Chapter 1

Teachers and Students in the Digital Age
In chapter one we can see the difference of the teachers and
students in the yesteryears and 21st century. The teachers of
yesteryears are more on book lecturing, followers of the policies
prescribed by the school, give assessment through written exam,
and deliver the same lesson every year and they are technology
illiterate . for the teachers of 21st century they allows students to
solve real-world problems, let the students construct their own
ideas , they uses manipulative materials ,electronic sources ,give
performance-based assessment , they also participated in
decision-making in schools, use of variety of teaching methods
appropriate in the students learning and spend time researching
to update his/her knowledge of the subject matter. It also talks
about teachers of 21st century as a channel, communicator,
learner, futurist, leader, exemplar, collaborator, venture player.

Students of yesteryears are textbook users, passive recipient of
information, competitive learners, factual thinkers, unilateral
thinkers, inactive process of learning, dependent learners, single
taskers, single sensory input provider and the students in the 21 st
century are active creator of knowledge, interactive knowledge
constructor, internet user to access a vast information , actively
engaged in class activities, collaborative learners, divergent
learners, dynamic processes of knowledge, self-managing
learners, multitaskers, multisensory input provider. This chapter
also talks about the teaching strategies and the 21 st century skills
and key element for fostering 21st century learning.

Through the help of technology the teachers and student now a
days are more technology literate to the point that every teacher
and students now a days are using computers and other
technology to have very active class and for the students to really
understand the lesson.

Chapter 2
Technology in Teaching and Learning
This chapter introduces the standard that administrator,
students ,teachers should observe in the use and integration of
technology in education.

ISTE Standards for administrators

 Visionary leadership
 Digital Age Learning Culture
 Excellence in Professional Practice
 Systematic Improvement
 Digital Citizenship

ISTE Standards for Teachers

 Facilitate and inspire students learning and creativity
 Design and develop digital age
 Model digital age work and learning
 Promote and model digital citizenship and responsibility
 Engage in professional growth and leadership

ISTE Standards for Students

 Creativity and innovation
 Communication and collaboration
 Research and information fluency
 Critical thinking, problem solving and decision ,making
 Digital citizenship
 Technology operations and concepts

This chapter also explain how one entity of tech-pack is
connected and interfaced with other entities and show how Tech-
Pack process work in integrating education

 Content Knowledge (CK)
 Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)
 Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK)
 Technology Knowledge (TK)
 Technology Content Knowledge (TCK)
 TechnologyPedagogical Knowledge (TPK)
 TechnologyPedagogical Content Knowledge (Tech-Pack)

Technology Integration Planning (TIP)

Phase 1: analysis of Learning and Teaching Needs

Phase 2: planning for integration

Phase 3: Instruction Analysis and Revisions


With the help of technology t5he teaching and learning now are
more advance and high tech that can surely integrate the
education that we have. That technology in teaching and learning
we can learn a lot of things that we can use in our daily life.

Chapter 3
Digital Technology And Media Literacy
This chapter will enable you to understand digital media and
other technologies that support teaching and learning.
Digital Technologies Tools That Support Learning

 Media
-facilitating or linking communication be it via radio, phone,
web, TV, or some other instrument.
 Multimedia
-is a combination of two or more media.
 Digital Media
- technologies that enable users to make new forms of
communication and interaction.
 Digital Media Software
-refers to any computer-based presentation or application
software that uses multimedia elements.
 Interactive Digital Media

Teaching strategies to help teachers in managing their students in
the digital classroom.

1. Effective Computer Scheduling
2. Use Project Management Techniques
3. Storyboarding
4. Effective Research Strategies
5. Utilize Student Experts
6. Ensure Students Participation
7. Maximize One-to-one Computing
8. Help Students
9. Handle Technological Questions
10. Visible Classroom Rules

Digital Tools That Support Learning

1. Technology as a Tutor
2. Technology as Mindtools

Reflection # 3:

Digital technology has a very big impact in our learning now a
days because digital technology play a very big role in our
learning process that help us individual to learn and understand
every subject matter and every things and also digital technology
serve as our tutor.

Chapter 4
The ICT and the Computers: Its Roles and History
This chapter deals with the roles and functions of ICT and
computers and the impact they brought to education over time.

ICT are basically information-handling tools a varied set of goods,
application and services that are used to produce , store, process,
distribute and exchange information . Computers are considered
part of ICT. Even old technologies are considered part of ICT.

Evolution of ICT in Education

 1650- the Horn Book 
  1925-Film Projector
 1820- Difference Engine 
  1930-Overheard
 1830- Analytical Engine Projector
 
 1870- Magic Lantern  1936-The First computer
 
 1890- School Slate  1940-ball point
 
 1890- Chalkboard  1940-mimegraph
 
 1900- Pencil  1947-transistor
 
 1905- Stereoscope  1950-headphones
 
 1920- Radio  1950-slide rule
  1953-IBM
 1951-video tapes 

 1957-reading accelerator  1980- plato computer
 -skinner teaching  1981-IBM introduced
machine their first computer
 1958-educational  1985- CD Rom drive
television  1985-87- era of
 educational computer
 1959-photocopier games
  1990- the world wide
 1963-computer assited web (www)
instruction  1991- laptop
 1965-filmstrip viewer  1993- personal digital
 1969- internet assistant (PDA)
 1972- handheld  1996- mini computers
calculator  1998- first e-book reader
 1972- the scantron  1999- interactive white
system of testing board
 1973- first mobile phone  2010- apple Ipad
 1974- birth of Microsoft  2015- interactive mobile
 1977- the apple II apps
computer 

 Roles and function of Computers
1. Computers can be increase productivity
2. Computers facilitate communication between students,
teachers, and students and administrators
3. Computers are used to access large amounts of information
4. Computers are brilliant aid in teaching
5. Computers facilitate an electronic format for storage of
6. Computers can teach subjects and enhance learning of the

 Reflection #4:
 Computer and ICT plays a big role in our education because
through ICT we can learn a lot and we can know the history
of the technology that we are using that helps us in our

 Chapter 5
 Software for Education and

 This chapter details on the system and application software
which help administrators, teachers, and students
electronically met the ends of their product.

 Software are categories in two : system software and the
application software.

 System software
 Consist of programs that control the operations of the
computer and its devices.

 Operating system
 -one type of system software that contains instruction that
coordinate all of activities of the computer hardware devices.

 The Different Operating System
1. Stand-Alone Operating system
 Windows
2. Embedded Operating System
 iOS
 Google Android
 Blackberry OS
3. Emerging Operating systems

 Application System
 -allows user to perform specific tasks like writing
documents, making projects presentation.

 Types of Software Application Used in School
 Instructional Software
 Programs design specifically to deliver instruction or aid with
the delivery of instruction.
 Tutorial Software
 Software that teaches the user the concept.
 Drill and Practice Software
 Provides exercises in which student work on items one at a
time and receive feedback on their correctness.
 Simulation
 Provide a life-like scenario or system that students may
experience through the computer.
 Instructional Software
 Primarily used to motivate in learning a concept or
 Problem Solving
 Fostering skills I problem solving .
 Special Needs Software
 Design for students with learning disabilities to assist them
in carrying school task.

 Productivity Software

 Word Processing Software
 -most widely used Software.
 Electronic Spreadsheet Software
 -allows user to organize numeric data in raw and
 Presentation Software
 -designed to communicate and display
information including text, images, audio, video and
 Graphic and Multimedia Software
 -allows professional like engineers, architects,
publisher, and graphic work that is intended for their
own field of specialization.

 Reflection #5:
 It is very important for us to know the kinds of
software, its function, roles and history because we are In a
21st century where the people are more technology literate
and also as a future teacher we need to knows all of those so
that when teach it we already have the knowledge on how it
work and its function.

 Chapter 6
 Instructional Software For
Classroom Use

 This chapter focus on the knowledge on selection ,
benefits, limitations, and problems of the software.

 Instructional Software

 Drill and Practice Software
 Selecting
 Control Over the Drill-and-Practice
 Answer Judging
 Gives Appropriate Feedback

 Benefits
 Immediate Feedback
 Motivation
 Saving Teacher Time
 Limitations
 Perceived Mouse
 Criticism by Constructiveness

 Tutorial Software

 Selecting
 Extensive Interactivity
 Thorough User Control
 Appropriate Pedagogy
 Adequate Answer-Judging and Feedback Capabilities
 Appropriate Graphics
 Adequate Record Keeping
 Benefits
 Immediate Feedback
 Motivation
 Saving Teacher Time
 Limitations
 Criticism by Constructivism
 Lack of Good Product
 Reflect Only One Instructional Approach

 Simulation Software
 Selecting
 Realistic and accurate representation of a system
 Benefits
 Compress Time
 Slow down Processes
 Get students Involved
 Make Experimentation Safe
 Make the Impossible Possible
 Save Money Other Resources
 Allow Repetition with Variation
 Allow Observation
 Limitations
 Criticism of Virtual Lab Software
 Accuracy of Models
 Misuse of Simulation

 Instructional Games

 Selecting
 Appealing Format And Activities
 Instructional Value
 Physical Dexterity is Reasonable
 Social, Society, and Culture Consideration
 Benefits
 Games are more interesting than traditional
 Retention of information is longer
 Assists teacher to get students to focus on the topic
 Makes learning more engaging and motivational
 Limitations
 Learning versus Having Fun
 Confusion of Game Rules and Real-Life Rules
 Inefficient learning
 Classroom Barrier

 Software Support Tools
 Materials generators
 Data collection and analysis tools
 Graphic tools
 Planning and organizing tools
 Research and reference tools
 Content-area tools

 Reflection # 6:
 It is very important to know the instructional
Software use in the classroom so that we will be
aware on what are its function, benefits and
limitations that we need to avoid when we are going
to use such software.

 Chapter 7
 Evaluating Education Technology
 This chapter deals with the essential in the processes
of technology in integration of education.

 Evaluating Software Programs
1. Content –
 relate to the curriculum, school standards, and
instructional objectives.
2. Documentation and Technical Support-
3. Ability Levels and assessment
 – teacher evaluate if the software matches the
ability level of the students.
4. Technical Quality and Ease of Use
 - teacher have to consider the following when it
comes technical quality: clarity of text , design ,
and multimedia elements; correctness of prompt
and feedback; appropriateness of graphics, radio,
sound effects, animation, and video.

 Educational Technology Integration: Evaluating Its

1. Traditional Assessment
 -includes multiple choice, essays, short answer,
true or false, fill in the blank, and matching type.
2. Alternative Assessment
 - nontraditional method of measuring students
mastery and skill level.
 Authentic Assessment
 -based on authentic method which allows students
to do hands-on experiments, do research paper, and
create an output that is based on the intended learning

 Wiggins list of characteristic authentic assessment
 The assessment is realistic
 Assessment required judgment and innovation
 Assessment ask the student to do the subject
 Assessment are done in situational form
 Assessment require students to demonstrate wide range of
 Assessment allows for practice

 Project-Based Assessment
 -based on authentic learning method which project-
based learning which engage students in real-world project .
 Portfolio Assessment
 -also known as embedded assessment.

 Checklist
 -an evaluation tool that indicates specific criteria
that allow students to keep track og the things they
needed to complete and perform.
 Rating Scale
 - allow teachers to indicate the degree point or
displayed skills by the learners.

 Rubrics
 -defined as scoring guides which consists of
specific pre-determined performance criteria and use
in evaluating students work and performance.

 Reflection #7:
 As a future teacher we need to know how to
evaluate our teaching technology that are used and
what rubric and guidelines we should follow.

 Chapter 8
 Legal and Ethical Use of Technology

 This chapter will enlighten you on the proper and
ethical use of technology and other school software.

 Ethical Issues in Technology and Software
1. Unauthorized Access and Use of Hardware,
Software, Network, and Computer files.
 -
2. Hardware Theft and Vandalism
 –are some of the security challenges encounters
by school administrators and teachers.
3. Software Theft
 -this happens when a person copies illegally
copyrighted software for personal or business use.
4. Information theft
 -is a computer crime when one deliberately steal
information for purposes of studying how to
compete with other organization or companies.
5. Malicious Acts in Software
 Spam
 -is an unwanted massage being received
through e-mails, discussion boards, text
messaging devices, and others.
 Phishing
 -may also called as carding or spoofing. It is
a scam I which an agent sends a legitimate-
looking e-mail that attempt to steal personal
and financial information including bank
accounts numbers of the receipts.
 Malware
 - is a malicious software that causes harm to
o0ne or more computers.
 Adware
 -is a software that incorporates the
presentation of advertisement as condition for
operating the software.

 Reflection #8:
 We should know how to use technology in legal way
to attain knowledge.

 Chapter 9
 Alternative Delivery

 Distance Education
 -is a method of education where students can study in their
own choice of place and time, without meeting the teachers

 Technologies that support Distance Education
 Broadcast Radio
 -is an ADS which is considered as a powerful tool
when delivering a lesson or disseminating
information on a large group of students.
 Audio Teleconference
 -is also known as telephone conferencing and it is
an alternative delivery system which instruction may
happen through telecommunication system.
 Video Conferencing
 -is used by teachers and students to transmit
coursework at a distance.

 Tools Needed for Video Conferencing

 Hardware
1. Computer
2. Camera
3. Microphone
4. Speaker
5. Codec
6. Connection
 Software
1. Skype
 -this is a free service that anyone can use.
2. ooVoo
 -this is free online conferencing site that is
available on both Mac and Windows PC.
3. Adobe Acrobat Connect
 -powerful conferencing tool that allows sharing
of files and use of white board where teacher and
students can write down their thoughts.
4. AT&T Connect
 -this is a more formal and professional way of
video conferencing that cam be costly.
5. MegaMeeting
 -this support 16 participants which can work at
any browser regardless of the operating system used.

 Other Meeting Apps
1. Zoom
 -features of this app includes: collaborative
whiteboard, sending text, images, and audio files.
2. GoToMeeting
 -this provides high quality of video, screen
sharing, and personalized meeting URLs.
3. Join.Me
 -conference using is recorded.

 Web Conferencing
- Is usually interchangeable used with video

 Two types of Web Conferencing:
 Webinars
 Webcasts

 Chapter 10
 Components of the
Internet and the World
Wide Web

 This chapter deals with the internet and the World
Wide Web. This chapter will discuss the components
of internets such as protocols and internet access
providers, connecting to the internet.

 There are two types of internet:
 Local Area Network (LAN)
 -this is a network that covers only a limited
geographical area like in a classroom, computer lab,
office or group of buildings.
 Wide Area Network (WAN)
- Is a network that covers a wide range of geographical
area like a city.

 Internet Service Provider
 -is a private organization that lets you connect into a
vast Internet connection around the world.

 Different types of internet connections:
 DSL – uses a broadband connection
 Cable – cable service connects to the internet via
cable TV, but does not require you to have cable TV to
have one.
 Satellite – uses a broadband that connects to the
internet through satellites orbiting the earth.
 3G and 4G – is commonly used in mobile phones that
connects to wireless through your ISPs network.

 World Wide Web
- Is one of the internet service and it is a collection of
webpages found in this network of computers.

 Uniform Resource Locator

- Protocol
- Domain name
- Sub-domain
- Folder
- Filename

 Chapter 11
 Roles of the Internet and World
Wide Web in Education

 This chapter deals with the different roles of internet
and world wide web in education and how internet
changed the life of the people specially in education
specifically the teachers, students, and parents.

 2 types of communications:
1. Asynchronous communication
- Is a type of communication where the person
communicates anywhere and any time.
 Examples:
1. E-mail
 -through e-mails you can send message, stored,
2. Discussion Board
 -creates social interaction for students about a
concepts, thoughts, on today’s lesson.
3. Blog
 -is an online journal that is publicly accessible.
4. Wikis
 -it is a web-based communication tools that
allows the teachers and students to work together,
share resources and collaboration.
5. Mailing List
 -these are programs that store and maintain
mailing lists.
6. Tweets
 -are text-based posts that can be up to 140
characters that are posted with in a persons profile

2. Synchronous communication
 -is a type of communication where the people
communicate in real time
 Examples:

1. Chat
 -is a widely used communication tool.
2. Instant messaging
 -is a service that allows users to use private
chartrooms in which members alert each other when
they wish to chat.
3. Text messaging
 -allows for instantaneous communication
between people that is done with the use of
4. Video Conference
 -allows its participants to see each other online
live using a web-camera and communicate through

 Tools for Inquiry

1. Browsing
2. Searching
a. Search Engine
b. Index Search Engine
c. Meta-index or Metacrawler

 Chapter 12
 Web Tools and Resources

 This chapter deals with the different web tools and
resources used in the classroom. The world wide web
has a vast information that can be used for teaching
and learning.

 Web Tools

 Web 1.0 (read only web)
 Web 2.0 (Read-write)
 Web 3.0 (The Semantic Web)
 Web 4.0 (Mobile Web)
 Web 5.0 – open , Linked and Intelligent Web =
Emotional Web

 Categories of web resources
1. Online Tutorials
 -are designed for independent learning with well-
integrated learning source,.
2. Instructional Resources
 -provides the components of a learning activity
but leave the teacher responsible for implementation
and evaluation.
3. Primary Resources
- Are raw information sources not necessarily
developed to meet educational needs.

 Keeping track of web resources

 Using Bookmarks
 Adding a Bookmark
 Organizing Bookmarks
 Exporting Bookmarks

 Other web tools

 Digital Storytelling
 -is a web-based tool that allows users to construct
and tell a story.
 eBook
 Social Bookmarking
 -allows to add, store and organize your
bookmarks and share it to people who may be
interested in the same topic that6 you have
 Podcast
 -is syndicated audio, or video made available in
the web for downloading where subscriber can
receive automatically.
 Vodcast
 -works the same way as that of podcast with the
addition of video.