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of Bellows Expansion Joints

N. W. Snedden

UEN/131, Shell UK Expro, Shell-MexHouse, Strand, London, UK

ABSTRACT

systems for absorbing thermal and mechanical movement. There have

been several failures in service due to the lateral buckling of bellows under

pressure, the most notable case being the Flixborough disaster in 1974.

The problem of bellows squirming, as the phenomenon is more

commonly termed, was first investigated by the Dutch engineer J. A.

Haringx in 1952. In the intervening years there has been little additional

research carried out and consequently there is a paucity of experimental

data and practical theories on the subject. The present paper offers

guidance to avoid bellows squirming and provides the design engineer

with simple procedures for evaluating the stability of a pressurised

bellows subject to either small or large lateral displacements. Formulae

are also presented in order to determine the strength of bellows supports

which limit and control the amount of bellows movement in service.

NOTATION

F Lateral force.

h Wall thickness.

Ka Elastic axial stiffness.

Ke Elastic lateral stiffness.

C o n v o l u t e d length.

M Bending moment.

n N u m b e r of convolutions, coefficient.

145

Thin-Walled Structures 0263-82311851503.30 Elsevier Appfied Science Publishers Ltd,

England, 1985. Printed in Great Britain

146 N. W. Snedden

p Internal pressure.

p' Elastic buckling pressure.

P Equivalent axial load.

-~ Mean radius.

x, y Cartesian coordinates.

a Angle of tilt (from vertical) of convolution.

8 Lateral deflection.

A Equivalent axial displacement of convolution.

0 Angle of rotation of convolution.

1 INTRODUCTION

differential thermal expansion whilst containing the system pressure and

flow. They are installed in oil refineries, chemical plants, eom'cnP.onal

and nuclear power plants, and heating and cooling systems. Bellows are

constructed from relatively thin gauge material (normally stainless steel)

and are convoluted in order to provide the necessary flexibility needed to

absorb mechanical and thermal movements expected in service.

There are many categories of bellows joints: for example, universal,

hinged, gimbal, pressure-balanced, etc. In addition, there are a variety of

convolution shapes: S-shaped, C-shaped, and U-shaped (see Fig. 1). The

latter configuration is by far the most popular. Such joints are manu-

factured in a variety of ways; roller formi,,.g, h y ~ a u ! i c and pneumatic

tube forming are among the most common r n a n u f a ~ g techniques

employed.

It has long been established from research and practice that under

certain conditions a bellows under internal pressure can become unstable

and 'squirm' laterally (see Fig. 2). The phenomenon of squirming was first

demonstrated by Haringx in 19521 who showed that pressure buckling of a

bellows was analogous to buekting of an Ederstnrt~: F I e ~ a ~k~t..#e

relationship for the elastic buckling pressure, viz:

"n'EI

p' - 7~2 (1)

stiffness* ,-~ = bellows mean radius, and ~e = bellows convoluted length.

*Haringx'sformula for bendingstiffnessis givenin Appendix 1.

Lateral su'ffness of bellows expansion joints 147

S-shaped

g'L

U-shaped

C-shaped

148 N. W. Snedden

It was the investigation into the cause of buckling of bellows which also

prompted Haringx to study the problem of elastic stability, of thin-walled

cylinders subjected to internal pressure and to explain the buckling of

drill pipes. 2

Newland 3extended Haringx's theory to the more complicated case of a

universal expansion joint, i.e. two bellows interconnected by a straight

length of pipe. The principal conclusion of his work was that, by providing

a correctly designed supporting structure, the critical buckling pressure

could be increased by up to four times the value for the same system with

no supports.

Seide 4 also investigated the effect of pressure on the stability of a

hinged bellows, i.e. a bellows which is only permitted to rotate about a

fixed pivot-point. He showed that the bending characteristics of the

system varied considerably with changes in pressure and pivot-point

location, and that instability of the bellows could occur at both internal

and external pressure. The analytical results of this work were compared

with experimental data from bellows tests conducted by Fitzgibbon. 5The

agreement found between theory and experiment for small bellows (4.5 in

dia.) under external pressure was relatively good. However, for the large

bellows (13 in dia.) under internal pressure correlation was poor and

believed to be due to friction between the convolution plies.

In all of the aforementioned papers only elastic instability was

considered.

At the present time there is no British Standard for the design of

bellows expansion joints. There is, however, a code of practice for the

installation of metallic bellows: BS61296 and the Standards of the

Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association 7 (commonly referred to as

the E J M A standard). This latter document, published by a group of US

and Canadian companies, recommends standards relating to the manu-

facture, design, safety and installation of bellows expansion joints for

application in piping systems.

Design rules for bellows are also given in Section III (Nuclear Power

Plant Components) of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Cod&

where it is stated that bellows expansion joints are allowable in nuclear

piping systems conforming to ASME Class 2t and Class 3 standards and in

metal containment vessels. According to subarticle NB-3649.1, bellows

Lateral stiffne~ of bellows expansion joints 149

construction. Reference is made to the fact that design rules for Class 1

components are currently under development. Nevertheless, there is an

interesting and lengthy ASME Code Case (N-290-1, approved April

1983) which details rules for materials, design, fabrication and instal-

lation, testing, etc. of bellows for service in Section III, Division 1, Class

1, liquid metal piping.

Despite the wealth of advice available in the abovementioned codes

and standards, there is a paucity of design guidance given on the

important problem of lateral instability of bellows. In the EJMA

standard, for example, the entry on bellows squirming is limited to a few

cautionary paragraphs on the phenomenon and a formula for evaluating

the elastic buckling pressure of a bellows, the ends of which are rigidly

supported. The ASME Code is also relatively weak in this area, and the

Code Case cited earlier states that the bellows design is only acceptable

against instability if the defined pressure testing requirements are met,

i.e. the bellows must be capable of satisfying the maximum squirming

pressure fixed by the applicable ASME Design Service Limits.

That there have been several failures of bellows in service due to

squirming cannot be wholly attributed to the lack of suitable design

guidance. In the case of the Flixborough disaster in 1974, ~the cause of

the explosion was traced to a temporary by-pass assembly consisting of a

dog-leg pipe connected by bellows expansion joints to reactor vessels at

the ends. The official inquiry showed that, as a result of gross human

error, the assembly had collapsed by a combination of bellows squirming

and jack-knifing of the mitred pipe joints. It was the subsequent release of

cyclohexane that led to the explosion and, tragically, the deaths of 28

people. Many reports have been produced explaining the cause of the

disaster; among the more interesting contributions are papers by

Newlandll and Webster. 12

In view of the shortage of design information available, in the present

paper limited guidance in the form of simple design formulae is offered

for assessing the stability of a pressurised bellows subject to an initial

lateral deflection and for evaluating the strength of bellows lateral

supports. The effect of plasticity in the convolutions on the non-linear

lateral stiffness of bellows is highlighted. It is the author's intention that

the design recommendations given should be of practical use to pipework

and project engineers alike.

150 N. W. Snedden

2 THEORY

There are numerous formulae in the literature for calculating the elastic

axial stiffness of a bellows. 13 However, there are only a few published

theories on the problem of bellows bending stiffness: Haringx's I analysis

m a d e use of the theory of unsymmetrical bending of circular plates and

was confined to the mathematically more simple case of bellows with

rectangular-shaped convolutions; H a m a d a e t al. 14examined the bending

flexibility of U-shaped convolutions and produced simple design charts

for a range of bellows dimensions.

In addition to the above theories, there is an elementary formula

relating bellows bending stiffness and axial stiffness, viz:

EI = ~Kar- (2)

tionship is discussed by Newland 3 and Seide. 4

Seide 4 points out that the circumferential flexural stiffness of a bellows

is considerably greater than the meridional stiffness and that for small

deflections the bellows cross-section will remain undistorted after

loading. Assuming then that elementary beam theory is valid, the

differential equation for the lateral deflection of a bellows is (see Fig. 3)

dZy

EI-~ = - Py - Fx + M (3)

M Fx

y = Acosnx+Bsinnx~ P P (4)

axial and lateral forces, respectively, on the bellows, and

n = (5)

p = p~.~2 (6)

Lateralstiffne~ of bellowsexpansionjoints 151

P :/" '/- El I

' :J

x J

v ,

dy _ 0 at x = 0 (7a)

Y-dx

y= 6 atx= ~ (7b)

and from equilibrium of the bellows

F~ + P6

M - - - (8)

2

Substituting eqn (4) into eqns (7a) and (7b) and using eqn (8) yields the

following solution for the lateral deflection between the ends of the

bellows

F [ g ( 1 - c o s n g ) + 2sinn---------~- 2g ]

6 = n (9)

P(1 + cosng

This relationship can be re-written as

F = Ke6 (10)

Ke = [ g ( l - c o s n ta) + 2sinngn

- - - 2~ ] (11)

152 N. W. Snedden

Using a Maclaurin series to expand the sine and cosine terms it can be

shown, by truncation, that eqn (11) simplifies to

12EI 6P E1

Ke - ~ - -~- for e < < (---7 (12)

condition for instability of the bellows is given by

Ke = 0 at p =p' (13)

12El

Ke - (3 at p = 0 (14)

K~-

Substituting f o r p a n d p ' from eqns (1) and (6), respectively, into eqn (15)

finally gives

12El 12P

Ke- ~ zr2( (16)

The results obtained for the lateral stiffness in eqns (12) and (16) are only

relevant to bellows undergoing small elastic deformations. In service,

however, bellows are subject to much larger displacements and are often

stressed beyond the elastic limit. In this situation a more elaborate theory

is required to predict the bellows behaviour.

It has been observed from full-scale buckling experiments carried out

by the author 15 that the assumption of undistorted cross-sections is

sufficiently accurate for bellows subject to gross shear deformation (e.g.

8 = ?/4) and relatively low internal pressure. (In addition to the type of

squirming discussed here, which is sometimes termed column instability,

in-plane instability can occur if the bellows intemal pressure is high.

When this happens the convolutions buckle in a local manner and distort

Lateral stiffness of bellows expansionjoints 153

such that they are no longer perpendicular to the bellows neutral axis. 7)

By maintaining this assumption it is possible to establish a simple

procedure for investigating the non-linear lateral stiffness of a bellows.

The mathematical model which will be utilised is similar to the one

considered by Newland 3 where the bellows was represented as a strut

made up of a number of rigid links joined by linear spring hinges, each

~ ~idIink2s

~

inghinges

model postulated here (see Fig. 4) the hinges are replaced by non-linear

springs which each rotate through an angle defined by

ON =f(MN) (17)

where Ms = bending moment applied to convolution N

(18)

of bellows see Fig. 4).

The deformation of a bellows subject to combined internal pressure

and lateral loading is asymmetric, viz. the overall shape of the deformed

structure possesses 180 rotational symmetry about the mid-point of the

neutral axis. Thus by analysis of the geometry shown in Fig. 4 the

equation for the lateral displacement between the ends of the bellows is

./2 tar ]

(19)

~=,nl_ T 1

154 N. W. Snedden

N 1

~N = Z OM (2o)

M-1

Provided the elasto-plastic moment/angular deflection relationship of

eqn (17) is known for a single convolution, eqn (19) can be readily solved

using an iterative procedure by assuming an initial value of 8.

convolution can be determined. For example, finite element theory may

be employed or tests conducted. However, the former option can prove

uneconomical if a non-linear analysis of a large model is essential.

Experiments too are costly and not always feasible to perform. Shell

theory is sufficiently advanced to enable the analysis of shells of

revolution subject to non-symmetric loading 16 but the governing

differential equations are complex and their solution is dependent on the

aid of a large digital computer. The application of such theories to bellows

expansion joints is formidable and beyond the scope of the present paper.

A n alternative and much simpler approach, based on experimental

observation, would be to describe the moment/rotation characteristic of

eqn (17) by means of a tri-linear function, such as shown in Fig. 5. This

figure indicates three distinct regions:

I--where the rotation of the bellows convolution is linearly

proportional to the applied bending moment

I I - - w h e r e localised plasticity occurs at the root and crown of the

convolution (by simple analogy with a beam subject to pure

bending, straining is greatest in the longitudinal fibres furthest

away from the neutral axis)

III where contact occurs between adjacent convolutions

These can be conveniently termed the elastic, elasto-plastic and contact

regions, respectively.

The unknown quantities which have to be estimated are the slopes and

Lateral stiffness of bellows expansion joints 155

6000

55OO

5O00

4500 []

4000

3500

3000

N 2500

1

2000

1500

1000

5O0

I J i i i b

ANGULAR OEFLECTION (RAD)

intercepts of the lines in each region. The gradient of the line in region I is

easily calculated since for a linear elastic bellows 3

M~

0- nEl (21)

volution is perfectly plastic and that at point 1 in Fig. 5 first yielding of the

material occurs. By using the EJMA design equations 7 or simple beam

theory together with the maximum shear stress theory (Tresca) to predict

156 N. W. Snedden

convolution, the limiting angle 01 can be estimated from

O1 ~ (22)

The intercept of the lines in regions II and III can be determined from the

assumption of undistorted cross-sections. It should be evident that the

convolutions come into contact when

(23)

In region III adjacent convolutions of the bellows come into point

contact. As a result the angular stiffness of the convolution will be

significantly increased compared to the elastic bending stiffness. (A

similar effect occurs when an ordinary helical spring is fully compressed.)

For simplicity, it may be assumed that the slope of the line in region III is

infinity, viz. no further deformation can take place once the convolutions

touch. The validity of this assumption will be commented upon in Section

3.

3 RESULTS

Experimental data for the elastic lateral stiffness of a bellows taken from

Ref. 15, together with the solution of eqn (11), are presented in Fig. 6.

The value of bellows equivalent bending stiffness used in the derivation of

the theoretical line shown was determined from the formula by Haringx

(see Appendix 1). Details of the relevant bellows geometry and materials

data are given in Appendix 2. As can be seen from Fig. 6 there is

sufficiently good correlation between theory and experiment to establish

that the simple bellows beam model (Fig. 3) is valid for small lateral

deflections. (n.b. The experimental results plotted are applicable to

0.040 in lateral deflection.) It is worth pointing out that the individual

solutions of eqns (11), (12) and (16) are indistinguishable at the scale

indicated in Fig. 6.

Lateral stiffnessof bellows expansion joints 157

I!!!:

: ::: :q: : : : : : ~.-.~:..:::::::: :::: -::: ========================== ~,~*.:~: :::: -::: :: ~::: :~q~:. : ~.-~ ~.~:~:: ~r:.::: -'--:::::t::-:~ !~ ~ - ~ ~ : :q-.-::-.

l ................. t ....... ~ .............. ~ ............. :. . . . . . - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . --, :h~o ~ ............

to m u c h larger displacements are plotted in Fig. 7. This figure also shows

the theoretical predictions obtained using eqns (17) to (23) and the

tri-linear function for the angular stiffness of one convolution prescribed

earlier. Despite the relative crudeness of the analytical m e t h o d employed

the a g r e e m e n t up to about 1 in lateral deflection is very good between the

two sets of curves for p = 0 and 70 psig, respectively. B e y o n d this

deflection the discrepancy between theory and experiment can be mainly

attributed to the optimistic assumption for the bellows bending stiffness

once adjacent convolutions touch. It can be inferred from the test data

s h o w n in Fig. 7 that the convolutions continue to deform after initial

contact is made. Nevertheless, in the case where internal pressure is

applied the onset of instability is correctly predicted at 0.25 in lateral

deflection. Between this displacement and approximately 0.7 in the

bellows is shown to be unstable.

158 N. W. Snedden

5000

ii

IF

4500

ii

,i

~ Theory

4000 i'

3500

- - 30DO

-[ M Experiment

~2500

2000

1500

// /

/

I000 /

/

500

I I i I I I I I I

0.0 0.~ 0,2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.? 0.8 0,9 1.0 1.1 2 Ii ~ !. 4 t.5

LATERAL DEFLECTION [IN)

4 DISCUSSION

The data plotted in Fig. 6 show that for the particular bellows tested the

elastic lateral stiffness decreases linearly with increasing internal

pressure. This result is also evident from the form of eqn (12). It is

possible to determine the bellows elastic buckling pressure either by

linear extrapolation of the experimental data or, as previously indicated,

from eqns (6), (12) and (13).

When subject to combined internal pressure and lateral movement the

Lateral stiffne~ of beUows expansion joints 159

produces a destabilising force. If displacements are small and the material

remains elastic this force is easily calculated from eqns (6), (12) and (14)

as follows

F, = ( K , ] - K,])8

p=0 p~p,

7 - if Po = p, (24)

deformation the destabilising force due to pressure is simply

F~ = ( r ] - 4 ) (25)

p = 0 P=Po

where Fis computed from eqn (18) for a given lateral deflection 8.

If the bellows operating pressure is relatively low, instability, i.e.

uncontrolled movement, can be a temporary event impeded by the

increased bending stiffness due to contact between convolutions. The test

results shown in Fig. 7 corroborate this assertion. However, for high

internal pressure, gross buckling due to an excessively large destabilising

force, or plastic collapse, can lead to catastrophic failure of the bellows.

5 DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

It is recommended that, if the bellows design stresses are within the elastic

limit, the bellows lateral stiffness should be determined using eqn (12) if

the bellows axial compressive load P < - 2 E I / g 2, or with eqn (11) if

P >- 2 E I / g 2. In either instance, the quantity E1 should be derived from

Haringx's formulae given in Appendix 1, or indirectly from eqn (2) using

either the measured value of bellows axial stiffness or the result for Ka

calculated from the EJMA standard. 7For the bellows to remain stable the

lateral stiffness Ke must exceed zero. In the event that the bellows design

stresses exceed yield, it is recommended that the lateral load/deflection

characteristic of the bellows should be verified by experiment or

calculated using eqns (17) through (23). An alternative function from that

used by the author may be employed to define eqn (17). However,

160 N. W. Snedden

underestimate the lateral deflection at which instability initially occurs.

It is also firmly r e c o m m e n d e d that any bellows expansion joint whose

failure could be catastrophic should be adequately restrained to prevent

excessive deformation due to instability. If simple lateral supports are

e m p l o y e d these should be capable of sustaining at least the destabilising

force due to pressure predicted from eqn (24), if the bellows design

stresses are elastic, or from eqn (25), if the d e s ~ stresses are greater than

yield.

It is recognised that these design recommendations are based on

cx tremety limited data. H o w e v e r , ~--~'-

~u, u,~,

. . . .~^v"~,,~,,~'",

. . . - . . . . . . and-theoretical

w o r k should enable the recommendations to be substantiated and

developed.

REFERENCES

Research Report, 7(3) (1952).

2. Haringx, J. A., Instability of thin-walled cylinders subjected to internal

pressure, Philips Research Report, 7(2) (1952).

3. Newland, D. E., Buckling of double bellows expansion joints under internal

pressure, Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science, 6(3) (1964).

4. Seide, P., The effect of pressure on the bending characteristics of an

actuator system, Journal of Applied Mechanics, 27(3) (1960).

5. Fitzgibbon, D. P., Experimental measurements of the stiffness of a bellows

system, Space Technology Laboratories, Report No. EM 8-20, October

1958.

6. BS6129, Code of Practice for the Selection and Application of Bellows

Expansion Joints for Use in Pressure Systems, Part l--Metallic Bellows

Expansion Joints, 1981.

7. Standards of the Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association, Inc., Fifth

Edition 1980, White Plains, New York.

8. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section Ill--Division 1, Rules for

Construction of Nuclear Power Plant Components, 1983.

9. American National Standard Nuclear Safety Criteria for the Design of

Stationary Pressurised Water Reactor P/ants, ANS-51.1/N18.2-1973,

10. Department of Employment, The Flixborough Disaster--Report of the

Court of Inquiry, London, HMSO, 1975.

11. Newland, D. E., Buckling and rupture of the double bellows expansion

joint assembly at Flixborough, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London,

Ser. A, 351(1667) (1976).

12. Webster, G. A., An Investigation of the Stability of Double Bellows

Assemblies, Report to the Flixborough Court of Inquiry, London, 1974.

Lateral stiffness of bellows expansion joints 161

13. Matheny, J. D., Bellows spring rate for seven typical convolution shapes,

Machine Design, 34(1) (1962).

14. Hamada, M., Nakagawa, K., Miyata, K. and Nakade, K. Bending deform-

ation of U-shaped bellows, Bulletin of the JSME, 14(71) (1971).

15. Snedden, N. W., The strength and stability of corrugated bellows expansion

joints, PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1981.

16. Wan, F. Y. M., Laterally loaded elastic shells of revolution, lngenieur-

Archiv, 42(4) (1973).

APPENDIX 1

circular cylindrical shells, Haringx 1derived the following formulae for the

bending stiffness of a bellows

~.,Ex(h3r 3

E1 = zr(1 - v2)n(ro- r33 (A1.1)

where

T

7' - (A1.2)

X

~2~

~"- 2x (A1.3)

1[ (1+p2)(1-p) 3 ]

E = -~ 1-p2+(l+p2)lnpJ (A1.4)

(1 - p2)(1 -- p4 + 4p21np)

x = 4(1 - p2 + 2p In p ) (1 -- p2 _ 2p In p ) (A 1.5)

ri

p - (A1.6)

ro

ro(1 - p2) [(1 - p2)2 _ 4p2(ln p)2]

162 N. W. S n e d d e n

k= (A1.8)

2/xc(cosh 2/~c + cos 2/xc)

I-t = 4 ,C-4n

(A1.9)

APPENDIX 2

Figs 6 and 7 was manufactured from type 321 stainless steel. Nominal

dimensions of the bellows and mechanical properties of the material for a

range of values of work hardening up to 50% reduction in section

thickness are given, respectively, in Tables A. 1 and A.2.

TABLE A.1

Bellows Dimensions

Outside radius 7.136 in

Convoluted length 7.680 in

Wall thickness 0.022 in

Number of convolutions 16

Number of plies 1

TABLE A.2

Properties of Type 321 Stainless Steel

0-2% Proof stress (tonf/sq in) 13.9 29-9 42-3 73-8

Ultimate tensile strength (tonf/sq in) 37-2 43-6 51.3 76-4

Young's modulus (lbf/sq in) 28-0 E6

Poisson's ratio 0-3

aApproximate value of thinning at root and crown of convolution. Data under this column

have been applied in the large deflection analysis.

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