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Presidency College

Bharatpur, Chitwan

**Unit I: Introduction to Research and Project Work
**

1. Meaning of Research

How does the researcher proceed? Few social scientists have been interested in that problem

although every elementary textbook is full of advice regarding what the researcher should do:

bring a theory out of his hat, formulate hypothesis in advance, test reliability and validity of his

instruments, draw a representative sample, find something useful for his society report his

findings so that other researchers can replicate investigation.

**The literal meaning of research is investigation or to search again. The first look may not be
**

sufficient and prone to error. The word research refers to the systematic investigation towards

increasing the sum of knowledge. The word is derives from the French word “researche” which

means to search or to seek again. Therefore research is a process of verifying and testing the old

facts or theories (deductive approaches) and discovering new facts (Inductive approach). So,

there are various meaning as:

“A careful investigation or enquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch

of knowledge”

“Systematized effort to gain new knowledge”

“A research is systematic, controlled, and empirical and critically investigation of

hypothetical propositions (statements of relationship between two or more variables)

about the presumed relations among natural phenomenon.” – Fred N Kerlinger

“Research is a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem that

needs a solution (Sekaran, 1992)”.

As a whole research is the application of scientific method to the study of a problem. The

scientific method involves;

a. Careful logical analysis of the problem, and formulating hypothesis.

b. Formulating research design

c. Observation or data collection

d. Generalizations or drawing conclusions

**Therefore, the process of investigation involves a series of well known activities gathering
**

information, recording, analyzing and interpreting the results with the objective of answering the

solution to the problem, is called research. The explanation of research has two crucial aspects.

They are:

1. Firstly, it is sufficiently broad to include all types of investigations requiring solution to the

problem.

2. Secondly, it explicitly recognizes the systematic nature of the research process in which

data are gathered, recorded, analyzed and interpreted in an orderly manner.

We can define research as an organized, systematic, data- based, critical, scientific inquiry or

investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding answers or

solutions to it (Sekaran, 1992).

For instance, AIDS broke out in the United States; doctors did not know at all what disease it

was, what cause it or how to cure it. They have only known as it seemed to attack the immune

system of victim. For the purpose of research, medical researchers set out to investigate the

causes of the disease and to seek a cure. At recent, a lot is known about this disease because

researchers have spent considerable resources in gathering information through observing

2

**patients and conducting experiments. So, research means to investigate, repeatedly search or
**

quest in an Endeavour or resource to discover answers to problems through reliance on

empirical evidences. Research activities are designed to discover knowledge to aid in answering

specific questions or issues.

In general, the following activities are involved in the research process:

** Define the problem and identify the variables causing it or related with it;
**

Get insight into the existing stock of knowledge on the issue or problem under reference and

contribute to the furtherance of knowledge (reviewing);

Construct models or formulate research questions educated conjectures or hypothesis for

testing;

Objectively collect and analyze the facts, evidences or information to identify the

interrelationship between or among variables or multiple effects of factors; and

Build theories to understand and generalize the phenomena to throw insight into the problem

under investigation to analyze, predict and control the situation

1.2 Type of research

** Researches conducted for - solving -existing problem and generate a new knowledge to a
**

particular area or theory building.

1.2.1 Fundamental Research

** Fundamental or basic research is conducted for the purpose of increasing our knowledge
**

of certain problems that commonly occur in organizational setting; and how to solve

them.

Adding to our knowledge i.e. fundamental and generalizable.

Pure or fundamental research.

Not apply the findings to solve an immediate problem at hand but rather than to

understand more about certain phenomena and problems that occur in several

organizations, and how they can be solved.

Theory building or formation.

For instance, On-the-job training has great impact on the productivity of workers.

1.2.2 Applied Research

** AR conducted to a specific problem, which requires a solution.
**

Practical application of knowledge, systematically acquired and validated and meet

solution

Answer practical and useful questions about policies, programmes, projects, procedures,

or organization.

Such research, being of practical value, may relate to current activity or immediate

practical solutions.

Findings for immediate problem facing a society or business executives.

Hired researchers and consultants to study a problem of concern to them in order to find

solutions that can be implemented to rectify the problem situation and immediate

applications

3

** It is also called decisional research.
**

E.g. Curative measures for AIDS.

** For instance, How to improve the productivity of Cigarette Factory? Both improving the
**

existing brands or new brand development may be the study areas.

Factory does have the research, taking into accounts from its capabilities, know-how,

resources and so on.

** Both fundamental and applied research may not be mutually exclusive; and can be
**

placed in a continuum.

Some research areas have both applied and fundamental research flavour and scientific

method provides key advances in both fundamental and applied research.

**Table 1: Characteristics of applied and fundamental research
**

Fundamental Research Applied research

Purpose: Purpose:

Expand knowledge processes of Improve understanding of particular

business and management business or management problem

Results in universal principles relating to Results in solution to problem

the process and its relationship to New knowledge limited to problem

outcomes Findings of practical relevance and

Finding of significance and value to value to manager

society in general

Context: Context:

Undertaken by people based in Undertaken by people based in a

universities variety of settings including

Choice of topic and objectives organization

determined by the researcher Objectives negotiated with originator

Flexible time scales Tight time scales

1.3 Scientific Research Process

What is science?

**Science as a systematized knowledge derived through observation, experimentation or any other
**

method or procedure in order to determine the nature of phenomena being studied or the causes

behind specific events.

**In science, an understanding is made through logico-empirical process. The logico-empirical
**

process means reasoning and direct experience or observation. A scientific theory is dealing with

the logical aspect of science; and research is dealing with observation aspect of science.

**The scientific process includes the methodology of understanding things. There are two
**

approaches of logico- empirical process.

a. Deductive Approach

b. Inductive Approach

1.3.1 Deductive Approach (General to particular)

Sociologist constructs theories that have deductive structure in which conclusion from assumptions. specifies indicators of measurement. In this method.2 Inductive Approach (Particular to general) In this approach. When facts are inconsistent with the theoretical conclusion. . For instance. The goal is to define or prove support the theory already known. They are: 1. He tries to answer the question of what. How? And Why? 1. Continuous interplay (interaction) of new or refine theories and their empirical verification. we may not know exactly what is happening but we can definitely sense that things are not going on as smoothly as they should be. In other words. Sensing or realizing problems: It is the first step in scientific inquiry in observing the situation and sensing the problem. We are knowingly and unknowingly sensing these developments occurring in the environment. One starts with theory as a means for many concepts. Observation Findings a pattern tentative conclusion Theory Theory Empirical generalization Hypothesis Observations INDUCTIVE PROCESS Scientific research process There are eight steps in scientific method. one starts with observed data and develops a generalization which explain the relationship between the objects observed. parents with children spent more over without kids. 4 In deductive reasoning. when and how.e. At this stage. Checking the validity of conclusion against the real world data. In other words. one starts from some general theories or laws and applies it to particular instances. Hypothesis Observation Hypothesis testing Conclusion Deductive process Sociologist describes the theory as a scientific study between the causes and effects. conclusions are deduced from some fundamental assumptions or axioms established through other methods by logical process of reasoning. refines theories or abandon them for new theories. this approach involves understanding of thing from general to particular. one starts with observation driven by one or more research questions.3. makes observations and tests relationships. This method is based on prior examinations of facts i. generalization is made from particular or one intends to develop the theory from general to particular. New problem are emerging in the environment.

Generalizability 1. Objectivity 5.4 Management Research Methods: • Management of research is concerned with the systematic and objective collection and evaluation of information about specific aspect of management problems in order to assist managers make effective decisions. . Replicability 4. Problem identification: Once we increase our level of awareness Characteristics of Scientific Research 1. 5 Setting or Observation Realizing Library search problem Problem Identification Theoretical Framework Deduction Hypothesis Formulation Reasoning Research Design Data Collection Analysis of Data Refinement of Theory (Basic Research) Implementation (Applied Research) Figure 1: The Scientific Research Process 2. Rigor 6. Purposiveness 2. Testability 3.

• Take calculated risks in decision. • Prevent possible vested interests from operating in a situation. Stages in Management Process and Types of Information Needed Stages of Management Process Major Information Needed 1.making.3 Action Research 1.1 Policy Research 1.1 Policy Research .4 Evaluation Research 1. Planning Evaluation of 1 and 2 in order to make a prediction or estimate of alternative courses. 3. Analysis • Performance against plans • Environmental. • The role of sound information is to guide business decisions. • Relate to hired researchers and consultants more effectively. 6 • The objective is to reduce the risk and uncertainty when strategy is in planned and operation.4.4.4.making? • What are we going to do with this information? • How should we collect this information? • What are we going to measure? • How should we analyze the results? • How much should we spend on collecting the information? Research identifies the benefits of research knowledge to mangers as follows: • Identify and solve small problems in the work setting. Managers need to ask the following questions to help to provide what research to carry out to collect the required information and solve business problem. 4.2 Managerial Research 1. They are: • What information will help make decision.4. • Know how to discriminate good from bad research. Control Performance against plans Type of Management Research 1.4. competitive and eternal information to identify problems and opportunities 2. Execution Communicate details of plans and control standards. set strategies and monitor implementation to feedback on whether it has been successful or unsuccessful. knowing full well the probabilities attached to the possible outcomes. • Appreciate and constantly remember the multiple influences and multiple effects of factors impinging on a situation.

1. • Evaluation Research related to policy research in which policies. • For instance. • From the present analysis. objectives. and helps in changing the mode of functioning. feeds simultaneous results to organization.4.4. Methodology for Management Research Objective/purpose Data requirement and analysis Research output Policy Research • To formulate major policy • Macro level data about: • Policy options proposals a) Environmental forces • Identification of policy • To establish their b) Overall organizational situation priorities for the priorities c) Competitive standing of the organization • To identify their organization implication • Longitudinal data • Time series data a) Predictions (Econometric .4.2 Managerial Research • Related to the specific problem of limited scope for which management has need of additional information on which base decision. market potential for new product. and economical realities of time and setting. • This research systematically evaluates the priorities to be accorded to conflicting and complementary alternatives (Formulating major policy proposals and establishing their priorities). • AR is task. best approach of implementation of a new MIS system. 7 “The development of foundation of information to be used as the basis for making plans and decisions that will impact policy with in the context of political. • The research is designed to analyze situations at the strategic level and to formulate overall policy proposals.’ • It is oriented toward formal and objective measurement of extent which a given action.2 Action Research • Involves continuous gather and analyzing of research data during the normal and on. 1. • Designed to identify effective way of dealing with problems in the real world. social. strategies and programmes are examined. MR is taking effective action for future.going operations of an organization. • It evaluates the successful and analyzes the underlying causes of failure.oriented form of study designed to provide continuous feedback regarding the performance of management activity and to improve that performance from investigation. • Concern the execution of specific management programme. • MR is seeking of solution to a given problem and implements the solution. activity and programme objective. 1.3 Evaluation Research • “The process of determining the value or worth of something is called evaluation.” The policy research is composed of three basic elements: • This research studies how policy formulation occurs with a view to understanding and improving the process.

and data based investigation into a specific situation undertaken with the objective of gathering information that enables the students to gain .5. 8 model) b) Projections (Parameters) Managerial Research • To study the on-going • Specific and detailed data about • Identification of the operation or projects the operations or projects problem situation • To help in improving • Data collection through MIS • Identification of managerial • Collection of qualitative data decision option effectiveness • Exploring the situation for in. 1. for actions to be taken making a) Survey research methods b) Observational methods c) Experimental methods for testing of alternatives Action Research • To feed information into • Continuous of gathering and • To recommend the the organization to analysis of data actions to be taken improve the functioning • Problem specific data: with regard to: • To improve the a) Opinion survey a) Organizational managerial actions b) Observation structure • To suggest future c) Satisfaction levels b) Rules courses of action d) Morale survey c) Reward and e) Frustration index punishment system d) Performance evaluation criteria e) Work environment. • Precise recommendation • To help in decision depth understanding. Evaluation Research • To measure • Micro level data • Identification of achievements against a) Programme utilization level programme strengths the objectives b) Comparative level and weaknesses • To identify gaps and • Internal surveys • Recommendation for problem areas programme • To suggest improvement improvements required. systematic.5 Project Work 1.1 Meaning of Project Work “ The Project is defined as an organized. Attribute of good Management Research • Purpose clearly defined • Research process and work plan detailed • Research design thoroughly planned • High ethical standards applied • Limitations frankly revealed • Findings presented unambiguously • Conclusions justified • Researcher’s experience reflected.

• Promote student.processing and report writing skills to explore. a system or a situation.centred learning by encouraging them to take the initiate to become self- directed learners and thinkers. analyze and describe a business situation or a social phenomenon Processes in Project Work Activities involved in a Project Work: • Selecting of relevant topic • Locating the sources of information • Extracting the relevant information from these sources • Identifying the various dimensions of the problem or issue • Organizing and analyzing the data effectively • Drawing conclusions • Writing report Major activities involved in project work Defining the Topic and research questions The research topic should be introduce clearly raised the research questions which were not answered before.” 1. under. type and relevance of data to be collected • Unpredictability of data (lack of support) Data analysis and report preparation .2 Objectives of Project Work Specific objectives are: • Expose students to business or social reality by providing them the opportunity to get first- hand information and actual knowledge about the working of an organization. • “Re-inventing the wheel” resulting from ignorance of previous work done. • Develop interpersonal and communication skills by encouraging students to interact with the practitioners.estimation or workload • Poor planning and coordination of interviews and field trips • Making contacts and appointments • Delays caused by waiting time • Determining scope. • Over. 9 familiarity with the situation or reality and generate more knowledge about the phenomenon under investigation.estimation of time.5. Some potential problems in this process may be: • Inexperience resulting in difficulty deciding on an appropriate and feasible topic. • Develop data. resources). Project Work design • This involves selecting a methodology for obtaining the relevant and their analysis to draw inferences. • Provide opportunities to students to work on those issues or problems which are of particular interest to them.ambitious scale (e. • Both raw and secondary data (reviewing) Data Collection: Some potential problems • Under.g.

A profile of bank borrowers of outstanding of loans for six months and above: describe the defaulter's age. distribution method of company. • The profile of suppliers: quality of supplies. • Advertising and sales promotion expenses . 10 Some potential problems: • Misinterpretation (bias) • Being bogged down by details: inability to the woods for he trees • Insufficient care in documentation (quotations. The trend of employment during the last twelve months in an organization: Gender composition. and 1.4 Feasibility studies 1. price hikes and sales • A profile of sales.6. family income. education. earnings. etc.2 Small.scale survey 1. etc. sales by region. nature of comments. regularity. etc. causes. and so on. b. You can recommend loan payment issues for management decision to types of individuals for loan extending. etc. complaints registered by the customers Under descriptive studies • The demographic data of employees in term of their age.6. ethnic groups. rejections. no.6. Descriptive studies present the data to meaningful form help to: • Understand the features and aspects in a situation under study. and • Help in identifying problems and make certain simple decisions. For instances a. employment. costing methods. • Offer the ideas for further investigations and research. • The consumer complaints: frequency. sex. of absent days. occupation and the like. bibliographic/ references) • Lack of discipline in structuring report framework before starting to write. demographic information of employees.1 Exploratory or descriptive studies 1.6 Method of Project Work 1. Marketing Areas: pricing.6.3 Case studies.1 Exploratory or Descriptive Studies • Clear view of the subject under investigation • It is done when we do not know much about the situation • Comprehend the nature of problem and very few studies have been conducted to the related phenomena Approaches • Examining the existing literature • Questioning the knowledgeable individuals • Examining a few selected case For example. a profile of suppliers. educational level. 1. or products. • Pricing methods. etc. c. pricing of related commodities.6. sales. etc. • Types of distribution channels used. demand for advance payments.

collection of information in a face-to-face situation.2 Small.collection of information from respondents via telephone. 3. etc. and markets. Surveys can be done within organization and in the field. 1. 1.” • Appropriate method of project work • Both words and numbers description • Selected unit • Study different research methods • Collected related aspects 1. survey study of the business describes location of business. Personal interviews. • Intercept interviews.6.3 Case Studies “A case study is an intensive investigation and description of the study unit. describe and identify the company and help recommend a strategy for its future action. “sale unit” “personnel department or organization. For instance. employees. Methods of survey 1. • Home interviews. Telephone interviews.6. 2. products. Surveys conducted within organizations are as following types: • Surveys of employee attitudes • Surveys of the nature of jobs • Surveys of record system • Surveys of salary scales • Surveys of visitors to an organization 2.personal interview in a central location like shopping certres.Scale Survey • A survey study is the systematic gathering of information from respondents for the purpose of understanding and predicting some aspects of the behavior of the population of interest. customers. 11 Gathered information. Mail surveys. 1. • Survey studies are usually more extensive and involve the careful identification of the population. . Field level surveys are as following types: • Surveys of consumer attitudes • Surveys of shop-keepers in a haat bazaar • Surveys of dealers and retailers • Surveys of patients visiting a medical clinic • Surveys of tourists visiting a place. prices. A case study may be done of a specific subject like “records management system”.collection of information from respondents via mail or similar other techniques.personal interviews in the respondent’s or office. etc. haat bazaar. other competitive business. selection of the sample for the study and collection of comparable data to make qualified generalizations.

12 For instances. relevance and methodology. 2. An organization as an unit of analysis • Organization goals • Policies • Structure • Manpower • Work system • These all areas are carefully studied to analyze the situation and identify the managerial issues. 1. Both field cases based on real life and field data. 3.benefit analyze together with alternatives scheme or ideas Feasibility studies covers: . • Analysis of above facts.6. and secondary data which is library based are two types of cases. These two methods have their own features.4 Feasibility Studies • Undertaken to assess the potential of a new scheme. idea and provide base for investment decision.Records management system of an organization • Inputs procurement unit • Processing unit • Output supplying • Manpower • Control of records • Records inventory • Computer used Data collected and presented in terms of efficiencies.load of staff • Format of the books of accounts • Audit report and so on. the case study highlights the strengths and weakness of accounting system of the organization and recommend for improvements. 1. Section or department as a unit of analysis: Account Department of an organization to analyze the accounting system: • Structure of unit • Work procedures • Accounting manuals • Revenue and expenditure policies • Work. effectiveness and future improvement in the organization. • Feasibility study define and analyze the critical elements such as: – operational aspects – Technical aspects – Marketing – Commercial base – Cost.

• In project work. 13 • From simple.benefit estimates or analysis . informal observation to complex. student should decide scope of the study. Feasibility study starting a gazal restaurant in certain location of a town Following aspects should be studied and assess as a method of analysis: 1. informal or formal. • Feasibility is simple or complex. but careful planning is must. Market factors 3. information needs and methodology For instance. Technical aspects or issues 5. Feasibility study of opening a branch of a business in a location Feasibility study outside the organization 1. Environmental factors 2. time. Feasibility study of installing computer.frame. Feasibility study starting a small. Investment requirements 4. An assessment of the feasibility of opening a stationary shop in a locality 2.scale biscuit factory in a location 3. Cost. Feasibility study within organization 1.based management information system in organization 2. formal analysis • Complexity and formality.directly related to nature of project or scheme.

5 Limitation of the study 1.6 Data analysis procedure 4.1 Summary 5.2 Major findings of the study 5.1 Research design 3. METHODOLOGY 3.3 Objective of the study 1.2 Conclusion 5.3 Sampling procedure 3.2 Problem of the study 1. 14 Organizing and writing the Project Work report 1.4 Importance of the study 1. SUMMARY.6 Organization of the study 2.4 Data collection technique 3. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. INTRODUCTION 1.2 Population and sample size 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.2 Review of related study 3.1 Background Information 1.1 Conceptual/Theoretical Framework 2.5 Statistical procedure 3.3 Recommendation References Appendix .1 Data presentation and analysis 4. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.

15 UNIT. an explanation of the origin of the proposal and how it fits in the donors’ programmes or focus areas. i. They justify their proposal by citing the gravity of social problem that has focused their attention. The objectives such as “to solve the social problems of the country or sites” or “to attain self. 1. Introduction 1. it would have some rationale. Particularly.6 Almost every step in the development of scientific thought has been made by the anticipation of nature. 1. They should be made consistent. The title of the proposal is often a broad statement of the objectives. and what are the possible constraints of studying limited areas either time or financial problems. often had very little foundation to start with. Such a statement constitutes a “trial or working hypotheses” to be tested and confirmed. The theme of the proposed study (problem and solution) must be approximately reflected in the title. It is also important for the researcher himself to convince himself of the soundness of his proposal to make him in the use of his time. which must be informative enough to alert to the reader and give him idea that the researcher proposes to do research and not otherwise.sufficiency in rice or milk or meat” are presumptions. The first step in undertaking a piece of scientific research should be the formulation of the problem as in definite or specific terms as possible.4 Objectives The aim of the study or what is to expect of the study should be stated. modified or even abandoned as the investigation proceeds. It should state why the study is being proposed.e. It should be clear the coverage of the study areas.oriented. by the formulation of hypotheses which through verifiable.1 Background Information Information includes a description of the importance of the researchable constraint that the project is seeking to address and a very brief summary of any significant research or development already carried out.3 Scope and limitation of the study The propose project should reflect the scope of findings by solving the prevailing problems of the areas.II: PREPARATION AND SUBMISSION OF RESEARCH PROPOSAL Guidelines for developing a Project Concept Notes (PCNs) Or Proposal Writing and Submission Title: The title of the research and development project must be brief and clear enough. . Project Leader: Name of Institution: Name and Address Collaborators: Name and Institutions Duration of Project: Starting Date: Completion Date: Total Budget of Project: 1. It has been noted that social scientists are crisis. The proposal should awareness of the problems in the context of research and development already conducted or implemented. 1.2 Statement of problems (or rationale of the study) To convince the funding agency that one’s proposal is worthwhile for undertaking. It is supposed to convince the people of the worth on one’s proposal.5 Hypothesis 1. It must be specific and as concise as possible. They should be narrowed down to attainable objectives under reasonable conditions. 1.

e. laws. etc. FNCCI. a solid foundation of background knowledge is imperative so that the researcher does not have to invent the wheel all over again. but made by the mind. The hypothesis should take into consideration all of the relevant facts and should contradict none. and specific procedure. from the beginning. NGOs. It also indicates findings on which the proposal is building on. Method of data collection Method of data analysis 4. Where do hypotheses come from? They are not received from without through sense of perception. consulting colleagues who are knowledgeable on the problems helps. e. Reviewers. 2. Research Methodology How the study will be conducted to attain the desire objectives to be able to test the hypotheses should occupy most of the researcher’s time. agencies or beneficiaries. It should be simple as possible for. 4. The hypothesis should of such a character that it is amendable to deductive application and testing i.” “data will be analyzed and interpreted. It should be plausible and in general. 4. The beneficiaries are individuals and customers living in the particular areas. The review of literature shows that the proponent has researched or is knowledgeable in the area being proposed. which will take up the products of research and engage in the process of transferring knowledge/ technology/ methodology to the beneficiaries. theories. In case where problem arise because the institution does not have up to date library acquisitions. Do not dismiss the procedure by a few senseless statements like “sampling will be done” “data will be collected from secondary sources. Target institutions are those formal or informal institutions.g. Logicians generally recognize four criteria as the adequate measure of good hypotheses. should not contradict any of the laws of nature. that he has sufficient experience in that research are to enable him to do the job. comprehensive. it is supposed that the proponent knows well that others have said or written about the problem.1 A complete procedure should consist of the following parts.” Procedure must be discussed clearly and in sufficient detail to be understood by prospective reviewers. 3. and systems as explanations in the form of generalizations come as final or end products. Review of Literature To be fully prepared for the study of any problem.2 The basic considerations in determining the sample size are: The degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity in the population . Which of the hypothetical proposition is to be tested? Several hypotheses rather than one as a rule are formulated in the course of the investigation. science has demanded not only accuracy and precision but simplicity. Outputs The research results or products should be appropriate to the project purpose and include identified promotion pathways to target institutions. But null hypothesis (Ho) or alternative hypothesis (Ha) can be use equally. Theoretical framework Sampling techniques and sample size. it should be capable of disproof or verification. The least probable are rejected and the most one confirmed. that he has sufficiently mastered the auxiliary aid to research such as statistical tools. that the investigator is fully equipped and thoroughly prepared for his project. INGOs. The task becomes easier if we remember that other people one way or another could have known something about the problem and often even know more than the researcher at the outset. 16 The trial or working hypothesis marks the beginning of a piece of research. seeing a well written. Hence.

economic. Curriculum Vitae The purpose of including the curriculum vitae is to determine the research capability of the research leader and his accompanies. the break down of travel request. 5. Overheads (1-5) 7. This section also includes any facilities or expertise already available to the investigator or collaborator. the village community or the global community. and purchase of land. etc. Staff salary 2. number of people. Beneficiaries It is necessary to indicate the main beneficiaries of the research. Consumable/ Photocopies 4. Apart from this. fund and manpower 4. References All the reference materials reviewed should be listed. environmental advantage. bridges. 6. They are place of visit. e. which might contribute to the project failing to achieve its objectives. but on which the accomplishment of the objectives depend. . salaries and total man days required for the project must be indicated. Beside from salaries. Contingencies (1-5) Total 7. This will enable to research to convince the reviewer that he can do. Risks and Assumptions It includes those factors. They may be identified for instance. Operational cost (TA/DA) 3. In addition. the activities defining the action strategy for accomplishing each output. mode of transport. time. 6. tentative schedule. Budgetary Requirements 6.3 Financial summary Items Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total 1. There should be an activity of group of activities associated with the each output of the project. Training and publication 6. experiments. methodology or knowledge transfer activities of the target institutions. Proposals of this nature require preparation of detailed development plans and are generally not submitted as part of the research project. their positions. the households. frequencies of visit. which will be utilized in the implementation of the project. etc. designed and implemented to achieve output of project. roads.1 Equipments The required all inputs must be mentioned and budgeted with respect to prevailing market prices. The purchased of heavy equipment or using laboratory facilities of other institution and the charges of lab facilities should included in the budget. 8. purpose of visit. the location of the specific components of the research to be carried out and any special resources required to implement of the project should be included. 9. irrigation facilities. surveys. from the technology. Important assumptions are external conditions or a factor over which the project chooses not to exert control or do not have control. travel allowance per diem and daily allowances (TA/DA) and transportation cost. 17 Degree of accuracy required Resource at the disposal of the investigator. Equipment and Supplies 5. The beneficiaries are those who gain social. these include investment for construction of buildings.g. 6.3 Research activities Research studies. the following can be used as guidelines.2 Personnel requirement The name of the existing personnel who will work on the project.

Is the proposed of research project clearly stated? b. Does the proposal consider? i. Does it fit into the World Trade Organization. Agriculture Perspective Plan. Does the proposal specify the ultimate beneficiaries? 5. Are the outputs logically framed to achieve the project purpose? . Does the information quoted (literature or statistics) justify the proposed project? d. Is the proposed project technically and logically consistent? Purposes Outputs Activities a. 18 Questions for Researcher or Development Project 1. Are the research activities technically framed to produce the stated outputs? . Sufficiently address the disadvantage groups 3. Is the justification fro the project clearly stated and convincing? a. Does the proposed project specify the immediate end. Socio-economic aspects? ii. Does the budget show any obvious irregularities? .users? b.Results of trials c.Technical approaches 4. Are the beneficiaries clearly identified? a. Gender issues? iv. or Tenth Development Plan? c. Environmental effects? iii. Does the PCN’s title fully reflect the proposed research project? 2. Will the project contribute significantly to either identifying or resolving the farmers’ problems? b. Is the proposed budget rationally presented? a.

Proposal should awareness of the problems in the context of research and development already conducted or implemented. it would have some rationale. Does the proposal consider? i. Disadvantage groups To convince the funding agency that one’s proposal is worthwhile for undertaking. INTRODUCTION 1. specific and as concise as possible. 1. Should state why the study is being proposed. To convince the people of the worth on one’s proposal. Will the project contribute significantly to either identifying or resolving the farmers’ problems? b. Gender issues? iv. Environmental effects? iii.1 Background Information Information includes a description of the importance of the researchable constraint that the project is seeking to address and a very brief summary of any significant research or development already carried out. Justify their proposal by citing the gravity of social problem that has focused their attention.2 Statement of problems/Justification of the study Is the justification fro the project clearly stated and convincing? a. Should be clear the coverage of the study areas. 1. Does the information quoted (literature or statistics) justify the proposed project? d. Does it fit into the APP or Tenth Development Plan? c. It is also important for the researcher himself to convince himself of the soundness of his proposal to make him in the use of his time.3 Scope and limitation of the study Propose project should reflect the scope of findings by solving the prevailing problems of the areas. Basic for front page Project Leader: Name of Institution Collaborators: Name and Institutions Duration of Project: Starting Date: Completion Date: Total Budget of Project: 1. Particularly. an explanation of the origin of the proposal and how it fits in the donors’ programmes or focus areas. Theme of the proposed study must be approximately reflected in the title (problem and solution) Must be informative enough to alert to the reader and give him idea that the researcher proposes to do research and not otherwise. 19 Guidelines for developing a Project Concept Notes (PCNs) Title: Does the PCN’s title fully reflect the proposed research project? Brief and clear enough. . and what are the possible constraints of studying limited areas either time or financial problems. Socio-economic aspects? ii.

Objective such as “to solve the social problems of the country or sites” or “to attain self- sufficiency in rice or milk or meat” are presumptions. OUTPUTS/RESULTS/OUTCOMES/ FINDINGS Is the proposed project technically and logically consistent? Purposes Outputs Activities a. 1. which will take up the products of research and engage in the process of transferring knowledge/ technology/ methodology to the beneficiaries. capable of disproof or verification. . 3. agencies or beneficiaries. However try to answer the following issues: Which of the hypothetical proposition is to be tested? Several hypotheses rather than one in the course of the investigation. 20 1. should not contradict any of the laws of nature. REVIEW OF LITERATURE To be fully prepared for the study of any problems: Proponent knows well that others have said or written about the problem.a solid foundation of background knowledge is imperative so that the researcher does not have to invent the wheel all over again. consulting colleagues who are knowledgeable on the problems helps.5 Hypothesis Hypothesis should take into consideration all relevant facts & avoid contradictions Should be plausible & general.4 Objectives Aim of the study or what is to expect of the study should be stated. Least probable are rejected and the most one confirmed. from the beginning.(farmers) Proponent has researched or is knowledgeable in the area being proposed. that he has sufficient experience in that researchers are to enable him to do the job. science has demanded not only accuracy and precision but simplicity. Institution does not have up to date library acquisitions. Hypothesis should of such a character that it is amendable to deductive application and testing i. Narrowed down to attainable objectives under reasonable conditions. Null hypothesis (Ho) or alternative hypothesis (Ha) can be use equally.should be made consistent. Are the research activities technically framed to produce the stated outputs? Technical approaches Research results or products should be appropriate to the project purpose Include identified promotion pathways to target institutions.e. Title of the proposal is often a broad statement of the objectives. Are the outputs logically framed to achieve the project purpose? c. Sufficient/auxiliary aid to research such as statistical tools. 2. Should be simple as possible for. Is the proposed of research project clearly stated? b. Target institutions are those formal or informal institutions. Other people one way or another could have known something about the problem and often even know more than the researcher at the outset. Indicates findings on which the proposal is building on.

methodology or knowledge transfer activities of the target institutions. environmental advantage.” “data will be analyzed and interpreted.(rate) The purchased of heavy equipment or using laboratory facilities of other institution and the charges of lab facilities should included in the budget. .2 The basic considerations in determining the sample size are: The degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity in the population Degree of accuracy required Resource at the disposal of the investigator.SPSS. INGOs. the location of the specific components of the research to be carried out and any special resources required to implement of the project should be included. 4. etc. economic. Department of Livestock Services.beneficiaries are those who gain social.trial or questionnaire Method of data analysis.g. Theoretical framework Sampling techniques and sample size.1 Equipments Required all inputs must be mentioned and budget with market prices.1 A complete procedure should consist of the following parts. roads. 5. time. the households. from the technology. fund and manpower 4. these include investment for construction of buildings. An activity of group of activities associated with the each output of the project. comprehensive. Activities defining the action strategy for accomplishing each output. seeing a well written. designed and implemented to achieve output of project. BENEFICIARIES Are the beneficiaries clearly identified? a. 21 e. 4. Do not dismiss the procedure by a few senseless statements like “sampling will be done” “data will be collected from secondary sources. experiments.users? b. and specific procedure. irrigation facilities. BUDGETARY REQUIREMENTS Is the proposed budget rationally presented? a. Does the budget show any obvious irregularities? 6. Does the proposed project specify the immediate end. Proposals of this nature require preparation of detailed development plans and are generally not submitted as part of the research project. Beneficiaries are individuals and farming households living in the particular areas. the village community or the global community. e. that the investigator is fully equipped and thoroughly prepared for his project. They may be identified for instance. NGOs. Department of Agriculture. Does the proposal specify the ultimate beneficiaries? Indicate main beneficiaries. 6. Reviewers.3 Research activities Research studies. bridges. etc.g. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY How the study will be conducted to attain the desire objectives to be able to test the hypotheses should occupy most of the researcher’s time.” Procedure must be discussed clearly and in sufficient detail to be understood by prospective reviewers. Method of data collection. surveys. Apart from this. Includes any facilities or expertise already available to the investigator or collaborator roles In addition. and purchase of land. R2 4. etc.

References All the reference materials reviewed should be listed. Will enable to research to convince the reviewer that he can do. mode of transport. . 6.3 Financial summary Items Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Total Staff salary (with inflation) Operational cost (TA/DA) Consumable/ Photocopies Equipment and Supplies Training and publication Overheads (1-5) Contingencies(1-5) Total 7. tentative schedule. salaries and total man days. Important assumptions are external conditions or a factor over which the project chooses not to exert control or do not have control (Killer assumptions) On which the accomplishment of the objectives depend. purpose of visit. travel allowance per diem and daily allowances (TA/DA) and transportation cost. Place of visit. number of people. frequencies of visit. Curriculum Vitae Curriculum vitae are to determine the research capability of the research leader and his accompanies. Beside salaries. Risks and Assumptions Includes those factors which might contribute to the project failing to achieve its objectives. 9. their positions. 22 6. 8. break down travel request and following guidelines.2 Personnel requirement Name of the existing personnel who will work on the project.

Control of extraneous variables: It must be shown that the results of the experiment are due entirely to the independent variable and not due to other factors or variables.e. data analysis v. i. the problem ii. Probably the best one . But. For instance. If it is found the higher result by higher age student. in the student’s research he or she will have little control over some errors.III RESEARCH DESIGN 3. 2. 23 UNIT.1 What is research Design? What is the researcher want to know? What has to be dealt with in order to obtain the required information? 3. that there is significant difference in the achievement scores between students who were taught by the case method and students who were taught by the lecture method. The first purpose is to answer the research question or test research hypothesis. One must try to maximize the difference of the dependent variables for the two classes creating as much difference as possible.testing the data collecting instruments. The higher results are obtained by the effect of teaching methods and not other factors like intelligence. it is due to extraneous variable. it was decided that there could be a high degree of merit in using the case method for teaching management. motivation. the methodology iii. age etc. report writing Conceptualizing the Research Design The research design has two purposes. data gathering iv. Maximization of experimental variance: This means in the above example that it is necessary to create as much difference between L 2 and C2 as possible. 1. The experiment was set as: Before After Test Results Test Results (first day) (Last day) Students with L1 L2 Control Group lecture method Students with C1 C2 Experiment Group case method Figure: An example of experimental research design How variance is controlled by the research design. This is also done by making sure that the class using the case method is really taught in a very different style. the researcher should try to randomly distribute the age in both of the classes. at the Faculty of Management students. It becomes necessary to test this hypothesis. The second purpose of research design is to control variance. If one believes that the age is the important variable in the results. The research hypothesis is introduced as tentative theory is to be proved or disproved in the research study. If questionnaire or some observational methods are used for controlling data.2 Elements of a Research Design The basic elements of a research design are: i. then errors can be minimized by understanding and pre. Minimize the error variance: It is difficult to control three variances. 3.

Collect the data: Both the primary and secondary should be collected separately. synthesising past evidences systematically and objectively to reach a conclusion. the hypotheses that will give direction and focus to the research. which analyses the authenticity. evaluating. State the objectives and if possible. or bias information. much claiming to be historical is an undisciplined collection of inappropriate. accuracy. 4. unreliable. 24 can do in controlling the errors is to be familiar with his or her data collecting methods before using them. which precedes other forms of research. 3. It track down the more information. and 7. “If authentic. Note cards or small file cards (size. Contrary to popular notions. 5. Historical 2.Comparative. Historical Research (HR) depends upon data observed by other rather than investigator. 3. Historical Past phenomenon Process of collecting. HR depends up on two kinds of data such as primary sources where the author was direct observer of the recorded event and secondary sources where the author is reporting the observations. HR is similar to review of literature. systematic and exhaustive. 3. Define the problem and asks this question yourself: Is the HR approach best suited for these problems? Are pertinent data available? Will the findings be educationally significant? 2. These three aspects of controlling variances have been put into one principle called the “Maxicon Principle” and are stated as: Maximize the systematic variance understudy. Characteristics 1. which asks. the HR is more exhaustive. Descriptive 3. Good data result from painstaking work. Action Research Design 1. 2. historical research must be rigorous. and significance of source material. “Is the document or relic (historic event) authentic?” and internal criticism asks. and material not cited in the references. verifying. more demanding than experimental methods.4 Types of Research Design 1. Case Study 5. which were old and unpublished. Steps: 1. Developmental 4. An important HR is note taking. primary sources carry the authority of firsthand evidence and priority in data collection. 4. Evaluate the data. control extraneous systematic variance. . Correlated 6. Two basic criticisms weigh the value of data: The external criticism. are the data accurate and relevant? The critical evaluation of the data is what makes true HR so rigorous in many ways. Past events to present.3”x5” or 4”x6”) are used for taking information with one card for one topic for convenient and rearranging. applying both internal and external criticism. Causal. and seeking out the information from larger array of sources. Of the two. and minimize error variance.

Longitudinal growth study b. test hypotheses. make predictions or make meaning and implication of a study.sectional growth study c. Longitudinal growth study This study measures the nature and rate of change in a sample at different stages of development. conclusions and references. Characteristics of DR 1. It includes all forms of research except historical and experimental for broader context. What facts and characteristics are to be uncovered? 2. findings. sequences and other inter. A Cohort Study e. Research aimed it as more powerful purposes may incorporate DR. Steps: 1. So. methods. The accumulation of a database that is solely descriptive and it does not seek or explain relationship. test hypotheses. Literal meaning of describing situation or events. . 2. Design the approach: How the data will be collected? How will be the subject is selected to ensure they represent the population to be described? What instruments or techniques available or to be developed? Will the data collection methods need to be field. Purpose of Descriptive Studies: To collect detail factual information that describe existing phenomenon To identify the problems or justify current conditions and practices To make comparisons and evaluations To determine what others are doing in same conditions and benefits from their experience in making future plan and decisions. Define objectives in clear and specific term. predictions and implication. Methods of Developmental Research a.related factors over a period of time. review of literature. Cross.sectional or one short studies because data are collected two different points of time. It is an extension of an exploratory research. developmental research is done for the purpose of future trends. Descriptive Research (DR) Descriptive Research is process of accumulating facts does not explaining relationship. This method is not a cross. Trend study d. It also used survey method for widen descriptive method. their rate of change. Particularly. A panel Study a. important assumptions. interpretation. Report the findings: including a statement of problem. basic hypotheses. it is the study carried longitudinal across the period of time. Developmental Research The Developmental Research focus on variables. 2.tested and will data gathers need to be trained? Collect the data Report the results 3. 25 5. directions. Data were collect two or more different point of time from same groups of individuals.

26 b. For this purpose of study. The longitudinal studies is the only direct method of studying human development.section of the society for comparing and describing the groups.sectional is less expensive and faster since the actual passage of time is eliminated by sampling different subjects across age ranges such as children. economic. Such studies are rare due to difficulty of maintaining contact with the members of the cohort from year to year. Cross. For instance single parenthood. the cross. e. their direction. but describe fewer growth factors than longitudinal studies. Trend studies are vulnerable unpredictable factors that modify or invalidate trends based on the past. These studies are used to obtain and analyse social. and political data to identify trends and to predict what takes place in the future. It is also called as one. we should take a group of people and interview them at periodic intervals on the same subject over a number of years. any selected factor affecting the attrition (slow destruction) biases the longitudinal study. d. A Cohort Study It is the study of specific group such as those born in the same period.shot studies. data are compiled for the same population over time. The sampling problem in the longitudinal method is complicated by the limited number of subjects it can follow over the years.sectional studies usually use more subjects.sectional growth study This measures the rate of change by drawing sample from a cross. Define the problems or state objectives . In general. Data are collected at intervals spread over a period of time and called trend study.range prediction is an educated o experience guess while short range prediction is more reliable and valid. 3. Trend study This study is designed to establish patterns of change in the past in order to predict future patterns or conditions. Regression analysis is frequently used for trend studies. their sequences and the interrelated factors affecting these characteristics?” 2. “What are the patterns of growth. c. It can be avoided by sampling stable population but it introduces unknown biases to such population. Steps: 1. Cross. A panel is group of individuals who are agreed to provide information to researcher over a period of time. 4. we take same people and study their attitudes towards a particular phenomenon over time. A panel Study It is the best method of research for change. Panel study Longitudinal study Developmental studies Cohort Study Cross.sectional study Sample survey Figure: Form of developmental study Characteristics of Developmental Research 1. Data are gathered at once over a period of time in order answer the research question. A sample of sub- group is studied at different points of time. their rates. To form cohort studies. Developmental Research focuses on the study of variables and their development over a period of times or years and asks. long.

Collect the data 5. Case Study In case study. The selective judgement rule in or out or high or low value of significance. These studies make useful contribution to research as: A case study is more expensive because of it exploratory in nature. Correlational Research The correlational research is used to ascertain the extent to which two variables are related. subjective interpretation is influencing the outcomes. Weakness: Case studies are limited in representativeness and do generalized findings until the appropriate follow. the researcher conducts a comprehensive study of the social unit as it functions in society. a community. a family. and processes will direct the investigation? Design the approach. an investigator makes and intensive of a social unit i. Characteristics of case study Case studies are in. Strengths: It develops background information for planning major investigation in the social sciences.up research is accomplished. bring important variables. As compared to survey study which tends to examine a small number of variables across a large sample of unit. The researcher tries to control the personal biases and standards to influence his or her interpretation. sources of data and data collection should decide. focusing on specific hypotheses and using proper sampling methods. Steps: State the objectives. well. characteristics. processes and interactions that deserve extensive attention for study. Evaluate the data and report the results 4.depth studies of a given social unit resulting in a complete and well organized picture of that unit. a social group. 27 2. a person. There are some elements of subjectivity. It cover the entire life cycle of a given segment and it concentrates to a specific factors or events to a given elements. relationships. etc. Case studies are intensive. After analyzing the sequence and inter. such variables are said to be covary.relationship of these facts. change in one variable accompany changes in another or exist the relashionship between them. What is the unit of study. past experiences and environmental forces that contributes to the individuality and behaviour of the unit. Case studies prove useful examples to illustrate generalised statistical findings. Unit selection. Case studies are vulnerable to subjective biases. Design the approach 4. Review of literature for baseline information and comparing the research methodologies for data collection 3.e. an institution. A generalization drawn from a single case cannot apply to all cases in a give population. • Use to obtain description of phenomenon . The investigator collects present status. a case study tends to examine a small number of units across a large number of variables and conditions. Collect the data. Report the results and discuss their significance 5. It pioneers the new ground and often the sources of fruitful hypotheses for further study. Organize the information to form the coherent.integrated reconstruction of the unit of study. in correlational relationship.

4. • Select or develop appropriate measuring instruments. 3. 3. Collect the data.0 No correlation Characteristics 1. the dependent variable or variables. Steps: 1. 28 • Two variables are related • Changes in one variable accompany changes to another but actual influences is difficult to identify • These variable are called covary or co. 6. • It is prone to identify spurious relational patterns or elements. Benefits of workers and productivity • Negative correlation.comparative research • Studies that establish causal relationship between variables and also called explanatory studies. • Known as ‘ex post facto’ research. 5. Define the problem 2. Get at the degree of relationship rather than the all. Perfect negative 0. indiscriminately throwing in data from miscellaneous sources and defying any meaningful useful interpretation. Review the literature. Design the approach: • Identify the relevant variables. • It encourages a “shot-gun” approach to research. Appropriate where variables are complex and/or do not lend to experimental and controlled manipulation. • It is less rigorous than the experimental approach because it exercises less control over the independent variables.it does not necessarily identify cause.nothing question posed by experimental design: “Is an effect present or absent?” 4. • Explaining the relationship between two variables. Kerlinger states: Ex post facto research is that research in which the independent variable or variables have already occurred and in which the researcher starts with the observation of a dependent variable or variables.and –effect relationships. . and effect on. • Select the correlational approach that fits the problem. inverse relation.or. Permits the measurement of several variables and their relationship simultaneously and in realistic setting. • Research investigates the possible causes affecting the results. Analyze and interpret the results. Among its limitations are the following: • It only identifies what goes with what. 2.variables. He then studies the independent variables in retrospect for their possible relations to. • Select the appropriate subjects. Causal. eg. Absence rate of employees result in decrease in production • No correlation Correlation range + Perfect positive . eg. • The relational patterns are often arbitrary and ambiguous. which have little or no reliability or validity. Three types of correlation • Positive correlation.

preventing the normal interaction with other influential variables. seeking out causes. • When laboratory controls for many research purposes would be impractical. Validate the data gathering techniques. The causal. and interpret the findings in clear and precise terms. The relevant causative factor is actually included among the many factors under study. Improvements in techniques. 3. 2. • Select the techniques for collecting data. Describe. Steps: 1. The main weakness of any ex post facto design is the lack of control over independent variables. costly or ethically questionable. Weaknesses: 1. Survey the literature. • Asymmetrical Relationship: This relation postulates that changes in one variable (Independent Variable) are responsible for change in another variable (dependent variable). State the hypotheses 4.comparative research is ‘ex post facto’ in nature. appropriate to show significant relationship. 2. 7. Design the approach: • Select the appropriate subjects and sources materials. the researcher considers the possible reasons or rival hypotheses for the results. under what conditions. • When the control of all variations except a single independent variable may be highly unrealistic and artificial. which means the data are collected after the research has been already occurred. 6. Characteristics: Causal. and their meanings. This could occur if the reading of an advertisement leads to the use of a brand of product. List the assumptions upon which the hypotheses and procedures will be based. Action Research Working definition of action research: If yours is a situation of action research . analyze. • Classify the data categorically which are unambiguous. Strengths: 1. relationships. control and manipulate the factors necessary to study cause. and the like. The researcher takes one or more effects and examines the data going back time. 5. To reach sound conclusion. statistical methods and design with partial control features. 29 Three possible relationships between two variables • Symmetrical Relationship: Two variables fluctuate together. Ambiguous cause and effect (May reverse). 3.and – effect relations directly. 6. The additional factor may not discover. 2. No single factor is causing the outcome but the combination and interaction of factors go together under certain conditions to yield a given outcome. It yields useful information concerning the nature of phenomena: what goes with what. 5. 4.comparative method is appropriate where the more powerful experimental method is not possible: • When it is not always possible to select. 3. 7. in what sequences and patterns. • Reciprocal Relationship: Such relationship exists when two variables mutually influence or reinforce each other. No multiple causes: One cause in one instance and another cause in another instance. Define the problem.

• Reflection which supports the ideas of the “(self-) reflective practitioners” Then • Yours is a situation in which ACTION RESEARCH is occurring The working definition is jointly authored by the participants at the International Symposium on Action Research. reflecting. etc. acting.sharing and the relative suspension of hierarchical ways of working towards industrial democracy • Collaboration among members of the group as a “critical community” • Self. 1989. . observing. but • Rather rich in examples which might support the development of shared meanings • Open enough so that further elaboration and development seemed possible • Allowing for an ex post facto incorporation of projects into the discussion. and • Above all. Brisbone. We would suggest that this working definition was acceptable to the full range of participants because it is: • Not too threatening to existing understandings and practices • Not too vague so that everything was included.evaluation and self.management by autonomous and responsible persons and groups • Learning progressively (and publicly) by doing and making mistakes in a “self- reflective spiral” of planning.making • Power. self. shared with respect to the process of it formulation for a specific content. 30 • People reflect and improve (or develop) their work and their own situations • By tightly interlinking their reflection and action • And also making their experience public not only to other participants but also to other persons interested in and concerned about the work and the situation And yours is situation in which there is increasingly • Data gathering by participant themselves in relation to their own questions • Participants (in problem posing and in answering questions) in decision.reflection. replanning.

. sex. They are: • Dependent variable • Independent variable • Intervening variable • Moderating variable 1. change in dependent variable (increase or decrease). Thurstone and Guttaman Scaling) 4. age.2 Scales of Measurement: Nominal. etc. so productivity is dependent variables. so he wants to know the variance of production level in relation to training. • Marketing manager.g age. productivity “A variable is defined as anything that can take on differing or varying values. groups. Ordinal.3 The construction of attitudes and social scales (Likert. things.employees’ productivity which vary low. consumers’ complaint is dependent variables. • Variable used to describe or measure the problem under study is called dependent variables.consumer complaints or dissatisfaction of products. So. Dependent variable “A variable is called dependent variable if its values depend upon other variable or variables. if certain changes appear in other related variables? • The investigator is interested to measuring the variability in the dependent variable. Independent and Intervening Variables 4. • Any change independent variable (+ve or –ve). Examples.Type. E.1 Types of variables: Dependent. The productivity is the main factor of interest to the production manager. sex. So. Interval and Ratio Scale 4. •Symbol to which numerals or values assigned. analyze and predict the variability in the dependent variable. •A variable is defined as anything that can take on differing or varying vales.1 Types of variables There are four main types of variables. the production level of worker’s is dependent variable to the independent variable such as training.” • Values depend upon other variables • Investigator’s purpose is to study. 2. • Production manager. 31 UNIT IV: MEASUREMENT AND SCALING 4. • Personnel officer.a good training will increase the production level of workers. Independent variable “A variable is called independent variable if it is not influenced by variable under study. the marketing manager may want to know the accounts for the variance of consumers’ complaints.” • If it is not influenced by other variable under study but it influences to dependent variable. variance in consumer complaints. jobs. etc. • What result in dependent. Variable •Variable are characteristics of persons. – Examples.” 4. medium and high. objects. attitudes. The officer is interested in raising the production of workers.4 Reliability and validity of measurements.

32 • Basis for prediction.dependent variable is being predicted • Independent variables are used to describe or measure the influence the problem. • Marketing manager is interested to increase the sales by advertising: Advertising (independent variable) leads to volume of sales (dependent variable) • Annual saving of employees’ is the function annual earnings • Agricultural output is function of inputs (fertilizers and irrigation) Advertising Volume of sales Independent Dependent Variable Variable Figure: Relationship between dependent and independent variables Fertilizer Agricultural Output Irrigation Independent Dependent Variable Variable Figure: Relationship between dependent and independent variables . • How change in independent variable affects to the value of dependent variable. Examples.

33

3. Intervening variable

“If a variable influences the nature and degree of relationship between independent and

dependent variable, such variable is called intervening variable.”

• There should relationship between dependent variable and independent variable.

• A third variable influences the nature and degree of relationship between independent

variable and dependent variable such variable is called intervening variable.

• Give the true picture of cause and effect.

For instance, A production manager want to know the job performance, when they are given the

challenging with motivation which motivate the workers.

Example

Challenging jobs Motivation Job Performance

Independent variable Intervening variable Dependent variable

**Figure: Showing the relationship between dependent and independent variable with the presence of
**

intervening variable

4. Moderating variable

“A moderating variable is one that has strong contingent effect on the dependent-

independent variable relationship. The third variable significantly moderating the expected

relationship between dependent and independent variables.”

• Strong contingent effect on the dependent- independent variable relationship.

• Believed as second independent variable to significant effect to originally expected

relationship.

• Third or moderating variable modify the above relationship.

For instance, a manager is interested to know the relationship between training and the

productivity of workers. It is effective when the workers are young, whereas if the workers is

more than 50 years, does not increase the productivity. So, age is moderating variable.

34

Example,

Training Productivity

Independent variable Dependent variable

**Worker’s age over 50 vs below 50
**

years

Moderating variable

Figure: Showing the moderating variable effect on dependent and independent variable

Wage Job

satisfaction

Dependent variable

Independent variable

Extra income

Moderating variable

Figure: Showing the moderating relationship

4.2 Scales of Measurement

**A scale is the tool by which individuals are distinguished on the variable of interest to the study.
**

In social science, there are four types of scales. They are:

1. Nominal

2. Ordinal

3. Interval

4. Ratio Scale

1. Nominal Scale

A nominal scale is one that allows the researcher to assign the subjects to certain categories or

groups.

• To assign certain subjects, group or categories

• Is the simplest and lowest form recording the data, and

• Provide the very basic information of personnel data.

Examples:

Gender: Male, female

Religion: Hindu, Buddhist, etc

Occupation: Teacher, student, agriculture, business

35

**Nationality: Nepali, Indian, etc
**

Department: Sales, account, production

2. Ordinal Scale

A scale is ordinal when objects can assigned order on some characteristics but they cannot be

assigned values that represent degree of differences on that characteristics and use in the case

preferences.

• A scale is ordinal when object can be assigned in order on some characteristics but they

cannot be assigned values that represent the degree of difference on that characteristic.

• Ranking in order likes drinks- coca- cola, pepsi, fanta, etc.

• Social status of jobs:

Jobs Rank

– Doctor ……

– Engineer ….

– Professor …

– Lawyer …..

3. Interval Scale

• Scale assumes that the data have equal intervals

Example: Behavioural research- measurement of attitudes and certain psychological

characteristics such as intelligence and learning

**Possible answer Interval scale
**

Strongly agree 1

Agree 2

I don’t agree 3

Disagree 4

Strongly disagree 5

4. Ratio Scale

• To indicate ratio

• Ratio indicates not only the magnitude of the differences but also the proportion of the

differences.

• Responses could be in range from 0 to any figure

Example: 10 years old boy is the twice of the 5 years old boy, other ratio scales are age, income,

working hours, etc.

What is your annual income? ……

How many children do you have? ……

How many workers are the members of the union? …

Changing the scale format

**Ordinal Interval Ratio
**

What is your income? What is your income? What is your income?

Very low Less than Rs. 1000

Low 1000 to 2000

Average 2001 to 3000 My annual income is Rs. …

High 3001 to 4000

Very High More than 4000

36

4.3 The Construction of attitudes and ratio scales

**Feelings, perceptions and behaviours towards other things, people, places, etc.
**

Feelings and perceptions are called attitudes and measured by attitude scales.

There are procedures of developing measures.

Specify the

construct

Generate sample

of items

Collect

Data

Purify

measure

Figure: Procedure fro developing measure Assess

validity

Scales of attitude measurement

1. Arbitrary scales

2. Likert- Type Scales (Summated Rating Scale)

3. Thurstone Scales (Equal- Appearing Interval Scales)

4. Guttman Scales (Cumulative Scales)

1. Arbitrary scales

• Ad hoc basis or arbitrary

• Researcher’s subjective selection of items

• Examples: How do you assess the reputation of this college? (Excellent facilities,

learning (Bad,---------, Good)

2. Likert- Type Scales (Summated Rating Scale)

**•Self- report technique for attitude measurement in which the subjects are asked their
**

degree of agreement and disagreement with each of statements.

• The summing score is the total attitude score, is the Likert scale. Example,

Most people can be trusted.

• Strongly agree5_ Agree4_ Undecided3_ Disagree2_ Strongly disagree1

• Any body select 1 to 5

• Take other similar items- to find out general attitude of indication

• Add the total score- the top 25% - the most favourable attitude and bottom 25%- the least

favourable attitude toward the topic being studied;

Guide for the construction of the Likert Scale

Nature:

• This is summated scale consisting of a series of to which the subject responds.

• Respondent indicate agreement or disagreement- in intensity

• Likert technique produces an ordinal scale which requires non- parametric statistics for

analysis.

Utility

37

**• This scale is reliable when it roughly ordering of people’s particular attitude or attitude
**

complex.

• The score includes a measure of intensity as expressed on each statement.

Construction:

• The investigator collect a large number of items considered relevant to the attitude

being investigated and either clearly favourable or unfavourable.

• These items are administered to a group of representative whom are you asking the

question.

• The responses to the various items are scored in such a way that a response indicative of

the most favourable attitude is giventhe highest score.

• Each individual’s total score is computed by adding his or her item score.

• The responses are analyzed which items differentiate most clearly between the highest

and the lowest qualities of total score.

• The items which differentiate best (at least 6) are used to form a scale.

**3. Thurstone Scale (Equal- Appearing interval Scale)
**

•Scaling technique requires item to be selected by a panel judges.

•The items are evaluated on:

– Relevance to the topic area

– Potential for ambiguity

– Level of attitude they represent

• Developed by LL Thurstone and called equal appearing interval scale

• Indicating agreement or disagreement

• All the items on the objective test are equal value.

• Actually some items are given higher value than other items.

Example,

**My job is like a hobby to me. (10.1)
**

I am satisfied with my job for the time being. (7.2)

I am often bored with my job. (3.2)

Most of the time I have to force myself to got to work. (1.1)

A guide for the construction and use of Thurstone of Equal – appearing Interval Scale

1. Nature:

• Items of scale are determined by ranking operation done by judges.

• Responses which best describe how he or she feels

2. Utility

• Scale measurement is interval

• The distance between any two numbers of scale is of known- size.

• Parametric and non- parametric statistics may be applied.

3. Construction

• Several hundred statements conceived to be related to the attitude being

investigated.

• A large number of judges (50- 300) independently classify statement to eleven

groups ranging from most favorable to neutral to least favorable

• The scale value of a statement is computed as the median position to which it is

assigned by the group of judges.

• Statements which have too broad a spread are discarded as ambiguous or

irrelevant.

if 10 respondents. validity on the other hand results from careful planning of questionnaire . Suppose. Nature: • It attempts to unidimensionality of scale. Utility • Scale measurement is interval • The distance between any two numbers of scales is of known. • A large number of judges (50. 28/7 = ? b. • How? Validity generally results from careful planning of questionnaire. 3. Whereas.parametric statistics may be applied. would give same result.300) independently classify statement to eleven groups ranging from most favourable to neutral to least favourable 4. • Reliability results from taking larger sample of respondents. • Items of scale are determined by ranking operation done by judges. 8 x 4 = ? c. that is if a person can answer the first item he or she probably will be able to answer the second or visa versa. Construction • Several hundred statements conceived to be related to the attitude being investigated. • Cautious wording • Preliminary testing of items to detect misunderstanding Reliability: • Data are considered to be reliable when they give assurance that they are reasonably close to the truth. results reached to stable and not change. • Again survey more people. 12 + 9 = ? a b c Total score First child 1 1 1 3 Second child 0 1 1 2 Third child 0 0 1 1 Fourth child 0 0 0 0 A guide for the construction and use of Guttman Cumulative Scale 1. results might vary. if 90 respondents added.4 Reliability and validity of measurements. 4. • Parametric and non. Reliability would then be assured. Guttman Scales (Cumulative Scales) • The cumulative scales like the other scales consist of set of items which are answered. • Responses which best describe how he or she feels 2.size. Validity: • Data are considered to be valid when they measure what they are supposed to measure. Example: Four children were given three arithmetic items: a. 38 • The scale is formed by selecting items which are evenly spread along the scale from one extreme to the other. • The Guttman scale tend to be cumulative.

2. – Concurrent validity. – Discriminate validity. Test. – Predictive validity. the lower the reliability.retest reliability. Construct validity • It involves understanding the meaning of the obtained measurements.2 RELIABILITY • Reliability means the consistency between measurements in the series. 1.giving another form of measure 3.4.related validity 1. Test. • The two most commonly used methods of content validation involve the use of logical and personal judgments of groups of expert.retests reliability • Repeating measurement using the same instrument under as nearly equivalent conditions as possible. A valid measurement reflects only the characteristics of interest and random error. Types of validity: 1.variables predicted to be uncorrelated 3. Split.related validity • It involves inferring an individual’s score or standing on the measurement.dividing in to two equivalent parts. Criterion. Alternative form reliability . • It is with multi. • • It is commonly used in applied research 2.item measures of measuring instrument for assessing above representativeness and adequacy.4. • Compare the results. This validity is assessed through: – Convergent validity. same result is affected by some variable or random error.repetition of same measure 2.current measurement to future prediction of an individual. But.individual’s present standing with respect to some other variables. 1. 39 4. Construct Validity 3. 4.two score from two different instruments are highly correlated. • It is concerned with knowing more than just that a measuring instrument works or explains the variance of measurement errors. • It indicates the precision of measurement scores or how accurately such scores produced with repeated measurements.greater the difference. Alternative form reliability. Content validity • It involves assessing the representativeness or sampling adequacy fro measuring the measurement errors.1 VALIDITY • Validity is concern with systematic error. Content validity 2.half reliability. Criterion.

confusion or biasing. The correlation between the test and independent criterion can never be higher than the squire root of the product of reliability test. low reliability is not a serious problem. • Reluctant to give information.by- item and the degree of similarity is determined • Basis is same as test. 5. • If.6 is unsatisfactory result Relationship between reliability and validity 1. 40 • Applying two equivalent forms of measuring instruments to the same objects. the test with the higher reliability will also have the higher validity coefficient.associated Errors • Respondent may not understand question. which is ranging from o to 1. Lack of sequencing .electric shaver Instrument. Sources of measurement problems 1. Split. 2. of items into two groups (Odd and even numbers. • As in above test-retest reliability the results of two instruments are compared item.retest approach 3. Poor choice of words 4. When predictive validity is satisfactory.half reliability- • It is modification of alternative form approach. less than 0. • It is obtained by calculating the correlations between two halves of an instrument.half reliability involves dividing the total no. Ambiguous instructions 3. • Respondent may not remember the necessary information and rely on recall basis. Limited space. predictive validity is more important than reliability. • It is consistency is the reliability. Rule for the limit reliability places on validity. Excessive and lengthy question. Given two tests measuring the same thing. Respondent.associated errors 1. • Computing correlation coefficient of two halves. • Problem of environment or conditions: – Problem of expression – Question ask to wrong person. 3. • The usual approach to split. 2. For a set to predict a particular criterion.

etc. Sampling Frame or source list A list of all the units of population from which a sample is selected is called sampling frame. Finite population: The number of items or the units under the study is known. g. For instance. It is a constant value because it covers all the members of the population. reliable and flexible. Statistic It is characteristics of a sample and is hence computed from the actual data. An element constitutes one case for analysis.1 Sampling and its significance in research Sampling consists of obtaining information from only a part of a large group or population. Parameter A coefficient or value for the population that corresponds to particular statistic from a sample is called parameter. If the data collected by a certain group or part of population is called sampling enquiry.e. . all the universe or population is studied while in a sample survey an appropriate number of units called samples is selected and studied. Sampling unit: The smallest unit of population to be sampled is called sampling unit and on which observations can be made. Infinite population: The number of units of the items is unknown. e. Universe/Population: It is the set of object under study. and it indicates about the whole population. f. b. standard deviation (σ). In a census survey. such mean (µ). standard deviation. A parameter is characteristic of population. i. A sample should be optimum. Standard deviation (s) and proportion (P). 41 UNIT V: SAMPLING PROCESS AND DATA COLLECTION 5. The value calculated from a defined population. representative.) is called a parameter. h. The data is the basic units in statistical analysis and inference. the generalization is made for the universe or population from which the samples are drawn. Method of collection of statistical data by complete enumeration of the population is census. c. mean. standard error of mean (s. This is the number of respondents or units in the population included in a sample for studying the population. Sample and sample size: An element or sampling unit from which information is collected is called a sample. effective. d. The principal advantages of sampling as compared to complete enumeration of the population are: Reduced cost Save time and speed up Greater scope and improved accuracy Some terminology used in sampling a. A value calculated from a sample is called statistic such as mean ( X ). is either collected by experimentation or by sampling methods. The term sample size refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample. The objective of sampling is thus to secure a sample which will represent the population and reproduce the important characteristics of the population under the study as closely as possible. Element: Each and every unit of population or universe is called element.

k. The Sampling Process Step 1 Define the population Specify the sampling frame Step 2 Step 3 Specify the sampling unit Step 4 Selection of sampling method Step 5 Determine the sample size Step 6 Specify the sampling plan Step 7 Select the sample . Validity: A survey is valid to the degree that is measures what and only what it is supposed to measure. or some other responses. could not reach. It is also termed as repeatability. 42 j. the ability to get the same data values from several measurements from a similar manner. Respondent A sampling unit from which information is collected is called respondent. Reliability: It refers to the freedom from random error.respondent Those respondents who were included in the sample but failed to respond because they refused. Non. n. To be valid it must be affected by numerous factors that systematically “push” or “pull” the results in the one particular direction. Sampling Error: The degree to which the results from the sample deviates from those that would be obtained from the entire population because of random error in the selection of respondent and the corresponding reduction in the reliability. l. m.

The larger your sample’s size the lower the likely error in generalizing to the population. If the population is less than 50 take all the entire population for the study 1. 43 5. Probability sampling is therefore a compromise between the accuracy of your .probability Simple Stratified Quota Snowbal Convenience random random l Purposive Self- Systematic Cluster selection Multistage Extreme Homogenous Typical case case Heterogeneous Critical case Figure: Sampling techniques 5. The process of probability sampling can be divided into four stages: 1. An incomplete or inaccurate list means that some cases will have been excluded and so it will be impossible for every case in the population to have a chance of selection. Consequently sample may not be representative of the total population.2. Select the most appropriate sampling technique and select the sample. Deciding on a suitable sample size Generalizations about the populations from the data collected using any probability samples are based on probability. 3. The completeness of your sampling frame is very important. Check that the sample is representative of the population. Identifying a suitable sampling frame The sampling frame for any probability sample is a complete list of all the cases in the population from which your sample will be drawn.based research where you need to take inferences from your sample about a population to answer your questions to meet your objectives. in other words is it complete? Does the sampling frame exclude irrelevant cases. 4. Decide on a suitable sample size.1 Probability sampling Probability sampling is the most commonly associated with survey. in other words is it precise? (For purchased lists) can you established precisely how the sample will be selected? 2.2 Types of sampling or Sampling Techniques Sampling Probability Non. Checklist for selecting a sample frame Are cases listed in the sampling frame relevant to your research topic. 2. Identify a suitable sampling frame based on your research questions or objectives. for example are they current? Does the sampling frame exclude all the cases.

These figures can then be substituted into the formula: 2 1. checking and analyzing the data. The formula is: 2 z n p % xq% x e% where. that is the level of certainty that the characteristics of the data collected will represent the characteristics of the total population. 44 findings and the amount of time and money you invest in collecting.96 n 40 x 60 x 5 . The size of the total population from which your sample is being done. n is the minimum sample size required p% proportion belonging the specified category q% is the proportion not belonging to the specified category z is the z value corresponding to the level of confidence required(Table below) e% is the margin of error required Where your population is less than 10000 a smaller sample size can be used without affecting the accuracy. n’ is the adjusted minimum sample size n is the minimum sample size (as calculate above) N is the total population Worked example: Given. that is the accuracy you require for any estimates from your sample. From your pilot survey you discover that 12 out of 30 clients receive a visit at least once a week. Calculating the minimum sample size Based on How confident you need to be that the estimate is accurate (the level of confidence in the estimate). The margin of error that you can tolerate. This is called the adjusted minimum sample size. Total population = 4000 95 % certain and z value = 1. Statistical techniques have minimum threshold of the cases for each cell for instance chi square and to a lesser extent. How accurate the estimate need to be (the margin of error that can be tolerated).96 The margin of error that can be tolerated = 5% You still need to estimate the proportion of responses who receive a visit from their home care assistant at least once a week. It is calculate from the following formula: n n' n 1 N where. The size of sample based on: The confidence you need to have in your data. The proportion of responses you expect to have some particular attribute. in other words that 40 percent belong to specified category and 60 percent do not.

Non.2 Systematic 3.092 369. As the total population of home care clients is 4000 the adjusted minimum sample size can now be calculated: n n' n 1 N 369.6 1 0.092 338. Selecting the most appropriate sampling technique and the sample There are five main techniques can be used to select the probability sample. Ineligibility to respond.6 Your minimum sample size is therefore 370 returns. They are: Refusal of respond.6 369.contact Total number of responses Response rate = Total number in sample .5 Multi-stage 3. 45 2400x ( 0.1 Simple random In random sampling all the items of population have equal chance of being selected in the sample whereas in the non.1 Simple random 3. However this assumes a response rate of 100 percent.6 1.4 Cluster 3.46 Because of the small total population you only need a minimum sample size of 339.6 1 4000 369. They are: 3.3 Stratified 3.(Ineligible + unreachable) The actual sample size: Given. The importance of high response rate There are problems of responses.154 369. Adjusted minimum sample size is 439 Response rate would be 30 percent Then. 439 x100 43900 na 1463 30 30 3.392) 2 2400x 0.random sampling personal knowledge and opinion are used to .

3. Simple random sampling with replacement and simple random sampling without replacement are the two types simple random sampling.2 Systematic Systematic sampling involves you selecting the sample at regular intervals from the sampling frame. then it is known as simple random sampling with replacement. The first case is numbered 0. 3. Selection of Simple Random Sample Lottery method Random numbers method Lottery Method This is the simplest method of selecting a random sample from a finite sample. Number each of the cases in your sampling frame with a unique number. Select the first case using a random number. The selection is not affected by the bias of the investigator and it depends completely on the element of chance. . the second 1 and so on. Statisticians like Tippet. ……. Particularly. The r unit corresponding to numbers on the cards drawn constitutes a random sample. But in the other hand if the unit selected is not replaced in the population. random sampling is also called representative or proportionate sampling. Calculate the sampling fraction. Tippet’s random table is used for this purpose. To select r units as a random sample from a finite population of N units we write 1. Steps: Identify the N units in the population with the numbers from 1to N. Simple random sampling is the technique of drawing a sample in such a way that each unit of the population has an equal and independent chance of being included in the sample. Select the subsequent cases systematically using the sampling fraction to determine the frequently of selection. This random table is used in the case when. up to ‘n’ in the faces of ‘n’ cards. column or diagonal at random. Since all groups of the population are proportionately represented in the sample. 3. then it is known as simple random sampling without replacement. Yates and Fisher have prepared Tables of random numbers. if the population is not widely spread geographically and the population is more or less homogenous. If a unit selected in a draw is replaced in the population before making the next draw. Select at random any page of number table and pick up the required numbers ≤ N in any row. Random sampling ensures the law of statistical regularity. To do this you: 1. 2. 4. This is the reason why random sampling is considered the best technique of selecting a representative sample. the number of items in the universe goes on decline. 2. which states that if on an average a sample chosen is a random on then the sample will have the same composition and characteristics as the universe. Random Number Method The other method of obtaining a random sample is by the use of random number Tables. Then these N cards are thoroughly shuffled and ‘r’ cards are drawn on by one. For SRSWR the probability of selection of any unit in the universe with N objects always remains 1/N whereas for SRSWOR. 46 identify those items from population that are to be included in the sample.

K Smith 005 Mrs.stage sampling. number each of the cases within each stratum with a unique number as discussed earlier. 300 1 it means you can select the every fifth patient from the sampling frame. the area is first divided into smaller unit called clusters (based on the purpose of the study). All the units in that cluster are used as sample. 3. Calculate the sampling fraction. A Thornhill 006 Mrs. Stages: 1. K Smith 004 Mr. 1500 5 2. M Saunders 003 Mr. A random sample (simple or systematic) is then drawn from each of the strata. Steps: 1. S Davis 002 Mrs. 4.3 Stratified random sampling Stratified random sampling is modification of random sampling in which you divide the population into two or more relevant and significant strata based on one or a numbers of attributes. Example: Female stratum Male stratum Number Customer Selected Number Customer Selected 000 Mrs. P Lewis 003 Mrs. M Saunders √ 004 Mrs. Some researchers say that it is an extension of multi. Consequently stratified sampling shares many of the advantages and disadvantages of simple random and systematic sampling. In effect your sampling frame is divided into a number of subsets. P Wordden 007 Mr. divide the sampling frame into the discrete starta. 47 Actual sample size Sampling fraction = Total population Example: Given. 2.4 Cluster This method is used when the total area under study is big and study population is spread well over the area thus making difficult to prepare sampling frame. P Wordden √ 3. If the technique is used for geographical areas.digit random number between 0 and 4. Another purpose of it is to reduce the cost of traveling. and these cluster are selected for the purpose of study by using either random sampling techniques or systematic sampling technique. then you would select the following patient’s numbers: 2 7 12 17 22 27 32 37 and so on until 300 patients had been selected. P Lewis 002 Mr. You decide to select one. In this method. Chose the cluster grouping for sampling frame. If the selected number is 2. choose the stratification variable (s).D Wollons 007 Mrs. Total patients’ population = 1500 Acceptable and accuracy sample size = 300 How to decide to select them by using systematic sampling? 1.D Wollons 006 Mr. select your sample using either simple random or systematic sampling as discussed earlier. . As compared with the SRS and Systematic Sampling. B Baker 000 Mr. 3. A Thornhill √ 005 Mr. P Davis √ 001 Mr. L Baker 001 Mrs. this technique is relatively less representative. the technique is called Area Sampling. 3.

Quota sampling is therefore a type of stratified sample in which selection cases within strata is entirely non. There is no attempt made to have a representative sample.5 Multi-stage sampling In this technique the items are selected at different stages at random and are used when the universe is very large: Stage 1: District Stage 2: VDCs Stage 3: Wards Stage 4: Households (HHs) Stage 5: Individuals (Family members) This technique helps to reduce the traveling cost and cost of interviews. You need to stand up in a corner of a street and interview the desired number of passers by. 2. Selection of sampling units is totally based on the convenience of the researcher.random sampling and is normally used for interview surveys.1.probability sampling. Although convenient sample is not very scientific it is perfectly valid in exploratory research or in the pre. 4. 002.2 Convenience sampling Convenience sampling refers to samples selected not by judgment or probability techniques but because the elements in the fraction of the population can be reached conveniently. which states the number of cases in each quota from which they must be collect data. family members. When both time and money are limited.Probability Sampling 5. 5.2. Example: A market research survey requires you to interview a sample of people representing those age 20 – 64 who are in employment. Like 000.simple random sampling (either).test phase of a study where there is a need to get only an approximation of the actual value.2 Non.1 Quota sampling Quota sampling is entirely non. Number each of the clusters with a unique number. 48 2.3 Judgment or purposive sampling Judgment samples are selected from the population through researcher’s intuition or on some other subjective basis. . You wish to disaggregate your findings into groups dependent on respondent’s age and type of employment.random. associations and passers. Moreover. The selection of sample is deliberate and purposive and it is not random. give each interviewer an assignment.by. convenient and less expensive. combine the data collected by interviewers to provide the full sample. this technique does not require a complete sampling frame of final stage units at the beginning sometimes also called as the combination of SRS and Stratified Sampling. … 3. 5.2. Commonly used convenience samples are friends. Select sample using.2. For instance: If you have to conduct “man-on-the-street” interviews. calculate a quota for each group based on relevant and available data. This technique has relatively less bias than of other non.1. this sampling is widely used.2. If random procedure is applied in this technique becomes the stratified sampling. This method is quick. No sampling frame is available. 3.1. you probability use convenience sampling. To select a quota sample you: 1. 3. Previous research suggests that gender 5. divide the population into specific groups. 001. Certain quota is fixed in each group under study and then samples are selected.

subjects are selected on the basis of their experience in the subject investigated. For instance. Non-sampling error. Pre. too tedious. or too personal. Make an effort to minimize participants’ fatigue. etc. a sampling error will be normally distributed and we can define its range at a given confidence level. poor recall. 49 Sampling is done with sound judgment or expertise and appropriate strategy. which leads to their leading respondents. Probably the most valid usage of judgmental sampling is to obtain expert opinion. Nonsampling error can enter the data in an insidious way. Thus. The selected elements are representative in such a way that the errors of judgment in the selection will cancel each other out.testing the questionnaire. one can carefully choose the elements to be included in the sample. and recording errors.3 Sampling Error and Non. you select a sample of 20 of the senior professors of Tribhuwan University to give their opinion on the subject. nonexistent address and so on. . Increasing the sample size can reduce sampling error. and because of this. Establish procedures for keeping both respondent and interviewer involved in the study. for instance the inability to locate proper respondents due to poor instruction. Some broad guidelines for minimizing nonsampling errors in surveys: Keep the sample surveys as easy to execute as possible. Poor sampling design. 5. it is subject to the laws of probability. Actual lying by the respondents. inaccurate memory. This error is the difference between the sample value and true value of the population to be exactly representative of the population.sampling Error A sampling error is the error. Restrict the questionnaire to data essential to the main issue. poor maps. some degree of sampling error will be present whenever we select a sample. Coding and/or editing errors. Rotate key questions to discover when respondent fatigue begins. Respondents terminating their participation in the data gathering because it is felt to be too long. Misinterpretation of question due to ambiguous wording. judgment samples can be very misleading if they are interpreted as accurate reflections of universe characteristics. Failure of the interviewers to follow instructions. sample representativeness is highly dependent upon the good judgement of the researcher. In judgment sampling. Use the smallest sample consistent with study objectives. The error can be completely eliminated by increasing the sample to include every item in the population. giving nonverbal clues. these error includes to: Inaccurate reporting by the respondent (biased guess. Because the sampling error is the result of chance. is every thing else (beside the sampling error) that can inject inaccuracies and bias into the results of a study. which is made in selecting samples that are not representative of the population. Regularly undergo the interview yourself to determine your ability to answer and find how much fatigue is involved in answering the questionnaire. Certainly the judgment of these professors is much superior to a convenience sample that might arbitrarily be limited to the opinion of twenty people in your neighbourhood. As in the case of convenience samples. if you want to study the issue of corruption I nNepalese society.

The 95% confidence interval of the population mean (µ) are. The factor 1. Calculate a 95% confidence interval and interpret the findings.6kg/sq.96 .m. Don’t ask the interviewer to do the impossible. The department agriculture assumes a population standard deviation of 4. it is possible to provide an interval estimate instate of point estimate of the population mean.5 4. Example (σ unknown) Environmental scientist estimates the mean biomass from a sample of forest is 5. about 5 out of 100 confidence interval would not contain the population mean (µ) per acre. 5.96 . Under these circumstances.95 that the mean bushel per acre of wheat is in the interval of 34. While estimating the population mean µ. n n In many practical situations it is difficult to determine the population standard deviation (σ) and the population mean (µ).96 follows from the theory of normal distribution.4 Determination of Sample Size in Estimating Population Mean and Proportion Parameter Statistics Error If µ denotes the population mean and x denotes the sample mean (estimator) then the relationship can be expressed as: x error or x error By properly estimating the error. from 50 plots. . In this case.118 and 35. A sample of 100 plots produced a mean of 35 bushels/acre. x 1.882 (95% confidence interval) n 100 10 = 34.118 and 35. a sample standard deviation (s). Construct the 95% confidence interval. 5 x 1.96 = 35 0. Such request encourage sloppy work and cheating. an interval estimate is the form: x 1. m.882. which is known as standard error.2 kg/sq.96 n Where µ is the mean. The error is usually specified by standard deviation of the statistic. the point estimator of the population standard deviation is used to construct an interval estimate with the following formula: s x 1. with a standard deviation of 1. 4.96 called the 95% confidence interval of µ.96 x n n Example (σ known) The department of agriculture’s future wheat gain production. 50 Don’t ask question to respondents they really cannot answer.5 bushels.96 = 35 1. σ is the standard deviation of the population and n is the sample size.882 bushels/acre The probability is 0. 1. There is a 95% chance that the true population mean lies in the interval x 1.96 = 35 1. What are the 95% confidence limits? Interpret the findings.96 n s s So that the 95% confidence interval of µ will be x 1. based on estimate from a sample.

n is computed as z 2 2 n 2 e Where z is standard normal variate at a given confidence level.96 = 5. ‘e’ is equal to 3. This formula is applicable when the population is infinite. If the sample fration n/N is negligible (say 0. n is the size of sample and σ is the standard deviation of the population which is estimated from the past experience or on the basis of a trail sample.96 = 5. Approach 2 Through the approach of Bayesian statistics t weigh the cost of additional information against the expected value of additional information. m.96 n 10 n n In general way. 95% confidence interval are s x n 1. Example Mean of universe within 3 of the true mean with 95% confidence. the necessary sample size.96 for 95% confidence level. 51 Then. Suppose.27 and 5.5) it can be taken as satisfactory sample size. x is the sample mean. The sample size so determined is only a approximate value. acceptable error. if we want to estimate µ in the population with standard deviation σ with an error no greater than ‘e’ by calculating a confidence interval with confidence corresponding to z. If the difference between µ and x i. then we can express the acceptable error ‘e’ as 4. The probability is 0.93 kg/sq. z is the standard variate at a given confidence level.27 and 5. Otherwise.07 = 5.6 1.2 = 5.93 kg/sq. Approach in Determining Sample Size Approach 1: The approach based on precision rate and confidence level i.e. the required sample size will be . Simply it is enough to say that.95 tha biomass mean is in the interval of 5.33 (95% confidence interval) 50 7.e researcher will have to specify the precision that he wants in respect of his estimates concerning the population parameters.6 1. 100 the true value of mean will be no less than Rs.8. Sample Size when estimating a Mean The confidence interval for the universe (for µ) is given by x z n Where. the allowable error is 3 of the sample mean with 95% confidence.e. we have σ = 4.8 ez 3 1. σ is the standard deviation of population and e is acceptable error. if the sample mean is Rs. This is 1. which is confidence limits. 103.m.2 1. 97 and no more than Rs. It means that the precision specified by the researcher is 3 i.6 0.

samples (male/female. Error ‘e’= 50. For simple experimental research with tight experimental controls (matched pairs. n 100 0. z = 1. 10 1 1 N 1000 If. N = 1000 Therefore. if the population size is 10000? Then. When samples are to broken into sub. successful research is possible with samples as small as 10 to 20 in size. The precision is 50 rupees with 95% confidence. Some principles that influence the sample size: The greater the dispersion or variance within the population. . the greater the sample size must be. How large must the sample be if the population size ia 1000? Find the sample size.10 N 1000 Since the sampling fraction is considerable we have to recalculate n using thee formula. the larger the sample must be to provide estimation precision.e. The higher the confidence level in the estimate.01 N 10000 Determining the sample size Thumb rules of determining the sample size are: Sample sizes larger than 30 and less than 500 are appropriate for most research. etc).group must meet minimum sample size requirements. the larger the sample must be. 52 n n* n where N is the size of population 1 N Example Suppose a sample of farmers is to be selected by simple random sampling to estimate the cost of cultivation of paddy per hectare. it is known that s = 250.96 (approximately 2) z 2 2 2 2 250 2 n 2 100 e 50 2 The population size is. the sample should be several times (preferably 10 times or more) as large as the number of variables in the study. N = 10000 n 100 0. 95% confidence value. the larger the sample must be. s = 250 and the reliability coefficient i.groups of interest within a sample. n 100 100 n* 91 n 100 1 0 . the larger the sample must be. The greater the number of sub. If calculate sample size exceeds 5 percent of the population. In multivariate research (multiple regression analysis). juniors/seniors). From a past survey. The narrower the internal range. a minimum sample size of 30 fro each category is necessary. The greater the desired precision of the estimates. sample size may be reduced without sacrificing precision. as each sub.

organizing the question items on a questionnaire. The internal secondary data are found within the company such as sales information. Films. Primary data can be collected through interviews. administering the questionnaire. Developing Questionnaire 1. The sources of secondary data can be divided into two groups: internal and external. Thus these data collected from meeting the specific objectives of the study. External secondary data are collected from sources outside the company likes books. Journals. imports and exports.ROMs. questionnaires. It involves several steps. 53 5.5. Questions are the foundations questionnaire. observations or experiments. Attitudes surveys. Newspaper. including writing question items. Documents and Records: Written Document Organization records notice and publications Websites and internets Committee Records Books. Sources and methods of Primary data 1. and so on. agricultural Regular and occasional surveys Price Index. TV and radio recording Picture and drawings Secondarydata Secondary Data Surveys: Census Population.5.1 Secondary data Secondary sources refer to those for already gathered by others. research reports Non. Organizational surveys International indexes. Tapped interviews. Introduction Questionnaire is the list questions for collection of data from respondents. Occasional surveys 5. . 2. Landholding. Interviewing: Collection of data by asking the interest area of research and recording. Employment.2 Primary data Primary data are original data gathered by the researcher from the research project at hand. published reports.Written Records CD.5 Primary and Secondary Data 5. accounting data and internally gathered research reports.framing is important. periodicals. Industrial. data services and computer data banks. Questionnaire A questionnaire is the formal list of questions designed to gather responses from the respondents on a given topic. Family income and spending Labor markets.

important andnot important.… . Order of questions and sections List the categories of questions. Level of measurements Considered the best level of measurements such as nominal. expected response rate and resources availability (costs. dissatisfied.? . Problems in asking questions Length.strongly agree. Data are for testing the hypothesis between interest variables.Willingness.? . For example. Visit to library. Sensitiveness Hypothetical.Agreement. agree. etc.Cognitive.Importance. General issues Formulate the precise questions.Satisfaction. important.Affection. . Selecting the questions Content of questions Behaviour /events. Insert the data processing requirements and instruments. neither agree or disagree.Action. 3. When: How long……. how frequently. 2. ordinal. Conceptualization and operationalisation Determine the concepts to be measured List the concepts. ….like or dislike.? What do know about it……. . generally satisfied.How important? Very.the specific hypothesis and explanatory techniques such as focus group discussion for concepts of interest Identify and list the dimensions of concept Operationalisation.…… .? . health). fund).How much satisfied………? Very satisfied. Reading news paper: Visit to bookshop. Frequency of visit. Complexity. etc Attitude/opinion of the respondents . Designing questionnaire A. Are you willing to…. Threatening. interval. buying himself B.Specification of empirical observations that can be indicators of the attributes contained with the given concept. 5. education level. n ratio. .that respondents have done or experienced. Leading 6. Mode of administration of instruments Face to face. 54 Questionnaire should translate the research questions or objectives. Telephone Mail questionnaire E-mail.. characteristics of target groups (age. 4.? When did you……. What newspaper? . The choice of the mode depends up on the nature topic of the study and sensitivity.What do you know about …. How often: How many times.

….Avoid unnecessary calculations such as total of last year. Format. Put difficult questions at the end. checklist. .Be simple and clear.Provide the response options at the end of questions. Procedure for drafting and testing questions Decide the concepts to be measures. . .. 10. Start with simple and non-threatening questions.Good enough when little is known about the topic? .Question wording. I would like to ask you about…. Use transitional phrases when switching from one topic to another to switch respondent’s set of mind. . Draw the attentions like.Avoid leading question. Next. Draft or copy of new question and response categories Pre-test new questions Rewrite the questions Check the validity of questions Put the questions in order Pilot test the questionnaire 9. Goals of writing questions . Sequencing within the topic area and gradually move from general to specific questions. 8.closed and open ended 7.Clear about the objective. . Provide proper introduction and transitions. . Put related content together.Easy cognitive study and respondents can understand the questions easily. Types of questions Open . 11. Now. ethnicity. . . I would like to learn more about. Put screeners and skip pattern as per necessary.Age.Avoid two answers question .Face to face interview.Use flash cards when ranking.. religion. etc. employment status. marital status.Respondents will interpret the question in the same way as the researchers do. time spend for shopping. 55 Respondents’ demographics .ended questions (free answer/responses): Advantages . indicators and the responses categories. . The Layout of Questionnaire Sequencing of questions. gender.Use chart when necessary like calendar. etc. Distinguish questions from instructions. supporting the variables.Provide possible clues.Define the terms before presenting. Question wording . etc.follow choice question stem.Interviewers can questions consistently. . . .Question should be in word.

Better for respondents’ insights and opinion. . . average.Same time and money for data processing.institution. . Farmers’ categories Cat A = Food sufficient for 12 months Cat B = Food sufficient for 9 to < 12 months Cat C = Food sufficient for 6 to < 9 months Cat D = Food sufficient for 3 to < 6 months Cat E = Less than 3 months and landless . .No bias to interviewer.Use of the information in future.Responses can be standardized. Better for sensitive topic. overall problems of the issues.Rarely exact enough. Average 4. .Affect the responses. . below average.Where you from.Level of confidentiality.At the last.Introduction each other.ended questions (Fixed answers): . . thoughts and emphasis. Disadvantages: . . . It might be courage to respondent. 56 . How do you rate the internal security implemented by the previous government of Nepal? Would you rate it poor. . it is better to ask about the respondents’ view or expectations.Suitable for only well defined cases only.Easy for coding. Above average 5.Objectives of the study. Disadvantages . Poor 2. Contingency questions: . and opportunities of asking the questions. .Open to interviewer bias.Questions provide a predetermined set of response categories from which respondents must choose one or more. above average and excellent? 1.Answer not sufficiently focused. which might be different from your objectives. . Closed. . Less influence on respondents. .Bias due to order of responses.Demanding for respondents. Preserve respondent’s wording. .Easy to answer to respondent. . Excellent Advantages: . . . Below average 3. Introductory paragraph (Opening scripts): .Some relevant categories might be missing.Imposing to respondents.Possible time taken. . .Costly coding.

one of the alternatives must be true. on the other hand. it refers to the complement of the null hypothesis that is used to verify the null hypothesis. H0 : µ = µ0 about the population mean (µ). The alternative hypothesis denoted as H1. 57 UNIT VI: TESTING OF STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS 6. Although the researcher may hope that the evidence favors H 1 hypothesis tests are setup to test the null hypothesis. enables us to decide if the deviation between the observed sample statistics is significant or might be attributed to the chance or the fluctuation of sampling. the mean body temperature of healthy adults is 98. which tells us whether the hypothesis is correct and is sustained or whether it is false and is to rejected. we arrive at a conclusion of rejecting it or failing to reject it. The alternative hypothesis will be accepted only if strong evidence is found against H0 . Since such an error is particularly embarrassing to the researcher (saying . It refers to beginning hypothesis that the researcher wishes to disprove. Test of hypotheses is also called the test of significance.600 F Fundamental of Hypothesis Testing Null and alternative hypothesis To test a hypothesis we must first state the null hypothesis. on the basis of sample results. The concept of null hypothesis is very important and significant in hypothesis testing.” In other words. it aims to develop an understanding of the concept like to decide whether: 1. Null hypothesis is commonly denoted by as H0. Two Types of Errors The main objective of sampling theory is to draw a valid inference about the population parameters on the basis of the sample results. In practice when testing a null hypothesis. In carrying out such decision process.1 Statistical Hypothesis Another major topic inferential statistics is testing hypotheses made about population parameters. For the null hypothesis.2 error (Failing to reject a false null Correct decision hypothesis) Type I (Alpha) Error: When we mistakenly reject the null hypothesis when indeed the null hypothesis is true. H0 . because disproving it provides a stronger conclusion for the researcher. three basic forms of alternative hypothesis are: H1 : µ ≠ µ0 H1 : µ < µ0 H1 : µ > µ0 It means that whenever the null hypothesis is not true. a newly invented vaccine is more effective than the one in usual practice for curing a disease 2. H0 is true Correct decision Type.1 error (Rejecting a true null hypothesis) H0 is not true/ false Type. then the type of wrong decision is known as a Type I or Alpha error. “A statistical rule of testing validity of hypothesis. True state Decisions and error types We decide to accept H0. for any test we come to encounter with the four possible mutually disjoint and exhaustive decisions given in the following Table. We decide to reject H0. under some specified conditions.

to conclude falsely that a difference does not exist in the data when in fact it does. The mathematical theory of testing of hypothesis is based on the principle that at fixed α. Since the form of the alternative hypothesis determines the rejection. in which case it is concluded that and difference in the results are not statistically significant.6).2. then we commit another error known as the Type II or Beta error.2 error. he or she tends to avoid risking this error and chooses a conservative level of significance. 3. therefore are probably due to to some determining factor or conditions.001. the mean is not 98.2 error.01 is used for high precision and α = 0.1 error. In all hypothesis testing problems. therefore. These are understood as 5% and 1% level of significance. which we are prepared to risk and its value is typically predetermined. Formulate the null hypothesis in statistical terms.01 or 0. It is maximum size of type.6). If we adopt 5% level of significance. etc. Though we can choose any level that the specific research problem warrants. 2. common sense will dictate the proper form of the rejection region. It is also called the beta risk. the alternative hypothesis must be carefully stated to represent the research problem. In other words. when it is actually false (that is. Choosing the exact region requires knowing the distribution of the statistic. very common choices of α are: α = 0.risk. is preferable if we consider type. Steps in hypothesis testing 1. 4. which minimizes it. Test the hypothesis.01. For the same test of testing the mean body temperature of healthy adults. The symbol β (Beta) is used to represent the probability of type. State the level of significance α and sample size n.2 Level Significance The mistake of failing to reject the null hypothesis when it is false is type. the test procedure should have the least β. The appropriate formula is used for the appropriate statistical test and the value of the test statistic is found. if the calculated statistic falls outside rejection. 5. 6. So α is given the level of significance. in which case it is concluded that the differences in the result are statistically significant. Type II (Beta) Error: When we mistakenly accept our null hypothesis when in fact it is false. reject null hypothesis in favour of alternative hypothesis. Select the appropriate statistic and the rejection region. 58 something exists when it does not).05 is used for moderate precision. Collect the data and calculate the statistic.2 error would be the mistake of failing to reject the null hypothesis (µ = 98. A lower α such as 0. it implies that in 5 samples out of 100 we are likely to reject a correct H 0. The probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true is called the level of significance and is denoted by the symbol α (alpha). a type. Accepting the null hypothesis also means that the corresponding research hypothesis is not supported. Formulate the alternative hypothesis in statistical terms.1 error more undesirable than type. respectively. Testing the Null Hypothesis Accepting and Rejecting Null Hypothesis Testing the null hypothesis results in one of the following two outcomes: Accepting the null hypothesis as true. Rejecting the null hypothesis also means the corresponding research hypothesis is supported. If the calculated statistic falls in the region. In other words. we are 95% confident that our decision to reject H0 is correct. the level of α is usually rather small. other than chance. . 6.05 and α = 0. Since the null hypothesis is usually set up in such a way that we want strong evidence against it before we reject it. are probably due to sampling error or chance. α =0. Rejecting the null hypothesis as false.

U2 > 0 U1 . is called Two Tail Test. The steps at hypothesis testing are given below. U1 < U2 U1 20 U1 > 20 U1 < 20 U1 . we may prefer to run higher risk of type. The foremost job in hypothesis testing is to define a hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. Test Distribution Types of Tests 1. They are: 1. For instance. H0 : Rice yield = 2 t/ha Ha : Rice yield = > 2 t/ha Or.U2 0 U1 . U1 > U2 OR. Ha: U1 U2 OR. Setting hypothesis: A hypothesis is based on research objective and is developed and supports the general assumption about the particular statement. if the type-2 error is costly. etc. 59 But. H0 = Rice yield = 2 t/ha Ha = Rice yield 2 t/ha Region of Region of Acceptance rejection rejection H0 H0 One Tail Test Two Tail Test Steps in Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis testing is a process of determining whether the expectation that a hypothesis represent or found to exist in the real world or determination of the validity of an assumption is called hypothesis.U2 <0 .20. Two Tail Test If a hypothesis does not specify that the parameter lies on one particular side of the specified in the null hypothesis.U2 = 0 It means the sample statistic and the assumption of the specified values are equal or there is no difference between the specified value and population parameter.1 error by increasing α to 0. Ha : Rice yield = < 2 t/ha 2. or two means are equal.10 or 0. H0: U1 = U2 = 20 U1 = 20 U1 . One Tail Test: A statistical test in which the alternative hypothesis specifies population parameter lies entirely above or below the value specified in the null hypothesis is called a one tail test.

test Correlation analysis ables Yield : Farm size Yield : Inputs Income : Occupation Income: Land holding Income : Age 4. Conclusion is drawn based on the acceptance or rejection hypothesis.test. etc.g. etc. Perception : sex Farm size : Income t Continuous ANOVA (F. Fixing Level of Significance After setting null hypothesis and its alternative. Decisions rules and conclusions There are two regions in a normal distribution curve for testing hypothesis. For instance. it means the researcher is willing to take as much as a 5% risk of rejecting the null hypothesis when it (H0) happens to be true. Table 2: Error in Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Decision Null Hypothesis Accept (H0) Rejected(H0) True Correct decision Type I Error (. a researcher incurs two types of hypothesis. These tests are t. Or. or two means are not equal. If a hypothesis is rejected which is in fact true is a Type I () error. if a hypothesis is accepted which is in fact false is Type II (Beta-) error. Region of Region of rejection rejection Acceptance region Errors in Hypothesis Testing: If a hypothesis is accepted or rejected. One is Type I (Alpha) and another is Type II (Beta) error. null hypothesis is accepted and vice versa at the given level of significance. 3. It is probability at which the given hypothesis is accepted or rejected. One is acceptance region for null hypothesis and another is rejection region. Based upon the type of variables and relationships. Selecting the appropriate tools or test statistics and computations: There different test statistics used for hypothesis testing. appropriate test statistics is selected. It is the maximum value of the probability of rejecting H0 when it is true and is usually determined in advance. if the level of significance is fixed at 5%. If the test statistics value falls in the acceptance region. 60 It means that the sample statistic and the assumption of the specified values are not equal or more than or less than the population parameter or two means are not equal.Ratio Vari Paired t. The decision rules depend upon test statistics value where it falls.Ratio nden e. the next step I to fix the level of significance. there is difference between the specified and population parameter. 2.Ratio) Regression (F.Error) False Type II Error () Correct decision . etc. Z – test and 2 – test. Whereas. Table 1: Statistical measures of association Independent Variables Categorical Continuous Depe Categorical Chi-squire F.

It is usually determined in advance and is understand as the level of significance of testing the hypothesis. In order to test our hypothesis. The null hypothesis set in such cases is H 0 : P1 P2 and the alternative hypothesis is H 0 : P1 P2 (or P1>P2 or P1 < P2) where P1 and P2 are proportions representing the two populations.parametric. Example: Consider an experiment on rooting of stem cutting of Casuriana equisetifolia wherein the effect of dipping the cutting in solutions of IBA at two different concentrations was observed. we take two independent samples of large size. when we try to reduce Type I error. dead or live etc.Parametric Tests Most statistical tests fall into one of two types such as parametric which are based around normally distributed data and non. the . For instance. Characters of Parametric tests 1. were subjected to dipping treatment at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm of IBA solutions. The test statistic is p1 p2 z p1q1 p2 q2 n1 n2 Where q1 = 1. the proportion of rooted cutting was 0. Slightly more likely to detect a statistical difference or relationship if present (data are normally distributed) Characters of Nonparametric tests 1. there are certain circumstances where non- parametric tests should be used in preference. respectively. Although. 61 Type I Error is also called the level of significance. Do not require normally distributed data (transformation of data is not necessary) 3. This statistics follows a standard normal distribution for large n1 and n2. measurements or rank values) 2. which is also called distribution free. We may then be interested in comparing the proportions of incidence of an attribute in two populations. respectively. if we fix it 1% we will say that the maximum probability of coming Type I error would be one in 100. Based on the observations on number of cuttings rooted in each batch of 30 cuttings. Type I error can be control by fixing it at a lower level. the probability of coming Type II error increases thus making trade – off.5 and at 100 ppm. With small sample sizes it is difficult to check that the data are normal 4. When observations from counts belonging to particular categories such as diseased or healthy.3 Difference Between Parametric and Non. say n 1 and n2 from the two populations and obtain two sample proportions where P1 and P2. Require interval/ ratio data used on actual observation or measurement 2. It means that there are chances in 100 that we will reject null hypothesis when null hypothesis is true. At 50 ppm.tests.p1 and q2 = 1. Slightly less likely to detect a statistical difference or relationship if present (if data are normally distributed) 6. 6. the data are normally summarized in terms of proportions. If Type I Error is fixed at 5%.Distribution in Hypothesis Testing of Population Mean and Population Proportion in one Sample Case. parametric tests are commonly used. May be used on nominal or ordinal data as well as interval/ ratio data (can be used on observations. Two batches of 30 cuttings each. Require data to be normally distributed 3. However. Use all the information in the data 5. the following proportions of rooted cuttings under each concentration were obtained. Do not used all information in the data (ranks are used as opposed to the actual data values) 5.p2.4 Use of z. May be used on relatively small sample sizes since normality is not needed 4.

the observations within the sample should be non. frequency of sighting an animal in different habitats.5)( 0.5) (0.37. The test statistic used is. 62 proportion was 0.defined theory.5 and p2 = 0.overlapping and thereby independent. k (O Ei 2 i i i Ei Where Oi = Observed frequency in the ith class Ei = Expected frequency in the ith class k= Number of categories or classes 2 The χ statistic given above follows as chi. say more than 50. the expected frequencies are computed as: .5 0. Further.63 Then.96) at 5% level of significance. µ and σ2 would be estimated from the sample by x and s2 and degree of freedom would be therefore reduce to (k – 2 – 1). we may assume that all the classes are equally frequent in the population. one may be interested in testing whether variable like the height of trees follows normal distribution. In such cases. Given. p1 = 0. may be expected to be equal initially and subjected to the statistical testing.63) 30 30 Since the calculated value of z (1.37 z 1.square distribution with k-1 degrees of freedom.37 q1 = 0. we used only the actual observed frequencies and not the percentages or ratios. The expected distribution may be one based on theoretical distribution like normal.024 (0. For instance testing the normality of a distribution. etc.024) is less than the Table value (1. Test of Goodness of Fit (or Chi-square test) In testing the hypothesis. Such a test is called test of goodness of fit.5 and q2 = 0. The expected frequency in each category should preferably be more than 5. 0. the number of insects caught in a trap in different times of a day. A tree breeder may be interested to know whether the observed segregation ratios for a character deviate significantly from the Mendalian ratios. The question of interest is whether ther observed proportions are indicative of significant differences in the effect of IBA at the two concentrations. For applying the goodness of fit test. In such situation we want to test the agreement between the observed and theoretical frequencies. For example. we can conclude that there is no significant difference between the proportion rooted cuttings under the two concentration level. In case of expected frequencies are derived from parameters estimated from the sample. For instance. sometimes our objectives may be to test whether a sample has come from a population with a specified probability distribution. In the absence of a well. the degree of freedom is (k – p – 1) where p is the number of parameters estimated. The null hypothesis in goodness of fit tests is that there is no disagreement between the observed and theoretical distribution. The total number of observations should be large.37)(0. The expected frequencies may be computed based on the probability function of the appropriate theoretical distribution as relevant to the situation or it may be derived based on the scientific theory being tested like Mendel’s law of inheritance. binomial or a pattern expected under technical grounds.

63 n E k Where. Example: The Table below represents the number of insect species collected from an undistributed area at a wildlife sanctuary in different months. “The diversity in terms of number of insect species is the same in all months in the sanctuary.82 April 72 67 0. total number of observed frequencies. k = 12. Computation of χ2 using the data on number of species of insects collected in different months Months O n (O E ) 2 E k E January 67 67 0.36 Total N = 804 804 134.49 July 75 67 0.square Table for (12 – 1) = 11 degree of freedom and α = 0.33 October 24 67 27. Therefore. k = number of groups. n = total number of observed frequencies.84 Calculated χ2 value is 134.96 August 63 67 0. From chi.” Expected frequencies derived with.37 May 67 67 0.60 November 32 67 18.00 June 77 67 1.24 September 42 67 9.84.39 March 118 67 38.05. Test whether there are any significant differences between the numbers of insect species found in different months. Solution: The null hypothesis is. we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that the occurrence of the number of insect species in different months is not the same. we get the critical value of χ2 as 19. E = expected frequencies. . n = 804 and the number of groups are the twelve month.28 December 52 67 3.7.00 February 115 67 34.

SUMMARY. The thesis work of a student will be judged mainly by the quality of the report.1 Data presentation and analysis 4. Therefore.5 Limitation of the study 1.4 Data collection technique 3. as there are vital to its assessment and grading.1 Conceptual/Theoretical Framework 2. clear communication of the important findings of the research work.2 Problem of the study 1. professors. These information can be used both for academic and application purposes. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1 Summary 5.3 Sampling procedure 3.2 Review of related study 3.4 Importance of the study 1.2 Contents and Styles of Report 1.3 Objective of the study 1. A thesis report conveys the information to the examiner about the entire activities and findings of the student had undertaken during the research process.6 Organization of the study 2. analysis and conclusions are placed in a organized form.1 Research design 3. 7. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5. skills and thoughts in his or her report. use techniques in methods of analysis and provides his or her with the opportunity to significantly develop his or her management and research skills. 64 UNIT VII: WRITING THE RESEARCH REPORT A report is simply a description of things that have already occurred.1 Purpose of Writing a Report A research report serves the following purposes: It is a means whereby the data. The organizations.2 Conclusion 5. 7.2 Population and sample size 3. The examining committee may not see the effort in the field. METHODOLOGY 3. the student should show his or her performance. INTRODUCTION 1. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.2 Major findings of the study 5.3 Recommendation References Appendix . researchers and students are using good reports for different purposes.6 Data analysis procedure 4.1 Background Information 1.5 Statistical procedure 3. It is concise. The effectiveness of report may be judged by its use. The research report enables a student to demonstrate his or her understanding and ability too.

.1 Background Information 1 1.1 Descriptive Report Descriptive reports are mere description of facts or opinions gathered by the students during his/her field study.1 Summary 5. 65 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pages Acknowledgements i List of Tables ii List of Figures ii 1. interpret these information in relation to the problem under consideration. These reports indicate the nature of problems facing the organization under study and also indicate the reforms required to overcome the problems.5 Statistical procedure 3. METHODOLOGY 3.2 Review of related study 3. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.3 Types of Report: Descriptive and Analytical Report 7.5 Limitation of the study 1.3. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5 2. Focused on a single or limited area of the problem.3. These reports in addition to representing the facts and statistics.6 Data analysis procedure 4. these reports follow the process of scientific investigation and reporting.6 Organization of the study 2.4 Importance of the study 1.2 Conclusion 5.1 Data presentation and analysis 4.2 Analytical report Analytical reports go one step further than descriptive reports.3 Objective of the study 1. SUMMARY.1 Research design 3. INTRODUCTION 1 1.3 Recommendation References Aappendix 7.2 Problem of the study 1 1. The presentation of facts in an organized way may be of real value in properly understanding the situation. These reports also recommend the actions to be taken for improvements in the situation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.3 Sampling procedure 3.2 Population and sample size 3.4 Data collection technique 3. 7.2 Major findings of the study 5.1 Conceptual/Theoretical Framework 2.

The title of Table can be written in all capital letters for the emphasis.4 Presenting Data: Table and Figures in Report A Table is a presentation of data in column form. two lines can be used for giving row headings. pie charts. In case of need. Rows in the Table can be arranged without any difficulty. drawings and charts.1” instead of writing “the following Table” or “Table on the following page”. Tables The presentation of Tables is concerned with the labeling techniques to make the content clear. However. the choice of the types would depend on the nature of investigation. These presentation help clarify and understand data at glance. Column of the Table should label clearly enough to identify the items. Sources of data should be cited in order that the source may be referred to if necessary. Is the graphic easily understood? . 4 - Pakistan 60 26 18 25 22 49 Source: World Development Report. The report writer can use abbreviations if necessary. They are: To what extent does the graphic presentation contribute to the overall understanding of the data? If graphic presentations do not assist the reader in understanding the subject. Each Table should be given a title that is complete of information and date of published. these should not be used in the report. To number the Table footnotes. 1992 Figures In reports graphic forms like bar charts. it should be placed below the Table in the same format as the footnote. maps. 7.1 Sectoral distribution of labor forces Country Agriculture Industry Services 1965 1990 1965 1990 1965 1990 Indonesia 71 23 9 37 22 40 Malaysia 59 20 13 39 21 41 Thailand 82 17 5 32 13 51 Bangladesh 84 37 5 17 11 46 India 73 31 12 31 15 38 Nepal 94 60 2 . While referring to the Tables. Can the data convey the meaning to the reader in a better way using the graphic presentation? Graphics often facilitate communication which is difficult to explain in words alone. The term Figure usually includes graphs. 66 The student may choose one of these types of reports. the student should write “Table 12. maps and pictograms are often presented. If the source of information in the Table is to be identified. The report writers should ask the following questions. Some thesis report may include the features of both these types of reports. Table 12. an asterisk could also be used. Column heading should be short. These abbreviations should however be explained in footnotes below the Table. The following practices should be used in the Table constructions. The Table should be numbered consecutively throughout the report.

Example. p.5 Use of Quotations. that is IMF International Monitory Fund N. Indent the quotation five spaces from the left margin. Direct quotations may be used for presenting the major argument where a reference would not be sufficed.2 Abbreviations A number of abbreviations also appear in the research report. Use single line spacing. strengthening the market forces and providing a greater role for the private sector. book (s) e.14). In Nepal also steps are being taken to foster the private sector by opening up new areas for investment removing licensing and other controls on business and simplifying rules and regulations (Gupta. Use the same spacing as the rest of the text.14). In a small report. Abbreviations 7.. edition eds editors i. Direct quotations should be used when citing mathematical and other formulas. for example ed.B. and data can be distorted rather easily. 7. 67 Is the graphic honest? The hand is often quicker than the eyes. Short Quotation (upto three lines) Incorporate the quotation into sentence or paragraph. bks.5. strengthening the market forces and providing a greater role for the private sector.5.e. Use double quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. p. Example. Long quotations (for four or more lines) Use no quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. 1994. Direct quotations may be used when changes might cause misunderstanding of the original idea or expression. the Figure should be numbered consecutively throughout the report and referring is similar to Table. 7. Examples of some of the frequently used abbreviation are given below: ADB Asian Development Bank bk.1 Use of Quotations Some guidelines of quoting other writer’s ideas are: Direct quotations would be used the words of the author add force to validate the argument in the report. nota bene . without disrupting the flow of the text. 1994. Most of the South Asian countries have initiated the far. These abbreviated words should be arranged in ascending order under Abbreviations or Acronyms. Most of the south Asian countries have initiated far. In Nepal also steps are being taken “to foster the private sector by opening up new areas for investment removing licensing and other controls on business and simplifying rules and regulations” (Gupta.reaching reforms like opening up their economies. refute or analyze ideas expressed by the author. Direct quotations may be used when the writer wishes to comment upon.g.reaching reforms like opening up their economics.

spellings. Margins of 1. footnotes.date system. The last line of writing should be one inch above the bottom edge of the page. was developed in the 1930s and has been updated periodically.spaced. It usually. There are different methods of documenting (citing and referencing) sources. The documenting method has two parts: the citations and bibliography.. quotations.25 inches from the right edge. Page number Page number should come at the top right hand corner of the page.reading. style. If you use indent in starting paragraph. Guidelines: . The Harvard System. uses author. The ACS Style Giude is published by the American Chemical Society. searching for inaccurate statements. Pagination Pages should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals from the first page of the text to end of manuscript. The pages in the introductory sections (preface. second paragraph is starting by leaving one space or single line. omissions and inconsistencies. Same style and size of font should be used through out the report.hand side of the page are commonly used.6 inches on the left and one inch on the right. wrong entries. Citation Referencing is a standard method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that we have used in research. Tables. and so on. one inch from the bottom page. If you are not using indent. Direct quotations. The researchers commonly employ the following methods: The Publications Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) offers detailed information regarding citations. This style guide explains how organized numbered references. paragraphing sentence structure. After verifying and locating errors in quotations. headings. margin.6 x 11 inches and only side of paper Margins Margins indicate the boundaries of the text. Font: Times New Roman Font size: 12 Paper size 8.. Figures.6 Rules of Typography (font. APA Method of Citation The APA method is widely used style of citing and referencing in the social science area. there is no spacing between the two paragraphs. 68 p. references. spacing of paragraph etc).spaced.. The first line of the text should be two spaces below the page number. The Manual Style of the University of Chicago is also widely used for citations. mark the copy to provide the typist with necessary directions for providing a satisfactory transcript and must know the symbols of proof. quotations and references. Indented quotation and footnotes should be single. ii. whci may also be called references. one inch from the top edge and 1. facts as well as ideas and theories from published and unpublished works must be referenced. namely 7. bibliography. This system is also widely used for citation and references. Spacing The text of the report should be double. page (s) viz. pp. size. Proof-reading: The manuscript should be read critically. table of contents etc) should be numbered with small Roman numerals i. iii. We also recommend that this method should be followed.

usually made of aluminum. According to Berger (1991): A PET bottle weighs approximately 91 grams. Professor. April 7. The bottle has three other major components. The concept of the job design (Maskey. The page numbers. 69 When quotation and paraphrase are cited. should be cited as follows: For instance. 1998) feels that … M. Gupta. 1992). 14). 1972. and subsequently include only the surname of the first author followed by “et al. 63). For instance. weighs 5 grams or 6 percent of the bottle weights (pp. For instance. “Hypothesis testing is called deductive research” (Wolf and Pant. For instance “Strategic processes are those processes by which the organization plans for and develops in future” (Chitrkar. and the like should be cited in the text only and not included in the reference list since these are not retrievable data. cite all authors the first time the reference occurs. If the same author is cited in the same paragraph. Mishra (Personal letter. the surnames of both the authors are cited. usually made of paper. P. Neupane (Personal Interview. provide the initials as well as the surname of the communicator together with the date. weighs roughly 1 gram or 1 percent weight. these should be in the alphabetical order of the first author’s surname and the citation should be separated by semi colons: For instance. cite the text the word the Anonymous followed by the comma and date: (Anonymous. Subedi. 1997). 1982). Uprety and Dhakal. When citing block quotations. memos. the author’s name and year of publication appear in the body of the report as follows: For instance Paudyal (2000) stressed that business firm must think globally to remain competitive. When more than one author has to be cited in the text. A. For instance. Of this 91 grams. In the text. “The specification writer’s job is likely to change” (“Style Manual”. (2003) found that … The author’s name and year of publication appear at the end when direct quotation is made. February 5. November 15. 1999. Mathema and Singh (2003) found that … Shukla et al. even if valid and reliable data have been collected (p. if required to be mentioned. Panta (2001) wrote a book entitled assignment and Report Writing. Pant found that … If no author is given for the work. The bottle label. For instance. Pant (2001) argues that a research report can be worthless if interpretation is faulty.38). which take the form of rules of behaviour. Indent the left margin five spaces. do not place quotation marks before and after a block quotation. When a work’s author is unknown. treat the title as the author. Do not indent the right margin. 1998) feels that … T. For instance Peppard and Rawland (2001) define organizational culture as shared values and beliefs. When a work has more than two authors. telephone conversation.” For instance Shukla. The bottle cap. Tribhuvan University. 37. only 63 grams or 69 percentage of the bottle is pure PET. p. 1997) argues that … . Pradhan (Personal Communication. 1987. the year of publication is not necessary to be mentioned. Personal communication through letters. When a work is authored by two individuals. 1976).

N. Arnorld. M. The Nepalese Management Review.space between the entries.engineering.p. Robertson. N. Place the date in parenthesis immediately after the name. Example. Managing creative talents. R.302). 3. 6.R. implementation and control. Delhi. Encyclopedia Britannica. A. FNJ and IRF. Macmillon India. 3. M. Guidelines: Present information for all entries in this order: Author’s name. P. Kathmandu. If there are two or more works by one author.in. (1984). M. M. Harrison. A. planning. February). P. New York: Prentice Hall. and P. most recent last. For a journal article Pant. J. For an edited book Pant.13. (1992). . Use only the initials of the author’s first and middle names. The secondline of an entry starts three spaces in from the left. Use double. T. P. The second line of an entry should be single- spaced. o Aryal. Ronald (1992). For an eassay in a book Jyoti. For an article in monthly or weekly magazine Shukla. The list is arranged alphabetically by the surname of the author. Fine tea plantation: A case study.7). Ross. Unpublished Master’s thesis. For an unpublished materials Joshi. & C. (1985. Cooper. (1998). (1998). Pant and N.country overview of the Asian region. (Ed). Business process re. 70 APA References The references list contains bibliographic information in each source you use. Marketing management: Analysis. Macmillon. I.. For book with one author Kotler. R. Publication information. Indian Management (pp. Manandhar (Eds). Place the entry in alphabetical order. Human resource development: A cross. Industrial relation in Nepal: A book of readings (pp. (1996). Capitalize only the first word and proper nouns and adjectives in the title. Just. Kathmandu. 7. L. (1992). Title. London. (1992). (1998). (1993). 5. Tribhuvan University. 297. New Delhi. Khetan. Date. FNJ and IRF. Work psychology:Understanding human behaviour in the workplace. Prentice Hall of India. Labor management: A critique.. Industrial relations in Nepal: A book of readings. & N. Industrial relation and economic development. (n. Peppard.. J. P. central department of Management. 2.time manufacturing in perspective. (2006) Some common entries for references 1. arrange them chronologically. Mamandhar (Eds).hand margin. Motivation behind acquisition of time saving electrical appliances by Nepalese households. (1996). IX (I): 1. 4. (2001) o Aryal. For an encyclopedia Sonar. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.). In: P.

Note commas and full stops Millmore M and Saunders Millmore. ‘The language management profession’. an ethnic group indigenous to the Terai region of south central Nepal.org. Available: <http:/www. B. Note of ‘and’. June). Nepal’s culture and learning [Home Page of ABC Institute]. July 15). Two matching pairs of Tharu communities were surveyed. P.. . (1998. Lewis. P. 2001) Note punctuation (Saunders and Williams 2001) (Saunders & Williams. on pair in a more centrally. Conclusions and Recommendation Abstract Ethnicity and Rural Development: A Sociology Study of Four Tharus Villages in Chitwan. Meditation program: A feedback. Saunders & Staughter. 10.np> [1999. WTO: Its impact on the education actor. (1996.2. 71 8. For home page Bhandari. and direct interviews of sample of 100 Tharu household heads (25 from each villages) plus non. (2003)..N.nep. The Nepal Review [online]. [2004. Nepal Abstract The objectives of the study were: 1) to investigate the effect of different situations in rural Nepal on ethnicity. 1999) (Williams. September]. Kirtipur. For paper presented at seminar Sharma. February).Tharus from the nearby diverse village. 12. ‘&’ MNK (2000) Managing Change: A M. March 28]. March 26).For 1st occurance 1999) (Williams et al. Note punctuation (Williams et al. For personal e. Differences between APA and Harvard System Harvard system APA system Differences Referencing in the text (Lewis 2001) (Lewis. It focuses on the Tharus people. A. Note punctuation Referencing in the references or bibliography Thornhill A. Paper presented st thr seminar of Association of Business Students. Managing change: Note use of order. February 7]. C. & Saunders. (2000).np /6/2/>[2003. 1999) Williams et al. Data were obtained through a general census of 260 households in the four villages. 11. R. Human Resource Strategy A human resource strategy comma and full stop Approach. 2001) ‘&’ not ‘and’.K.mail Gurung. use of colon.co. approach. K.org. Summary. Thornhill.nepre. M. 1999) For subsequent occurrences. and 2) the relationship between ethnicity and various structural variables relevant to process of rural development. Harlow: FT Harlow Prentice Hall Abstract. For a newspaper The Rising Nepal.(2004. A. For journal articles on the Internet Subba. FT Prentice Hall.located area (consisting of predominantly Tharu village and ethnicity diverse village where Tharus are in numerically minority) and a similar matching pair in a more remote area. Nepal. Available: <http:/www. ABC. 9. Available e-mail: deanmagmt@healthnet. Lewis P. (1999.. [online].

either theoretical or operational. conclusion is made as to how well they assist in attempting to solve the problem. 72 Supplementary information was obtained from informants. Conclusions As a follow. It is at this point in the study that the researcher should feel free to express his or her own conclusions and generalizations. It is fairly traditional that the researcher indicates that his or her study has accomplished its purpose has made a contribution. Objectives 3. were contingent upon the outcome of the study. you will not have problem of writing abstract.e. Questions: Identify the following areas from the above abstract of PhD Thesis: 1. the motivations of underprivileged minority groups as the Tharus of Nepal are strengthened and they are better able to participate in the process of nation. documents and through observation (i. This may have a number of subheadings if several questions and/or hypothesis were investigated. he or she set out to investigate. No relationship is found between ethnicity and adoption of improved farm practices. Dependent and independent variables 5. Ethnicity viewed as both structural variable (composition of the village) and a behavioural variable (manifestations of ethnic identity and loyalty). Summary The current section is most important in that it relates the data findings a logical. it appears that ethnicity and adoption with regards to these Tharus communities are independent phenomenon. rational fashion to the problem area and research question within the framework of the theory structure established in the Introduction. living in the villages while interviewing). If you are able to solve above five questions. It is vital that the researcher reviews his or her in introduction section before attempting to write this section of the study to insure that he or she has a solid grasp of what it was. Justification for those recommendations presented in the previous section the report. . The latter is measured by a seven points Guttam. Problem of research 2.up to the interpretation of the data. Recommendations If decisions of any sort. and how well the purpose of the study was accomplished. Methodology used 4. It is concluded that ethnicity contrary to what is often argued.Scale. The relevance of the hypothesis to the theory and its contribution to the solution of the problem investigated are presented.building. does not stand in the way rural development not does it hinder social interaction. Indeed. it is at this point that recommendations by the researcher are made. The locational factor (relative centrally or remoteness of village) emerged as a more important explanation of ethnic behavior than the ethnic composition of village per-se. through the maintenance of group solidarity. and that further investigation in the area is needed. Findings of research Above five things must be included in abstract. and the theory underlying the study.

73 .

The test of hypotheses is a process of testing of significance the parameter of population on the basis of sample drawn from the population. In above case. we may want to decide which of the two brands of the fertilizers is more effective. Formulating the hypothesis: In statistics.I Error: Reject a null hypothesis when it is true. The average height of students in the class is 160 cm.e. (iii) H1: μ < μ0 It is called left. 74 Additional Note for Hypothesis Testing: Z-Test Decision making about the characteristics of the population on the basis of study of the sample taken from the population involves the risk of taking wrong decision. H0 : μ = X Alternate Hypothesis Any hypothesis which is complementary to the null hypothesis is called an alternative hypothesis and denoted by H1 . μ ≥ μ0 or μ < μ0 ) It is called two. Null hypothesis: The purpose of possible acceptance is called a null hypothesis and denoted by H0. The method of statistics which helps in arriving the decision is called Test of Hypotheses or Hypotheses Testing or Test of Significance.e. 2. We formulate a null hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis (H1) which we accept when H0 must be rejected.II Error (β): A decision to accept ot reject H is made on the basis of the sample data and there is always a chance of making an error. Type.tailed alternative hypothesis. For instance.distribution under normal curve for large sample (n ≥ 30) and t.tailed alternative hypothesis. For example. we mean a tentative conclusion logically drawn regarding any parameter of the population. Computing the test statistic: After formulating the hypothesis the next step is to calucuate an appropriate test statistic which is based on an appropriate probability distribution. (ii) H1: μ > μ0 It is called right. A given drug cures 90% of the patient taking it. For testing whether the null hypothesis should be accepted or rejected. 3.tailed alternative hypothesis.distribution for sample (n < 30). . The probability theory plays a vital for decision making for this situation. The statistical hypothesis may be divided into two types: Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis. Defining Type. The common way of stating a hypothesis is that there is no difference between the population mean and sample mean. H0 : μ = 160 cm.I Error (α) and Type. by a hypothesis. we use Z. H : μ= 160 cm = μ0 then the alternative hypothesis could be (i) H1: μ ≠ μ0 (i. Type-II Error: Accept a null hypothesis when it false. it we want to test the null hypothesis that average height of the student is 160 cm i. General procedure of testing a Hypothesis: 1.

If we use 5%. When the population mean is considered to be at least as large as some specified value used right.tailed test is used.Tailed Test Left.Zα Z= 0 + Zα Right. is maximum probability of making type. Actual Decision Accept H0 Reject H0 H0 is true No Error Type – II Error Correct Decision Wrong Decision Probability = 1 . 6.Tailed Test: The critical region may be represented by a portion of area under the normal curve in two ways: (a) Two tails or two side under the curve.tailed test (Figure 1).Tailed Test (Level of significance ‘α’) (Level of significance ‘α’) Rejection Rejection region (α) region (α) Acceptance Region Acceptance Region (1 – α) (1 – α) Z= 0 + Zα .Tailed Test Lower Critical Value Upper Critical Value Rejection Rejection region (α/2) Acceptance Region (1 – α) region (α/2) . we likely to reject H0. (b) One tail or one side under the curve which is either left tail or right tail. it implies that in 5 cases out of 100 cases. Deciding the Two. In other words. When the sample mean is significantly different from the population mean a two. 5.α Probability = α H0 is false Type II Error No Error Wrong Decision Correct decision Probability = β Probability = 1. 75 The four situations which may arise in testing hypothesis are given in the following Table.Zα Z= 0 Figure 1. This region is generally taking from the Z.I error. When the computed test statistic lies in this region or out of this region for accept or reject the Null Hypothesis. Critical region The test of hypothesis which is used on critical region represented by both the tails under the normal is called two. Finding critical region: This region is the region of acceptance and rejection. The commonly use level of significance are 5% (0.distribution for large sample.05) and 1% (0. Fixing the level of significance: The level of significance denoted by α. The level of significance should be fixed in advance before applying the test.tailed test or one.01). whereas . Two.tailed test.β 4.Tailed or One. this implies that we are 95% confident that our decision is to reject H0 is correct.

Making decision: If the calculated value of test statistic (T) is less than critical value which lies in acceptance region and H0 is accepted.e. accept H0.tail test ± 2.326 + 1.645 Left . n Z. Test of Hypothesis for Large samples a.326 . Critical values Level of significance α Zα 1% 5% Two. calculated value is greater than critical value. If T≤ Tα . Test of significance of single mean: The steps in testing the significance of sample mean of large sample (n ≥ 30) are as follows: Step 1.Tailed test: Right + 2. Obtain the significance level α and identify the acceptance and rejection region.96 One. 5.645 Note that the critical value of Z for one-tail test at the level of significance ‘α’ is the same as the critical value of Z for two-tailed test at the level of significance of 2α. If σ is not known the its estimate is given by sample standard deviation by 1 S n 1 ( X X )2 where S = is an unbiased estimate of the population Standard Deviation (SD). Compute the test statistic. population mean has specified mean μ0) (ii) H0 : there is no significant difference between sample mean ( X ) and population mean (μ) (iii) H0 : The sample has been drawn from the given large population with mean μ0 and standard deviation σ.e. Write down the critical or tabulated value of Z at predetermined level of significance. Select the level of significance. Select and compute the test statistic T. On the other hand.testing step as follows: Step 1. Make the decision by comparing T and critical values. reject H0. Decide whether two. 76 when the population mean is considered to be at least as small as some specified value the left- tail test is used. 3. 4.1.tailed test or one. Step 3. In testing the hypothesis we generally used 5% level of significance. Formulate the null hypothesis (H0) in any way of the following forms. X Z Step 2. Summarizing the hypothesis. α We usually fix α at 5% (0. If T > Tα .05) unless otherwise stated. (i) H0 : μ = μ0 (i.N (0. the value lies in region of rejection and H 0 is rejected. 7.58 ±1. α. . Identify the type of test one – tailed or two tailed tests to be applied.tailed test has to be applied Step 4. State the null (H0 ) and alternate ( H1 ) hypothesis 2.1) i. Z follows the normal distribution with the mean 0 and the standard deviation 1.2.

6 kg (two tailed test) Computation of test statistic. Kg Standard deviation σ = 2.6 Kg Alternative Hypothesis.3. H1 : μ ≠ 15. H 0 is rejected i.1 1 . The mean lifetime of a sample of 100 fluorescent light tubes produced by a company is computed to be 1570 hrs with a standard deviation of 120 hrs.e.2 kg. If the computed value of /Z/ is greater than Zα. Is the claim acceptable by using a level of significance of 0.96.05 level of significance is 1.55/ = 3. the average life of tubes produced is 1600 hrs. 2 0.e. n = 50 Sample mean X =14. Sample size. Test whether the sample is from a batch of strings having a mean breaking strength of 15.55 Tabulated value of Z for two tail test at 0. n = 100 X = 1570 S = 120 hrs μ = 1600 hrs H0: μ = 1600 hrs. The mean breaking strength turned out to be 14.tailed Test) . it lies in the acceptance region. If the computed value of /Z/ (only positive values) is less than critical value Zα.142 /Z/ =/ .2 Kg Null Hypothesis.5 kg. X Z n 14. H0 : μ = 15.6. the average life of the tubes is not 1600 hrs (Two. The company claims that the average life of the tubes produced by it is 1600 hrs. H0 lies in the rejection region and we reject H0. Example2.05.5 Kg Population mean μ = 15. Decision: Since the computed value of /Z/ is greater than it tabulated value.31 50 7. Solution: Here.1 3.2 kg.6 kg and standard deviation 2.e.6 1 .55 = 2. Example 1: A sample of 50 pieces of certain types of string was tested. 2 2 . Solution: Given. 77 Step 5. the sample has not been drawn from the normal population with the mean 15. Make the decision by comparing the computed and the critical (or tabulated) values of Z. Hence H0 is accepted at the level of significance α and we conclude that there is significance difference between sample mean and population mean or the sample has been drawn from the given population.5 15. H1: μ ≠1600 hrs i. It may be concluded that there is a significant difference between the sample mean and the population mean or sample has not been drawn from parent population. i.6 kg and standard deviation of 2.

tailed test) X 16 5 11 22 Z 5 Computation of test statistic: 0 . In the past a blending process has produced an average of 5 kg of waste material for every batch. Level of significance: 1% 2% 5% 10% Tabulated value 2.645.5/ = 2.165 n 400 Since the computed value of Z (1.38 cm. From a sample of 100 batches an average of 16 kg of waste per batch is obtained. Example 3.33 1.27 0. n = 400 X = 171.30 1. n = 100 X = 16 kg σ = 5 kg μ = 5 kg H0 : μ = 5 kg i. Decision: Since the computed value of /Z/ is greater than its tabulated value.17 Computation of test statistic: X 171.5 n 100 Tabulated value of Z for right tailed test at 5% level of significance is 1.e. can it be reasonably regarded as a sample from a large population with mean height 171. the average has been increased. Example 4.21 Z 3. which is 30.17 cm and SD 3.65 Solution: Given. At 5% level of significance is it reasonable to believe that the average has increased? Solution: Given.38 σ = 3.05 level of significance is 1. the average life of tubes produced by the company is not 1600 hrs and hence the company’s claim is not acceptable. H 0 is rejected and the average of waste material has been increased. the average of waste material has not been increased.58 2.e.5 Tabulate value of Z for two tail test at 0. Decision: Since the computed value of Z is greater its tabulated value.96 1. (Right.38 171. H 0 is rejected i.30.5 years.27) is less than its tabulated values at 1%. The mean age obtained . with SD of 5 kg. A sample of 400 students is found to have a mean height of 171. An insurance agent has claimed that the average age of policyholder who ensure through him is less than the average for all agents. 2%.17 0.30 μ = 171.96.5 Computation of test statistic: S 12 n 100 /Z/ = /-2. Example 5. 5% and 10% level of significance. 78 X 1570 1600 30 Z 120 2.e. H0 lies in the acceptance region and here H0 is accepted at these levels. H1 : μ > 5 kg i.

If 1 and 2 are not known then their 2 2 2 2 estimates are provided by the corresponding sample variances S1 and S 2 .677 Tabulated value of Z for left tailed test at 0. Decision: Since the computed value of /z/ is greater than its tabulated value. Z. Formulate null (H0) hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis (H1). the insurance agent’s claim that the average age of policyholders who insure through him is less than the average for all agents accepted with 95% confidence. b. Equation (1) reduce to: (X1 X 2 ) Z …. H0 : μ1 = μ2 i. 1). H1 : μ < 30.7 2.tailed test) Step 2. H0 is rejected i.677/ = 2. 79 from a random sample of 100 policyholders who has insured through him is 28. If two samples are drawn from the same population then μ1 = μ2 and 1 = 2 = says. Solution: Given. H1 : μ1 ≠ μ2 (Two.35 years. the sample mean X and population mean (μ) do not differ.5 1.35 yrs μ = 30.677 Z 6.8 years with standard deviation of 6. two samples have been drawn from the same parent population or two samples have been drawn from two different parent populations have the same mean and standards.645. Under H0.8 yrs S = 6.5 years (left tail test) X 28.5 i.35 Computation of test statistic: S 0. (1) 2 2 1 2 n1 n2 where n1 ≥ 30 and n2 ≥ 30. then 2 2 2 . Test of significance of difference between two means The step in testing significance of difference between two means fro large sample (n≥30) are as follows: Step 1.e.05 level of significance is – 1.e. n = 100 X = 28.8 30.5 yrs H0 : μ = X = 30.e.635 n 100 /Z/ = /-2. Test his claim at the 5% level of significance. (2) 2 2 S1 S 2 n1 n2 Note that S and S are unbiased estimate of population SD’s.N(0. compute the test statistic (X1 X 2 ) Z …. respectively.

Write the critical value Zα. 80 (X1 X 2 ) Z 2 2 1 2 n1 n2 ( X1 X 2 ) Z … (3) 1 1 ( ) 2 n1 n 2 Step 3. H1 : σ1 ≠ σ2 i.05). reject H0 and accept H1. Sample Size Mean annual income SD (in Rs. Write down the critical value of Z at predetermine level of significance β.96 For two-tailed test Z0. 24 S2 = Rs. sample SDs do not differ significantly. Example 6: In a survey of incomes of two classes of workers. Two samples are not drawn from the same population (Two.tail and one-tail. Formulate the null (H0) and alterative (H1) hypothesis. according to the type of tests. If Z<Zα.tailed test). Test of significance of difference between two Standard Deviation for large samples: The steps for the test of significance of difference between two standard deviation are as follows Step 1. n1 = 100 n2 = 100 X 1 = Rs. Z. 5546 S1 = Rs. 28 .1. accept H0.05 = ± 1. Step 4.two.) I 100 Rs. Step 3. c. H0 : σ1 = σ2 i.e. α (0. 1). Make the decision. Step 5. Step 4. is generally fixed at 5% (0. two random samples gave the following details. 546 28 Solution. If the computed value of Z is less than its tabulated value Zα. Step 2. 582 X 2 = Rs.05 = 1. respectively. α. If Z> Zα . Make the decision by comparing computed and tabulated value of Z. Z0. the null hypothesis H0 is accepted otherwise H0 is rejected. Two samples are drawn from the same population.05). Select the level of significance.e.05 = . Examine whether the different between the (i) means (ii) the SDs. Select the level of significance.N(0.645 For left-tailed test Step 5. the sample SDs differ significantly. are significant. 582 24 II 100 Rs. Compute the test statistic given by ( S1 S 2 ) ( S1 S 2 ) Z 1 2 2 2 2 2 S1 S2 2n1 2n2 2n1 2n2 S1 and S2 are unbiased estimate of σ1 and σ2. The level of significance which indicates whether the probability of difference of means is small or large.65 For right-tailed test Z0.

81 (i) H0 : μ1 = μ2 i.96. Decision: Since the computed value of Z is greater than tabulated value the null hypothesis is rejected i.e.e. (Two-tailed test) Computation of test statistics: (X1 X 2 ) (582 546) (582 546) Z = (582 546) = 36 2 S1 S 2 2 242 28 = 576 784 = 2 3. Brand A Brand B n1 = 50 n2 = 50 X 1 = 1282 hrs X 2 = 1208 hrs S1 = 80 S2 = 94 2 2 S1 80 x80 S2 94 x94 128 176. the null hypothesis is accepted i. there is no significant difference between the two brands in quality. Decision: Since the computed value of Z less than its tabulated value.61 2n1 2n2 200 200 Tabulate value at 0.69 =9. H1: σ1 ≠ σ2 i.35 2.e. there is a significance difference between sample means.e.e. he found that brand A had a mean life of 1282 hours. the two brand differ in quality (two tailed test) Computation of test statistic: .76 7. there is significance difference between the two sample means. H1 : μ1 ≠ μ2 i.05 level of significance is 1.76 5.e. Can the buyer be quite certain that the two brands do differ in quality? Solution: Given. (ii) H0 : σ1 = σ2 i.e.92 2.tailed test) Computation of test statistic: ( S1 S 2 ) (24 28) 4 4 24 2 28 2 2 2 Z S1 S2 1. there is no significance difference between the sample standard deviations. with SD of 80 hours whereas brand B had a mean life of 1208 hours with SD of 94 hours.88 3.e. there is a significance difference between the sample standard deviations (two.84 100 100 100 100 n1 n2 Tabulated value of Z at 0. Upon testing these bulbs.96. there is no difference between sample means H1 : : μ1 ≠ μ2 i. Example 7. A potential buyer of light bulbs bought 50 bulbs each of two brands.05 level of significance is 1. there is no significant difference between the two sample standard deviation.72 n1 50 n2 50 H0 : μ1 = μ2 i.

Solution: H0 : P = 0.72 17. Q = 1 – P p = sample proportion P (1 P ) PQ S. the null hypothesis H0 is rejected i. H1: P ≠ 0. Using a 5% level of significance do you think the store has reason to believe that estimate of 8% is too low ? Tabulated value for 5% and 10% level of significances are 1.645. however we see that 49 have defaulted.05 level of significance is 1.08 i.( p ) = N 1 n N 1 n Step 3.96.08 (two – tail) pP Computation of test statistic : Z = PQ / n 49 p = sample proportion of defective credit accounts = = 0. If Z < Zα accept H0. Obtain the level of significance be α = 0. however we see that 49 have default on payments. d.72 304. Write down the critical value Zα for two tail test.e. Example 8 : A furniture store with a loose credit policy expects that 8% of its credit accounts will default on payments. then N n P (1 p ) N n PQ S . Make the decision. the proportion of the defaulted credit accounts on payments is 8%. Decision: Since the computed value of Z is greater that its tabulated value. there is significance difference between the two brands of bulbs in quality. H1 : P ≠ Po (two – tail test) Step 2.96 and 1.456 n1 n2 Tabulated value of Z at 0.24 2 2 S1 S 2 128 176. 82 (X1 X 2 ) 1282 1208 Z 74 74 4. . Ho : P=Po i. Step 5.098 500 . respectively. Compute the test statistics is pP Difference Z= = PQ S .E. the sample has been drawn from a population with proportion P. Test of significance of a sample proportion The steps in testing the significance of sample proportion or percentage are as follows: Step 1.E n Where P = population proportion. If Z > Zα reject H0 and accept H1 at α level of significance.05 unless otherwise stated.e.E (p) n n Note that if we have sampling from a finite population of size N. Looking at the 500 accounts sold to last year. Step 4.e. Looking at the 500 accounts sold to last year. Formulate the null (Ho) and alternative (H1) hypotheses.

92 0.90 0. Decision: since the computed value of /Z/ is greater than the tabulated value. the proportion of the machine parts conforming to specifications in the lot is no 90%. respectively. 83 P = 0. An examination of 200 such parts revealed that 160 parts were not faulty.5 i.90 (left –tail) pP Computation of test statistic: Z PQ / n p = sample proportion of machine parts conforming to specifications 160 = = 0.10 / 200 = 0. Q = 1 – 0.90 x 0. Example 9: A manufacture claimed that at least 90% of the machine parts that it supplied to a factory conformed to specifications. Decision: Since the computed value of Z is less than tabulated value the null hypothesis is accepted i.03 0.4.10 0. Test of significance Between Two Sample Proportions The steps in testing the significance of difference between two sample proportions are: Step 1.08 0. the proportion of the machine parts confirming to specifications in the lot is 90%.000417 0.03 Z= 0.25 / 600 = = 0.488 0. Q = 1 – P = 1 – 0.5 i.5 / 600 = 0. the store has not reason to believe that estimate of 8% is too low.326. H1 : P ≠ 0.5 Tabulated value of Z for two tail test at 5% level of significance is 1. H1 : P < 0.e.50 0.80 200 P = 0.0121 Tabulated value of Z at 5% and 10% levels of significance are 1. e. formulate the null (H0) and alterative (H1) hypotheses . Solution : H0 : P = 0.645.e.80 0.08.03 0..90. Decision : Since the computed value of Z is less than tabulated values at 5% and 10% levels of significance.72 Tabulated value of Z at 1% level of significance for left tailed test is – 2.10 Z= 0. the null hypothesis is rejected at 1% level of significance i.e. Example 10: A sample of 600 persons selected randomly from a large city gives the result that males are 53%. both males and females are not equal in numbers in the city (Two tail test) pP Computation of test statistic: Z = PQ / n p = Sample proportion of males = 53% = 0.e.92 / 500 0.53 0.96.08 x 0.02 = 1.098 0.96 and 1.90 i.90 = 0. Determine if the manufacture’s claim is legitimate at 1% level of significance. males and females are in equal numbers in city.e.08 = 0.5 x 0.53 0. it is less than 90%. the null hypotheses H0 is accepted i.018 Z= = = 1. both males and females are equal in numbers in the city.0212 = . Is there reason to doubt the hypothesis that males and females are in equal number in a city? Solution: H0 : P = 0.e.

Fix the level of significance α (usually α = 0. H1 : P1 ≠ P2 (two –tailed) Computation of test statistic: . H1 : P1 ≠ P2 (two tailed test) Step : 2.05) Step 4. Write down the tabulated value of Z at the level of significance α.. Make decision. If the computed value of Z is less than its tabulated value Zα. compute the test statistic. q1 = 1. the two samples have been drawn from the same population.p1 and q2 = 1 – p2 Step 3. Q2 =1 . each of them is estimated by ^ n1 p1 n2 p2 P n1 n2 And the test statistic is given by p1 p2 p1 p2 Z ^ ^ ^ ^ PQ PQ PQ 1 1 = ^^ n1 n2 n n 1 2 Also not that the sample proportions can be substituted for their corresponding population proportions.P2 Note that if P1 and P2 are not known. p1 q1 p 2 q 2 Hence S.E. there is no significant difference between the performance of the two machines.E. Example 11.e.e. (p1 – p2) = n1 n where. there is no significance difference between the two population proportions or percentages or. Step 5. (p1 – p2) = n1 n2 Q1 = 1 – P1. Under H0. H0 is accepted otherwise it is rejected. 84 H0 : P1 = P2 i. Random samples of 200 bolts manufactured by machine A and 100 bolts manufactured by machine B showed 19 and 5 defective bolts respectively. Is there a significant difference between the performances of the two machines? Solution: H0 : P1 = P2 i. the test statistic is given by P1 P2 Z= P1Q2 P2 Q2 n1 n2 P1Q1 P2 Q2 Where S.

85 p1 p2 Z ^^ 1 1 PQ n1 n2 P1 = Proportion of defective in the machine A = 19/200 = 0.355 200 100 Tabulated value of Z at 5% level of significance for two –tailed test is 1.08 0.e.92 0.= 0.96. After the tax on tobacco had been heavily increased another random sample of 600 men in the same city included 400 smokers.095 P2 = Proportion of defective in the machine B = 5/100 =0.0332 1.8 500 .92 1 1 0.01104 0.05 0. there is no significant difference between the proportion of the smokers before and after the increase in the tax. there is no significant difference between the performances of the two machines.0.045 Z= 0.095 100 .08 ^ ^ Q 1 P = 1. Example 13. Was the observed decrease in the proportion of the smokers significant? Test at 5% level of significant.e. H1 : P1 >P2 (Right tailed) Computation of test statistic: p1 p2 Z ^^ 1 1 PQ n1 n2 400 P1 = Sample proportion of smokers before increase in tax.045 0. Decision: since the computed value of Z is less than tabulated value at 5% level of significance the null hypothesis is accepted i.08 = 0.05 n1 p1 n2 p2 200 .095 0. i.05 19 5 ^ P n1 n2 200 100 300 0. Solution: H0: P1 = P2. At a certain date in a large city 400 out of a random sample of 500 men were found to be smokers.

A sample poll of 300 voters from district A and 200 from district B. Computation of test statistic: p1 p2 Z ^^ 1 1 PQ n1 n2 P1= Proportion of voters of district A who are in favor of candidate = 0. test the hypothesis that (a) there is a difference between the districts (b) the candidate is preferred in district A Solution: H0 : P1= P2 i. Decision: Since the computed value of Z is greater than the tabulated value the null hypothesis is rejected i. H1: P1≠ P2 i.8 0.05.027 121 3000 Tabulated value of Z at 5% level of significance for right tail test is 1.48 168 96 ^ P n1 n2 300 200 500 0.133 0.e.56 200 0. there is a significant decrease in the proportion of the smokers after the increase in the tax. 86 400 P2 = Sample proportion of smokers after increase in tax.133 0. = 0.645.926 = 24 11 264 / 363000 0. Example 12. there is a significant difference between the districts.133 4.528 .667 8 ^ P n1 n2 500 600 11 ^ 8 3 Q 11 11 1 0.667 Z= 8 3 1 1 11 11 500 600 0. showed that 56% and 48% respectively were in favor of a given candidate At a level of significance of 0.56 P2 = Proportion of voters of district B who are in favor of candidate = 0.e.48 n1 p1 n2 p2 300 0.e. there is no significance difference between the district.800 600 0.667 600 n1 p1 n2 p2 500 .

87 ^ ^ Q (1 p)1 . If we want to determine whether the candidate is preferred in district A.48 0. Decision: Since the computed value of Z is less than tabulated value.0 528 .e. Decision: On the basis of a one tail test at 5% level of significance. there is no significant difference between the districts.08 1. we reject the null hypothesis because computed value of Z is greeted than tabulated value of Z and it may be concluded that the candidate is preferred in district A. we accept the null hypothesis i. (b) Tabulated value of Z at 5% level of significance is 1.96.75 Z= 0. alternative hypothesis must be (H1: P1>P2) used which involves a one tailed test.472 1 1 500 300 200 (a) Tabulated value of Z at 5% level of significance for two tail test is 1.0 472 0.645 for one tail test.56 0. .528 0.

an ambulance service claims that it takes. Use 0. Point out the difference between one-tail and two-tail tests. whether the claim the new car petrol consumption is 9. With a standard deviation 0. A sample of size 400 was drawn and the sample mean was found to be 99. getting mean of 9.89 minutes to reach its destination in emergency calls.21.5 inches. The average height of 50 students who showed athletic interest was 68. test whether this sample could have come from a normal population with mean 100 and variance 64 at 5% level of significance.2 ft. 3. Do we accept the hypothesis of net weight of 5 kgs. A pharmaceutical firm maintains the mean time for a drug to take effect is 24 minutes. and standard deviation 0.. while another set of 50 students who showed no athletic .5 km per litre. A random sample of size 100 from a large population give the distribution Value: 10-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 Frequency: 13 20 45 13 9 Test the hypothesis that this sample comes from a population with mean 40. 2. can the sample be regarded as a truly random sample ? 11.3 minutes with a standard deviation of 1. (b) Explain the procedure for Z-test. 9. A random sample of 200 tins of coconut oil gave an average weight of 4.5 km. 4.95 kgs. Explain the general procedure followed in testing a hypothesis. (a) How do you test the significance of the difference between the means of the two large samples. 5. At the level of significance 0. Per tin. (c) Type I and type II errors. An auto company decided to introduce a new six cylinder car whose mean petrol consumption is claimed to be lower than that of the existing auto engine. if the sample mean is 4. per litre on the average is acceptable.05. 9. at 1% level? 8. intelligence test on two groups of boys and girls gave the following results: Mean SD N Girls 75 15 150 Boys 70 20 250 Is there a significant difference in the mean scores obtained by boys and girls? 12. It was found that the mean petrol consumption for the 50 cars was 10 km per liter with a standard deviation of 3. test for the company at 5% level of significance. does this constitute evidence that the figure claimed is too low ? 10. (d) Level of significance and confidence limits.6 ft. Distinguish between (a) Null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis (b) Critical region and acceptance region. 6.8 minutes. To check on this claim. 88 Exercise for practices 1. 7. the agency which licenses ambulance services has them timed on 50 emergency calls. given that the population SD is 10.2 inches with a standard deviation of 2. a sample of 100 iron bars is said to be drawn from a large number of bars whose lengths are normally distributed with mean 4 ft.05 level of significance. In a sample of 400 trails the mean time is 26 minutes with a standard deviation of 4 minutes against the alternative hypothesis that it is not equal to 24 minutes. on the average.

560 are found to be rice eaters and the rest wheat eaters. 89 interest had the average height of 67. Level of significance 1% 2% 5% 10% Tabulated value 2. 15. 400 women shoppers are chosen at random in super market A located in a certain section of a city. find at 1% level if the two results are consistent. would you say the mean wages of moll workers in Nepalgunj are higher than those at Birgunj.9 Are the two means statistically equal? 18. per acre with a SD of 10 lbs. 40.5 inches with a standard deviation of 2. In 600 throws of six faced die. 21. In a random sample of 1000 persons from a village in district. assuming the SD of the mean field at 11 lbs for the universe.9 σ2 =17. With SD of 12 lbs. 20. 14. Two randomly selected groups of 50 employees each of a very large firm are taught an assembly operation by two different methods and then tested for performance if the fist group averaged 140 points with a SD of 10 points while the second group averaged 135 points with a SD. A sample of 150 mill workers in Nepalgunj showed the mean wage to be Rs. You are working as a purchase manager for a company. Their average monthly food expenditure is Rs. A campus conducted both day and evening classes intended to be identical. The mean produce of wheat of a sample of 100 fields is 200 lbs. the average monthly food expenditure is Rs. 16. An examination of a sample of 200 pieces of . for 400 women shoppers chosen at random in super market B in another section of the city. 40.65 13. On the basis of the data. odd points appeared 360 times. 55 Test at 1% level of significance whether the average food expenditure of the two population of shoppers from which the samples were obtained are equal.96 1. 28. A random sample of 100 mill workers at Birgunj showed their mean wage to be Rs. The following information has been supplied to you by two manufacturers of electric bulbs: Company A Company B Mean life in hours: 1300 1248 Standard deviation in hours: 82 93 Sample size: 100 100 Which brands of bulbs are going to purchase if you desire to take a risk of 5%. A sample of 100 day students yields examination results as under: X 1 = 72. The mean population of a random sample of 400 villages in district B was found to be 395 with a SD of 15 Is the difference between the two means statistically significant? 17. Would you say that the die is fair at 5% level of significance? 22.05 level whether the difference between their mean scores is significant? 19.58 2. 390 per month with a SD of Rs. 220 with a SD of Rs. In a survey of buying habits.33 1.8 inches. can it be concluded that both the food articles are equally popular? 23. The mean population of a random sample of 400 villages in district A was found to be 400 with a SD of 12.4. test at 0. another sample of 150 fields gives the mean at 220 kbs. of 8 points. σ1 = 14. 250 with a SD of Rs. Test the hypothesis that athletic interest makes a students taller. 350 per month with a SD of Rs. Test the hypothesis that the coin is unbiased. A coin was tossed 400 times and head turned up 216 times. On the basis of this data. A manufacturer claimed that at least 95% of the equipment which he supplied to a factory conformed to specifications.8 A sample of 200 evening students yields examination results as under: X 2 = 73.

do you believe the claim of the auditor to be correct. Is there a significant difference in the performance of the machines at 5% level o significance? . Show you calculations in arriving at this conclusion. 25. In another simple random sample of 900 men taken from another city 450 are smokers. A random sample of 400 passengers includes 70 passengers holding first class tickets. 65 units were found to be defective and in another sample of 200 units.01 (b) 0. In a sample of 300 units of a manufactured product. A certain manufacturing process is expected to produce only 1% defective items. 24. In a village ‘A’ out of a random sample of 1000 persons 100 were found to be vegetarians while in another village ‘B’ out of 1500 persons 180 were found to be vegetarians. A machine produced 20 defective articles in a batch of 500. Can the null hypothesis be rejected at 10% level of significance? 26. In a simple random sample of 600 men taken from a big city 400 are found to be smokers. After overhauling it produced 3 defective articles in a batch of 100. Has the machine improved? 29. 90 equipment revealed that 18 wee faulty. A random sample of 500 vouchers is taken. 27. In one sample of 134 of these items. The null hypothesis is that 20% of the passengers fly first class. Random sample of 100 bolts manufactured by machine A and 50 bolts by machine B showed 10 and 6 defective bolts respectively. there were 35 defective. and in another sample of size 66. If 100 vouchers are found to contain a mistake. Test his claim at a significance level of (a) 0. The owner of a wholesale distributing firm would like to know the proportion of accounts receivable that are more than 60 days past due. Is there significant difference in the proportion of defectives in the samples at 5% level of significance? 30. but the management recognizes the possibility that the percentage could be more or less. An airline must allocate available seating space between first class passengers and economy class passengers. A random sample of 200 current accounts receivable revealed that are more than 60 days past due has changed. Do the data indicate that there is a significant difference in the habit of smoking in the two cities? 28.05. Do you find a significance difference if the food habits of the people of the two villages? 31. The owner estimates that in the past the proportion has remained stable at 15%. An auditor claims that 15% vouchers of a firm contain some mistakes or the other. 2 were found defectives significant? 32. 3 were found to be defective.

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