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**DISCRETE WAVELET TRANSFORM
**

Veerapandiyan V Mary D Vignesh R

M.E – Power System Professor M.E- PED

GCT, Coimbatore GCT, Coimbatore VIT, Chennai.

veerapandian220@gmail.com

**Abstract: This paper proposes a new technique, currents. Many high impedance fault detection
**

based on the application of discrete wavelet algorithms have been proposed, some of them

transform (DWT) for detecting high impedance include wavelet transform, artificial neural

networks, fuzzy inference system etc. Reference [3]

faults (HIF) in the electrical power system

proposed a decision tree based methodology for

networks. The phase current waveforms during high impedance fault detection in the power system

normal and fault conditions are decomposed network. Reference [4] proposed a method for high

using DWT which converts time domain current impedance fault detection using morlet wavelet

signals into time-frequency domain current approach. Reference [5] proposed a use of ground

signals. The features extracted using DWT fault indicator for high resistance grounded system

during high impedance fault conditions and but that proves inapplicable for multigrounded

networks.

other power system disturbances helps to

The signal processing investigation on the

discriminate the high impedance faults in the resulted signals from power systems, considering

power system networks. The proposed technique every power system condition leads to develop

is implemented in a simple MV network and in a algorithms based on time and frequency domain,

feeder network to discriminate high impedance which would improve the detection of high

faults from other faults. The results are impedance faults in the power system networks.

validated using Simpower System in MATLAB. Another problem associated is that high impedance

faults and capacitor switching are unable to

Keywords: Discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discriminate. The proposed methodology proves to

be a better solution.

High impedance fault (HIF).

This paper proposes a new methodology

by the application of DWT to detect HIFs and

1. INTRODUCTION

discriminate them from normal transient switching

operations. The data signals used in validation

The detection of high impedance faults on process for HIFs and from some normal transient

electrical power system networks has been one of operations. These data can be obtained from

the most persistent and difficult problems faced by simulations of electrical power system network

the electric utility industry. Over the years, using Simpower System blockset of MATLAB.

conventional protection schemes has been used to

detect and to protect against the low impedance 2. METHODOLOGY

fault currents in the electric power system networks

where only the small resistance limits the flow of The proposed method to detect HIFs from

fault current. However, when the resistance of other power system faults consists of two stages. At

a first stage, the current signals obtained from the

power system network are decomposed using

the fault path is very high and therefore the fault discrete wavelet transform and standard deviation

current cannot be easily recognized, it is called a for each decomposed level is obtained. The feature

high impedance fault. A high impedance fault extracted is used for classifying HIFs from other

occurs when a still energised conductor makes power system faults. The proposed technique is

unwanted electrical contact with the ground. A implemented on the medium voltage network and a

problem with high impedance fault is that they tend distribution feeder network.

to exhibit not only low fault currents but also

random behaviour. High impedance faults produce 3. WAVELET TRANSFORM

current levels in the 0 to 50 ampere range.

Typically, a HIF exhibits arcing and flashing at the The application of WT is divided in three

point of contact. High impedance faults are in main groups:

general difficult to detect by conventional methods

such as distance or overcurrent relays. This is due i. Denoising process of current signals.

to relay insensitivity to very low level fault ii. Signal decomposition.

The implementation is done either by command line functions or by WT (a. The frequency components of the signal. low frequency significant information that can represent the components and details are low scale. Continuouswavelet transform (CWT) and (1) discrete wavelet transform are widely used wavelet transform techniques.1. necessary. It allows the decomposition of signal Daubechies 4 (db4) is used as mother wavelet and at different levels of resolution. the process of feature extraction consists on discontinuities. in signal decomposes through two complementary each frequency band. This decomposition is further iterated with successive discriminate high impedance faults. Usually the time domain current signal information alone is not sufficient for analysing purposes. Feature extraction. so that large windows are used to obtain the low frequency components and small appropriate for power system fault analysis. Wavelet Resolution . This is called Multi level of variation of signal frequency distribution. reduce the number of wavelet coefficients to the minimum still preserving all information of the m m function. k) = 1 the signals by using DWT the following parameters ∗∑ ¿ should be specified: √ a 0m n i. In this windows are used to obtain to reflect paper. Fig. is chosen to be extracted to filters and emerges as two signals. high fundamental characteristics of the problem. The wavelet transform of a continuous signal x(t) is defined by. b) = 1/ √ a * ∫ X ( t )∗g ( t− ba ) dt ∞ graphical interactive tools. a=a0m and b=na0m. Wavelet basis type and translation parameters a and b are functions of an integer parameter m. The wavelet resolution is shown in figure 1. Continuous wavelet transform is highly redundant transform as its Where a and b are the scaling and translational wavelet coefficients contain more information than parameters and g is the mother wavelet function. This feature provides information about the resolution components. The STD of the approximations being decomposed in turn. In wavelet transform finding the distinctive waveform parameters with approximations are high scale. Sampling frequency ii. The original standard deviation (STD) of the coefficients. the scaling iv. Wavelet transform converts the time domain 3.1 FEATURE EXTRACTION signals to time frequency domain signals where different characteristics of each signal may appear Daubechies wavelet is used in this paper. The wavelet toolbox from the MATLAB provides useful functions for implementing the wavelet ∞ transform in an efficient way. When analysing DWT (m. By clever discretisation of CWT one can The discrete wavelet transform is defined as. Levels of decomposition Where g[n] is the mother wavelet. iii. Window length (2) iii. Resolution Analysis (MRA).The basic function five level decomposition is used for extracting the is dilated at low frequencies and compressed at energy values and standard deviation values as it is high frequencies. so that output signal is obtained by the equation shown one signal is broken down into many lower below. more clearly. Therefore discrete wavelet transform is k −na 0 /a 0 used widely due to its fast computation compared X ( n ) g(¿) to continuous wavelet transform.

3. Simulink Model of 20 kV MV network. SYSTEM STUDIED Here the medium voltage network and the five feeder distribution network have been simulated in MATLAB environment. 4. Capacitor switching. ii. Single line diagram of 13. When High impedance fault model is introduced in any phase. v. the energy values and the STD values of the phase where the high impedance fault has occurred alone deviates from the other two phases. are same all the three phases then it represents no fault condition. Obtain the energy values and STD values using DWT.8 kVfeeder in 30kV distribution network ∑ D 1 + ∑ D2 +∑ D 3 + ∑ D 4 +∑ D 5 + ∑ A 5 2 2 2 2 2 2 The Simulink model of medium voltage network (4) and feeder 4 of distribution network are shown in the figures 4 and 5 respectively. Obtain the current waveform form the test system.2. the energy value of the current signal is given by the equation. The energy values are given by the sum of the square of details and approximations obtained by the decomposition. iv. If the energy values and the STD values Fig. Single line diagram of 20kV MV network i=1 ¿ √¿ (3) where "x" is the data vector and "n" is the number of elements in that data vector. Since five level decomposition is used. Various power system conditions such as High impedance . xi ❑ faults. Energy= Fig.4. ¿ STD = ¿ ¿ n 1/(n−1) ∑ ¿ Fig. HIGH IMPEDANCE FAULT DETECTION USING DWT. Apply DWT to the current signals. i. Non-linear loads along n with normal condition are analysed using DWT ∑¿ technique. 5. The single line diagram for MV network i=1 and distribution feeder network are shown in the x i −1 /n(¿ ¿2 ) ❑ figures 2 and 3 respectively. iii.

Fig. Simulink model 13. The high conditions. capacitor switching. This model exhibit better dynamic arc nonlinear loads and high impedance fault characteristics than the DC sources. The DWT is done for normal. HIF model The STD and energy values for the MV network and the feeder 4 of the distribution In this model a saw tooth wave shape with network are shown in the table 1 and 2 respectively.013 B 4. impedance B 4e7 0. loads B 7e8 89 These loads are considered as main sources of C 7.1e7 0.28e4 0.013 DC motor drives. Non-linear load model (NLL) The non-linear load distorted current waveform is shown in the figure 9. DWT Results Fig.1e7 0.9.013 (NLL) model consists of the rectifier and the IGBT inverter.13 Capacitor A 5e8 124 switching at B 4e7 0.5e8 93 harmonics in the power system.8. High A 1. Fig.05 linear loads are power electronics devices. Current waveform for nonlinear load 6.012 C 4.5e8 77 The nonlinear load model is shown in the figure 8. In this paper non-linear load fault at A C 4.5.4e7 0.013 A C 4.8 kV feeder in 30kV distribution network The high impedance fault model applied to the test system is shown in the figure 6. Table 2 DWT RESULTS FOR DISTRIBUTION NETWORK . UPS.2e7 0. DWT RESULTS FOR MV NETWORK Condition Phases Energy STD values Normal A 4. Examples of non.6. increasing and decreasing linearity has been used. Fig.3e7 0. impedance current waveform in the time domain is Table 1 shown in the figure 7.013 Nonlinear A 6.

1e7 12. HIF.0e7 13 C 9. b.10c.3e10 140 Fig. DWT of phase A during NLL Fig.13a.1e10 146 B 1. DWT of phase B during NLL Fig.10a.12.1 B 9.3e7 14 C 9. b.11.5 fault at A B 9.2e10 142 High impedance A 1. Fig. 11. DWT of phase C during NLL .4 Capacitor A 7. capacitor switching. nonlinear loads for the distribution system are shown in the figures 10(a. DWT of phase B during normal condition Fig.1e9 483 switching at A B 9.13c.1e7 12 Nonlinear loads A 1. Condition Phases Energy STD values Normal A 9.1e7 13. 12. c).0e7 12. 13(a. c) respectively. DWT of phase A during Capacitor switching Fig.10b. DWT of phase A during HIF C 1.2e7 13 C 9. DWT of phase A during normal condition Fig. DWT of phase C during normal condition Fig.28e4 0.13b.2 The DWT waveform for normal.

2007.5 (2). Power Deliv. Sheng. K. Improved techniques for modeling fault arcs on faulted EHV transmission systems. Brouaye. 1401-1410. July. Huang.. CONCLUSION In this paper HIF faults are distinguished from other power system disturbances by the features extracted using DWT techniques. High impedance fault detection using utilising morlet wavelet transform approach. Proc. et al.49:169–74. 533-536 [4] S. Johns. J. Decision tree methodology for high impedance fault detection. and Y. IEEE Trans. Inst. and F. .2002. Meunier. 11: 1301-1308. Fuzzy detection of high impedance faults in radial distribution feeders. IEEE Trans. [8] T.Matti. 144(2): 148-154. Rovnyak. M.17(4). C. Chaari. E. 1996. 676-686 [2]Jota Patricia RS. IEEE Trans. [5] O.14(4). E. Emanuel.103-108. Distr. R. et al..Florida. IEEE Trans. Electr Power Syst Res 1999. IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting. Young-Hun Ko. Elect. 1999. 1994. A Novel Fault-Detection Technique of High Impedance Arcing Faults in Transmission Lines Using the Wavelet Transform. Hyun Kim. Song. Power Delivery. Eng. 1990. T. This work can further extended by the combining either artifial neural networks or adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system with DWT for exact classification of HIF from other power system disturbances. Hsieh.Transm. REFERENCES [1] A. Gener. Aggarwal. S.Lehtonen. High impedance fault arcing on sandy soil in 15kV distribution feeders. contribution to the evaluation of the low frequency spectrum.Elkalashy. Sung-Hyun Byun. M.7. [6] Chul-Hwan Kim.October. Jota Fabio G. DWT Based Investigation of Phase currents for detecting High Impedance Faults due to leaning trees in Unearthed MV Networks. H. 921- 929. 19 (2). Gulachenski.IEEE Transactions On Power Delivery. 2004. Power Deliv. Power Deliv. [3] Y. Wavelets: A new tool for the resonant grounded power distribution systems relaying. [7] NagyI. M.

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