Power Distribution Network

Planning Criteria
Design Philosophy
(Version 1.0)
January 2007

Issued By:

Power Network Development Department
Asset Management Directorate

Table of Contents
1.0 Introduction ................................................................................................ 2

2.0 Planning Process ....................................................................................... 4

3.0 Inputs/Factors for Planning: ....................................................................... 6

4.0 Load Forecasting: ...................................................................................... 7

4.1 Forecasting Methods ............................................................................... 8

4.2 Approaches Adopted by ADDC............................................................... 11

4.3 Reporting requirements for Load Forecast. .............................................. 16

5.0 Planning Criteria: ...................................................................................... 19

5.1 Supply Security Standard ....................................................................... 19

5.2 Power Quality Standards/Guidelines: ...................................................... 20

6.0 Design Philosophy: .................................................................................... 21

6.1 Urban Area: .......................................................................................... 22

6.2 Rural Area:....................................................................................................... 29

6.3 Mega Projects: ..................................................................................... 34

7.0 System Improvement works: .................................................................... 35

8.0 Aged Asset Replacement: ........................................................................ 36

9.0 Economic Feasibility Study: ..................................................................... 36

10 Risk Analysis: ........................................................................................... 36

11 Drawings…..…………………………………………………………………….36

Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 1 of 50

1.0 Introduction
The framework adopted in the Planning criteria and Design philosophy is to deliver one
of the key Asset Management functions, which is a ‘Systematic and Co-ordinated
activities and practices through which ADDC optimally manages its assets, and their
performance, risks and expenditures over asset lifecycle for the purpose of achieving its
Organizational Strategic objective. Where the Organisational Strategic Plan is defined

‘the overall long-term action plan for the organisation that is derived from and embodies
its vision, mission, values, business policies, objectives and the management of its risks’

The objective is ‘to ensure and to be able to demonstrate that the assets deliver the
required function and a level of performance, in a sustainable manner, at an optimum
whole-life cost basis without compromising health, safety, environmental performance,
or the organisation’s reputation.’

To pursue the above objective, a holistic approach in the overall planning and
development of the electrical distribution network, in line with the adopted strategic
framework of Asset Management function and shall address the following;

• Planning Requirements and Development Process.
• Electricity Regulatory Requirements (Technical and Performance
• Electricity Distribution System Planning Criteria.
• Distribution System Characteristics.
• Distribution System Design Philosophy (Urban/ Rural system)
• Engineering and Good Utility Practices.
• Environment, Health & Safety Requirements.

The planning and development of electricity distribution network shall essentially comply
with the License obligations, Structural and Regulatory requirements, in order to create
an electricity supply/distribution infrastructure that is secure, reliable and economical
with a specified level of continuity and quality in a sustainable manner; relating to the

Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 2 of 50

existing Standards and Contractual Agreements with the Customers and other stake

As part of the planning process and new Price Control regime starting January 2006 (and
with appropriate modification to License), ADDC is required by the Bureau to produce
annually Five (5) Year Planning Statement. The planning statement give a forward view
on the proposed expansion of infrastructure, new connections and the associated capital
expenditure requirements that will meet the forecast demand growth and support the
growth and development of Abu Dhabi Emirate. Condition 29 of Distribution License
requires ADDC to develop and review Security Standards from time to time for the
distribution system. ADDC must plan and develop its distribution system to a Standard
not less than that set out in the Distribution System Security Standard.

ADDC is obliged under Condition 3 of its license to maintain a Distribution Code, detailing
technical parameters and other requirements relating to the connection and the use of
the distribution system. The Code is kept under review by the Distribution Code Review
Panel. All modifications to the Code have to be approved by the Bureau in accordance
with Article 55 (8) of Law No (2) of 1998.

The Company shall also comply with the “Code of Practice/Guaranteed and Overall
Service Standards” and required to report the performance against these Service
Standards established pursuant to Law No (2) of 1998, Article 54 and 55.

Technical and Performance Standards in particular the Engineering Recommendations
related to the Security of Supply Standards, Electricity Distribution Code, Electricity
Supply Regulations, Electricity Wiring Regulations, Network Performance and Quality of
Supply Standards sets out the criteria and methodology, which ADDC shall use in the
planning, design, development, operation and maintenance.

Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 3 of 50

2.0 Planning Process:

The planning process adopted by ADDC can be easily understood with the help of the
process flow chart (Figure-2.1) depicted below. The process begins with the demand/
load forecasting that determines the future demand. A reality check will be done with
forecasted load/demand to evaluate the system capabilities. The system should be
capable of catering to the future demand without compromising the supply security
standards and the quality of power supply or any other requirement that are defined by
the regulator. The system evaluation will be done with the help of simulation software by
carrying out load flow, short circuit and stability studies. All the risks are clearly identified
and if the risks can not be managed with the existing system, new proposals are
recommended for implementation.

Once the system design/plan meets the technical criteria, economic feasibility analysis
will be carried out. The feasibility analysis process compares the investment and the
economic benefit rising out of implementation of the expansion/augmentation proposals
in the planning statement. Feasibility for a proposal is determined with the help of
standard cost evaluation methods.

The feasibility studies are carried out to conclude whether the investment proposals are
economically viable or not and would aid the management decision making process on
the investment related issues. This will enable ADDC to reach a decision with relatively
lesser time involved and bring down the gestation period and helps to implement/realize
the infrastructure as planned/scheduled within the planned time frame and without any
cost overruns.

Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 4 of 50

2. 3.1 Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 5 of 50 .1 Total & Spatial Planning Standards Total & Spatial Load Forecast Load Forecast Supply Security CSSS Standards Evaluation of System Capabilities Evaluation of System Capabilities Identifying System Identifying Deficiencies System Deficiencies System Model System Model Adequacy Adequacy & Security & Security NO Concerns Concerns Addressed? Addressed.? Evaluate Evaluate RisksRisks & Constraints & Constraints YES YES “Do “Do Nothing” Nothing” Can CanRisks be Risks be Managed? Managed ? NO Formulate New Formulate New Proposals Proposals Evaluate System Evaluate System Implement ImplementProjects Projects Performance Performance Figure.

Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 6 of 50 .& Best Practices Best Safety Health & Safety Environment. Practices International & Local International Community safety. performing assets Recommendatio KEMA n. Std. System performance reports Load Load Forecast Forecast Total System & Spatial SupplyCSS Security Load Forecast. Ease of Switching Flexibility Ease of switching & Load & 2030 s LeastCost g Load transfers Transfer Urban Structure SolutionPlan Framework s.1 All the inputs/factors and their consideration while planning is explained in the subsequent sections. Environment Health & Safety 6... Operational flexibility 5. Costs for feasibility studies( Economic feasibility) 8. safety Standards/ Advanced Standards to& be concerns Community concerns Advanced Utility Practices/ addressed. Urban Structure Frame work Plan (Plan Abu Dhabi-2030) 9. Environment Environment. 1.. Operational Operational Concern System System Concern Expansion Operational Plan Abu CostDhabi Plannin Expansion Planning &Operational flexibility. The list of inputs/factors that is being considered for the planning in brief is presented below. How much.3. The future demand to be catered by the system 2. Practice Utility s. Figure.1 depicts the pictorial representation of the major inputs/factors that influence planning. Restoration Duration/ Restoration timing/ Refurbishment Refurbishme Power/Service Power service quality timing/ nt&&under Old Under Quality. Environment. Figure-3. S duration/ Interruption Interruption Where. Power Quality Standards/Guidelines 4. Supply and security Standards 3. Old performing Assets.0 Inputs/Factors for Planning: The planning process is affected/influenced by so many diverse factors. A sincere attempt is made to consider all the factors that affect the planning. Best practices 7.. & When.3.

Over estimation of demand may lead to unnecessary investment in distribution assets.4. Even with the best available information. Geographical information (Where) is very important in the distribution system. In the competitive market such bottlenecks in distribution infrastructure would slow down economic growth and could turn away potential investors. These both extremes are undesirable for the electricity industry and to the overall economy. It is open to the occurrence of the unpredictable events that may vary the consumption pattern with time. The demand forecast is used as a basis for system development. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 7 of 50 . Under estimation of demand may lead to shortages of supply and infrastructure. changes in socio-economic trends. industrial production and the new technological developments that influence the life styles. forecasting by nature is not an exact science. the projection may have to consider these changes into account and possible scenario’s to reflect the same. in addition to the quantity (How much) and timing (When). Prediction of future demand requires an intuitive and wise judgment and calls for revising the estimate at regular intervals (at least yearly) to take care of new policies. Therefore. it is prudent to consider a range of future possibilities that would depend on different scenarios. and also for determining tariffs for the future. It is essential to select an appropriate model (with its associated inputs) that will produce as accurate. Thus. and also on the Governmental policies. The demand for electricity depends on a number of socio-economic factors such as economic growth. The term forecast refers to projected load requirements determined using a systematic process of defining future loads in sufficient quantitative detail to permit important system expansion decisions to be made.0 Load Forecasting: The ability to forecast the demand for electricity is a fundamental prerequisite for the development of a secure and economic power distribution system. robust and understandable forecast as possible.

it produces reasonable results.e. With the trend curve the forecast is obtained by evaluating the trend curve function at the desired future point. uncertainty in the historical data and the uncertainty in the analytical model chosen to describe the underlying growth in load. extrapolating past load growth patterns into future. a. b. Econometric models are Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 8 of 50 . Trend analysis. Such a technique is to be classified as a deterministic extrapolation. If the uncertainty of extrapolated results is to be quantified using statistical entities such as mean and variance. cost.4. End use method. Multivariable regression (Econometric). Some eight to ten standard analytical functions are used in trend curve fitting. such as population. (A) Trend analysis: Trending methods are widely used as a tool for forecasting that works with historical data. The basic draw back of this model is that the projections are based on past trends and do not take it account the policy decisions aimed at changing these trends. d.1 Forecasting Methods: For forecasting the demand for electricity many reliable statistical methods have been developed which are very much effective and efficient in projecting the future demand. the basic technique becomes probabilistic extrapolation. income. The uncertainty arises from two sources i. The statistical models that can be adopted are illustrated as below. Scenario approach. Although it is a very simple procedure. economic growth. c. Trending techniques involve fitting trend curves to basic historical data adjusted to reflect the growth trend itself. These forecasting techniques are widely used for a macro level forecasting by many utilities. since no attempt is made to account for random errors in the data or in the analytical model. (B) Econometric Method: The econometric method determines energy demand by considering the influence of independent variables. industrial & commercial activity and also other socio economic variables.

Input is subjected to many sources of uncertainty including errors of measurement. The most common sensitivity analysis adopted is sampling-based. It attempts to explain observed changes in a dependent variable caused by changes in the independent variables. regression models may have to cope with the natural intrinsic variability of the system. There are several possible procedures to perform sensitivity analysis (SA). Sensitivity analysis is a statistical technique for understanding and analyzing the behavior of complex computerized mathematical models.estimate equations that relate electricity demand to external factors. Multi-variable regression analysis can be used to establish the correlation between selected socio-economic-energy variables and energy consumption data using the past sample data. qualitatively or quantitatively. absence of information and poor or partial understanding of the driving forces and mechanisms. The technique postulates the casual relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variable. to different sources of variation. Further. Initially an extensive list of possible combination exists. An important problem to solve in econometric method is the selection of the correct independent variables. hence a comprehensive Sensitivity Analysis to be carried out to understand the variation in the forecast results for changes in the regression variables. The final model should incorporate all the important explanatory variables. The relation obtained will be then used to estimate the energy consumption data for the future years using the trend/modified trend values for the regression variables for the future years. Sensitivity analysis is the study of how the variation in the output of a model (can be apportioned. In particular. Regression equation modeling is considered as the starting point for econometric research. and the problems arise in choosing the appropriate variables and in estimating how many of them should be included in the final model. This uncertainty imposes a limit on the confidence in the response or output of the regression model. In addition. A sampling-based sensitivity is Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 9 of 50 . it should be simple in order to make it easier to use and interpret.

(C) End-use Technique: The end-use method determines energy demand through total kWh use from all of the electrical appliances used in the households. Other methods are based on the decomposition of the variance of the model output and are model independent. The following outlines the process for SA. as a result. Scenario analysis is a means by which “decision makers understand the uncertainty created by multiple combinations of input factor values. they sometimes investigate the results of scenarios in which combinations of variables are changed”. and kWh use per appliance. The forecast is "built from the sum of end- using activities”.one in which the model is executed repeatedly for combinations of values sampled from the distribution of the input factors. Scenario approach captures the effect of policy changes and other guidelines of the government to meet specific goal or an objective to the energy consumption. In the basic form. SA is performed by executing the model repeatedly for combination of factor values sampled with some probability distribution. residential housing stock or commercial buildings. because the data required for this forecast include: forecast year. The Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 10 of 50 . • Specify the target function and select the input of interest • Assign a distribution function to the selected factors • Generate a matrix of inputs with that distribution through an appropriate design • Evaluate the model and compute the distribution of the target function • Select a method for assessing the influence or relative importance of each input factor on the target function. industrial process data. In general. this model is simple accounting procedure that enumerates the end uses and adds the electricity use for each end use of its components. number of residential customers. End-use models must include kWh consumption data by type of equipment or process. (D) Scenario Based Approach: A scenario is a time–ordered sequence of events bearing cause effect relationship with one another and modeled to simulate a future situation. This method is most readily applied to the residential sector. major appliances.

The pessimistic case shows the probable outcome when nothing goes as expected. If the load is less than 500 kW then it will be directly sent to customer services dept. it is reasonable to select not only the best guess about the future.scenario analysis identifies combinations of inputs. AMD will prepare feasibility report a copy of the approval/conditional approval to DMS will be sent for information. The three cases can be used to estimate the distribution of the input values. 4. The base or expected case is developed from the “best” estimates from the forecast. as a prerequisite. the optimistic case. registered and a unique LDN number is issued. one is from the new load additions and the other is from the growth in the consumption/demand by the existing consumers. The process flow chart has been attached for better understanding of the process. To collect the data pertaining to new load additions by prospective consumers. while the optimistic case shows the results when everything goes better than expected. but also for maximum and minimum possible values so that some range of likely electricity consumption can be forecast. Scenario analysis uses groupings to determine which causes a particular output value to change. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 11 of 50 . and the pessimistic case. The application thereafter is forwarded to Customer Service section wherein all the details are logged into the LDN database. This process enables ADDC to plan the system to cater to these requirements as per LDN.2 Approaches Adopted by ADDC: The growth in demand is attributable mainly to two factors. which lead to output target values. While there are many different types of scenarios. Therefore. The scenario approach emphasis is on the future that is ultimately unknowable. a common arrangement is to compare the base case or the expected case. The base or expected case is not a true expected value. for connection or else it will be forwarded to Asset Management Directorate. because “the expected case can only be determined through probabilistic analysis as the distribution of the input factors has not been considered in the determination of the base case”. ADDC requires the consumers to intimate the new load addition in advance by way of (LDN) Load Demand Notification. The applications are received by an ADDC representative at Municipality.

Start Received application at Municipality by ADDC representative All required details / No Request customer documents to complete the available documentation Yes Register the application and issue LDN No. Forward application to ADDC Head Office (Customer Service Section) Record application in the LDN data base Check < 500 kW Forward to Connected Customer Load Details Services Section Load ≤ 5000 kW Forward to Asset Management Department Receipt of Application at Asset Management A Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 12 of 50 .

3 Calculate Peak • Commercial = 0.4 Demand based on the • Industrial = 0.5 Demand Factor & Co- incidence Factor Demand Factor (A/C Loads) • District Cooling = 0.9 • Other cooling types = 0. LDN Process Flow Chart A All required details No Request customer / documents to complete the available documentation Yes Demand Factor (Non-A/C Loads) • Residential = 0.8 For Bulk Consumers also verify • Size transformer & Circuit the Specific Consumption (W/m2) configuration considered by the consultant • Locate the source • Finalize connectivity • Configuration 1 Transformer = TRM 2 Transformers = QRM > 2 Transformers = HV Panels Prepare SLD (PNDS) & issue for approval to Planning section in PNDD B LDN Process Flow Chart (Continued) Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 13 of 50 .

B No Prepare reinforcement Existing Network scheme to accommodate the adequate to feed load and provide the load? conditional approval Yes Approve SLD Send copy of Approval / Conditional Approval to DMS for information Initiate implementation of the reinforcement scheme Approve LDN Customer approaches ADDC 6 Months prior to completion of his construction activities Forward to Power Network Services / Projects (based on the cost involved) requesting TPD approval & W/O release attaching the following documents Re-approval of SLD has to • Routing Slip be obtained from Planning • GIS drawing indicating the location Section before execution. PNDD .Planning Notes LDN Process Flow Chart (Continued) Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 14 of 50 . of proposed SS Copy to be sent to DMS for • Approved SLD information once again • Approved LDN and • Connectivity Drawing LEGEND Customer Services PNDD – Dev.

K? NO YES Perform Load Forecast for all the areas Prepare Load Forecast Report Load Forecast Methodology Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 15 of 50 . Define Variables Define Functional Relationship between Variables and Load Collect past Data of the Variables Select Model (Best fitting Trend equation) Carry out Regression Analysis Test and Validate Results Are Results O.

Sum of area/sub-station wise peak is to be used to compute regional peak and in turn regional peaks are summed up to give over all system peak. The process flow chart given above explains the process in brief. the projections are done by extrapolation method using an appropriate function that gives best fit on the previous trends (at least 5-years historical data). ADDC is in the process of collecting these relevant data and use it to carryout a more accurate forecasts in the future.3 Reporting requirements for Load Forecast. The prerequisite for this kind of approach is the load research data. simulation and end-use techniques. Such diversity factors are computed from historical information on individual area/substation peak and their respective coincident peak with the system peaks. for all categories of consumers. and considered as 2 years) will be the summation of demand load computed from LDN database. • Brief description on the consumer categories served by ADDC • Brief description on the service area’s geography etc. The total area wise demand forecast for a short term (the time-line up to which confirmed LDN are available. Introduction: • Brief introduction on the load forecasting methodology used. All Mega projects demand will be added on actual to the areas wise/overall load forecast after verifying their projections for specific consumption. by applying appropriate Diversity Factors at area/substation & regional levels. demand-cum-coincidence factor used and time line proposed for expected occupancy/utilization. Due to the limited availability of data currently. Beyond two years. Overall peak loads will also be validated from the system energy and number of consumers forecasts. it is not possible to carryout the forecasting exercise by the other methods such as econometric.ADDC has adopted the trending technique to forecast the area wise demand. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 16 of 50 . 4. The load forecasting report would include the following points 1.

The results to be presented in three cases like optimistic. to include a column to show number of consumers & connected load added year wise • Table/Graph depicting the historical data of the category wise energy sales (from billing section) if not available to present the total energy sales along with the year wise growth rates also to mention the Cumulative Average Growth Rate (CAGR) of energy till date. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 17 of 50 . Historical data: • Table/Graph depicting the historical s/s wise peaks. • Table/Graph depicting the distribution of consumers/loads on each primary substation in the system. Forecast Results: • Peak Demand forecasted for three areas and for total system with assumed coincident factor. 4. assumptions made like Demand Factors. • To present the Cumulative Average Growth Rate (CAGR) of the peak demand till date and percentage growth every year. Existing Network Details: • To include table on the existing substations with the installed and firm capacity area wise. • Table/Graph depicting the historical data on the number of consumers/connected load category wise (Connected load will be more meaning full in case of industrial category). 5. Diversity Factors and actual peak considered for forecasting is a coincident peak or non coincident etc. • Table/Graph for the system load factor 3. • Table/Graph depicting the previous forecasted demand and actual (from the previous planning statement) or to compare the current forecast with any base load forecast done in the past like master plan etc. base or pessimistic scenarios. area wise peak and total system as a whole. To make note on any bulk transfers b/w primaries because this will affect the statistics.2. Forecast Methodology: • Methodology adopted. Also.

Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 18 of 50 . • To calculate the energy based on the peak load or/and vice versa and to validate the load factor considered in calculating the energy or peak. • The forecast to be divided into company forecast ( area wise) and forecast at Transco point of interface.

reliable and economical power system.5. Outage can be restored within the time required to repair or replace the component. Class-B: Demand served by an 11 kV feeder or a distribution substation more than 3000 kVA capacity. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 19 of 50 .1 Supply Security Standard: The planning criterion is established based on the currently accepted security standards. This chapter considers and explains the significance of each and every individual criteria/aspect that is to be taken into consideration while developing the network.0 Planning Criteria: This section broadly outlines the criteria to be followed by the planning section while planning the distribution system configuration. In order to satisfy the standard. Three-hour time frame is the maximum it usually takes to manually re-configure the circuit and isolate the faulty section. 5. Loss of power to this group is either due to low voltage system fault or a distribution transformer failure. the network design will have to have alternative source to which the affected demand could be switched. The planning criteria have been developed based on the standards set by the Regulation and Supervision Bureau (RSB) and the best utility practices that focus on developing and operating a secured.5 to 6 MVA Group Demand within 3 Hours 1/3rd of the Group Demand within 30 C 6 to 30 MVA minutes Group Demand within 3 hours Class-A: Demand that is typically served by a single distribution transformer up to 1500 kVA and smaller.5 MVA Demand within repair time B 1. Class of Range of Group Min Demand to be met after Supply Demand First Circuit Outage A Up to 1. which is as follows.

93 at Consumer end Power Factor ≥0.91 at TRANSCO interface Amplitude <60% V_nom. Voltage Dip (Sag) lasting < 1 Sec.Class-C: This group demand typically includes the load on a primary substation or a 33 kV feeder. Max. 519) C: Voltage Unbalance.7 V_nom Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 20 of 50 . Planning Limit: Voltage Level THD Limits 400 V 5% 6. 11 kV & 20 kV 4% 22 kV to 400 kV 3% (Note: Shall be updated as per IEEE Std. Fluctuation Some cases higher value could be accepted. The 30 minutes allowed reflects the time required to restore part of the lost demand by local manual or remote switching.2 Power Quality Standards/Guidelines: A: Voltage Levels: Nominal Voltage Normal Operations Contingency (N-1) 33 kV ±5% ±10% 22 kV ±5% ±10% 11 kV ±5% ±10% 400 V* ±10% n/a *as per IEC 38 requirements B: THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) Max. Max. Max. An outage affecting this group could be caused by a transformer failure or 11 kV bus failures. over voltages & PF Indicator Targeted Value ≤ 2% ( at PCC) Max. In order to satisfy this security standard the network design would have to have alternative source to which the affected group could be switched because primary substation equipment cannot be repaired or replaced in 3 hours time frame. Over voltages ≤1. Voltage Unbalance ≤ 1. The standard requires one-third of the load affected by such an outage to be restored within 30 minutes and the entire affected load in 3 hours.6 kV. Temp.3 ( at individual loads) ≤ 3% (depending upon the rate of occurrence.0 and Plt ≤ 0. 5. Flickering Pst ≤1. Fluctuation. Dip.8 ≥0.

total Abu Dhabi Emirates has been divided in to three planning zones: 1.3 presents the detailed map of Abu Dhabi Island. 6. Abu Dhabi Island is densely populated area with skyscrapers and hub for major commercial activities in the Emirates. Drawing 6. population. However. Eastern region and western region. As the feeders are not very long.0 Design Philosophy: It is mandatory for any planner to know the geography of the planning area and its load density. Eastern region and western region is comparatively less populated and dispersed. load characteristics and developmental/growth avenues. influenced planning in a big way. the load densities are very high with expected high demand growth whereas in rural area the load growth is low and dispersed over a very large area. Drawing 6. The planning philosophy has been categorized as applicable to rural and urban areas. Urban areas would require large capacity substations and a number of distribution substations within a very small reach. Western Region (WR). Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 21 of 50 . 2.4 presents the entire map of Abu Dhabi Emirate. its geography. locating a suitable substation plot and the required route corridor for cable circuits is challenge and therefore. voltage regulation is not a constraint in urban areas and invariably loading of an asset is a limitation. load density. On the basis of geographical dispersion and also load densities.1 to 6. Eastern Region (ER). In urban areas. land usage and load density etc. Abu Dhabi Island (ADI). 3. The planning exercise begins with understanding the area. Each area load characteristics depicts its own traits in terms peak load. Eastern region is a mix of high density and low density load whereas western region is predominantly a low density typical rural load.

Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 22 of 50 . The general practice adopted in reactive power compensation for the primary substations is to provide the compensation up to 30% of the transformer capacity. Two transformers will be operated in parallel as depicted in drawing 6. the 33 kV sub-transmission (low firm capacity) is not an economical option and therefore. The standard substation capacity/configuration of 132/11 kV substation is as depicted in the Table below: The reactive power compensation is provided at the 11 kV bus of the primary substations. Due to high load density. • Maintains the power factor to the desired level (0. Incase of failure of one transformer three transformers will be operated in parallel and this is presented in drawing 6. All existing 33/11kV substation in high density areas would be slowly phased out and replaced with 132/11kV system. 4. not recommended.1 Urban Area: Abu Dhabi Island comprises of highly dense load. 2. The compensation at the 11 kV bus of the primary substations will have the following advantage: • Effective/Optimal usage of the transformation assets as the transformers will carry less reactive power and can carry more active power when compared.5. the planning for Abu Dhabi Island is being done by adopting 132/11 kV system. Hence. The operation philosophy of the 132/11 kV substation is as follows: 1.6B. • Reduced system losses in the system. 3.6A-& 6. • Better voltage regulation (reduced voltage drop) as the transformer will carry less reactive power. Auto re-closer facility to close the bus couplers in the event of outage/failure of one transformer.6. The Reactive power compensation to be provided in the primary substation as standard is presented in the table given below.5 –B.91). 11 kV system will be operated in radial (open ring) as depicted in drawing 6.

415 kV Vector Group Dyn11 MVAR Rating 48 MVAR (4x12 MVAR) 3 Capacitor bank kV Rating 12 kV Vector Group Y Type GIS Continuous Current 2500 A Rating 11 kV Bus 4 Rated Breaking Capacity couplers/Incomer 31. Standard 132/11 kV Substation Configuration SN Equipment description Rating/specs Value Rating 40 MVA Total S/S Capacity 160 MVA (4 x 40 MVA) FIRM Capacity 120 MVA 1 Transformer 132/11 kV Impedance % Z 25% Number of Taps 24 for Step of 1. O/C.C Withstanding 31. REF.C Withstanding 31.C Withstanding 31.5 kA for 3 Sec Capability Fire fighting equipments Automatic fixed water 7 -- for transformer spray systems Standard Protection Differential.5 kA (Icn) S. Existing configuration in many areas are having switching station with an express feeder.5 kA for 3 Sec Capability Type GIS Continuous Current 630/1200 A Rating 11 kV outgoing feeder 5 Rated Breaking Capacity Breakers 31.25% Vector Group YNYNO Type of Cooling ONAF Rating 1500/1000 kVA Station Transformer 2 Impedance % Z 6% 11/0.5 kA (Icn) S. The maximum loading on each feeder will be limited to 50% of its rated capacity.5 kA for 3 Sec Capability Type GIS Continuous Current 2500 A 6 Bus Bar -11 kV Rating S. This architecture though is efficient Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 23 of 50 . U/V and df/dt 11 kV Feeder Configuration: Open-loop ring configuration with two feeders interconnected from the same substation (different bus sections) or two different substations. U/F. 8 -- functions E/F.

CU. In any case. 11/0.7 MW). ADDC approach would be to continue with exiting circuits and replace with a ring configuration as and when a new substation is commissioned in the area. as applicable.4 kV Distribution Substations: The number of Distribution transformers that can be connected to the 11 kV feeders / ring will depend on the connected kVA. Cu. poses operational challenges and may not cater to some extreme contingencies. which can carry up to 335 Amps (5. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 24 of 50 . XLPE will be used as the main cable. mm. mm. Following Demand Factor (DF) may normally be used to compute expected peak demand for a Distribution Substation. while using lower sized cable in the down stream legs of the ring. Underground Cables existing 3x240 Sq mm . The Demand Factors for different class of customers to be arrived. 11 kV Feeder size: The underground cable of 3Cx300 Sq. 300 sq. ADDC is proposing to carry out a comprehensive study to validate/revise the demand factor and diversity factors that to be used for sizing of the equipment. it should be ensured that extreme N-1 contingency is complied with for all possible ring loading scenario. SN Description Size Rating Underground cables (First 2 / 3 3Cx300 Sq mm. would be driven by the ring configuration and the number of substations proposed per ring.in terms of cable utilization. 1 legs of the ring) all new 335A* XLPE developments. CU. 3 270 A* legs of the ring) XLPE * Site Ratings Note: Choice of lower sized cable in the third leg or beyond. based on the load research. in order to utilize the full substation firm capacity. XLPE Al Cable can also be used from third leg and beyond to bring down the initial investments.CU 2 300A* system XLPE Underground cables (further 3Cx185 Sq. mm.

as a Standard. Type of Load Factor Non-AC loads: Residential = 0.4 AC –Loads: District Cooling = 0. Distribution Transformer: In order to have an optimum inventory and spares.4 Industrial = 0. in the network: i) 1500 kVA ii) 1000 kVA iii) 500 kVA The distribution transformers shall be hermetically sealed corrugated fully filled with oil rather than the conventional transformers with the conservators. irrespective of the size of the transformer. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 25 of 50 .1 (Coincidence Factor=0.5 Mixed Use = 0.4 kV Distribution Substation configuration: A typical RMU based substation located in a typical 11 kV loop will comprise of the following: i) Ring Main Unit (TRM / QRM).9) may be used to compute overall loading of a ring.9 Other types of Cooling = 0. iii) LV distribution Board. *Recommended number of distribution substations per SN feeder/loop ( Assuming 100% Transformer loading ) 1500 kVA 1000 kVA 500 kVA 1 4 6 12 * Number of transformers/ substations in a feeder/ring can be increased depending upon the expecting maximum loading on each transformer.3 Commercial = 0.8 Additionally. ii) Distribution Transformer(s). a Diversity Factor of 1. 11/0. it is proposed to use the following Distribution Transformer sizes.

7 presents the standard electrical substation configuration of typical Distribution Substation. No. R3) ii) RMU (TRM) based 11/0.: AMD-PND-0116. Capacity (kVA) (Amps) (Amps) /Amps) 1 1500 2700 2700 10 / 630 2 1000 1800 1800 8 / 630 3 500 900 900 6 / 630 The incomers will be off-load isolator and the outgoing will be Fuse based. a combined LVDB will be installed with two (2) bus-sections with bus- section isolator. All distribution substations should be accessible to ADDC O&M staff on 24 Hrs basis and connected to the main road. No. R3) LV Distribution Boards (LDB): Following standard capacities will be utilized in the network: Outgoing Distribution Bus Bar Incomer Fuse Ways / SN Transformer Rating Rating Rating (No. closer to the load point. in case of a failure of one of the transformers and also during periodic maintenance.: AMD-PND- 0115. R3) iii) RMU (QRM) based 11/0. loading of each bus-section will be restricted to a demand of 3. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 26 of 50 .Drawing 6.4 kV Distribution Substation (Dwg. In order to reduce the cost of construction and have faster completion period. It’s recommended to have substation with TRM configuring only for public distribution system. Regarding the configuration of the distribution substation.0 MVA. unless high load density justifies installation of QRM.4 kV Distribution Substation (Dwg. it has been decided to utilize the GRP based enclosures as follows: i) RMU (TRM) based 11/0. This interconnection facility at the LV level will result in additional security of supply. No.0 MVA and sectionalizing arrangement shall be provided for any load demand exceeding 3.4 kV Package Unit (Dwg.: AMD-PND- 0114. In case of QRM substations.

LDN is submitted along with all other relevant information for further processing by the customer to Customer Service Directorate. The RTU for remote will be powered by auxiliary supply of 24 V DC. Voltage Drop: Voltage drop calculations will be computed for all 11 kV proposals made. Voltage drop will not be an issue normally in an urban network. The Feeder rating would be 630 Amps and the Transformer Circuit Breaker rating would be 200 Amps. a sample copy of LDN is attached in the end of the section. Low Voltage Distribution: Low voltage distribution planning is also a very crucial activity for a power utility. The receipt of Load Demand Notification LDN initiates the process of LV Planning. The RMUs shall have a standard switch for incomer and outgoing feeders and circuit breaker (vacuum) for the transformer feeder. The voltage drop of 5% is acceptable for any proposals being prepared and if the voltage regulation is more than that the proposal will to be revised to restrict to 5% voltage regulation in 11 kV system. New generation RMUs available in the market that can be programmed for automatic open close operation to reduce the interruption duration are recommended for use in VIP areas and other essential loads. The voltage drop in a distribution lines/cables will be reduced by using the better size conductor and proposing the substations at an optimum location.Ring Main Unit (RMU): The RMUs shall be of SF6 type. The RMU and RTU shall be interfaced through a stand alone marshalling panel. The nearest feeding point would be identified from which the new load can be fed. Loading of all the associated elements along with upstream elements would be verified and possible impact of addition of new load on to the network would be Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 27 of 50 . The RMUs will have the facility to monitor and control from remote. which will be part of the RTU panel. The RMUs will be fitted with Self powered numerical O/C and E/F Relay. This calculation will determine the percentage voltage regulation to supply demand load to a given distance with particular conductor. The planning/design process adopted at present is explained below.

4. The Feeding Scheme prepared to supply electricity to new consumer would consider the following: 1. In few cases where there are no sources nearby and the load has to be fed from a farthest sources then the cable will be upgraded to the next size to increase the transfer capability.8. 5. The typical distribution system single line diagram is depicted in Drawing 6. if required. If there is no space or spare capacity available in the nearby feeder pillar then a new feeder pillar will be proposed. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 28 of 50 . The maximum cable distance from the substation to feeder pillar to be restricted to 150-200 meters and 100 meters from feeder pillar to service turret. The proposed feeder pillar box would be proposed/designed in such a way that the LV system would be reconfigured and rearranged to avoid future overloading on the system and also to facilitate additional new connections in future from these feeder pillars. Based on the experience and restricting the cable lengths as mentioned above the voltage drop will be contained but as an improvement in the process it is proposed to include the voltage drop calculations in the feeding scheme prepared for all the submitted LDNs. It is ensured that the new added load is not going to over load any of the upstream elements. Distribution substation with 2 x 1500/1000/500 kVA Distribution Transformer 2. 10/8/6 numbers of outgoing feeders for 1500/1000/500 kVA transformer capacity substation.identified.4 and coincident factor of 0. At present the voltage drop calculation is not performed for each and every individual feeding schemes.9 is considered to decide the ratings. The cable ratings are decided based on the standard current carrying capacity mentioned by the manufacturer however it is proposed to consider a suitable de- rating factor for the cables when deciding the cable size in future. 3. The recorded peak load of the distribution transformer and associated feeder pillar would be extracted from the database (Reflex Information System) where the phase wise peak load details are available. Demand factor of 0. A Typical Standard Distribution system would consists of the following 1. 2. minimize voltage drop and loses to an extent. Loading will further be revalidated with the help of field staff. 6.

Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 29 of 50 . 4. 3 or 2 numbers of 20 MVA transformers. In some cases where the load is very small and located remotely. the load will be catered through a conventional 33/11 kV system. suitably sized 33/11kV packages units can be used initially and replaced by permanent 33/11kV substation as the load grows.P 6. The standard recommended practice is to use substations with 4.P 4 Core 70 Sq mm Used for outgoing feeders from F. The feeder Pillars will be of 800/1600 Amps capacity.1000 & 500 kVA 2 Nos. transformer Feeder 1600 A 2 incomers and 9 out going feeders 2 Pillars 800 A 2 incomers and 8 out going feeders 4 Core 240 Sq mm Used for feeding F.P from S/S 3 LV Cables 4 Core 120 Sq mm Used for outgoing feeders from F. 3.P would be 8 feeders and 9 numbers for 1600 Amps F. The compensation at the 11 kV bus of the primary substations in the rural areas will have additional benefits other than effective/optimal usage of the transformation assets: • Helps the system to maintain the voltage stability especially in the case of primary substations with auto tap changing facility and fed by long radial lines in the system. of Dist. The substation transformation capacity will be decided based on the expected load.P. Typically 5/4/3 numbers of feeder pillars would be used in 1500/1000/500 kVA transformer capacity substation. The standard equipments ratings used in LV distribution system are as follows: Standard Equipments Specifications/Ratings used in LV distribution SN Equipment Ratings/Specification Remarks Distribution 1 1500. The reactive power compensation is provided at the 11 kV bus of the primary substations.P from S/S 4 Core 185 Sq mm Used for feeding F.2 Rural Area: In some part of eastern and western region the loads are distributed over large area. Transformer per S/S. Due to the low load density. The number of outgoing feeders for an 800 Amps rating F.

5 kA for 3 Sec 11 kV Type Gas(SF6) or Air Insulated outgoing Continuous Current Rating 630 Amps 7 feeder Rated Breaking Capacity (Icn) 31.5 kA Breakers S.C Withstanding Capability 31. • Can contain the voltage drop and improves the voltage profile in the rural distribution system.C Withstanding Capability 31.C Withstanding Capability 31.5/1.5 kA S.41 kV Vector Group Dyn11 MVAR Rating 24 MVAR for 4 x 6 MVAR Capacitor 3 kV Rating 12 kV bank Vector Group Y Type Gas(SF6) or Air Insulated 33 kV Continuous Current Rating 2500 Amps 4 Breaker.C Withstanding Capability 31.step of 1.4/3/2 x 20 Total S/S Capacity MVA Transformer FIRM Capacity 60/40/20 MVA 1 33/11 kV Impedance % Z 12.C Withstanding Capability 31.5 kA for 3 sec Type Air Insulated Bus Bar -11 9 Continuous Current Rating 2500 Amps kV S.25% Vector Group Dyn11 Type of Cooling ONAF Station Rating 2 x 1.0 MVA 2 Transformer Impedance % Z 6% 11/0.5 kA for 3 Sec Type Gas(SF6) or Air Insulated 11 kV Bus Continuous Current Rating 2500 Amps 6 couplers Rated Breaking Capacity (Icn) 31.0 % Number of Taps 20.type Rated Breaking Capacity (Icn) 31.5 kA for 3 Sec Type Gas(SF6) or Air Insulated 33 kV Bus Continuous Current Rating 2500 Amps 5 couplers Rated Breaking Capacity (Icn) 31.C Withstanding Capability 31.5 kA S.5 kA for 3 sec Fire fighting Automatic fixed water spray 10 equipments -- systems for Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 30 of 50 .5 kA for 3 Sec Type Gas Insulated 8 Bus Bar-33 kV Continuous Current Rating 1600 Amps S.5 kA S. Standard 33/11 kV Substation Configuration Equipment SN Rating/Specifications Value Description Rating 20 MVA 80/60/40 MVA.

11 Protection -- E/F. Standard 33/11 kV Substation Configuration Equipment SN Rating/Specifications Value Description transformer Standard Differential for REF. Incase of failure of one transformer three transformers will be operated in parallel. 3.O/C. The following conductors will be used as a standard for 11 kV feeders in rural areas.415 Package units/Ground based substations Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 31 of 50 . Incase of failure of one transformer the other transformers will take the entire load 7.Spur 398 A** Ash ** Tropical Ratings Some of the remotely located loads that cannot be fed by 11 kV feeders due to the distance involved and voltage drop problems will be fed by using 33/0. Auto bus-coupler closing facility to close the bus couplers in the event of outage one transformer. 33/0. In case of 2x 20 MVA substations the transformers will be operated in radial. mm. Two transformers will be operated in parallel (in 3 x 20 MVA S/S) substation. 5.U/F. The design philosophy for the 11 kV distribution systems will be similar to the guidelines presented in the previous section except the major portion of the network would be of over head type. The auto-recloser facility will be provided for long 11 kV over head lines in the rural areas to close the line after a transient/ temporary fault. 8. mm AAAC 1 Overhead Line .U/V and df/dt functions The operation philosophy of the 33/11 kV substation is as follows: 1. AAAC 2 Over Head Line .415 kV transformers of appropriate capacity. 11 kV system will operated in radial (open ring) (refer drawing). 4. SN Description Size Rating 200 sq.Main 473 A** Poplar 150 Sq. 6. 2. Two transformers will be operated in parallel (in 4 x 20 MVA S/S) substation. Incase of failure of one transformer two transformers will continue to operate in parallel.

The over head lines are susceptible to Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 32 of 50 . Cu. mm..10-A. Most of the substations would be fed by over head lines in rural areas where the loads are spread out across wide geographical area. Drawing 6. The pole mounted transformers (250/315 kVA) are mainly used to feed the small loads that are typically found in the remote rural areas. meaning that in case of failure of one of the feeds. 33 kV Feeder configuration: SN Description Criteria Three (3) 1 Substation with 3 transformers feeders 2 Substation with 2 or 1 transformer(s) Two (2) feeders 33 kV Feeder Size: SN Description Size Rating 1 Underground cables 3Cx300 Sq. AAAC.(630. mm. the healthy feeders should be capable of feeding the firm capacity of the substation/ without overloading. Drawing 6.9 and Drawing 6. XLPE 335A* 2 Overhead Line 240 Sq. The 33 kV system configuration for a substation with 3 transformers is presented in the Drawing 6.11 and Drawing 6. The 33/0. Poplar 473A** 4 Overhead Line 250 sq mm . ** Tropical Ratings The capacity of the above underground cable and the overhead line conductor is around 20 MVA after considering possible de-rating. mm. 33 kV Feeders: The decision to determine the number of feeds at 33 kV for a 33/11 kV substation is based on the N-1 security criteria.10 and Drawing 6. ACSR 360A* 3 Overhead Line 200 sq.415 kV pole mounted transformers will be fed from a nearest 33 kV source by a tap off arrangement.9-A presents the system configuration for a 33/11 kV substation with 4 transformers. 1000 & 1500 kVA) are to be used to feed the loads that are very remotely located relatively better load concentration. AAAC Sycamore 547A** * Site Ratings.11-A presents the system configuration for a 33/11 kV substation with 2 transformers.

distance (as a standard) to isolate the faulty portion of the line in the event of a fault. it is preferred that the entire length of 33 kV line would be of Silicon rubber insulators as the incremental cost between the two options has narrowed down due to the new manufacturing techniques and wide spread use of polymer insulators. Normally. The same would be adopted for all the new designs. Sectionalizers to be installed at every 5 kms.frequent tripping due to transient faults and performance/reliability can be greatly improved by giving a due consideration to the design of the 33 kV OHL on the following: 1. the same needs to be studied with respect to each line tap-offs. Silicon rubber insulators to replace the conventional porcelain insulators in costal areas and where the insulators are subjected to high level of pollution and humidity. 5. 3. and high wind velocity and in the middle of desert with likely formation of sand dunes that can impact ground clearances. large vegetation. 7. Auto bus-coupler closing facility to close (Charge) the line after a transient fault from a remote end will also be part of the 33 kV line design. The poles that are normally used in 33 kV OHL design is iron poles and the grounding of these poles is by running a separate ground wire through out the length of the line and grounding at each and every pole to limit the resistance to 5 ohms as per the standard practice. 6. 4. Fault locators to be installed at regular intervals to avoid extensive patrolling to identify the faults and for quick restoration. The creepage distance for 33 kV line will be as per the standard practice of 50mm/kV 2. Insulated conductors to be used in areas where the lines are susceptible to corrosion. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 33 of 50 . However.

25% *Vector Group YNyno(d) Type of Cooling ONAF Rating 1500/1000 kVA Station Transformer 2 Impedance % Z 6% 22/0.5 kA Capability 7 Fire fighting equipments Automatic fixed water -- Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 34 of 50 . The standard substation capacity/configuration of 132/22 kV substation is as depicted in the table given below. The mega development projects are of self contained developments that demand for a dedicated substation for feeding the loads.C Withstanding 31. have been planned with 132/22 kV substation configuration only to cater to such development on stand alone basis.5 kA for 3 Sec Capability Type GIS Continuous Current 2500 A 6 Bus Bar -22 kV Rating S. Standard 132/22 kV substation configuration SN Equipment description Rating/Specifications Value Rating 80 MVA Total S/S Capacity 320 MVA FIRM Capacity 240 MVA 1 Transformer 132/22 kV *Impedance % Z 25% *Number of Taps 24 for Step of 1.41 kV Vector Group Dyn11 MVAR Rating 48 MVAR.5 kA Capacity (Icn) S.C Withstanding 31. 4 x 12 MVAR 3 Capacitor bank kV Rating 24 Vector Group Y Type GIS Continuous Current 2500 A Rating 4 22 kV Bus coupler/Incomer Rated Breaking 31. All the mega developments that are expected to have a very high load density.C Withstanding 31.5 kA for 3 Sec Capability Type GIS Continuous Current 630/1200 A Rating 22 kV outgoing feeder 5 Rated Breaking Breaker 31.3 Mega Projects: There are a number of mega projects that have been planned in the Emirate.6.5 kA Capacity (Icn) S.

However.U/F. each 22kV ring will be able to carry a load up 13 MVA and larger sized transformer up to 3000kVA with appropriate % impedance to contain fault level to design 50kA at LV switchgear.U/V and df/dt * Parameters as per the tender document of TRANSCO The operation philosophy of the 132/22 kV substation is as follows: 1. The design philosophy for the 22 kV distribution systems will be similar to what has been presented in the previous section for urban area 11kV system. 7. Incase of failure of one transformer. 4. 8 -- functions E/F. Standard 132/22 kV substation configuration SN Equipment description Rating/Specifications Value for transformer spray systems Standard Protection Differential.0 System Improvement Works: Apart from planning the system to cater to the future demand it is necessary to identify the requirements of the system for improvement/augmentation to enhance the system performance. O/C. Auto bus-coupler closing facility to close the bus couplers in the event of outage one transformer. 2. The reliability indices along with the other parameters would be monitored continuously by the planning team to identify the reasons for outage or deviation in the supply standards. it may deviate from those criteria during the actual operation due to some other factor or changes in reference conditions. 3. Based on such inputs. three transformers will be operated in parallel. would be used. The system performance reports with the reliability indices published regularly would give the information about such bottle necks in the system affecting the reliability/security of supply. system augmentation/expansion would be proposed to improve the system performance. Two transformers will be operated in parallel. REF. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 35 of 50 . 22 kV system will operate in radial (open loop) and DMS controlled. Although the system is already designed to meet such criteria/guide lines in the beginning.

risk analysis for each project will be performed. depending upon the area plan. This approach would be adopted till a comprehensive risk analysis methodology to be defined in the future releases of this document. Projects associated with positive NPVs represent net savings for the organization and will be considered viable. Moderate or Low. There are many projects of strategic importance and therefore may not be viable on stand alone basis. Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 36 of 50 .0 Aged Asset Replacement: The scheduled asset replacement to be a part of the plan and all the assets that has surpassed their useful life has to be replaced in time. 10. The detailed and comprehensive risk analysis is a quite involved task and also time consuming. The risk is part of any business and it needs to be addressed for better understanding and to promote preparedness for such eventualities. The exact quantification of the risk on a prescribed/predefined scale requires expertise and time.0 Economic Feasibility Study: Normally economic feasibility study will be carried out for each and every project/proposals and ranked for inclusion in the 5-year planning statement. 9. The cash inflow will be normally calculated based on the energy charges (economic cost).8. so that the equipments if possible may be upgraded to higher capacity instead of replacing it. As part of the risk management process. as described in the table given blow. The NPV method is adopted in establishing the feasibility of a project. operation and maintenance costs for the entire life span and the interest rates on the capital investment. A well structured asset replacement plan integrated with expansion plan would optimize overall costs increases and the reliability and availability of the equipments.0 Risk Analysis: Risk Analysis is the science of risks and their probability and evaluation/quantification. as applicable. The schedule replacements for the future (5 years) will be identified in advance and incorporated in the 5-yaer planning statement. Hence a simple format has been designed to list the probable risks with the probable weight for each risk like High. When the asset is not replaced right in time may pose threat to the system integrity and may fail catastrophically in the future due to increased demand on the equipment. The NPV (Net Present Value) method considers the initial capital investment.

5 Poor quality of supply Over all risk involved H/M/L Risks in the event of acceptance & implementation of the proposals/ project 1 Uncertainty of the expected load H/M/L H/M/L H/M/L 2 Under utilization of the asset 3 Financial/cost implications. Risk Analysis for a Project Frequency Total SN Potential risks Probability of Risk occurrence Risks in the event of Rejection/Delay in implementation of the Proposals/ Project 1 Inability to meet the expected demand/ load H/M/L H/M/L H/M/L 2 Reduction in Reliability of the system 3 Not meeting Strategic Company objectives 4 Increased in Losses. if any Over all risk involved H/M/L H: High. M: Moderate. L: Low Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (ver-01) Page 37 of 50 .

3%Z 17. I/C-1 I/C-2 I/C-3 I/C-4 132 kV 132 kV Bus: 1650A.5 Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 38 of 50 . 132/11 kV 132/11 kV 40 MVA 40 MVA DYn11 DYn11 17.5 kA. 31. 3 sec NC NO NC NO 11 kV * * S Drawing 6.5 kA.3%Z 11 kV Bus: 2500A.5 P 12 12 S 12 12 S A M M T M M T R V V N V V N E A A T A A T R R R R R R Drawing 6. 31.

5 kA. 31. 31. 132/11 kV 132/11 kV 40 MVA 40 MVA Transformer DYn11 DYn11 out of service 17.3 %Z 11 kV Bus: 2500A.5 -B Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 39 of 50 . I/C-1 I/C-2 I/C-3 I/C-4 132 kV 132 kV Bus: 1650A.3 %Z 17.5 -B S P 12 12 S 12 12 S A M M T M M T R V V N V V N E A A T A A T R R R R R R Drawing 6.5 kA. 3 sec 11 kV NC CLOSE NC NO * * Drawing 6.

I/C-1 Trf. Trf.5 kA. 31. I/C-3 Trf. 3 sec 11 kV NC NO NC * * NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 8 Rings 8 Rings Drawing 6.6A Drawing 6.6A Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 40 of 50 . I/C-2 Trf. I/C-4 11 kV Bus: 5000A.

3 sec * * NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO NO 12 Rings Drawing 6. I/C-1 Trf.5 kA. 31. Trf. I/C-3 11 kV NC 11 kV Bus: 5000A. I/C-2 Trf.6B Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 41 of 50 .

7 Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 42 of 50 . I/C-1 I/C-2 11 kV Bus: 25 kA.415 kV BUS 50 kA.415 kV DYn11 6%Z Station Cubicle DB Station Cubicle DB 32 A Off Load Isolators 32 A 0. 1 sec Fused Switch (HRC) 400 A LV out going Feeders LV out going Feeders Drawing 6. 1 sec 11 kV 11/0.

Demand. L V SUPPLY SCHEME LS LS RING MAIN UNIT FS 80 A 1500 KVA Tr.<= Incomer fuse rating or 80 – 85% of the connected load Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 43 of 50 Drawing 6.8 . LVDB (8 Way) Off Load Isolator 400 A (each) 4 way mini pillar Link Consumers’ MDB/Meter Cabinet 100 A (each) 50-185 sq mm MCCB Max.

300 sq mm XLPE Cable XLPE Cable XLPE Cable NC NO NC 33 kV 33/11 kV 33/11 kV 33/11 kV 20 MVA 20 MVA 20 MVA Dyn11 Dyn11 Dyn11 12% Z 12% Z 12% Z 11 kV * * NC NO NC NO Drawing 6.300 sq mm 3c.300 sq mm 3c. Incomer-1 Incomer-2 Incomer-3 Incomer-4 33 kV Bus Bar-1 33 kV Bus Bar-2 Bus Coupler 3c.9 Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 44 of 50 .

9-A Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 45 of 50 .300 sq mm 3c. 300 sq mm 3c. Incomer-1 Incomer-2 Incomer-3 Incomer-4 33 kV Bus Bar-1 33 kV Bus Bar-2 Bus Coupler 3c.300 sq mm XLPE Cable XLPE Cable XLPE Cable Outage of 33 kV Incomer due to fault NC NC 33 kV Close 33/11 kV 33/11 kV 33/11 kV 20 MVA 20 MVA 20 MVA Dyn11 Dyn11 Dyn11 12% Z 12% Z 12% Z 11 kV * * NC NO NC Close Drawing 6.

10 Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 46 of 50 . 300 sq mm 3C. Incomer-1 Incomer-2 Incomer-3 33 kV Bus Bar-1 33 kV Bus Bar-2 Bus Coupler 3C. 300 sq mm XLPE Cable XLPE Cable NC NO 33 kV 33/11 kV 33/11 kV 20 MVA 20 MVA 20 MVA 20 MVA DYn11 DYn11 12 %Z 12 %Z 11 kV * * NC NO NO Drawing 6.

300 sq mm 3C. 300 sq mm XLPE Cable XLPE Cable Outage of one 33 kV Incomer due to Fault Close NC NO 33 kV 33/11 kV 33/11 kV Transformer 20 MVA 20 MVA 20 MVA out of 20 MVA DYn11 service DYn11 12 %Z 12 %Z 11 kV * * NC Close NO Drawing 6. Incomer-1 Incomer-2 Incomer-3 33 kV Bus Bar-1 33 kV Bus Bar-2 Bus Coupler 3C.10-A Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 47 of 50 .

300 sq mm XLPE Cable NO 33 kV 33/11 kV 20 MVA DYn11 12%Z 11 kV NO Drawing 6.11 Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 48 of 50 . Incomer -1 Incomer -2 33 kV Bus Bar-1 33 kV Bus Bar-2 Bus Coupler 3C.

300 sq mm to Fault XLPE Cable NO 33 kV Transformer 33/11 kV out of 20 MVA service DYn11 12%Z 11 kV Close Drawing 6.1 Incomer . Incomer .11-A Planning Criteria & Design Philosophy (Ver-01) Page 49 of 50 .2 33 kV Bus Bar-1 33 kV Bus Bar-2 Bus Coupler Outage of one 33 kV Incomer due 3C.