Unit III: Job Analysis and Job Design

Concept of Job Analysis

The study about job (on the basis of its type, nature & purpose) and
determining the skills required to perform this job is Job Analysis. DeCenzo
and Robbins have defined job analysis as: Job analysis provides information
about jobs currently being done & the knowledge, skills & abilities that
individuals need to perform the job adequately. It helps to develop job
description, job specification & to conduct job evaluation. Likewise, according
to Gary Dessler, “Job analysis is the procedure for determining the duties and
skills requirements of a job and the kind of person who should be hired for it.”

The major components of job analysis are:

1. Job Description (states job title, duties, authority, responsibility, and job
relationships)

2. Job Specification (identifies knowledge, skills and abilities needed to do the
job)

3. Job performance standards (sets standards of jobs in terms of quantity and
quality)

4. Job evaluation (states the relative value of job, i.e., rates the jobs not the
employees)

Job analysis thus concerned with the analysis of job characteristics and
employee’s competencies in order to insure the perfect fit between the people
and job.

Process of Job Analysis

Job analysis is a step-by-step process of gathering information related to
various aspects of the job. Following are the steps involved in job analysis.

1. Collection of information

It is the first step of job analysis under which required information related to
various aspects of the job are collected. Information is obtained through
different methods such as interview, observation, questionnaire, technical
conference and diary. Moreover, it is associated with the preparation of plans
and programs and assignment of responsibilities to the concerned person.

2. Review relevant background information

In other words. abilities of performing the job and other various dimension of the job. procedures. social and behavioral characteristics of each job- holder. Observation Method . It is prepared along with the job description statement and specifies the physical. human traits and qualities. working conditions. a job description schedule is developed through the information collected from above steps. skills. Also the purpose of job analysis must be etermined. 5. 4. Methods of Job Analysis (Methods of collecting Job Analysis Information) There are a number of job analysis methods. judgment and attributes required to perform the job effectively and efficiently. Under it the job analyst investigates to determine which organization managers or employees require job analysis. Of which. 3. describes and defines a job’s duties and responsibilities. The information is collected on the job activities. Analysis of job by collecting data Under this step a job analyst obtains the data and information related to the selected job which is done previously. current position description and specification. experience. psychological. managers generally use a combination of two or more methods. Develop job specification A job specification is statement which spells out the minimum level of qualifications. physical and other abilities. This help in detail assessment of a job. personal. It is a written statement or document that identifies. Select representative position to be analyzed Analyzing all jobs at a time is complex and costly affair.Job analysis is a process under which the previously collected information is reviewed to design organizational chart. it is an overall summary of task requirement which explains the constitute element of job in an organized way. Some of the important methods include: 1. 6. Develop job description Under this. manual and process chart. Hence a sample of job is selected for the purpose of detail analysis. location and degree of risk involved in each job. working conditions. The job specification is an important tool in selection process of job analysis and knowledge of performing task. required employee behaviors.

Interview Method 3. Interview Method Under this method. Advantages: ‐ This method is simple. Observation Method Under this method. ‐ Data collections are accurate because of direct observation. job analyst interviews (face-to-face) job holders as well as their supervisors to collect different job related information. motion study determines the ideal speed and fatigue study determines the need of introducing rest periods during the performance of jobs. from his/her observation. ‐ not suitable for analyzing managerial jobs. ‐ It provides feedback to employee immediately after the observation. Questionnaire Method (Survey Method) 4. Time study. Technical Conference Method 1. ‐ not all activities are observable. Disadvantages: ‐ This method is time consuming. equipment. Diary Method 5. Time study determines the time required to perform the job efficiently. These all are helpful particularly in determining job specification and job performance standards. job analyst directly observes the jobs being done to get the first hand information. This method is useful when combined HRM/Job Analysis and Design/Page 2 of 6 with . 2. This may be supplemented by the review of film of workers on the job. 2. working conditions etc. Generally. motion study and fatigue study is done while observing the workers. ‐ workers may get influenced by the presence of the observer. Analyst receives the information about the activities. materials.

Employees may regard it as a burden and may not comply with it in the long run. which can later be used for analyzing the job. Concept of Job Design Job design involves the determination of content of job and the method of doing the job. This method is also effective for assessing what a job further requires. ‘Job design refers to organizing tasks.observation method. Its main advantage is that it is used in large organizations that have a large number of people assigned to one particular job. Under this method. 4. Technical Conference Method This method uses the view and opinions of technicians and experts in the field to analyze the job. Although the process is slow and expensive. duties and responsibilities into a productive unit of work. it allows the interviewer to explain unclear questions and further inquiry into unclear answers. 3. It is easy and quick method. 6. responsibilities. Under this method. but not widely used. analysts or experts sit together and share opinions on each and every aspect of the job to be analyzed. and other familiar with the work. This method is very easy to adopt and economical. but the response sheet contains fewer subjective judgments and tends to be either yes or no variety. Checklist Method A checklist is similar to a questionnaire. abilities and performance standards of the job investigated. structured questionnaires are developed. Questionnaire Method This is one of the widely used methods of job analysis. responses bias/error and incomplete responses are its major drawbacks.” According to Hackman: “Any . Diary Method Under this method. It is better to use a standard format while interviewing the workers so that there is no chance of leaving important information for the analysis of the job. distributed to the job holders and different information are collected from them. It is a challenging job to prepare a checklist as information is obtained by asking supervisors. Thus. industrial engineers. Checklist can cover as many as 100 activities and job holders tick only those tasks that are included in their jobs. employees record their daily activities in a diary. The questionnaire uncovers the duties. But. It is the process of determining specific tasks to be included in a job and the methods of performing those tasks. 5. According to Mathis and Jackson. The major drawback of this method is that sometimes employees’ opinions are overlooked.

management HRM/Job Analysis and Design/Page 3 of 6 attention has also been directed to alternative way of designing jobs that focuses on teamwork rather than individual works. generally. in balancing the organizational and individual needs. However. there should be appropriate balance between specialization and variety of job in job design. In designing the jobs. only a few and similar jobs are assigned to a position/ job holder in order to ensure specialization and speedy performance of job.activity that involves the alteration of specific jobs with the intent of increasing both the quality of the employee work experience & their on the job productivity. Thus. extreme specialization also leads to problems like boredom. monotony. In recent years. Appropriate Job design is useful particularly in designing the organization structure. frustration etc. Factors Affecting Job Design Feedba ck Orga Job nizati De onal sig Facto n r Beha viour al Facto Productive & Satisfying Jobs r Envir onm ental Facto r . and in both achieving higher productivity and QWL. in facilitating acquisition function.” The key to successful job design lies in balancing the needs of organization and the employees.

The external factors that have a bearing on job design are employee abilities and availability. Where there are more complex jobs. Ergonomics: Ergonomics is concerned with designing and shaping jobs to fit the physical abilities and characteristics of individuals so that they can perform their jobs effectively. and social and cultural expectations. The worker was prepared to work on any job and under any working conditions. This has been emerged as a new technique. or these tasks may be allocated to a group of workers or may be divided between them. each with a number of functions. work flow. Work Flow: The flow of work in an organization is strongly influenced by the nature of the product or service. So the jobs must be designed in such a way that requires little training. because . Characteristics of task: An individual may carry out one main task which consists of a number of interrelated elements or function. Work practices: Work practices are set ways of performing work. individuals may carry out a variety of connected tasks. and job design is no exception. These are raised from traditional or the collective wishes of employees. Task functions may be split between a team working closely together or strung also an assembly. Environmental Factors Environmental elements affect all activities of HRM. Ergonomics helps employers to design jobs in such a way that workers’ physical abilities and job demands are balanced. Job design is also influenced by what has been in the practice since years ago. where work flow is high. Social and Cultural Expectation: In early years. getting a job was the primary consideration. Not anymore. ergonomics. Fig: Factors affecting job design Organizational Factors Organizational factors include characteristics of task. HRM/Job Analysis and Design/Page 4 of 6 Employee Ability and Availability: Efficiency consideration must be balanced against the abilities and availability of the people who are to do the work. and work practices. These can be specially seen in seasonal business.

the job is simplified or specialized. which tend to increase the employee’s sense of recognition and self-esteem. Hence there must be variation on the jobs they perform. To be more specific. Work Simplification In this technique. in turn. A given job is broken down into small sub. Autonomy: Autonomy is being responsible to what one does. Variety: Lack of variety may cause boredom. which are as follows: 1. This technique can be defective when jobs are overspecialized results in boredom which can lead to errors and resignation. it has to meet the social and cultural expectation. Jobs that give workers authority to make decisions will provide added responsibilities. Behavioral Factors Behavioral factors mainly deals with human needs and the necessity to satisfy them.parts. Techniques of Job Design There are mainly six techniques of properly designing the job. preferably by evaluating their own performance and defining the feedback. Work simplification is adopted when job designers feel that jobs are not specializing enough.just getting the job is not enough. Use of Abilities: The job must be perceived by individuals as requiring them to use abilities the value in order to perform the job effectively. Hence the job must be designed accordingly. work simplification involves: a) Mechanical pacing of work b) Repetitive work processes c) Working on only one part of a product d) Predetermining tools and techniques e) Restricted interaction among employees . Individuals inspired by higher level needs find jobs challenging and satisfying which are high on the following dimensions: Feedback: An individual wants and must receive meaningful feedback about their performance. leads to fatigue and fatigue causes mistakes. Boredom.

and control over the way the job is accomplished. High. 5. People may not like to accept new responsibilities.performance work design: It is a means of improving performance in an environment where positive and demanding goals are set.It may not work in large bureaucratic organization .team implementation is difficult without the active involvement of managers and supervisors. handle day to day problems 6. the place of accomplishing the job. The objective is to expose the employees to different experiences and wider variety of skills to enhance job satisfaction. It is a vertical restructuring method in that it gives the employees additional authority. autonomy. The team members work together to improve their operations. the person responsible for doing the job. Job Enrichment: It is a variation on job enlargement concept. Self. It is horizontal restructuring method in that the job is enlarged by adding related tasks. It increase intrinsic reward potential of a job because of different skills and abilities needed to perform it . 3. Work.Job otation may not have much impact on employees’ enthusiasm and efficiency. Job enrichment adds new sources of job satisfaction by increasing the level of responsibility of the employee.Directed Work Teams: A self-directed team is an intact group of employees who are responsible for a whole work process that delivers a product or service to an internal or external customer. Job Rotation It refers to the movement of employees from job to job. 4. It works in an environment of high rate of innovation and operational freedom . It has motivational impact to employees. Job Enlargement : Job enlargement involves expanding the number of tasks or duties assigned to a given job. It addresses issues like the methodology of doing the job. It is naturally opposite to work simplification. It improves task efficiency and human satisfaction by providing challenging and responsible work.f) Few skill requirements 2.