To generate FSK and GMSK signals using suitable pulse shaper.


1. Signal Generator.
2. Operational Amplifier IC 741.
3. IC XR22206
4. Resistors and Capacitors.
5. Power supply.
6. Potentiometer
7. Breadboard.
8. Cathode Ray Oscilloscope.
9. Connecting wires.


1. f mark = 1/R2C.
2. f space = 1/R1C.
3. f cut off = 1/2 π RC.
4. f c = Bit rate * BTb



Voltage supply : 9 – 18 VDC input

Waveforms : Sine, Square , Triangle

Impedance : 600Ω +10%

Frequency : 0.5 – 1 MHz

Sine wave distortion : Less than 1%(at 1 KHz)

Sweep Range : 2000:1

Low supply sensitivity: 0.001% typical

This method is very simple. There is no phase discontinuity because the frequency change occurs at carrier zero crossing points. straight forward but it is not suitable practically because of component tolerance drift. GMSK overcomes this. narrow bandwidth and its impulse response should show no overshoot.5.Temperature stability : 20ppm/oC typical SPECTRUM ANALYSER VNA MASTER MS2034B: Frequency Range : 100 KHz – 4 GHz Output power level range : -2 to -66 dBm Aging range : 1. Prior to modulation the requirements of the filter are it should have a sharp cut off. The problems with PSK are that the side bands extend forming the carrier. ADVANTAGES: . GMSK is a continuous phase scheme. The ideal filter is known as Gaussian filter whose impulse response is a Gaussian shaped response. A plot of MSK shows that the side bands extending beyond the bandwidth equivalent to the data rate.0 ppm/year Minimum Resolution bandwidth : 10 Hz Temperature Range : Operating : -10oC to 55oC Storage : -40oC to 75oC THEORY: GAUSSIAN MSK: GMSK or Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying or Gaussian filtered minimum shift keying is a form of mosulation used in digital radio communication link GSM cellular technology. GMSK is based on MSK. This can be reduced by passing the modulating signal through a low pass filter. a form of PSK.5. The most obvious way is to filter the signal with the Gaussian filter and applying this to a frequency modulator with modulation index 0. The frequency difference between binary 1 and 0 is equal to half the rate or modulation index is 0.

The BFSK literally implies using a couple of discrete frequencies to transmit binary information.5. Non linear amplifiers are more efficient in terms of DC power input from power rails that they convert into RF. The amplitude and frequency are noted. MFSK is particularly spectrally using more set of discrete frequencies to transmit information. The supply is switched ON and the carrier is observed. 3. the modulation index is 0. This result is less battery consumption for mobiles. Other form of FSK is MSK. The fourth order low pass filter is constructed with appropriate center frequency. FREQUENCY SHIFT KEYING: FSK is the frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave. It can be amplified by a non linear amplifier and remains undistorted. The circuit is constructed as per the circuit diagram. 2.5 fm where fm is the maximum modulating frequency. The input is applied to the filter and the output is observed at pin 2 of FSK modulator. 1. 2. 4. . The maximum frequency deviation is δ = 0. PROCEDURE: 1. GMSK is immune to amplitude variations and therefore immune to noise. 3. This is because there are no elements of the signal that are carried as amplitude variations. As a result. Improved spectral efficiency than other phase shift keying. the difference between the higher and lower frequency is identical to half the bit rate. In MSK.