Microwave Engineering

MCC121, 7.5hec, 2014
Lecture 8
Passive devices

State-of-the-art
Challenging
Stimulating
Rewarding
MCC121 / J. Stake 1
MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key - 25 november 2014

Outline
H Summary of lecture 7 (Ch5)
H Passive microwave devices
H attenuators, loads
H phase shifters
H power dividers (7.1-7.4)
MCC121 / J. Stake 2
MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key - 25 november 2014

Objectives
On completion of this course unit you should be able to:
Analyse wave propagating properties of guided wave structures (TE, TM,
TEM waves, microstrip, stripline, rectangular and circular waveguides,
coupled lines)
Apply N-port representations for analysing microwave circuits
Apply the Smith chart to evaluate microwave networks
Design and evaluate impedance matching networks
Design, evaluate and characterise directional couplers and power
dividers
Design and analyse attenuators, phase shifters and resonators
Explain basic properties of ferrite devices (circulators, isolators)

MCC121 / J. Stake 3
MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key - 25 november 2014

Transformers

MCC121 / J. Stake 4
MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key - 25 november 2014

key .25 november 2014 . Stake 5 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Tapered transformer 1d d Γin = e −2 j β z ( ln Z ) dz 2 dz L L 1 −2 j β z d Γin = ∫ d Γ in = ∫ e ( ln Z ) dz (1) 0 2 0 dz MCC121 / J.

key .25 november 2014 . Stake 6 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Design of complex impedance terminations MCC121 / J.

Chalmers and Low Noise Factory MCC121 / J. stability requirements.25 november 2014 . (more about this in active microwave circuits) H Synthesise matching networks N1 and N2 to provide these complex impedances (This course MCC121) Courtesy of Niklas Wadefalk
 MC2..key . Stake 7 MCC121_2014_lecture_8..:=96L2? H Find Gamma-S &-L for a certain noise. gain. E12@64.<3.

key . Passive microwave devices MCC121 / J.25 november 2014 . Stake 8 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.

25 november 2014 .key . Stake 9 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Terminations Common µ-wave lab utensils H Matched load Γ=0 H Variable short circuit Γ = 1⋅ e jφ MCC121 / J.

Stake 10 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.A-3.AB@6. Ex) Matched loads H %<6@2L4B?2:2.0A<?:2.key .4AD<9<.@B?2:2.@B?2:2.1@.25 november 2014 .AAD< different temperatures) H Termination to absorb all power (terminating the line in its characteristic impedance) MCC121 / J.

=2?6. matched load H ”lossy” transmission line H (2M20A6<.@. Stake 11 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key .25 november 2014 .C<6121/FA.?2.4A52 lossy material into a wedge MCC121 / J.

key . Movable shorts H Impedance tuning element (reactance) MCC121 / J.25 november 2014 . Stake 12 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.

The art of making a movable waveguide short H Contacting versus noncontacting shorts H Contacting wear out + hard to achieve perfect contact H Solution: High and low impedance quarter wave sections 4B6121D.C2 &?.==9FL9A2?A52<?F MCC121 / J. Stake 13 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.25 november 2014 .key .

25 november 2014 ../.1@A<=L9A2?5645 VSWR) MCC121 / J. L9A2?A52<?F@F. Stake 14 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key .A52@6@2.

Rotary attenuator H Precision attenuator with low VSWR. Stake 15 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. The attenuation is insensitive to frequency. variations of phase with attenuation are negligible.25 november 2014 . MCC121 / J.key . H Lab equipment rather than employed in systems.

Stake 16 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Decomposition of TE11mode Sum of two orthogonally polarized modes MCC121 / J.key .25 november 2014 .

25 november 2014 .key . Resistive T or Pi -attenuator ! 0 k # !S # = % & " $ " k 0 $ MCC121 / J. Stake 17 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.

.25 november 2014 . MCC121 / J.On white board: Derive a set of design equations for a resistive attenuator (T). Stake 18 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key .

key . Can we replace the shunt resistor? to MCC121 / J. 3-dB attenuator Explain the different ”moves” in the Smith Chart.25 november 2014 . MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Stake avoid via-hole to19ground.

key .25 november 2014 . Stake 20 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Resistive T or Pi -attenuator ! 0 k # !S # = % & " $ " k 0 $ MCC121 / J.

:=96AB12 H There are many different types of phase shifters depending on the used technology.02<.MB2.25 november 2014 .key . Stake 21 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.A52. Phase shifter H Phase shifters are components used to control the phase of a signal with lowest =<@@6/926. MCC121 / J.

key .25 november 2014 . Stake 22 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. high power consumption "  The circuit is very simple "  Complicated DC supply "  The circuit is small © J. Switched line phase shifter f f Δφ ( f ) = θ1 ( f ) − θ 2 ( f ) = θ1 −θ2 = f = f0 f0 f = f0 f0 & f f ' = β ( l1 − l2 ) * f0 f0 + "  The losses are constant at all states "  Each bit needs at least 4 diodes. Piotr Starski MCC121 / J.

*& &$( 8&.-% ('+$#6 3 42+$!)+. Stake. vol. J. 680–682. Stake 23 Wireless Components Letters. 18. 10. vol.+. 386–392. pp. 2008. Sobis.7IEEE Microwave and MCC121 / J.+( -0)+%.+ Microwaves. Oct. 5.'$&&$' . 2011. / $ ( *+-$(". “High/low-impedance transmission- &$( ().#+')($$1 +. Antennas & Propagation. . Differential phase shifters from P.7IET !+)')$. and A. no. MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Emrich. 4.#$!. no.!)+$!! + (-$&*#. pp.key .25 november 2014 .

25 november 2014 .key . Stake 24 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Directional couplers MCC121 / J.

25 november 2014 .key . Stake 25 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. ports 1 & 4 are uncoupled MCC121 / J. but not into port 4. Properties H All ports matched H Ex) Incident power at port 1 couples to port 2 and 3. Hence.

@B?2:2.. Applications H Power monitoring H !:=21.key .25 november 2014 . Stake 26 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.02:2.A?2M20A6C6AF H Power dividers (distributing networks) MCC121 / J.

25 november 2014 .key . S-parameter test set-up MCC121 / J. Stake 27 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.

key . Power combining networks MCC121 / J. Stake 28 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.25 november 2014 .

25 november 2014 .key . Stake 29 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Power dividers MCC121 / J.

key .On white board: Derive properties for a passive reciprocal 3-port 30 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.25 november 2014 . Power dividers or combiners H Power divider is used to divide input power among several outputs H We want: H reciprocal !0 s12 s13 " H lossless [ s ] = ## s12 #% s13 0 s23 s23 $ $ 0 $& H matched Impossible! must relax one of the conditions MCC121 / J. Stake .

Lossless divider Can not be matched at all ports.key . Stake 31 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. and no isolation! MCC121 / J.25 november 2014 .

MCC121 / J.key .On white board: Show that a 2-way lossless divider (three-port junction) can not be simultaneously matched. . Stake 32 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.25 november 2014 .

thus can be matched at all ports MCC121 / J.25 november 2014 . Stake No isolation! 33 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key . Resistive divider Lossy and reciprocal.

MCC121 / J. . Stake 34 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.On white board: Derive properties for a 3-port resistive divider.key .25 november 2014 .

Piotr Starski MCC121 / J. !0 1 1 " 1# [ ] #1 0 1 $$ s = 2 #%1 1 0 $& No isolation −1 The matrix is not unitary!!!!! [s] ∗ { } ≠ [s] T 2 !1 " V 1 V12 1 #% 2 1 $& 1 V12 1 Pin = .key .25 november 2014 . P2 = P3 = = = Pin 2 Z0 2 Z0 8 Z0 4 Half of the incident power is lost in the power divider © J. Stake 35 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.

25 november 2014 .key . Stake 36 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. and has isolation between the output ports. when the output ports are matched. 1 2 2 1 3 3 MCC121 / J. The Wilkinson power divider H The Wilkinson power divider is lossless.

25 november 2014 . reciprocal 4-port with a symmetry line as marked 1 2 symmetry line 4 3 We will analyze this circuit by using the even and odd mode method. Even and odd mode method Consider a linear. and –1 V).key . Piotr Starski MCC121 / J. e. Stake 37 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. © J. and 4(+1 V) the symmetry line will act as an open circuit or as we say magnetic wall. The method is based on two excitations: even and odd.g. +1V. The odd excitation corresponds to two voltages equal in amplitude but with 180° phase difference (+1V. By applying the odd excitation to the ports 1(+1V). and 4(-1V) the symmetry line will act as a short circuit or as we say electric wall. The even excitation corresponds to two voltages equal in amplitude and phase. applied to the ports on opposite sides of the symmetry line (in our case port 1 and 4). By applying the even excitation to the ports 1(+1 V).

Piotr Starski MCC121 / J.25 november 2014 .key . Even mode 1V 1 Γe Te 2 symmetry line 1V open circuit magnetic wall 4 Γe Te 3 Odd mode 1 Γo To 2 1V symmetry line −1V short circuit electric wall 4 −Γ o −To 3 © J. Stake 38 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.

key .25 november 2014 . linear 4-port with a symmetry property can be performed by analyzing two 2-ports in two excitation modes and superposition of the results. We superimpose now both excitations: Γe + Γo Te + To We have only 1V 1 2 2 2 excitation in port 1 and can calculate the reflected and transmitted waves in 4 Γe − Γo Te − To 3 all ports. Piotr Starski MCC121 / J. 2 2 This means that the analysis of a reciprocal. Γ and T for the 2-ports can be easily calculated from the cascade matrix analysis" ZG T ! A B" Γ #C D$ ZL % & AZ L + B − CZG Z L − DZG ZG + Z L Γ= T= AZ L + B + CZG Z L + DZG AZ L + B + CZG Z L + DZG © J. Stake 39 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.

key . three port) MCC121 / J. Stake 40 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. .25 november 2014 .On white board: analyse the Wilkinson divider (3-dB case.

1 zin . since Γ = zin − 1 1 2+2 zin + 1 © J.1.25 november 2014 . zin = 2i2 =1 s11 = 0. Piotr Starski MCC121 / J.2 = ( 2) = 2.key . Stake 41 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. Wilkinson divider: S matrix s11 λ 2 The circuit is excited from port 1- 4 no current through isolating resistor zin.2 2 zin.

Stake 42 Starski © J.25 november 2014 .e +V1.e +V2.o V +V 2 s12 = s21 j s13 = s31 = s12 = − because the circuit is symmetric 2 s23 = s32 = 0 depending on the open or short circuit at the symmetry line " −j −j# $ 0 2 2% $ % −j [ s ] = $$ 0 0 % % 2 $ % $−j 0 0 % $& 2 %' MCC121 / J. Wilkinson divider: S matrix s22 = s33 From previous calculations we have V1.key . Piotr MCC121_2014_lecture_8.o − j 2iV + 0 1 s12 = = =−j V2.

25 november 2014 . Stake 43 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. ex) 4 way power divider MCC121 / J.key .

Stake 44 © J Pi S ki MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key . Wilkinson unequal power divider Pb P Ri = k2 ⇒ k = b Pa Pa Pa Pb 1 " Pa = Pin 1 + k 2 ## 2 $ a P + Pb = Pin Pin k # Pb = Pin 1 + k 2 #% Z 02 Z 04 Z0 Z 02 = Z 0 k (1 + k 2 ) Z0 1 + k 2 Z 03 = Z0 k k Ri Z 04 = Z 0 k Z0 Z 05 = k Z 03 Z 05 Z0 1+ k2 Ri = Z 0 k MCC121 / J.25 november 2014 .

Piotr Starski MCC121 / J.25 november 2014 . Stake 45 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key .35/3.8 dB © J. Typical examples of Wilkinson power dividers with unequal power split 1.04 dB 2.24/6.

Stake 46 MCC121_2014_lecture_8.key . H Attenuators.1-7.25 november 2014 . Summary of lecture 8 H Read chapter 7.4 (dividers). phase shifters H Directional couplers MCC121 / J.

Levy.” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. H S. 116– 118. Further reading H Ernest J. 9. Cohn and R. 32. 8. “An N-Way Hybrid Power Divider. 1046–1054. no.key . vol. 1. no. Wilkinson. “History of Microwave Passive Components with Particular Attention to Directional Couplers. 1984.” IRE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. MCC121 / J. pp. pp. vol.25 november 2014 . Stake 47 MCC121_2014_lecture_8. 1960.