# ASME_Ch38_p707-724.

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CHAPTER

38
STRESS INTENSIFICATION
FACTORS, STRESS INDICES,
AND FLEXIBILITY FACTORS
Everett C. Rodabaugh

38.1 INTRODUCTION 38.2 TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS
Piping systems tend to be rather complex structures that As used herein, the word Code is ref. [1]. Portions of the Code
include straight pipe and a variety of complex components, such are identified as they appear in the Code; for example, Table
as elbows and tees. A typical piping system might include 50 or NC-3611.2(e)-1 and NB-3228.5. Equations from the Code are
so components along with many intervening lengths of straight identified by a “B” (for Class 1 piping) and a “C” (for Class 2 or 3
pipe. Each of the components is subjected to a complex set of piping); the number that follows the letter is the specific equation
loadings. The evaluation of any component by the detailed analy- number from the Code. The elements of the Code equations are
sis methods prescribed in NB-3200 would be an onerous task. defined as follows:
As indicated by Tables NB/NC/ND-3132-1, many piping com-
ponents are “standardized.” For example, elbows and tees are B1, B2  primary stress indices: B1 for pressure and B2
included in ANSI B16.9, Factory Made Wrought Steel Butt- for moment
Welding Fittings. C1, C2, C3, C3  primary-plus-secondary stress indices: C1 for
The complexity of analyses of piping components and the pressure, C2 for moment, and C3 and C3 for
“standard” aspect of piping components has led to use of stress thermal gradients
intensification factors (also called i-factors) in addition to stress Do  outside diameter of pipe (for branch connec-
indices and flexibility factors for evaluations of piping systems. tions, the run pipe)
The intent of i-factors and stress indices is to provide for a simple do  outside diameter of branch pipe
yet reasonably accurate and conservative evaluation of compli- E  modulus of elasticity
ance with Code stress limits. Piping components (e.g., elbows and f  number of cycles dependent factor, ranging
branch connections) may have directional dependent responses. from 1.0 for 7,000 or fewer cycles to 0.5 for
The concept (except as discussed in Section 38.11) is to use the 100,000 or more cycles (see Table NC-
maximum directional dependent i-factor or stress index as a mul- 3611.2(e)-1)
tiplier of resultant moments. h  tRb> r2; elbow characteristic
Flexibility factors are involved in piping system analyses. i  stress intensification factor
Inaccurate flexibility factors may lead to grossly incorrect calcula- I  moment of inertia of pipe or elbow (Ir, Ib for
tions of stresses. In general, a “conservative” flexibility factor run, branch-of-branch connections)
cannot be defined; the goal is to establish and use reasonably K1, K2, K3  peak stress indices: K1 for pressure, K2 for
accurate flexibility factors. moment, and K3 for thermal gradients
In this chapter, the general concepts behind the development of Ke  factor used for Sn 7 3Sm (see NB-3228.5)
i-factors, stress indices, and flexibility factors are briefly discussed k  flexibility factor
with references to details of developments. In Section 38.8, an Nf  test cycles to failure; see equation (38.1)
example of a relatively simple piping system with loads is given; Nd1  design cycles for Class 1 piping
the piping system output analysis is used to illustrate how i-factors Nd2,3  design cycles for Classes 2 or 3 piping
and stress indices are used to check Code compliance and—for a Mj  [M 2xj + M 2yj + M 2zj](1/2) = resultant moment:
branch connection—to illustrate the quantitative significance of j  A, B, or C for MA, MB, and MC. The sub-
flexibility factors. The ASME Piping Codes are discussed in scripts x, y, and z denote an orthogonal set of
Sections 38.9, 38.10, and 38.11. three moments.

qxd 5/20/09 9:33 AM Page 708 708 • Chapter 38 MA  resultant moment from weight and other sus. see equation (38. see Sn  calculated stress by equation (B10) equation (38.1) Sp  calculated stress by equation (B11) P  internal pressure Salt  calculated stress by equation (B14) r  mean radius of pipe or elbow T  wall-thickness of run-pipe of branch connec- r2  radius at outside juncture between run pipe tions and branch pipe or nozzle t  wall-thickness of pipe or elbow Rb  bend radius of elbow Z  section modulus of pipe or elbow (Zr and Zb Sta  test elastic–equivalent stress amplitude (half. SA  allowable stress range  f(1.2 MB  resultant moment from nonreversing dynamic Sc  basic material allowable stress at minimum loads temperature MC  range of resultant moment from thermal Sh  basic material allowable stress at temperature expansion consistent with loading under consideration Mi  resultant moment as defined in NB-3650 Sm  basic material allowable stress intensity Nf  test cycles to failure.1) and Fig.1 MARKL-TYPE FATIGUE TESTS AND ILLUSTRATION OF LIMIT LOAD CRITERION . tained loads see equation (C1) in NC-3611.25Sc  0.25Sh). FIG. 38. 38. for run and branch-of-branch connections) range).1 SOL  calculated stress by equation (C8) Symbols not included in the preceding list are defined where STE  calculated stress by equation (C11) used in the text.ASME_Ch38_p707-724. through-wall crack.

. Minichielo [8] details a procedure for experimental determina- tion of i-factors for components not covered by the Code (e.3). for moment loading. in the 55 yr.qxd 5/20/09 9:33 AM Page 710 710 • Chapter 38 FIG. 38. However. since. for example.ASME_Ch38_p707-724.2 includes the following relationship: [4].3) process by the Code Working Group on Piping Design..00 (38. with NB-3650 (Class 1 piping). additions and changes have been made. ties NC-3650 (Class 2 piping) branch connection in an elbow).2 DESIGN MARGINS FOR SA106 GRADE B: Sc = Sh = 15 KSI Many of the i-factors are identical to those suggested by Markl NC-3673. a Equation (38. the description of “branch connection” has been added. These additions and changes are part of an ongoing i = C2K 2>2 but not less than 1.g.

8.5).1(Do>T) 3(T>t)(do>Do)4 1. the torsional flexibili- k o = 0.375 in.1. conditions indicated in Section 38.280 in. Do  24 in. that flexibility was used in the (t>T) (38.8.8..12) evaluations of “with nozzle flexibility.2 k i = 5. 38.1. . With the dimensions in these two equations: given in Sections 38.3 EXAMPLE PIPING SYSTEM (2) having nozzle flexibility modeled as a “point spring” (as k o = 23.625 in.qxd 5/20/09 9:34 AM Page 716 716 • Chapter 38 FIG.13) is given in ref.2 Moments For the example piping system shown in Fig.12) and (38. and Table 38. For this example.276.6.2(Do>T) 3(T>t)(do>Do)4(1>2)(t>T) (38. the moments are shown in For this example.3 and for the The basis for equations (38.3–38.13) 38. T  0.” k i = 0.. 38. as a point spring. in which do/D  0.81 prescribed in NB-3686. is close to 0. Examples of details of the stress calculations are t  0. do  6.8.5 (1>2) ty.ASME_Ch38_p707-724.. [22].

8. (B11). 60. gradients are considered to be in both “design conditions” and “Service Level A”. For the example assumptions. do not involve MB or thermal For the assumed material (SA106 Grade B) and temperatures.000 psi STE = PDo>(4t) + 0.75iM A>Z + iM C>Z 6 (Sh + SA) for up to 370°F (C11) for Class 1 piping SB9 = B1PDo>(2t) + B2M i>Z 6 1.00 for 1. for simplicity.5Sm (B9) Sn = C1PDo>(2t) + C2M i>Z 6 3Sm (B10) Sp = K 1C1PDo>(2t) + K 2C2M i>Z 38. are summarized in Table 38. of its lower limit for “design conditions.ASME_Ch38_p707-724. The examples that.750 psi for Class 2 and 3 piping.1 summarizes the .1. (B11) is equal to MC. and Mi in equations (B10) and ref.5Sh (C8) Sm = 29. Mi in and (B14)—in conjunction with the S-N data in Appendix I of equation (B9) is equal to MA. [1]—represent the fatigue check for Class 1 piping. and Salt = K eSp>2 (B14) all seven locations should be checked. 70.” Values of MA and MC (C11) is a fatigue check for Class 2 or 3 piping.2) the following equations: Sh + SA = Sc + f(1.000 cycles SOL = B1PDo>(2t) + B2M A>Z 6 1. 30.8. Table 38. see Table 38. they are evaluated by (except for branch con.25h) = 42. 50. f  1.25Sc + 0. and (B9) are checks of sustained load capacity.qxd 5/20/09 9:34 AM Page 717 COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 717 38. and (B10).000 psi for Class 2 and 3 piping nections. Sh = Sc = 17.3 Code Equations Equation (C8) is used in this example rather than (C9) because Equations (C8). 40. and 80.4 Girth Butt Welds (B11) Girth butt welds are at nodes 10.

3  11.5. Section 38. the girth butt weld at Node 50(a) is psi is less than (Sh  SA)  42. B1  0. by using STE /2 for Sta in equation (38.5Sm.000)5 = 5357.qxd 5/20/09 9:35 AM Page 718 718 • Chapter 38 results for Class 2 or 3 piping. C1  1. The with Nd2. and 38. [1].5 * 3.0 * 4. Nd1  14. C2  1.00 * 68. K2  1.0 * 486. An appropriate comparison with Class 2 or 3 piping is obtained For Class 1 “as-welded” girth butt welds.000 cycles to failure SB9 = 0. Node 50(a) and is used in the following equations as a specific example: Salt = 1.000 * 2>38.960 psi is less than 1.200 + 1.820 * 12>162 = 1.1).200 + 1.5.000 * 12>162 = 38.000 design cycles * 12>162 = 68.0.000 postulated 1.000>32 = 11.8 * 1. the girth butt weld at Node acceptable as Class 1 piping. . Ke  1. B1  0.00 * 486.0 * 3.0.600 psi (B11) Thus.0 (its lower bound).ASME_Ch38_p707-724. B2  1.0 * 486. For girth butt welds.5 * 3.650 psi.200 + 1.000 Nd2.000 cycles.960 psi is less than 1.600>2 = 34. Refer to the discussion presented in next step is to see if the fatigue requirement is met. 50 is acceptable as Class 2 or 3 piping.3 = 357. (B10) Sp = 1.960 psi (C8) STE = 0. for Node 50[a].2.0 * 4.000 * 12>162 = 39.8.000 psi at 370°F). Because Sn is less than 3Sm ( 60.] From Table I-9-1 (line 2) and the interpolation equation in Table I-9-1. equation (B9) is met.5.0.0 * 4.5Sh  25.0. B2  1.5 * 3.000 cycles.0.0 * 3.200 + 1. Because Nd1 is greater than the Because 1. Nd1  14. Nf = (245.820 * 12>162 = 1. and i  1.750 psi.200 psi With a margin of 2 on stress. K1  1.820 * 12>162 [The division by 2 in equation (B14) converts stress range to + 1.300 psi (B14) SOL = 0.2 * 1.960 (B9) Sn = 1.75i  1.000 cycles.200 + 1.000 psi (C11) stress amplitude as used in Table I-9-1 of ref. 0.0.000 cycles agrees quite well Because 1.

see Table 38. and 38.00 For factors. Ke  1. and coverage was extended up to r/R  1. [34.5 * 3.500 psi 38. C2. equation (B9) is met. 1.750 psi. i = 4. and 70.85 = 600 psi (C8) Table I-9.350 psi (C8) Sn = 1.200 ft. Node 20(a) will be used in the acceptable as Class 2 or 3 piping.180 + 0.17 * 2. MA  6.85 postulated 1. wall. NB-3683.420 psi Because 980 psi is less than 1. tions involve two pipes: the run pipe and the branch pipe or nozzle.3 = (490. the branch end and two run ends are STE = 0. There are two i-factors—ir Table 38.25 K 1 = K 2 = 1.000 * 12>162 = 54.17.1  69. Salt = 1.81252 = 0.17 C1 = 1.140 * 12>162 = 980 (B9) SOL = 0.375 in. and K2. Refer to the discussion presented STE = 0.0 * 54.54 * 3 * 12>8.25 * 74. i = 0.200 + 6. SB9 = 0.200 + 1.75 * 4.200 + 9.54 * 14.5.200 * 12>8.85 = 107.500 psi (C11) Because 980 psi is less than 1.650 psi. ib and B2b were reduced by factor of h = 0.85 = 19.750 psi). lb.200 * 12>164 (B10) + 2.1.5 * 1.0.85 in Section 38.375 * 36>11. SOL = 0.8.2 Class 2 or 3 Piping: Check of Branch End (Node 25) See Tables 38. the elbow end at Node 30(a) is Both run ends should be checked. the evalua- locations should at least be checked.5 * 1.8.54 * 6 * 12>8.85 = 610 psi (C8) Thus for this example.3  82.000 cycles. Mb and Mr must be cal- culated as indicated in NB-3683.5Sh  25. the elbow end at Node 30(a) is accept- able as Class 1 piping.140 * 12>162 = 980 psi (C8) For Class 2 or 3 piping.qxd 5/20/09 9:36 AM Page 719 COMPANION GUIDE TO THE ASME BOILER & PRESSURE VESSEL CODE • 719 38.180 + 2. run ends is acceptable as Class 2 or 3 piping.75 * 2.700>2 = 27.143 * 6. The moments at Node 25 are shown in 42. 60.750 psi. + 4. and 5. bend radius elbow. [1]. Nd1  30. For Node 25(b) (with nozzle flexibility): Nd2.000 cycles.650 psi.0 * 3.5 * 3.750 psi] into an acceptable system (STE  19.1 + 0.140 * 12>162 evaluated separately. + 5.09675 2 for r/R up to 0.420 psi (C11) Sp = 1. For Class 1 piping.0 * 3. 40.244 * 3.25 * 74.75 * 5.00 (its lower bound) and code committees. B2  1.6 Branch Connection The inclusion of nozzle flexibility in the piping system analysis The nozzle is at Node 25.143 * 19.300 psi (B14) For Node 25(a) (no nozzle flexibility): From Table I-9-1 (line 2) and the interpolation equation in SOL = 0.700 psi (B11) Because 2.000 * 12>162 = 54.300 psi is less than 1. Because Sn is less than 3Sm ( 60. modeled as a “point spring” in the turns an unacceptable system [STE  107. The i-factors and stress indices are summarized in Table 38.000 psi (C11) For comparison with Class 2 or 3 piping.000 at 370°F psi). following as a specific example.200 + 1.2. The is less than (Sh + SA)  42.700 * 12>164 = 5.700 ft.1(d) and Fig.000 psi (Sh  SA) piping system analyses.0 * 9.3/h(2/3)  6.244 From Table 38.200 + 6.244 * 3.000 cycles does not agree very well with Nd2.6.180 + 2. Node 30(a) is used as in the following as a specific example: The 2001 Edition of Ref.943/28.5 * 1.1 (d)-1.200 + 0. changes to indices and i-factors for branch connections: For Class 1 piping.200 + 0.5.77 * 3 * 12>8. and these four for girth butt welds or elbows.1 summarizes the results for Class 2 or 3 piping.700 psi STE = 0.65 * 6.) with different radii and wall-thickness.75 * 5.000 design cycles SOL = 0.5Sm. lb.900 psi (C11) 38. (In unusual piping systems.2. .560 * 12>8.ASME_Ch38_p707-724.35] and constitute another example of the continuing review of the subject of this Chapter by For this elbow. and ib—and two sets of B2.6.27 * 2.54 * 2.1 Class 2 or 3 Piping: Check of Run Ends (Node 20) is less than (Sh + SA)  42.1.5Sh  25.0.900 psi Table 38. in which the moments at both run For Class 1 piping: ends are essentially identical. C2b and B2b were reduced by a factor of 2.1 and 38. and will be used for the examples in the paragraphs that follow.77 * 6 * 12>8.27 * 74.1.00.00 B2 = 6.000 * 12>162 = 25. Among other aspects.5 * 3. made significant For the NPS 24. and MC  19. 2002 Addenda.5 Elbows Code evaluation of a branch connection is more complex than Ends of elbows are at nodes 30.0 * 1.9/h(2>3) For Class 2 or 3 piping.500)5>32 = 82. and 25. Rb  36 in.8.000 cycles.4h  0. Because Nd1 is greater than the STE = 0.8. B1  0. the branch connection check of next step is to see if the fatigue requirement is met.180 + 0.5 * 1. + 5. B1 = 0. Nd1  30.200 * 12>164 = 2.27 These changes are based on refs. the maximum stress may be somewhere between the two ends.2.000>25.17 * 2. C1 = 9. 42. This is because the ratio of the moment of inertia of the NPS 24 run pipe to the NPS 6 branch pipe.