluctuation. toring. 2.7) (UNEP.2. These observations. Observations of There are several approaches to water-quality moni- chemical quality. Monitoring can be accomplished through a consist of periodic sampling of water at network of strategically located long-term stations. which can indicate the ecologi- formation and of ice destruction. the cost of which is negligible. alkalinity. Water-quality variables are sometimes two or three points near each selected hydro. matter are low. electrical water for industry. phosphorous and metals). the greater the (c) Population trends. ice formation.2-28 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES 2.7 Ice cover on rivers and lakes aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides). sources of cooling properties (for example. of the water and the objectives of the monitoring (b) Simultaneous measurement of ice thickness at programme. The greater municipal). importance attached to the parameter. 10 days. In Committee 147 has prepared over 200 international addition to the basic objectives of the programme. The number of sampling points in a river depends (b) Potential growth centres (industrial and on the hydrology and the water uses. The location of measurement points is (b) Use-related variables: chosen from detailed surveys of ice cover made (i) Drinking water supplies. cal health of the aquatic environment.1 Water-quality parameters vations should also be made daily. or by the most common chemical constituents. particularly of critical ions such as sodium. chemical components (for example. dissolved or climate change. a combination of the two.2. phenols. temperature. may (g) Inter-jurisdictional considerations.2. such as worms. organic chemicals (for example. with record. grouped into two categories: metric station should be made once every 5 to (a) Basic variables (Table I. ing of date of first occurrence of floating ice. the intended use basis. pollution.

L) Organic nitrogen. or the discharge would be required. Water-quality monitoring programmes may be Table I. lake system. number of laboratory. For example. such as location. particulate concentrations are Cadmium Nickel essential for GRF stations) Chromium Selenium Copper Zinc Iron Organic contaminants Aldicarb Total hydrocarbons Aldrin Total chlorinated hydrocarbons Altrazine Total polyaromatic hydrocarbons Benzene PCBs 2. For example. particulate Organic nitrogen. be stabilized for at least 24 hours by appropriate sampling locations upstream and downstream of treatment). a permit to discharge surface waters may outline ative water samples subsequently analysed in the details of monitoring. L) Organic matter Organic carbon. but can effect of an effluent discharge on a receiving stream. In other cases. determined by anti-pollution laws or by a require- ment for a specific use of a water body. frequency and parameters to analyse. 4-D PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers) DDTs Phenols Dieldrin Toxaphene Lindane R Basic variables for river stations only R. The third group needs to be measured samples.2. GEMS/Water basic variables Water quality category GEMStat parameters Hydrological and sampling variables Instantaneous discharge Physical/Chemical variables Water discharge/level (GRF) Electrical conductivity Total suspended solids (R) Dissolved oxygen Temperature Transparency (L) pH (GRF) Major ions Calcium Sulphate Dissolved salts/Ionic balance Magnesium Alkalinity Sodium Sum of cations Potassium Sum of anions Chloride Sodium adsorption ratio Fluoride (GW) Nutrients Nitrate plus nitrite Total phosphorus. dissolved (R. L) BOD Microbiology Faecal coliform Giardia Total coliforms Cryptospiridium Metals Aluminium Lead Inorganic contaminants (measured Arsenic Manganese as dissolved. lake/reservoir stations only L Basic variables for lake/reservoir stations only GRF Essential for global river flux monitoring stations GW Basic variables for groundwater stations only . dissolved COD Organic carbon. in situ. particulate Chlorophyll a (R.2-29 A third classification that is highly relevant 2. L Basic variables for river. L) Ammonia Total phosphorus. CHAPTER 2.7. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. and/or Boron Mercury total. particulate Silica reactive (R.2 Surface-water quality to sampling procedures is done according to stability: Sometimes the programme objectives will precisely (a) Conservative (does not change materially with define the best locations for sampling in a river or time). in order to determine the (b) Non-conservative (changes with time.4. unfiltered (R. dissolved Total phosphorus. The first two groups can be measured by represent. (c) Non-conservative (changes rapidly with time both location and frequency of sampling will be and cannot be stabilized).3. particulate.

availability of services such as electricity. present may be vertically stratified because of temperature and planned water uses. specific as well as the number of lakes and streams. kilometres of any point source of pollution. natural salt springs. the continuous.2.I. stream or lake water- or inflows of high-density saline water. current water intakes and ing from several kilometres to a few hundred waste outlets. roads and tion of the changes in its solutes taking place airstrips). collect relevant information about the region to be ing short-term fluctuations in water-quality monitored.9 shows the steps to be followed in selecting sampling sites. below. slowly attained. or cal developments. an important not be completely mixed for many kilometres factor is the terrain sensitivity to the deposition.2.7. flow rates. hydrological and demographic aspects. water in natural X5 state X5 Sea Figure I. over periods longer homogeneity is quickly attained below a source of than 10 years. In acid-deposition studies. The information sought includes parameters. Figure I. present and potential municipal biota. and existing wate-quality data. As well. water. residential and indus. special The next step in choosing sampling locations is to purpose water-quality surveys aimed at understand.8 provide some examples of where and how sampling stations could be located Various protocols are recommended to determine to meet specific objectives on river and lake representative sampling in the cross-section of the systems. the mixing is roughly proportional to the stream veloc- basin can be separated into natural and altered ity and to the square of the width of the channel. water-quality surveillance. with no surface indica. special situations may call for geological. accessibility of tends to flow very slowly. Sampling strategies vary for different kinds of water climatic conditions in the catchment area. Lakes irrigation schedules. and industrial centres. locations of existing water- quality or stream-gauging stations. flow regulation (dams). sparsely 4 Diversion for large-scale populated basis agricultural irrigation 5 Freshwater tidal limit of major Recreation river X3 and fishery X 6 Diversion for large industrial 6 supply 7 Downstream of industrial effluent X Highly industrialized 7 discharges and important urban area tributary influencing main river X Irrigation 4 X8 8 Baseline station. locations of aquifers. Groundwater quality objectives or standards.2. regions. potential sampling sites (land ownership. recreation and amenity zone X 8 Undeveloped. histori- bodies and media. river. for example. If the objective concerns the impact of human The distance downstream to the point of complete activities on water quality in a given river basin. Figures I. Thus. sediment. Monitoring site: rivers . and those in which the impact is pollution. but infrequent. such as agricultural. wide swift-flowing rivers may trial zones.2-30 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES supplemented by intensive.2. mine drainage. for example.7 and I. Rivers mix completely within distances rang. Lateral mixing is usually much more variable. size and measurement of selected parameters. six samples analysed in duplicate. Station Criteria 1 Immediately downstream of an Inter natio nal boun dary international boundary X1 2 Diversion for public supply of large town X2 Major city 3 Important fishing. downstream from the input point. The latter can be further subdivided into Rivers are usually sufficiently shallow that vertical stationary zones for instance.

8. unused and used Collection of available quality data Preparation of quality and use maps Data needs Appraisal of use Appraisal of quality requirements influences Information required Control planning Possible sites Data collection Extended survey Review Site suitability inspection checks Site selected Sampling and analysis Figure I. Scheme for the selection of water quality sampling sites .2-31 Station Criteria X 9 9 Principal feeder tributary 10 General water quality of lake 11 Water supply for major city 12 Water leaving lake X 10 Re cre 11 ati X on 12 X Figure I.9. Monitoring site: lakes Inventory of present and future water use Inventory of factors Information influencing water quality. present and expected Review of potential sources. CHAPTER 2.2. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I.2.

should be within 1 000 m of the site. or water traffic. together with the head wires. an arbi. The detection of cyclic events collector. surrounded by trees at distances greater than trary frequency based on knowledge of local 5 m from the sampler. the relative importance of the fuels. also influenced by the relative importance of the eddy zones leeward of a ridge.2-32 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES at three positions across the river and two depths or 2. In order to detect the cyclic variations. The frequency is Zones of strong vertical eddy currents. samples collected on cross-section verticals. If generators are used. tops of wind- station and whether or not the concentrations swept ridges and roofs of buildings. the time variability of the parameter of interest (c) Samplers should be installed over flat undis- and the availability of resources. particu- approach critical levels for some substances larly. after storm lids and sensors. In the absence turbed land. turbulence. and in some cases for refrigera- events and during snow melt and runoff. frequency of precipitation events (rain. it is accurate and representative information concerning advisable to select another site. sources for compounds of interest. snow. and other Longitudinal mixing of irregular or cyclic discharges meteorological processes that influence the into a river will have a secondary influence on the deposition.I. Important factors to take to obtain a flow-weighted composite sample from into consideration are prevalent wind trajectories. such as routine sampling and interpreting data. ground. sample five consecutive days during the warmest (e) No object should be closer to the sampler part of the year and five consecutive days every than a distance of 2. the network. After suffi cient data have wind-activated sources of pollution nearby. Similarly. tion in the summer and thawing in the winter. all cases. (d) No object taller than the sampler should be For lake stations. either immediately the temporal and spatial variation of chemical upstream or downstream. reflect the observed variability. sampling sites should be selected to give If a representative sample cannot be obtained. requires a sampling interval no longer than one (h) To address issues on a continental scale. It may not be possible to meet all of these criteria in some random sampling is desirable. should be avoided because of strong measured. the range of measured values.3 Precipitation quality mid-depth samples at the quarter points. If power lines are used. In general. long-period cycles in the direction of the prevalent wind direction will not be verified in the initial surveys. Sampling frequency depends on the purpose of (b) No surface storage of agricultural products.3. . of suffi cient background information. These should be Particular attention must be given to over- sampled at least six times a year. occasional random sample. sites third of the shortest cycle time and sampling over should preferably be rural and remote. or other foreign materials should be sampling station.5 times the height by quarter. Their effects need to be considered: taken into account in deciding the frequency of (a) No moving sources of pollution. and during the periods of being blown into it. the exhaust must cyclic variation may be apparent amidst the be located well away and downwind from the random fluctuations. The station description should refer to on different days of the week or different hours of these criteria and indicate the exact characteristics the day. been collected. the frequency may be adjusted to such as cultivated fields or unpaved roads. become apparent during the operation of the network. some head. within 1 000 m of the site. the recommended practice is to within 5 m of the site. The other alternative is constituents of interest. preferably grass-covered. There are also local criteria to be location of a sampling site. of each location chosen as a sampling site. 1 m above the height of existing ground cover fication. hail). Special cases include temperate-zone lakes which the object extends above the sampler. under ice. air. for example. if possible. they must not be over- When parameters are plotted against time. that experience stratifi cation. during mixing following summer to minimize coarse materials or splashes from stratification. Therefore. snow melt and runoff. to cover the following (f) The collector intake should be located at least periods: during open water prior to summer strati. but and 30 km in all other directions. with no a period at least ten times longer than the time of continuous sources of pollution within 50 km the longest cycle. There should be no conditions is chosen. additional samples (g) Automatic samplers require power to operate of rivers should be taken. or other equal distance points across the width of the river.4.

4. the basic sampling site should be located 2.4 Sediment quality at the geographic centre of the lake.3. In pollution inputs are less diluted. If the lake is Most of the selection criteria outlined in previous very large (area > 500 km2). Sampling sites should be accessible during floods. Sampling locations immediately upstream down the long axis of the lake with occasional from confluences should be avoided because they cross-lines. under bridges or cableways. is often unrepresentative. then data from acoustic surveys (echo- will be described here.3. Basins in cool temperate climates often have accumulation rates in the order of The best places to sample bottom deposits in fast. sampling lake may not be as heavy as along the shores and should be done during low-flow periods. as this can seriously distort the flow and Sediment traps should be operated during periods hence the sediment distribution. this sampling regime is very sensitive. Water levels. it should be noted particular storm to be determined. the precipitation over the (a) For pollution from point sources. 0. In give a good approximation to the sediment quality streams too deep to wade. For identification of peak pollution loads in rivers. a larger number of sampling sites will bridges. For statistical validity. it is necessary to locate the sampling sites Secondary sampling sites should be located between near a water quantity gauging station so that accu. If one of the objectives is to quantify the transport tation samples enables pollutants associated with a of sediment in the river system. When sampling from however. accumulation.4.5 Groundwater quality since sediment-transport rates are high during these times. A great deal of hydrogeological information may be necessary to plan the sampling strategy for aquifers. a However. CHAPTER 2. precipitation. when the proportion of large particles may be smaller. Sampling in areas of high turbulence. A common strategy is to place points times.1–0. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. series of high flow rates will lead to progressively The same statistical considerations concerning lower sediment peaks – an exhaustion effect arising frequency of sampling apply here as for surface. the sampler (b) When pollutants originate from diffuse sources can be mounted on a buoy. velocity and two cases must be considered: direction of water movements should be known. and a wind. Also. Attention also must Sampling frequency in lakes is affected by the gener- be paid to the accumulation of debris or trash on ally low concentrations of suspended sediment. the base station and major tributary inlets or pollut- rate stream discharge information is available at all ant sources. 2. Three to five stations should usually may be subjected to backwater phenomena. hydraulic gradients. re-suspension. An integrated of maximum and minimum algal productivity and sample obtained by mixing water from several at times of high input of sediment from rivers. order to sample in the middle of a lake. points in the water column according to their aver- age sediment load can be considered as a Repeat sampling of bottom sediments in lakes representative sample as long as there is good lateral needs to take into account the rates of sediment mixing. nutrients or pesticides.2 mm per year. the upstream side is normally preferred. For lakes. at channel bends and at years would then be too soon to provide worth- mid-channel bars or other sheltered areas where the while new information. the piers. locate sampling sites of an average size lake. required. shoal or small such as runoff from the land of agricultural island. unless the presence of a water velocity is at its minimum. .2-33 In the case of large lakes. may be needed. A resampling period of five flowing rivers are in shoals. sounders) can be used both to identify the type of surficial material (sand. from the depletion of material available for water sampling. several base stations sections also apply to sampling for sediment. sarily correspond with times of peak flow. probably be required. that peak concentrations of sediment do not neces- trajectory analysis can determine probable sources. gravel or mud) and to indi- For rivers where sediment-transport data are cate the presence of layering below the surface. storm or snowfall constitutes an event. If various sediment types must be Therefore only additional special recommendations sampled. rock. Each rain shower. such as near piers. sampling must be focused on flood periods during which the Event sampling is the preferred method for sampling pollutant is washed out of the soil. new pollutant is to be tested. The analysis of event-precipi.

1. water-quality considerations occasionally transmitted. perspectives. determined by: (a) User demands for forecasts at specified loca. which is not acquired from monitoring studies alone. as well as details of and sediment regimes. ice use should be recorded. 324) gives examples of spatial densities contaminating materials. 1989. water-data programmes. pathways and fate of fine particles. ultimately.4). concerns for sediment-asso- networks ciated contaminant transport require knowledge Many types of hydrological forecasts are compiled of the source. runoff.4. groundwater and forecast centre.4.1. as well as specially requested reports that obtained.5 Network-strategy options often difficult to measure their water levels. This is particularly necessary where a well are needed to define the development of particular has a lining subject to corrosion.3) as far ing requires close coordination at all stages from as possible. Significant efforts are (b) The network density needed to describe the required to define network needs from many different hydrological characteristics and the dimen. tion of concentrations or for calculating protection works. river-engineering centre by non-automatic monitoring stations studies and water-quality studies. and the reports should be classified according to whether they are regularly or On a different scale. (d) The representativeness of the observations. The regular reports should are increasingly important to urban drainage design. the hydrometric data-collection activities need to be integrated with sediment. snow depth and water Groundwater samples are taken from drainage equivalent. such integrated monitor- use of data from the basic network (2. and. Integrated planning of related data networks should tions and for current information on the status be developed to maximize the effectiveness of all of water bodies. The information on water-management operations river studies of sediment sources and morphologic should be organized to fit in with the normal opera.4. The occasional reports contain water. (WMO-No. For example. A well that is still in use for various hydrological variables and the general and pumped occasionally is preferable to one that principles for determining them based on the time has been abandoned. and they may be safety hazards. to coordinate the data sions of water bodies. Wells should be emergency information on significant changes in sampled only after they have been pumped long the regime of water bodies and operational control enough to ensure that a fresh sample has been strategies. should be drawn up. phenomena.4 Operational data acquisition (2.I. For example. water qual- ity. although wells The Casebook on Hydrological Network Design Practice are not always at the best location or made of non. Abandoned or unused wells and space variability.4. and details of land and temperature and. that is. on the basis of data from networks. . hydrological phenomena. The scope of the forecast network is planning to reporting. This knowledge. water quality. collected on a watershed basis so that adequate water (c) The technology for data transmission to the data. change (Church and others. basins. (e) The media for issuing forecasts. are often in poor condition with damaged or leaky casings and corroded pumping equipment. Whether for the interpreta- the operation of water-management and flood. Present monitoring programmes can be enhanced by the use of supplementary studies. Information This requires an understanding of both the flow may include measurements. For selected seasonal or even annual sampling schedules. It is 2. In addition to seeking to improve representative- ness of existing surface-water data networks. discharge the aquifer should be drawn up. open wells and drilled wells. is being A schedule of reports transmitted to the forecast used for fisheries management. are available to meet future needs. where appropriate. A forecast system should make contaminant loadings. comprehensive monitoring strategies. Changes in groundwater quality can be very slow Hydrological Services should develop more and are often adequately described by monthly. An existing well is a low-cost choice.2-34 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES An inventory of wells. the river behaviour. 1987) tional routines of the water-management agencies supplement regular programme data to determine that supply the information. precipitation. meteorology and aquatic-habitat programmes 2. as well as observations every 5 or 10 days on ice thickness. Carson. boreholes and springs fed by include daily information on water levels.

and the sequence number is 1. in basin 08 and in general. Once estab. For example. points is the River Mile Index used by the collection site: the institution of an identification Environmental Protection Agency of the United system and the archival of descriptive information.5 DATA COLLECTION Data Bank. The acceptance by all parties of a rapid response times if the data are to be useful. and part of a site’s identification monitoring activities. tion has been installed. . unique system of site identification will These conditions are quite different from those facilitate data interchange and the multiparty covered by standard monitoring procedures.8. For example.3. The coordination of data-collection activities.5. such as streams. the mileages other information pertinent to the site. ter system. more than one service or agency may be should consider short-interval sampling. station number 00BC08NA0001 indi- lished. The region use of computer models is an additional strategy for chosen should be determined by drainage basin(s) enhancing the information derived from water. States as part of the STORET system. represents a sophisticated system designed for computer processing. which is the key 2. When a site has been selected and the instrumenta.2. basin and sub-basin.2 Station identification Two aspects should be considered to ensure the Another well-known coding system for sampling historical documentation of details of a data. (b) Province. In certain circumstances. the identifier that will be used to denote all data and direction and level of streamflow. or to meet the requirements of the instrumentation as precipitation. In province of British Columbia.5. and the develop. single. integrated operating data-collection sites in one particular precipitation and runoff monitoring. It has a 12-digit alphanumeric code. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. the cating the type of water sampled at any given best specific site in the general location is selected location. in the maintained to its predetermined standard. two types of data will be (c) Sequential – a four-digit number assigned collected at the site: descriptive details of the site usually by a regional office. this involves the execution of an adequate sub-basin NA. NAQUADAT. It includes major and Every permanent site should be given a unique minor basin codes. but they may also be and a code to identify the stream level on which alphanumeric. In this system. as follows: general location of the data-collection sites. a sequential number assigned as stations are established.2. in the prov- continuity and reliability of data.2-35 The design of appropriate monitoring programmes Frequently. tifiers are usually numeric. calibrations to ensure data of the required accuracy.1 Site selection element in storing and retrieving data in the compu- Once the network design phase has been completed. CHAPTER 2. site identifi- cation in the Canadian National Water Quality 2. and the (a) Type of water – a two-digit numerical code indi- types of instrumentation have been identified. rivers and lakes. and extremely region or country. Such iden.1 Identification of data-collection sites distance and hydrological relationship to the mouth of a river system. WMO has accepted a coding system for station identification (Moss and Tasker. terminal stream numbers. between and to confluences in the river system. Modifications to the site may be media. the installation should be operated and cates that the sampling site is on a stream. and the hydrological observations that it has been established to measure. the location of a sampling point is defined by its 2. This number is composed of several the operational requirements have established the subfields (UNEP/WHO. clearing and control stabilization. the point is located. 2. 1996). example.4.5. that is. in basin 02 and in sub-basin IE and ment of routine check measurements and the sequence number is 9. basin and sub-basin – three pairs of digits and letters identifying the province. 1991) that is simi- lar to (b) and (c) of the NAQUADAT system. monitoring-network designs can be improved by the use of models. Station schedule of inspection and maintenance to ensure number 01ON02IE0009 is on a lake.1 and 5.2). The meaning of this code has outlined in subsequent chapters of this Volume been extended to include other types of aquatic (5. The site identification can be simply an accession number. ince of Ontario. for given in Table I. A list of all currently assigned codes is necessary to ensure the quality of the data.2. should reflect its location in the region. or climatic zones. and its location.

included. 1988a: Manual on Water Quality Monitoring – Planning and Implementation of Sampling and Field Testing. To this end. Geneva. 2 Industrial 0 waste water Primary lagoon effluent 1 treated Municipal 1 Secondary lagoon effluent 2 Mining 2 Conventional primary effluent 3 Livestock waste 3 Conventional secondary 4 Unknown 9 effluent Advanced waste water 5 treatment effluent Precipitation 3 Rain 0 Disinfected effluent 6 Snow 1 Raw sludge 7 Ice (precipitated) 2 Digested sludge 8 Mixed precipitation 3 Other 9 Dry fallout 4 Miscellaneous 8 Raw 0 waste water Primary lagoon effluent 1 Treated 4 Municipal 0 Secondary lagoon effluent 2 supply Industrial 1 Conventional primary effluent 3 Mining 2 Conventional secondary 4 Private (individual) 3 effluent Other communal works 4 Advanced waste water 5 Municipal distribution 5 treatment effluent Municipal treatment plant 6 Disinfected effluent 6 (intermediate) Raw sludge 7 Treatment residue or sludge 7 Digested sludge 8 Other 9 Other 9 Source: World Meteorological Organization. Additional production of metadata. a station regis. the station type.2.2 Descriptive information include the station name and location details. 5 Stream channel 0 soils Lake bottom 1 Lake 1 Stream bank 2 Estuary 2 Lake bank 3 Ocean-sea 3 Contaminated by soil 4 Pond 4 General soil 5 Impounded reservoir 5 Effluent irrigation soil 6 Harbour 6 Sludge or conditioned soil 7 Ditch 7 Other 8 Runoff 8 Unknown 9 Industrial 6 Storm water 0 Groundwater 1 Well-sump 0 waste water Primary influent 1 Spring 1 Primary effluent 2 Piezometer well 2 Final effluent 3 Tile drain 3 Sludge 4 Bog 4 Special problem 5 Household tap 8 Other 6 Unknown 9 Municipal 7 Raw 0 Waste. Operational Hydrology Report No.2-36 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES Table I. NAQUADAT codes for types of aquatic media Type Code Subtype Code Type Code Subtype Code Surface water 0 Stream-channel 0 Sediments. 2. 680. Selected information from this text file The level of detail will of course vary with the should be attached routinely to any data output parameter monitored. the associated stations. 27.8. the elevation details.2. WMO-No. Typical information would (Chapter 10). enhanced if the user can relate it to the details of the frequency of observation.5. items specific to the station type should also be tration file should record the details of each station. establishing/ In many instances the value of the data will be operating/owner authorities. the operating periods the history of its collection as part of the routine and the details of installed equipment.I. .

includes distances to specific reference points. _____________________________________________________ tributaries. etc. gravel.2-37 A historical operations file of more detailed infor. B ASIN BASIN SEQUENT Description of left bank: 0 0 QU 0 2 L H 0 0 3 6 0 0 0 Approx. local sewage input _____________________________________________________ ec left side (looking downstream) __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ Sp Description and location of nearby hydrometric installations: Baskatong dam about 190 km upstream __________________________________________________________ Farmers rapids about 25 km upstream __________________________________________________________ Figure I. ____________ Located in_______ Sec.10.2. Such irregularities may include a bend An accurate description of the sampling location in a river. Figure I. main ____________________________________________________ S U B- current on left. geomorphology. Bed or sediment material nation for a data site. bank material north-west of the willow sapling” is a poor desig. INLAND WATERS DIRECTORATE. Gatineau Prov. gentle slope ____________________________________________________ UTM E ASTING N ORTHING PR Bed: rocky. A description of the water body should include any irregularities in morphology that might affect the flow of water or 2.1 Station description its quality. and a narrative description of the site and region.2. CHAPTER 2. bridges. _______ Tp ________ Region _______ OBSERVATIONS Natural conditions and/or control installations which may affect April Established __________________ 78 19_____ flow regimes: 1.5. the level of detail left side looking downstream”. An example of a useful may be described as rocky. the geographic recorded. slight backwater on right ____________________________________________________ TY P E P R O V. slope allows only shrubby vegetation ____________________________________________________ LATITUDE LONGITUDE PR Description of right bank: S DEG MIN SEC S DEG MIN SEC 45 27 2500 075 42 0 2 0 0 5 Edge of park land. etc. a widening or narrowing of the channel. rapids or falls. WATER QUALITY BRANCH STATION Direction of flow: STATION LOCATION DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION South-east ____________________________________________________ Description of channel above station: REGION Quebec ______________ Permanent log boom on right. Station-location descriptions DOE. clean. vegetation. tion. a map showing the location of the site in the region.10 is an description of the banks on either side of the water example of one format. A description nent and clearly identified. A stream station may include details coordinates of the sampling location should be such as climate zone and rainfall and evaporation determined and recorded on the station descrip- notes. station description.5 km Distance from base to station ______________________________ Baskatong dam _____________________________________________________ 17 km Distance from station to site of analysis ______________________ en Farmers rapids _____________________________________________________ Location of station with respect to towns. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. “5 metres of the banks should mention slope. For example. The dates that the station was first established land use and clearing. a detailed sketch of the site.. Aberdeen Bridge (Highway 148). For streamflow and water-quality data stations. If hand-held global will vary with the type of observations being positioning devices are available. falls. islands.2. dams. location information should also include descrip- Some examples of the format of such files can be tions of the water body above and below the found in the UNEP (2005) and Environment station. Pte. These should include water depths. and extent of vegetation. entry of a tributary near the station. sandy. 3 m drop to river. Station-location forms . muddy. muddy ____________________________________________________ S 0 S Approximate dimensions and descriptions of lakes and/or STATION Reservoir reservoirs: LOCATION Stream Gatineau On ______________ Lake None _____________________________________________________ Lady Aberdeen River bridge At _______________ near ______________ Que. Again. It is the presence of an island. landforms.2.: im 30 m downstream of Lady Aberdeen bridge (Highway 148) __________________________________________________________ Sources of chemical or physical inputs: between Hull and Pointe Gatineau and 15 m off pier on __________________________________________________________ Logs. and station details. body and the bed material. a Canada (1983) publications. vegeta- description is “30 metres downstream from Lady tion-covered. highways. sandy. vegetated: ZO N E Probably wood chips. between Hull and mation should also be prepared for release as Pointe Gatineau and 15 metres off the pier on the required (Chapter 10). railroads. Typical and that data collection was commenced should components of such a file would include the also be recorded. gradual curve to left ____________________________________________________ Quebec PROVINCE ___________________ Ottawa River BASIN ______________ Description of channel below station: STATION DATA Gradual widening before emptying into Ottawa r. or the important that these reference points be perma.

territory or other geopolitical division should also be included.5 Narrative description A large-scale map (Figure I. sketch of the station location should provide followed by its location (for example. Sketch of station layout Figure I. 2. than the topographical maps. old mine workings.1 km or better) travelling to the site for the first time should have from the nearest town. lake. charts can be used to provide more accurate values nently shown on the sketch. forest fires. should be about ±200 m and on a 1:50 000 scale to about prepared (Figure I. it is recom- with respect to roads. should be and longitude and. 6. octant of the globe for the northern hemisphere: pated land disturbances and pollution sources 0. in addition. 2. one entry is the WMO code for the on the data should be recorded. 90–180°W.11.2.5. natural or man-made.2.11).2. volume and water reference station or a river mouth should be residence time. road and 90–0°E. if that is not (including distances expressed in suitable units) possible.2. 180–90°E and 90–0°E (WMO-No. 2.2. Geographical coordinates are recorded as latitude including instrumentation changes. 7 and 8 for 0–90°W. If available. should also be provided. such as a maximum depth. If the site is on a stream. navigational sites and equipment locations should be promi.5. respectively (WMO-No. construction.2-38 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES should mention seasonal changes that may hinder universal transverse mercator (UTM) coordinates or year-round data collection.3 Map 2.2. 2 and 3 for 0–90°W.5.2. mean depth. which may have a bearing 2005) station). legal land descriptions. recorded. 559).2. either GLOWDAT (that is. the province. codes are: 5. upstream or complete location information. from 1:50 000 or 1:250 000 topographical with respect to local landmarks and permanent maps. 559). Sampling or measuring ±40 m (WMO-No. Points on a 1:250 000 map can be located to reference points. or reservoir. for example.I.5. Additional informa. National grid references. Past and antici. For the international Additional information about conditions. coordinates may added to the narrative description to provide a be recorded in other reference systems such as historical description of the site and the region that St Je an -B Blvd Greber ap tis te Gat ine Pointe Gatineau N au n ee erd Ab e dy ridg La B M 30 r Pie eau TP Ja tin 15 cq M Ga N ue wa TO ta s- LE Ot Ca Parc rti 8 P 14 M er Y Lac Leamy Ri HW TE TP ve LL r HU Log boom er Riv Figure I.4 Coordinates Information concerning changes at the site. Station-location map . An investigator downstream) and its distance (to 0. highways or other fixed landmarks. city.2.2. enough information to locate the station confi. its tion in the case of lakes could include surface area. distance upstream from a reference point. 180–90°E should be mentioned. The combination of the map and the the name of the river.2. such as benchmarks.2. 1. 90–180°W. The name of dently and accurately. important bridges. for the southern hemisphere the anticipated land use. GEMS/WATER data bank (UNEP.2 Detailed sketch of station location Latitude and longitude values should be obtained A sketch of the location and layout of the station using a global positioning system or. highways and towns should mended that the narrative description begin with be included. stream. and existing and Correspondingly. 683). if available.12.12) that locates the site For streamflow and water-quality sites.

visits to the station are should be obtained during these times to adequately required periodically in order to recalibrate the define the hydrograph. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. 0300. require weekly visits to remove and replace stations of the meteorological and climatological charts. If the observations over time. 0600. for example small mountain-fed streams. Further details are one observation per day should have a common found in the Proceedings of the Technical Conference observation time. While it is desirable to have regular observations 2. Too long a time between visits For stations at which only one or two observations may result in frequent recorder malfunction and. and that which the recorded value represents. visits to manual stations must be more frequent if a valid record is to be maintained. it is important that obser- The frequency and timing of readings and thus vations be taken at the same time each day and visits to the site should be determined by the antici. Also. Station visits will thus “summer time” (daylight saving time) is intro- be for purposes of observation or collection of data duced for part of the year. 1800 and 2100 universal time coordinated rainfall recorders record on a weekly strip chart and. such stations are the key thus.5. WMO recommends The frequency and timing of visits to recording (WMO-No. In most countries.2-39 it represents. In these cases. as well as in tidal reaches of observation be recorded carefully. arrangements should and for maintenance of the site. it may be more efficient to install should be the end of the time at which the set of automatic recording equipment or real-time trans. whether the of rivers. Stage observations should equipment or the measurement equations. preferably in the morning. the synoptic hours most frequent visits. of the data collected. Chapter 10 contains a suggested also be made at the time of water-quality format for such information. A balance must be achieved between conveniently related to normal times of rising and the frequency of the visits and the resultant quality retiring and that nearest noon should be specified. if possible. Various studies have been carried out on the cost-effectiveness and It is recommended that all observers making only efficiency of data collection.3. it is important that the actual time storms and flood periods. 733). the times of observation should be related to the tidal cycle. 2. observations is taken at a station. 544) that the time at which three-hourly stations will be constrained by the length of time and six-hourly weather observations are taken at that the station can be expected to function without synoptic stations are 0000. may experience diurnal fluctuations in The frequency of the visits may also be determined water levels during some seasons. be made to have observations taken at the same hour. Under The designated time of climatological observations such conditions.3 Frequency and timing of station at synoptic hours. it should be possible to select thus. per day are taken. For example. 0900. 10-minute period prior to the stated observational tions are desirable for hydrological purposes during time. In tidal reaches of rivers. while frequent visits are both synoptic hours for the observations. . rapidly. 1200. within the applies particularly where more frequent observa. some continuous 1500. In such cases. (UTC). Stage observa.5. However. that this time be recorded in UTC or local stand- pated data usage and should be adequate to define ard time using 24-hour clock designations.2 Recording stations taking of observations at climatological stations at specified synoptic hours. Some data- tions should initially be made several times a day at collection devices may suffer a drift in the new stations to ensure that a single reading is an relationship between the variable that is recorded adequate representation of daily water level. Other instruments have much larger data observation programmes. Additional stage readings tionship. The set of obser- mission if funds and trained staff are available. by UTC. observation is taken at a standard time or not. therefore.5. time consuming and costly. maintenance. on the Economic and Social Benefits of Meteorological and Hydrological Services (WMO-No. An small streams may exhibit “flashy” behaviour in example of this is a non-stable stage-discharge rela- response to rain storms. as in the period prior to and follow- When the variable of interest at the site is changing ing “summer time”. This vations should be taken. in loss of data. sampling.3. by accuracy requirements of the data. in some cases this will not be visits possible. require less three observations per day.1 Manual stations There is considerable merit in encouraging the 2. Some streams. CHAPTER 2. If the observer is to take storage capabilities and.

(d) Perform the recommended checks on retrieved records. Space should be and record any significant land-use or other allowed in the journal and.5. in note form. Examples of the components of data (g) Check and maintain access to the station. conducted by the observer responsible for the sites. in the report changes in related hydrological characteristics. However. transmission lines. regu. However. 519). A flood action plan should be established prior to the beginning of the storm The introduction of data loggers and telephone/ season and should include priority sites and types satellite data transmission may have a significant of data required. perhaps.5. redesign and reconstruction of the site will be (b) Replace or upgrade instruments. have to be applied to the original readings.I.9. routine inspection trip because of the unpredictable This is not a satisfactory procedure where the . observers should be equipped with field notebooks and/or station journals in Streamflow collection sites: which the original observations are recorded as (a) Check the bank stability. if there is one.4). or monthly. attention is required to ensure the safety and secu- rity of the data-collection site and to restore normal All collection sites: operation of on-site instrumentation. These activities could be recorders. if necessary). If flood gaugings are required at a impact on station inspection/data-collection site. transmitted. At all data-collection sites a value must first be (f) Check and maintain the site to the recom.6). the same columns or rows in both. as necessary. and finally mended specifications.3 New technologies nature of floods. as necessary. mation obtained as a result of the flood. for example. in note form. as necessary. it should be noted preceding dry season so that all is ready during the that in order to ensure the quality of the data. weekly. Forms should also be provided to (b) Check the level and condition of gauge boards. At least. Preparations include: 2.5. In some cases (a) Service the instruments. permit the observer to report observations daily. all of the above activities.).3. (d) Check and repair control structures. form for any conversions or corrections that may such as ice. A good approach is to have the (f) Record. as necessary. as required. by the observer in case the report is lost in transit. they should occasionally Following the recession of flood waters.1 Manual stations (j) Clear debris and overgrowth from all parts of the installation. required if severe flooding is likely. mined to ensure that the quality of the data being (d) Flood-proof instrumentation such as stage recorded is adequate. required. (e) Regularly survey cross-sections and take photo. sensed. conducted at data-collection sites at intervals deter. collection are displayed in Table I.4 Maintenance of sites (a) Upgrade site access (helipad.5. annual flood season. an observation notebook with carbon Gauging (WMO-No. (c) Store and check gauging equipment. The report forms should be designed to permit easy graphs of major station changes after events or copying of the results from the field notebook or with vegetation or land-use changes. the preparations must be made during the frequencies (2. paper between successive sheets will permit easy preparation of an original form for dispatch to the Flood gauging cannot be programmed as part of a central office and a copy for the local station record. Further details are found in the Manual on Stream Alternatively. they are taken. (i) Comment on changes in land use or vegetation. At the very minimum. then encoded or recorded.5. 2. station journal.2.5 Observations (e) Carry out general checks of all equipment. fortnightly. etc.2-40 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES 2.5. The following maintenance activities should be (b) Equip a temporary campsite with provisions. This work should take into account infor- (c) Retrieve or record observations. (h) Record. 2. the various elements should be in (g) Inspect the area around or upstream of the site. all of the above activities report form identical to a page in the notebook or and their results. journal. particular be performed by an inspector (9.8. as required. The (c) Check and service the flow-measuring devices field notebook or station journal should be retained (cableways. Additional measures may be lar station maintenance is necessary.

of information and the additional samples may larly applicable to manual observations because it prove very useful in the interpretive phase of the encourages the making of judgements while the study. Charts Thermistor. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. devalued – by the standard of the accompanying documentation. radiometer. Visual 1. water text decriptions and element or Dedicated landline level gauge parameter values Radio May be pre-coded for subsequent Satellite computer input purposes Internet Mobile phone networks 3. thermometer. oil slicks. Data from field can easily make the entries illegible. These affect observations. In of the water. current Purpose designed for particular Telephone meter. CHAPTER 2. The report measurement books may be processed using optical forms may also be coding forms suitable for direct readers or portable field computers that will allow conversion to computer medium. etc. the direct input of observations into computer stor- age. or short-term influence. Such devices allow for reduced data transfer The value of data can be greatly enhanced – or errors and automatic data quality checks. input formats and forms should be flex. If additional samples are collected at sites other than There is also reason for setting up the processing the established station. parameter values Postal services Telephone 2. soil texture. Observers should be encouraged to Field observations that may assist in interpreting comment on any external influences that may water quality should be entered on the report. surface films.9. Field data sheet 2. Here the data-collection system almost invariably is: (a) Mechanical sampling (b) Notebook/data sheet field entries. . site Text descriptions and element or Field observers description. It is important that published comments required by the routine schedule. pressure Strip charts with element value transducer. where laboratory analysis or physical samples are performed. excessive algal growth. in soils and water quality. exposure. The types of be expressed in standard terminology. Such observations ible enough both to allow comments to be appended may prompt the field investigator to take additional and for these comments to be accessible with the observation-based samples. whether they be related to observations may include unusual colour or odour equipment. Table I. for example. or heavy fish kills. continuously recorded by encoder pen tracing 4. conductivity probe. land use. The components of data collection Data collection Data capture Transmission Sensing Recording 1. There are notable groups of data. thinks is warranted by the prevailing conditions. Electrical 3. Mechanical 2. soil penetrometer. the description of their system so that quality coding or tagging is carried locations should be recorded accurately. Manual Water-level gauge. samples and their preservation should be consist- erable that correct vocabulary be employed in the ent with the types of analysis that the investigator field report. This kind out as the observations are made. in addition to those final data.2-41 notebook is to be carried into the field as moisture conditions are being observed.2. Computer compatible media (a) Manually recorded Mark sense forms Multiple choice forms (b) Automatically recorded Solid state memory Note: The table applies to elements or parameters observed in the field. Automatic (Telemetry) Raingauge. This is particu. addition. and it is pref. Field notebook 1.

the coordination of observa. the frequency and timing of inspections should be re-assessed in the light of the capabili. tions can also be performed by the intelligent field (c) Procedures for taking observations. may be used to extract data directly from data loggers and to verify the data before leaving the 2. These should contain guidance and directions on the following matters: Data loggers record data at specific time intervals (a) A brief description of instruments. the stations from which real-time data are required. ending and frequency stage data when the level alters by more than 1 cm. observations are collected check observations on charts at stations with continuously and processing of the data in the recording instruments.5.5. to the agency. gauge boards reported using a transmission facility.I. including its status.5.3 Real-time reporting At automatic recording stations. Comments should be written on (g) Completion of field notebooks or station the chart or noted on the inspection sheet if any journals. (i) Sending of reports to the central office.5. Field verification allows any necessary repairs or other changes to be made before leaving Clearly written instructions must be provided to all the site. memory of perforated tape has been used as the Automated quality-control processes can be recording medium. rainfall data can be recorded at (d) Times of routine observations. logger. for example.4 Instructions for observers station. For example.5. As with digital recorders. In the case of the observation and actions to be taken in the event of serious of multiparameters. Final extrac. able period. inde. Recording devices may have and time. will also allow for data compaction and variability (b) Routine care and maintenance of instruments of observation times. of special non-routine observations.5. for exam- and water-quality parameters when stream height ple.2-42 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES 2. Intelligent loggers diagrams. portable computers developed in these situations. river-stage observations while water level is alters by 10 cm and/or on a 24-hour basis. examples. above a predetermined height. recording stations must report via some device. for (e) Criteria for the beginning. (j) Special routines for real-time stations.6). (c) Specific comments relating to the recording Similarly. observations are There are many recording and non-recording recorded in digital or graphical form. (b) Observations from independent sources at the Real-time data collected by field observers must be time of collection. However.2 Recording stations 2. However. in the operation of reservoirs. consideration at the time of installation of instruments and at should be given to the real-time collection of data regular intervals thereafter. with (as programmed by the user). a five-minute interval or at every tip of a bucket. (f) Procedures for making time checks and putting With graphical recorders. (a) Site identification number. flood-warn- time of any visits for data retrieval or station ing and forecasting situations. radio or the public telephone system. via various communications options as a cheaper method of data collection than regular site visits The instructions should emphasize the importance (2. breakage or malfunctioning. Data loggers may also provide information on the tion of observations from the recorded data may be current available storage capacity of the logger and performed at computing facilities when removable the condition of the available power supply. After a station has been in operation for a reason. In some cases. including methods pendent field observations should be made and of calculating means and totals with appropriate recorded during each site visit. solid-state memory or perforated tape. Such written instructions should be supplemented ties of the instrumentation and the requirements by oral instructions by the inspector to the observer for data at that site. the advantage of being able both to transmit data at prescribed intervals/parameter changes and be Each inspection should be recorded by completing interrogated by the collecting agency to determine a station-inspection sheet. errors are detected. and in some instances maintenance: as a cost-effective method of data collection. such as a and storage rainfall gauges. office is required. of regular observations with perhaps a brief . (h) Completion of report forms. current observation transmission facility. for following observations should be recorded at the example. observers. Data may be recorded in the current situation or reset observation intervals.5.

(c) Commercial cellular telephone networks – The In such cases. forwarded to a central office for processing of the together with better and more reliable equip- data. These instructions must and recorded at the central office on a continu- stress the importance of annotating the chart with ous basis. at many ordinary stations. Distances of several to mission systems: hundreds of kilometres may be spanned by (a) Manual – The observer at the station mails radio transmitters. should be specifically discussed. make them an interesting and less expensive option for moving data from a site and into the central office. It is that may be required during special periods. therefore. ment. Inter- Observers at stations equipped with automatic net or satellite.5. the demands from users of as somewhat remote. installation of wires. instantaneous observation and/or instrument failure or significant modification of past observations held in a storage register. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. each centimetre change instructions on the method of verifying the in the stage of a river. higher frequencies. all information that might be required for later processing. dates and their signa. take the relatively complex job of data abstraction. ties provided by landlines. (d) Direct radio links – These must be used when tate the formatting of observations for the requirements cannot be met by those facili- transmission and dissemination of forecasts. For such stations.6 Transmission systems of reliability and low cost makes it more real- istic to collect data from stations with no real- 2. be sufficiently well trained to abstract data from (b) Commercial telephone and telegraph lines – recording instruments. This has extreme event when telephone lines fail. systems that include automatic used in the same way as standard telephone transmission of hydrological observations have lines and may continue to operate during an been incorporated into national networks. remote site. operation of digital recorders. telephone or satellite. The necessity of reporting immediately any of a single. telephone. central office is available. CHAPTER 2. or when distances Hydrological codes are discussed in 2.2. This would include station identification. radio or radio resources development. the observing site should be emphasized. carefully Telephone and telegraph systems can be used worded instructions on the method of abstracting whenever feasible. Measurements and where observers may not be thoroughly trained. and receives single or flood-control studies. the staff should commercial lines are not readily available. to be transmitted using hydrological data have become more and more commercial facilities. also led to the need for developing codes to facili.5.6. Internet. the transmitter and receiver (b) Manual/semi-automatic – The central office must have a clear line-of-sight transmission manually interrogates the remote automatic path. 2. changing charts and (e) Automatic – Data are transmitted by the station taking check observations. from sites previously considered During recent years. hydrological forecasting.1 General time interest. (a) Dedicated land-lines – These are used where relatively short distances are involved and At stations with full-time personnel. (d) Automatic event indicator – The station trans- mits automatically. Observers should be urged not to forget to fill in (c) Automatic timed – Automatic equipment at the spaces for station names. Equipment that permits data and on the completion of report forms must unattended reception of observations at the be provided. calls in series.6. digital or graphical records should be ever growing coverage of these networks. Cellular systems can be complex. depending upon the carrier data or initiates radio or telephone calls to the frequency and the transmitter power. stations is programmed to initiate transmission ture. time off. during floods. The combination 2. a specified unit of change of a recording instruments must be provided with variable. Any special observations discrete values as often as interrogated. This limits the range without repeater . for example. At the central office on pre-arranged criteria.5. However. check-gauge readings and any other entries that would make the record more The possible choices of transmission links include: easily interpreted at a later time. or any special reports that equipment in the central office that can make are to be filed. by radio.3.2 Transmission links time on. it commands can be transmitted to and from the may be undesirable to require observers to under.2-43 account of how the observed data are used in water station by telephone. The or natural obstacles prevent the economic following describes different possibilities for trans. for possible to have automatic telephone-dialing example.

The data involved are available alternatives before any final decision is made. of data. its own particularities.5. 2004). When considering the possibility of including auto- matic transmission of data in any measuring system. If the ultimate use of the data transmis- large number of sites. in the design stage. logical data is an essential but insufficient component of the forecast system. the instal. Internet It is necessary to consider these components jointly communication works on a number of differ. data. of on-site mechanical equipment is difficult. transmission of data. the parameter identifications and the correspond- (ii) The time between the observation and ing values must be recorded and coherence must receipt of the data by conventional means. A forecast centre having personnel who are well-trained in preparing 2. Careful attention should sion or retransmission from satellites is devel. In all cases. monitoring (b) Accessibility of the measurement sites for qual- ity control and maintenance. sampling date. This is essential because the ent physical communication paths. If any one of these essential items is lacking. transmitting and receiving hydrometeoro- the main office much easier.5. This system also (e) Satellite links – Data transmission using satel. (iii) Receiving and decoding equipment. and in notifying persons at transmission systems risk is also fundamental (United Nations.7.2 Field sheets for water-quality the information is most urgently needed. measured variable take place. maintenance and logis- (such as imagery) or the use of the satellite to tic problems. it may be more reli- links are subject to national and international able to transmit data electronically to a central regulations. permits a continuous check of the operation of lites can take place in two ways: transmission the sensors.7 Water-quality monitoring consideration should be given to the following: (a) Speed with which data are required. be maintained throughout the handling of the versus automatic transmission systems. The importance of an accurate written description (v) The advantages of radio and satellite of each station location and the conditions under transmission versus landlines in times of which the samples are collected are discussed in storms and floods when these disasters detail in 2. location . In systems with a the others.6. The sampling locations. (iv) The benefits of forecasts from telemetered 2. it also makes the retrieval sion system is intended for forecasting. At the present recognize that each individual project will have time.I. time. then time shorter and the communication system in sensing. When local sampling programme is the recording on the field climatic conditions are rigorous. including the use of (i) Sensors and encoding equipment. have serious consequences on decisions regarding This makes it more reliable. either directly from the spacecraft or through When designing a system for the automatic central data banks. (ii) The transmission links. climate-controlled office. It is important for these aspects to relay data observed at remote ground stations be considered in the planning process and to to central receiving locations. This Chapter 7 provides details of instrumentation and depends upon the following factors: field practices for the collection of water-quality (i) The speed with which changes in the data.5.5. 2. especially if there is much data to transfer or continuous transfer is wanted.7.2. the main components to (f) The Internet – Internet Protocol communi. (iii) The urgency of having this information then the whole effort is wasted. the operation sheets of observations. including special characteristics of any one component can both mobile and ordinary telephone networks. can destroy the more conventional means of telecommunications at the time that 2. Perhaps one of the most important steps in a (c) Reliability of the recording device.5. available for warnings or forecasts. the science of observation and transmis.2-44 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES stations to about 50 km. consider for staffing purposes are: cation in various forms. makes this an inter.3 Factors affecting the choice of forecasts and warnings.2. the sampling times. mobile phone networks. esting and less expensive way to send data. be given to the costs and benefits of all the oping rapidly. as observed by sensors in the satellite (d) Staffing for operational.1 Station identification data and economic losses due to lack or delay of forecasts. lation and operation of radio transmission Under these situations.

bus. The field investigator is adapted to fit situations specific to a particular need.2. CHAPTER 2.3 Transportation of water-quality Two examples of a systematic format for recording samples field analyses and observations are provided in Figures I.13. instructions are contained in 2. be completed before leaving a station. The formats shown in Once collected. train or postal terminal on schedule so (a) Sampling site and date.5. Both formats can be for each constituent. will depend on the geographic location and the The format of Figure I. some water samples must be trans- these figures are appropriate for those personnel ported to the laboratory. port. The mode of transportation that use computer systems for storing their results. All field records must (e) Quality control measures used. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I.2.7.2. Logistics for sample transport and storage (c) Instrument calibration.13 can be used by anyone maximum permissible time lapse before analysis collecting water-quality data.2-45 and the measurements made. 2. should be determined before fieldwork is (d) Sampling apparatus used and procedures. Field sheet for use with NAQUADAT or similar computer system . Additional (f) General remarks and field observations.14.13 and I.5. WATER QUALITY MONITORING FIELD ANALYTICAL RESULTS LABORATORY ANALYTICAL RESULTS CARD Station number TYPE type prov basins bas sequential 04A 000 STATION 1 3 4 18 Date received Date of sampling Sample number day mo yr hr min zone prec freq lab yr sequential number T 190 36 0330 Date completed WATER SURVEY 19 31 42 43 44 45 53 54 57 STATION NO 0 Temperature (air °C) Temperature Sulphate diss mg/l CARD 97060S 02061L 16306L TYPE Temperature (water °C) pH Nitrogen diss NO3NO2 mg/l n 0 5 A Duplicate 4–31 02061S 10301L 07110L 1 3 pH Specific conductance us/cm Residue nonfilt 1105 °C mg/l 10301S 02041L 10401L Specific conductance us/cm Turbidity Residue filterable 1105 °C mg/l 02041S 02073L 10451L REMARKS: Colour Residue fixed nonfilt 1550 °C mg/l 02011L 10501L Alk phenolphth mg/l CaCO Residue fixed filt 1150 °C mg/l 10151L 10551L Alk total mg/l CaCO3 Arsenic extrble mg/l 10101L 33304L Hardness total mg/l CaCO3 Selenium extrble mg/l 10603L 34302L Calcium diss mg/l Cadmium extrble mg/l 20101L 4830 Magnesium diss mg/l Copper extrble mg/l 12108L 2930 Potassium diss mg/l Zinc extrble mg/l 19103L 3030 Sodium diss mg/l Iron extrble mg/l 11103L 2630 Chloride diss mg/l Lead extrble mg/l 17206L 8230 Fluoride diss mg/l Manganese extrble mg/l COLLECTOR 09106L 2530 Silica reactive mg/l SO2 Mercury extrble mg/l CHECKED BY DATE 14105L 8031 Figure I.5.2. initiated. that there will be minimal delay in sample trans- (b) Field-measured parameters. respons ible for delivering the samples to the The following information is usually recorded: airline.

°C _________________________________ Air temp.7.1 Requirement specific degree of confidence in the data. °C __________________________________________________ pH _____________ Specific cond. non-stand- Design and Implementation of Freshwater Quality ard raingauges.5.2 Bucket surveys of storm rainfall environmental water sampling and handling).8. ISO Standards (3. data from instruments. troughs and 1996). very valuable information can be obtained at the laboratory. such as pails. together with the laboratory and data- storage quality assurance programmes. and the Manual on Water Quality Monitoring: barrels (provided these can be verified to have been .2-46 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES STATION NO. _________________________________________________________________________________________________ DESCRIPTION _________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ DATE OF SAMPLING DY _____________________ MO _____________________ YR ___________________________________ TIME OF SAMPLING HR _____________________ MI __________________ TIME ZONE _______________________________ SAMPLED BY __________________________________________________________________________________________________ FIELD MEASURED PARAMETERS Water temp. detailed information on storm-rainfall distribution. are often valuable in hydrological studies ble in Chapter 7 of the present Guide. with records kept of cali. Standardized observation networks do not provide enough and approved methodologies. Consequently. and estimates that can be made Studies and Monitoring Programmes (UNEP/WHO. should be used by field or on flood-peak discharges of tributary streams.14. General format for a field-sampling sheet 2.2. All equipment should be kept clean and in important in determining design criteria for many good working condition. radar. Planning and Implementation of Sampling and Field quality monitoring Testing (WMO. A field quality assurance programme is a systematic 2. permanent stream- gauge installations are sometimes overtopped or The quality of data generated in a laboratory washed away and the record is lost.8.8 Special data collection process that. addition. such as those recom. For these depends on the integrity of the samples that arrive reasons. 1988). __________________________________ Depth of water ______________________________ Depth at which sample taken ______________________________________ Ice thickness___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Other ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Remarks ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ INSTRUMENT CALIBRATION Diss.5. addition.5. (ISO 5667–14:1998 Water quality-Sampling – Part 14: Guidance on quality assurance of 2. mended in this Guide.5. In general. _____________ Diss. regular brations and preventive maintenance.7).I. oxygen meter model _____________________________ Winkler calibration ________________________________ mg/L Meter reading before adjustment ________________________________________________________________________________ Conductivity meter model ______________________________________________________________________________________ pH meter model ________________________________ Calibration butters used _____________________________________ Remarks ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ WATER QUANTITY MEASUREMENT DATA Location description ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Description of gauge ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Stage height ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Time _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Figure I. ensures a 2. oxygen _____________ Turb. from various receptacles. In personnel. A field quality assurance programme involves a series of Data concerning severe storms and floods are very steps.4 Field quality assurance in water. types of hydraulic structures. in the Water Quality Monitoring: A Practical Guide to the Measurements of rainfall from private. during severe floods. In samples from contamination and deterioration. the field investiga. by a field survey crew in the area of a storm flood tor must take the necessary precautions to protect immediately following a severe occurrence. such as weather Further details on field quality assurance are availa.

8. snow melt) by the physical complex that be documented at both regular gauging stations comprises a drainage basin. Care must be taken in interpretation of bucket-survey data. 2.1 General The concepts discussed in this section cover two 2. Physiographic characteristics are now commonly Field surveys to measure minimum streamflow examined as layers of information within contem- at non-gauged locations provide valuable data at porary GIS. video imagery-based approaches have been developed. or. These measured meteorological events can be analysed using hydro- discharges can be correlated with the simultane. for example. that the concepts of national and international spatial data infrastructure and framework data have Recently. By locat- of rainfall and beginning and ending times of ing these features. However. CHAPTER 2. streamflow 2. These marks. 2. film or in digital form by a computer linked to the radar. the basin’s ating flooded areas on maps. readily reported rainfall data from the regular observing network. these data can be collected on photographic tion and the climate zone to which they belong. can be used to augment if real-time information is required. risks due to activity.. that drive the hydrology.5. For record them. but also to determine their spatial distribu- purposes. .8. logical and hydraulic models as well. which are responsible for meteorological events High-water marks along rivers are useful in deline. etc.5. (5. and where discrepancies exist 2.2 Reference systems and data frameworks A video camera installation can provide valuable information about the conditions at a gauging site. These digitized data can be readily transmitted The features themselves can be examined in terms to forecast offices over computer networks. areas or volumes depending on the relationship between a particular characteristic and the hydrological regime. and analysis.8. data sharing throughout all levels of government. periods of backwater due to nent of geospatial information.2-47 empty prior to the storm).6 MEASUREMENT OF PHYSIOGRAPHIC between data from a bucket survey and the regular CHARACTERISTICS observation network.3. for example. some characteristics. if taken carefully. and for estima.5 Video imagery techniques 2. The ous discharges at regular gauging stations to fundamental procedures presented in this section determine the low-flow characteristics at the form the basis for computer-assisted data assembly ungauged sites. The physical response of a watershed to a very economical cost. of points.5. For example. information ice. lines. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. Greater weight should usually be given to the latter. pertaining to the character and location of natural nique can also be used for remotely monitoring and cultural resources and their relation to human potential hazards. criteria. Eyewitness reports can be obtained of beginning and ending times of rainfall and of periods of very heavy rain. This information has become so important avalanches. can also be causal factors in the determina- peak discharge of the stream by indirect methods tion of the basin’s climate. surface velocities using particle image velocimetry standards and people necessary to enable geospatial methods The video data can be recorded on site.5).6. The basin location and at non-gauged locations.6. via some transmission facility. policies. but tion of flood slopes. orography and may also be used with other data to compute the aspect. Physiographic characteristics are but one compo- The extent of ice cover. can be documented by a camera. logical response to the meteorological events. Spatial data infrastructure can be been used to measure discharge by estimating considered as the technology. it is possible not only to catalogue precipitation over a specific river basin. that is. and their in determining the intensity and areal distribution physical response to atmospheric events. partially determines the climatic characteristics.4 Extreme river stages and discharges results from the transformation of climatic events Extreme events during floods and droughts should (rainfall. in the design of physical characteristics not only control the hydro- structures such as highway bridges.3 Weather-radar and satellite data quite different physiographic characteristics: the Data from weather radars and satellites are valuable location of the feature(s) under study. This tech.

available coordinate system is that the data used must be techniques may not be able to distinguish between specified. an instrument’s lack of resolution). It non-uniform.567 km at a latitude of 2. such as government units. prepared from a digital elevation model or TIN. transportation. A universal system has mate the surface. Conventional contour maps may be and reference information for the country or region. algorithms for tion of a measuring instrument or the outlet of a converting geographic coordinates to local refer. and conceptual data which features can be referenced to one another. hydrography. govern. Furthermore. An example of a simple given level or reference plane. variation is therefore the preferred vertical reference. The widespread use of global positioning description of the soil profile that underlies the system observations led to the adoption of point. airborne or satellite sensors. or a national geocentric expanding the notion of a point to an area (pixel). roads or river banks. location on a line or within an area or volume. Local systems and other modes of projection The geometric point is defined here as a unique are also in use. aerial into 360 degrees. of geodesy and topography. the Lambert system. data to remove all sources of distortion. Its only disadvantage is that a degree in longi.I. Within their limits of accuracy. until relatively recently one of its unique identifiers in three-dimensional mean sea level was the most commonly used vertical space. its posi- digital elevation model is a grid of elevation values tion on the globe. The image Framework data that will be of interest to hydrolog. who essentially works with global tional system of meridians and parallels divided positioning system data. in Applications of remote-sensing techniques. 1995). basin. While local reference characteristic of a point is its elevation. acteristics is to be defined or measured. the hydrologist. that is. for example. This system is the most widely accuracy of the evaluation depends upon the accu- used. and academia. two points (for example. The physiographic characteristics attributed to a point Elevation or altitude is provided in relation to a may be simple or complex. orthophotos. In general. which is data are sometimes used. It can also be an element of an area (plot of ence systems when this may be required are readily land) on which a given characteristic or set of char- available. Such images can be derived using orthoimagery. The with aerial photography. tude varies from 111. maps. ment units and cadastral information (National Research Council. A However. which may measure up to several square kilome- The fundamental requirement in any use of a tres. these cannot be recommended in an point may be a physical element. WGS-84. and a pixel might be taken to be a The topography of a river basin may be represented point.3 Point measurements 45° (a degree in latitude always measures 111. has had the effect of reference ellipsoid.111 km at the Equator to 0 at the Pole and represents 78. elevation. such as the loca- international guide. is determined by a selected system that has regular spacing while TIN is a series of of coordinates (2. data on land features and form Orthophotos are images of the landscape from such as physiographic data.6. which falls within the scope points linked into triangular surfaces that approxi. in two different ways: as a digital elevation model or as a triangulated irregular network (TIN).2). The tionships among data producers and users that accuracy of such digital terrain models depends on facilitates data sharing and use. has the properties of scale and accuracy associated ical analysis include geodetic control.111 km). which allows points to be located on provides a base or structure of practices and rela. with a map. the point density and distri- can be considered as a set of continuous and fully bution. Therefore. with the zero meridian passing photographs and satellite imagery. geocentric vertical (and horizontal) data in accordance with the world geodetic system. The spacing of points in TIN are been invented to make the coding of a point in a .6. critical terrain features. The basic elements used in estimating physio- graphic parameters are rarely measured directly by Geodetic control is defined by using the interna. A rigorous national data They are digital images produced by processing framework facilitates information exchange and aerial photography to geodetic control elevation significantly reduces duplication of effort.2-48 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES the private and non-profit sectors. this will consist of alignment data such as geodetic control. racy of source materials. starting preference to those based on mean sea level. A more complex characteristic might be a data. Framework data the source of the data. The The horizontal location of a point. and other related data used in their integrated geospatial data that provides context development. the through Greenwich.

mouth or confluence. soil structure. by geographers and specialists in river The former are limited to the local slope.2.). streams.4. Mapping.7). while the hydraulics. lines representing its banks.6. expressed in scalar form for a point on a 2. (Figure I. At a The first two types are linked to areal aspects. Shreve and others. and lmx=∑lx/Nx is the mean length of the streams of an axis can be drawn equidistant to the two banks. thus.11) . such as the drainage density. in which any elementary stream is said contours. the bifurcation ratio. for example. The main source of error in such which has its own physiographic characteristics. but also by the way in which it combines reaches formed by two tributaries of order x – 1 with other thalwegs to form a drainage network. In a basin.10) Lengths along a river are measured by following which form geometric progressions and may be this line and by using a curvometer.4. the confluence ratio 2. streams are organized to form a drainage network.9) points. each half-period geometric properties (form.15) (Dubreuil. three types of linear elements are common: according to schemes devised by Horton. these laws are expressed by the following The axis may also be defined as the line joining the relationships: lowest points on successive cross-sections. if the scale of the diagram is suitable. 1 is said to be of order 2. In a network. Schumm. GIS provide for automatic stream classification ogy. by two Given that Nx is the number of streams of order x. as well as on the curvometer’s error. these elements. is Horton’s.2 The drainage network horizontal surface or in vectorial form for a profile. areal in nature. which Nx = N1 * Rc1–x (2. evaluations is to be found in the mapping of the Some drainage network characteristics are linear. and several systems have been proposed for classifying them. Stahler. for example.4 Linear measurements size. In fact. Several stream classification Any physiographic element is linear if it can be systems are in use in various countries and current represented by a line on a map or in space. The properties and dimen- its permanent physical properties (permeability. etc.6. (a) Boundaries.2-49 catalogue explicit by indicating its geographical should not exceed six per cent for a distance on the position. is reduced to representing a stream by a line. land-use type. Of the linear characteristics of the drainage network that are measurable on a map. all streams are not the same 2. Many hydrological features can be features. slope. From these two lines.6. When it The physiographic description of a point covers its comprises quasi-periodic bends. the visible banks and the lowest Nx = Rc * Nx+1 (2. The best known schemes (b) Isopleths of a permanent feature. Schumm by systematically giving order x to the nal profile. to be of order 1. The axis of a stream is rarely straight. lmx = Rl * lmx–1 (2. Other systems may locate points by their derived directly from the orthoimagery or digital linear distances along a stream from a given origin. for example. This is the GEOREP squaring system map of 10 cm or 4 per cent for 100 cm and 2 per (UNESCO.16).1 The stream Rc and the length ratio Rl are based on Horton’s laws A stream in horizontal projection may be repre.2.) and is called a meander. 1966). are not always very clear. any doubt is removed by giving the will be examined later. and have been verified for Horton’s classification. geological core. In hydrol. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. CHAPTER 2. and the map scale does not always permit the banks to be featured and properly. sions of meanders have been thoroughly studied nature of rocks. terrain data with the aid of GIS (2. order x. while others are is often rather subjective. higher order to the longest of the tributaries form- ing it (Figure I. This The thalweg is itself to be considered not only as introduces some inaccuracy that was avoided by represented in horizontal projection and longitudi.6. which confluence. where the definition of the smallest streams for example. latter comprise a whole range of possible physical properties. The accuracy of written as follows: the determination depends on the map’s scale and quality. etc. relief. any stream with a tributary of order (c) Thalwegs. sented. and any stream with a tributary of order x is said to be of order x + 1. 1974) for spatial representation of linear cent beyond.

2.2.15.16.I. Schumm’s classification . Horton’s classification 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 3 3 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 Figure I.2-50 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 4 1 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 4 Figure I.

Cross-sections are usually obtained controls (Figure I.6. rapids. waterfalls and flow for a discharge measurement. which depends on the longitudinal and transverse distributions of the former. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. but not very useful. This notion is simple. and the roughness of hydraulic models. tion is expressed as a depth and is obtained by ary between two reaches with different geologic sounding (5. Such a diagram gives a synthesized view of the variation in where Rc and Rl are calculated as the slopes of the slope of the drainage network’s elements. On such a profile. by making normal topographical measurements during the lowest flows.4. straight lines adjusted to the graph points (log Nx. in which eleva- changes of slope that frequently mark the bound. utaries in the same basin can be represented on the Roughness is incorporated in the flow calculations Change in slope F Change in slope Threshold Threshold Pool Altitude E Pool Rapid Mean slope on reach DE C D A Mean slope on reach CD B Horizontal distance Figure I.3 Stream profile stream’s axis is called a cross-section. which is generally several types of calculations. hollows between An important particular case is the calculation of two thresholds (pools). x) and (log lmx. a certain which they will be put. x) and x is the basin order. 2.18 shows examples of stream profiles of the Niger river at Koulikoro and lmx = Rlx–1 * lm (2. primary physical characteristics of a stream.17. the type and amount of vegeta- sive stream reaches is essential for most runoff and tion in and along the stream. Figure I.5 Physical characteristics confluence or mouth divided by its total length. the bed.3).2.2.6. The average slope of a whole stream is the differ- ence in elevation between its highest point and its 2. and the way in which taken as the confluence of the stream with a larger they are established may depend on the use to stream or as its mouth. number of topographical features are to be found. Cross-sections are used in their distance from the origin. Stream profile .4 Cross-section The profile of the valley taken perpendicular to a 2.6. On the The type of material in the stream bed (particularly other hand.2-51 and same diagram. its cohesiveness).17). knowledge of the slopes of the succes. and a series of The stream profile is the variation in elevation of these is valuable information for the development the points of the stream thalweg as a function of of streamflow models.4. CHAPTER 2. such as high points (thresholds).2.4.12) of its main tributaries and sub-tributaries. comprise the The profiles of the main stream and of various trib.

The watershed boundary. it may not be easy to deter. measured according to the above rules and itation and.19). Chapter 6). for example.3.2. the quality of the curvometer. after hydrological processes resulting expressed in compatible units. en Jia ng bottomed valley or a marshland. when the Xin head of the main stream is formed in a very flat.2-52 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES 1000 900 Kissidougou 800 Faranah Tinkisso Konsankoro Altitude in m DION 700 MolokoroKouroussa Kérouané Baro 600 MandianaKankan NIA Siguiri-Tiguiberi Noura-Souba NDA S Kenié Kenieroba Dialakoro Koulikoro Bamako Ouaran N AN Gouala Sotuba 500 M I Dabola AF O KA U MIL RA O NI NIGE R 400 TIN KIS SO NIGER 300 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 Horizontal distance in km Figure I.6. 30˚N mine the basin boundary.2.18.6. Figure I. then the ratio of the in losses and delays. Profile of the Niger river and its tributaries by the indirect method (5. whereas any precipi- tation falling outside drains to a different basin and outflow. The watershed is usually defined by using contour maps or aerial photographs. In some cases.5. both The basin is defined as the area that receives precip.19.I.1 The basin area. the basin’s perimeter.5) and in runoff models The basin area is determined in a GIS or measured (Volume II.2. If A is the basin area and P its perimeter. The ultimate use that will be made of the measure. Measured perimeter ment should determine the accuracy to which it is measured. Real and measured perimeter . 118˚E 119˚E and the care taken in its use (Figure I. leads it to an outflow point. 2.7) or with a curvometer. by planimetry by following the boundaries estab- lished as described above.5 Area measurements The basin’s shape is characterized by comparing its perimeter with that of a circle having the same 2.6. is Real perimeter such that any precipitation falling within it is directed towards the outflow. The basin perimeter is measured in a GIS (2. The measured perimeter is a function of the scale and accuracy of the maps or photographs.

0.. Hypsometric curves (Courtesy ARPA-Piemonte) (Courtesy ARPA-Piemonte) . Sm = z ∑l/A (2. 0.. The oldest. Dd = (∑Lx)/A (2. It is determined x. Iko Be 75 tsi pa bo at ka An Percentage of the basin's area at tsa Am tra bo na dir 50 ok a 25 0 500 1000 1500 Altitude in metres Ikopa at Antsatrana Betsiboka at Ambodiroka 300–400 m .37 1 500–1 800 m . can be described by the hypsometric distribution or the 100 hypsometric curve. C L = A 1/2 ⎡⎣1 + 1 − 1.2. 0.12 1 200–1 500 m .21).20 shows a represen- tation of relief and drainage network. 0. the percentage of the drainage area that is higher than The notion of an equivalent rectangle is also linked or equal to the elevation that is indicated by the to the basin’s shape. 2 7 2 / C 2 ⎤⎦ (2. 0.43 900–1 200 m . and perhaps still the most widely where Lx is the total length of the streams of order used. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I.2. The length of this rectangle is: between contours of elevation beginning with the basin’s lowest point... 0..2. 0.. In practice. is the basin’s mean slope Sm.1 2 8 It is possible to calculate the basin’s mean elevation by dividing the area under the hypsometric curve The drainage density is defined as the total length of by the length of the ordinate corresponding to the streams of all orders contained in the basin’s unit area: whole basin.20.. 0.10 900–1 200 m .. particular slope index. CHAPTER 2.23 600–900 m . 0.... on the ordinate.01 40–300 m .. shown on maps by contours.14) 1 .282 P A1/2 (2. the lengths are expressed in from the basin contours by the formula: kilometres and the areas in square kilometres. 0.01 1 500–1 800 m .13) hypsometric curve shows.03 600–900 m .14 300–800 m .16) The basin relief. The elevation ranges are shown by different marking. 0. The C = 0.02 Figure I. In common practice.. 0...18 1 200–1 500 m .... and permits the definition of a corresponding abscissa (Figure I. Figure I..15) The basin slope can be represented by several indi- ces.. which is given by: (or fraction) of the basin’s total area that is included in each of a number of elevation intervals. The equivalent rectangle has the cumulative distribution of area is obtained in a the same area and the same Gravelius coefficient as GIS or by planimetric calculation of successive areas the basin...2-53 two perimeters is called the Gravelius coefficient of The hypsometric distribution gives the percentage compactness.. Relief and drainage network Figure I..21.2.30 1 800–2 100 m .

Under this is to derive the slope index from the hypso. Therefore.069 A mean slope can also be estimated by taking the When basins have a very low slope. there may be ing it by one of its characteristic dimensions. flow in a median year. meets these conditions. for example. classes of permeability. the interior plains of North America. swamps. and A is the basin’s area. (ai – ai–1) / xi. The Roche slope index is as follows: mating this characteristic lie in the measurement of ∑l. also called the index of runoff susceptibility. closed sub-basins having no outlet to the main However. lakes. in basin’s total difference in elevation and by divid. the mean slope between These physical characteristics may be assembled as these two contours is taken to be equal to layers within a GIS. or swamps). ∑l is the total length Iπ = ∑( ñi(ai – ai–1) / L )1/2 (2.22. lakes. equivalent rectangle.2-54 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES where z is the contour interval.22). The contours are almost always very tortuous Basin Length of equivalent Slope index and their real length is not really characteristic of rectangle the role they play in calculating the index. which is a synthesis of the relief drainage area may be used. Roche’s slope index. or glaciers). and the type of land use (for example.I. cartographic and hydrological analysis. and the slope index is written by designating as ñi the fraction of the basin’s total The quantification of these characteristics requires area included between ai and ai–1: definition of criteria and procedures for delineating Ikopa at Antsatrana 1800 m 2100 m 1500 m 1200 m 900 m 600 m 300 m Betsiboka at Ambodiroka 1800 m 1500 m 1200 m 900 m 600 m 300 m 40 m 100 km Figure I. these circumstances the concept of an effective metric curve.2. and to weigh the defined as the area that would contribute to stream- areal elements corresponding to the various eleva. Establishing the effective tion intervals by a non-linear function of the drainage area for a basin may require significant mean slope in each interval. They ai–1 are the elevations of two successive contours may also be expressed in terms of the basin’s reac- and x i is the distance separating them on the tion to precipitation. Ikopa at Antsatrana 278 km 0. senting the entire basin (Figure I. The notion of the equiva.078 keeping in mind the final results may be somewhat inconsistent and variable.17) of all contours within the basin. If ai and rural or urbanized areas. Equivalent rectangles . Betsiboka at it may be necessary to smooth the irregularities Ambodiroka 238 km 0. The difficulty and main source of error in esti. the land cover (for example. the natural plant cover or artificial cover contour to transform geometrically the contours (crops). this is. A basin’s physical characteristics are essentially the lent rectangle (equation 2.2. This is customarily delineated by the contours. the distribution of slopes in the basin is stream or significant portions of the basin that neglected by this approach. into parallel straight lines on the rectangle repre.14) is applied to each soil types. One way of avoiding contribute to streamflow very infrequently.

facilitated by means of GIS. This repre- of the isobath network. ground-surface-elevation contours are needed throughout the area to be occupied by the future impoundment. A plot of these between gridded and ungridded data a simple areas versus their related elevations is known as a task once the initial databases have been stage-area curve. It then remains 2.6. but a topographical survey on an appropri- division of the basin area based on systematic ate scale will be needed subsequently. the ability to map reservoirs.7 Geographical Information Systems Volumetric measurements pertain primarily to the defi nition of water and sediment storage. Surface storages are generally either the volumes of existing lakes or In network planning and design.2 The grid graphical plans of the area on scales of between The formation of physiographical data banks. leads to the design. The effi- isobaths. maps especially for the development of rainfall-runoff on a scale of 1/50 000 can be used for preliminary models with spatial discretization. showing basins or stations used. To determine this rela- metres).2 Topographical methods only to measure each of these areas and to express each as a percentage (or fraction).6. for which bathymetric methods are quickly and display surface water and related used. The stage-volume curve is assembled. 2. or operational characteristics. This requires maps or topo- 2. for which topographical methods are place. squaring or griding. formatting distributed watershed data. GIS (2. computed from the stage-area curve by graphical integration. as map prepara- reservoir. can be monitored. and the reservoir’s volume above a ciency of handling large volumes of data means reference plane can be calculated through that more comprehensive and detailed maps. Runoff mapping and interpolation is being carried Depth measurements can be used to plot out using GIS routines in many countries. Usually. .2). The depths conjunction with digital elevation models or TINs should be referenced to a fixed datum and a stage (2. GIS are now ubiquitous in the fields of operational Evaluation of groundwater storage is covered by hydrology and water resources assessment.6. or the volumes of reservoirs that are being stations enables a more effective integration to take designed. in a GIS or manually. tion is often time-consuming and expensive. Depending on the objective. tionship.2-55 the areas meeting these criteria. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I.6. 1/1 000 and 1/5 000. of the international geographical system (1’ or 1° the areas contained within the contours with the grid). the calcula- determining such distributions include GIS. lakes and reservoirs. nor will the estimation of sediment depos. double integration (generally graphical) isolines and themes can be prepared. ited on the soil surface. If these are not available. CHAPTER 2. has to be measured by making GIS techniques are being incorporated in hydrolog- special bathymetric readings. can be used for both short-term and long-term planning.6. this is done ical models for the purpose of extracting and from a boat by using normal methods for sound. The volume of an existing reservoir.6. Network maps. aerial photography requires knowledge of the curve of volume and remote-sensing with relatively fine resolution impounded as a function of the reservoir’s (pixels not to exceed some hundreds of square stage (stage-volume curve). the grid size may be larger or smaller.5. normal tion of the reservoir’s efficiency and management and/or specialized cartography.6. The essential 2. complete physiographic and hydrological gauge or a limnigraph so that variations in stage depiction of basins can be readily accomplished.7) have made interchanging hypothetical reservoir in place. selected according to record quality. It therefore will not be discussed aspects of data collection and interpretation can be here.6. Used in ing and for positioning the boat. watershed. and may be By using the contour map. One application of this sents a significant improvement to water method is sedimentation monitoring in a resources-assessment technology. planimetric measured in kilometres (1 or 5 km2) or based on measurements are made.1 Bathymetric methods features of complex networks can be made very Ordinary maps rarely give bathymetric data on clear.6. Many hydrogeology. The tools for Once the site of a dam has been fixed. therefore.6 Volumetric measurements 2.

processed to level 1. Passive sensing is always areal. Microwave sensors. The derived streamlines response).6. which may be sensing of near-surface soil moisture using airborne airborne. The thematic mapping of both airborne and satellite. devices). of 30 m. the low-resolution global digital commonly used in many parts of the world. netic (from infra-red (IR) to violet. 1996). or on satel. and training and updating of technical elevation model has applications in hydraulic and staff. matter. have been used as well stations reporting over threshold amounts or digital to monitor snowpack properties. The main cost more accurately and at lower cost than conven- factor now resides in the areas of database compi. Airborne optical devices (Lidar) are now used to GIS systems are now available for standard comput. the radiation is electromag. Most current applications are made by Other uses of remote-sensing in hydrology include means of a multi-spectral scanner. ing agencies. oriented measurements (ultrasonic). tional aerial photography. ment. radioisotopes in the upper 20 cm of soil under bare Water bodies that are affected by suspended sedi- ground conditions and with the snowpack. but may also be used for point. uranium and thorium promise as new satellites and sensors are developed. or passive (by analysis of the natural and basins are distributed as vector data sets. slope.I. as indicated above. The level 2 digital elevation model. aspect and a compound topo- beam toward the target and analysis of the target graphic (wetness) index. ultrasonic). Results will be affected by ice lenses or airborne or satellite sensors (UNEP/WHO.6. radiation of an object). 2001). liquid water in the snowpack. radiation may be high-frequency 3 arc-second (90 m) digital elevation model electromagnetic (radar) or acoustic (ultrasonic produced by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This digital elevation model is also Services may be kept aware of their possibilities. flow used: active (by emission of an artificial radiation accumulations. but has not The subsequent chapters of this Volume of the yet been commercialized. low-cost formats. The vertical accuracy of the data is insight into several of these so that Hydrological about 30 m. ers in practical. In the absence of national Guide deal with proven technologies that are topographic data.2-56 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES The interpretation of real-time data can also be standing water (Carroll.8. often. two data sets are a hydrologically correct digital eleva- kinds of remote-sensing techniques are commonly tion model. A further existing topographic data option is the In active methods. natural gamma or satellite passive microwave tech- lite. Snow-water equivalent remote-sensing of evapotranspiration. The apparatus may be installed on the The data for most of the coverage area have been ground (radar. RadarSat active indications of rainfall would obviously be very radar has also been used to map the areal extent of useful to both operational hydrology and forecast. niques and measurement of land surface temperature as a precursor to determining evapotranspiration. new technologies are spacing of 30 arc seconds (roughly 1 km) may be continuously evolving. derived flow directions. and rarely ultraviolet). Radars are now used for quantitative precipitation Leaf area index measurements use may also lead to estimates over a given area. The resulting digital lation. which provides for an absolute lites (radar). linked to the HYDRO1k package which provides a suite of six raster and two vector data sets. elevation model GTOPO30 with a horizontal grid However. facilitated through GIS. or thermal plumes undergo changes in spec- Data are collected on a swath about 300 m wide and tral or thermal properties that may be detected by 15 km long. has a horizontal accuracy of 30 m and vertical accuracy In passive methods. wet snow. The raster In the field of hydrological measurements. currently available only for the United States. of 18 m.1 Remote-sensing products used in hydrological analysis. determine topography more rapidly and. but is more frequently carried on a satel. This section provides some considered. dissolved organic Observations are made from a low-flying aircraft. algae or plant growth. Satellite Lidar altimetry has been used to obtain very good topography for military 2. Active remote-sensing is usually done horizontal accuracy of 50 m and a vertical accuracy on an areal basis. on airplanes. ground ice or Some use has been made in the measurement of . These data sets cover many of the common derivative 2. Remote- can be determined by measuring the natural gamma sensing of water quality also offers considerable radiation from potassium.8 Emerging technologies purposes and in research applications. hydrological modelling and in determining glacier mass balance.

The Canadian hydrometric threaten the life of persons attempting to make the technician career development programme (HOMS . One early approach there is also a need to ground-truth the remotely to improved safety was the development of stream- sensed data to ensure that remotely sensed values gauging cableways that could be operated from the represent in situ values. training and management is the key calculated.3 Risk reduction for personnel data collection because they are in a strong position There are inherent dangers to personnel involved to influence the standard of the final data.6. The instrument consists of manometers and the increased use of satellite tele- four orthogonal ultrasonic transducers fixed to a phones as a means of maintaining contact with moving boat. Aside from the automate the measurement process through use of requirement to calibrate airborne or satellite sensors. Results can be personnel to the hazard. UNESCO Acoustic devices have also been developed to exam. CHAPTER 2. Formal in acquiring hydrological data under difficult condi. efforts have been directed to the measurement of smaller streams (under 2 m depth) using hand-held WMO has published a set of Guidelines for the or in situ instruments. A carefully structured training programme is essential for all personnel engaged in 2.6. the quality of its staff will channel geometry also defined by the instrument. These dangers are perhaps best exemplified course in first principles. Acoustic current where channels are unstable. More recently. measurement. The radar the Doppler shift of acoustic energy reflected from device produces an accurate surface velocity. As the boat traverses a river the field parties in remote areas. 258). High velocities. Careful the streamflow along a river transect can be recruitment. but still requires exposing personnel 2. river bank. used to define the streambed in hydrographic Measurements can therefore be made under high surveys or to sense the distance to the water surface hazard conditions with minimum exposure of when mounted in or above a stream.9 Staff training velocity vectors in uniformly spaced volumes known as depth cells. personnel.2 Hydroacoustic methods to the hazard. The 1990s saw the development of the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Another approach uses a very satisfactory provided careful attention is paid hand-held radar to measure surface velocities and. With respect to data material characteristics of bottom and sub-bottom collection and processing. sound investment that results in greater productiv- ity and effectiveness. with the data-collection authority. ground-penetrating meters that determine water velocity by measuring radar to define the channel cross-section. Efforts are therefore underway to tion using RadarSat active radar. which water-borne particles have been used for a number must then be related to mean velocity. while the of years. an instrument Other risk reduction efforts include the decommis- that uses acoustic energy to determine streamflow sioning of water-level sensors based on mercury from a moving boat. All material should be flood conditions.8. 1983). For example. employee education. METHODS OF OBSERVATION I. ground-penetrating radar moving along a bridge or cableway produces an accurate cross-section. This technique has been used successfully to attaining and maintaining the appropriate to measure relatively large streams. may be used to identify the interface between two unmanned boat equipped with an Acoustic Doppler dissimilar media or to explore the characteristics of Current Profiler the position of which is monitored a single medium. instrument measures the frequency shift of the reflected signals and uses trigonometry to produce 2.2-57 water body areas and the extent of flood inunda. The velocity of the boat is Whatever the level of technical sophistication of a removed in computer processing and. Hydroacoustic methods hold considerable promise for hydrological data acquisition. training should aim at providing both a general tions.6. echo sounders are by use of the global positioning system. to calibration of the instrument. Acoustic signals One current concept calls for an automated. can be a Chapter 5. Education and Training of Personnel in Meteorology and Operational Hydrology (WMO-No. sediments. which reduces the time required for a discharge measurement. debris or ice may relevant and current. Another was the moving boat method. always remain its most valuable resource. has published a document on Curricula and Syllabi ine lake dynamics or to determine the density and in Hydrology (UNESCO. robotics and other procedures. plus training modules to by the challenge of measuring streamflow under teach in-house procedures.8. Ultrasonic flowmeters are reviewed in although costly and time-consuming.

A. This problem should be n=y). J.uvic. (http://www.pdf). Sellars and D..CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER= caused by routine and the repetitive nature of some 32199&ICS1=17&ICS2=120&ICS3=10&showrevisio aspects of their jobs. Technical ment point of view.org/iso/en/stdsdevelopment/ tc/tclist/TechnicalCommitteeStandardsListPage. Geneva (http://www.iso.pdf). M. R. Chanhassen. Chapter 2. professionalism and a sense of Conference of the Canadian Water Resources achievement. Volume II. For this reason. data. References and further reading TechnicalCommitteeStandardsList?COMMID=3666 &INCLUDESC=YES).iso. Ottawa. 1991: Caring Programs.html). pp.geoscientific. Pilon and T.R. Série data. and the duties undertaken by data International Organization for Standardization. collector for assessment. Environment Canada.I. Data processing is often routine in nature and well Water Quality Branch. Committee 147 List of Standards on water quality (http://www. Minnesota (http:// Where processing is not carried out by the data www. 1999: attention be given to the care of human resources. 2003: Water International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Quantity Monitoring in British Columbia: Natural Resources. Victoria. Second edition. Chapter 8.gov/technology/pdf/tom_ collector. Internal Report. Canadian interim interpretations of incorrectly presented Journal of Earth Sciences.geog. 2001: Airborne Gamma Radiation Snow Survey of training in hydrology. It is No.0. morphologiques des bassins versants: leur détermination sibility to maintain the quality and integrity of the avec une précision acceptable.org/urbanpol/ obtained by returning the published data to the frd0004. Version 5. onitoring%20in%20BC. M. Cahiers ORSTOM. Volume 26. Gland Sustainable Resource Management. P. suited to the application of automation and tech.htm).iso. Transfer and Fate of Sediment along collector. addressed from both a staff safety and a manage. However. At the processing stage. provides additional information on different aspects Carroll.ca/abstracts/ essential to establish the principle that the person ChurchRegionalThe1989. 1.. it is important that special Harvey. Third edition. the opportunity to contribute ideas that may International Organization for Standardization. ciple is to involve the collector in the processing as Report No. International Organization for Standardization.com/technical/ CARING.noaa.nohrsc. One method of honouring this prin.D. Environment Canada. Day.gov/records/GCMD_IUCN_ BC (http://www.org/iso/en/ strain injury in data-processing staff can often be CatalogueDetailPage. United Nations Environment A Business Review of the BC Hydrometric Programme and World Wildlife Fund. 1987: An Assessment of Problems Relating data are processed according to the intent of the to the Source. National Weather Service. Halifax.J. Canada’s Reference Hydrometric Basin Network and that the system be structured to foster interest.. ISO Standards Handbook: Quantities and Units. and to ensure that feedback is Research. Data-processing staff should be given Association. Inland Waters Directorate. it is important that data processors be gamma50. Kellerhals and T. Foundation for Water much as possible. 1983: Sampling for Water Quality. Geneva. British Columbia Ministry of for the Earth: A Strategy for Sustainable Living.. Water staff periodic field experience to build a physical Resources Branch.10) provides one national tech_references_pdf_files/Water%20Quantity%20M example (WMO. association with the data and their origins. profession. . pending confirmation from the collector.A. Schroeter. Benefit-cost of Hydrometric Data: River Flow Gauging. No. Dubreuil P. D.fwr. Such Church. It is a good practice to give processing the Mackenzie River. (RHBN). trained in data-collection techniques to ensure that Carson.org/iso/en/prods- Staff safety is also an integral component of any services/otherpubs/pdf/quantity1993-en. the possibility of repetitive ISO 5168. NWT. These are primarily discussed in the Evaluation of Uncertainties. 5.. Marlow (http://www. 1989: Regional knowledge on the part of the processor can allow clastic sediment yield in British Columbia. Environment Canada.html). collectors and processors require the establishment 2005: Measurement of Fluid Flow: Procedures for of safety standards. Yuzyk.K.nasa. Proceedings of the Fifty-first Annual involvement. FR/D0004.0. Program: A User’s Guide. collecting the data has the primary responsibility CNS Scientific and Engineering Services. (http://gcmd. T.2-58 GUIDE TO HYDROLOGICAL PRACTICES component Y00. 1991: The for its quality. 31–45 (http://cgrg.pdf). 2000). D. nology.J. 1966: Les caractères physiques et staff should recognize that they also have a respon. Azar. 1993: increase the effectiveness of the processing system.. Hydrologie.