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Complete report of Basic Biology with the title “How To Use The
Microscope“, which created by :
Name : Nur Aulia S.
Id : 1613441002
Group : II (Two)
Class : ICP Chemistry
After the report has checked by assistant and coordinator assistant, so the report
accepted.

Makassar, November 2016
Coordinator assistant Assistant

Farid Abdullah, S.Pd Dwiyana Ar
1214441031

Known by,
Lecturer of Responsibility

Dr. Hj. A Asmawati Azis, M.Si
ID. 19640307 198903 2001

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background
Human on earth always want to know what is around him that
everything was created by God Almighty. Good things visible and invisible
by using only the naked eye. With the limitations of existing capabilities so
that people trying to find a tool that can be used to view these objects.
Microscope become a very important tool in the field of biological sciences
particularly in view when you want to observe substances / molecules are
small enough size that can not be seen by simply relying on normal
eyesight. Antonio van Leeuwenhoek (1674) is a person who managed to
find a microscope and develop the power of the lens so as to have a large
magnification. He then developed a microscope lens power to hundreds of
times. Leeuwenhoek had made more than 500 images microscope. In the
basic design of the microscope Leeuwenhoek, some people think it is just a
magnifying glass (because it is made of only one lens only), not a
microscope as it is used now (consisting of two lenses). Compared with
modern microscopes, homemade microscope is a very simple device, using
only one lens, mounted in a small hole in the brass plates that make up the
body of the instrument. The microscope is an instrument that is most widely
used in a laboratory activity. Because almost all the subjects of biology
requires a microscope in a laboratory activities.
Therefore, the microscope must be introduced early to a learner,
especially to students who entered the biology department. Microscope
study to determine the parts and their functions that laboratory operations
are no longer a student confusion when they wanted to use a microscope, as
well as how to care for the microscope.
B. Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is to skillfully use a biological
microscope with fast and safe to see a simple preparation.
C. Benefit

The students can also know the difference of cell form from some plant cells with microscope.1. and treat microscope. 2. CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW . save. The students can know the parts of microscope and their function. the way to take.

and life in a drop of water (Hale. plants. A Dutchman. In 1674. 2007). According to Wiley (2008). it is the minimum distance . Developments in microscope technology have given scientists the ability to study cells in greater detail than early scientists ever thought possible. A microscope is a high precision optical instrument that uses a lens or a combination of lenses to produce highly magnified images of small specimens or objects especially when they are too small to be seen by the naked (unaided) eye. He worked as an apprentice in a dry goods store where magnifying lenses were used to count the threads in cloth. In 1609. Resolution is a measure ofthe clarity ofthe image. Over the years. This led to the first practical microscopes. Anton was the first to see and describe bacteria. Anton van Leeuwenhoek. Galileo (an Italian) improved on the principle of lenses and added a focusing device to improve somewhat upon what the Janssen’s had done. Hooke and van Leewenhoek would not have been able to see the individual structures within human skin cells with their microscopes. Anton was inspired by these glasses and he taught himself new methods for grinding and polishing small lenses which magnified up to 270x. an enormous range of light microscopy methods have been developed. yeast. or resolution. Light microscopy is one of the most common place and informative techniques used in the biological sciences. According to Hale (2007). According to Biggs (2008). Two important parameters in microscopy are magnification and resolving power. These rudimentary instruments didn’t change much until the early 1670s. particularly for imaging fluorescence as a means of determining the organization of tagged molecules inside a cell (Gross. The invention of the microscope is credited to Zaccharias Janssen (1587–1638) and his son Hans Janssen (1534-1592). A light source is used (either by mirrors or lamps) to make it easier to see the subject matter. two Dutch eye glass makers who placed multiple lenses in a tube and observed the image was magnified. 2009). is considered the father of microscopes because of the advances he made in microscope design and use. Magnification is the ratio of an object's image size to its real size.

For example. what appears to the unaided eye as one star in the sky may be resolved as twin stars with a telescope. many modifications have been made to the original electron microscopes.'o points. This type of electron microscope is called a transmission electron microscope (TEM) because electrons are passed. 2008: 184). Objects cause light to scatter. For example. when two lenses each individually magnify 10 times. thin. For example. they developed the electron microscope. or transmitted. The maximum magnification without blurring is around 1000x (Biggs.tv. sliced very thin. Scientists often stain cells with dyes to see them better when using a light microscope because cells are so tiny. the total magnification would be 100 times (10x 10). which blurs images. but the specimen must be dead. . most improvements in light microscopy in the last hundred years have involved new methods for enhancing contrast. forming a black-and white shaded image of the specimen. such as staining or labeling cell components to stand out visually (Campbel. Transmission electron microscopes can magnify up to 500. 2008: 95) The modern compound light microscope consists of a series of glass lenses and uses visible light to produce a magnified image. the scanning electron microscope (SEM) is one modification that directs electrons over the surface of the specimen. but the properties of visible light will always limit resolution with these microscopes. Thick parts of the specimen absorb more electrons than thin parts.'o points can be separated and still be distinguished as tv. which accentuates differences in parts of the sample. and translucent. scientists have developed various techniques and modifications for light microscopes. Each lens in the series magnifies the image of the previous lens. scientists needed greater magnification to see the details of tiny parts of the cell. Over the years. Instead of lenses. In fact. in the 1940s. Over the past 65 years. the electron microscope uses magnets to aim a beam of electrons at thin slices of cells. through a specimen to a fluorescent screen. and stained with heavy metals (Biggs. A third important parameter in microscopy is contrast. During the second World War. 2008: 184). As they began to study cells.000x.

Objective 4 times with eyepiece 10 times. magnification 400 times. in general as objective lens 1 time or 2 times with eyepice lens 10 times or 15 times (Lecturer team. 2008: 184). 2016: 1) . Objective 40 times with eyepiece 10 times. 3. magnification 1000 times. magnification 40 times. It has two objestive lenses and also two eyepice lenses.producing a three-dimensional image. Objective 100 times with eyepiece 10 times. Biology microscope is used to observe thin and transparent object. 2016: 1) Stereo microscope is used to observe the objects that are not too big. that are biology microscope and stereo microscope. Illumination can be set from the top or the bottom with nature’s rays or lamp. 4. transparent or not. Objective 10 times with eyepiece 10 times. The magnification power is not too strong. because of the use have to with emersi oils and the way to use it with specially way (Lecturer team. magnification 100 times. One disadvantage of using a TEM and an SEM is that only nonliving cells and tissues can be observed (Biggs. this biology microscope has eyepiece lens and objective lens with magnification power as follows: 1. so we can get three- dimension shadow with observe two eyes. The most powerful of objective in optical microscope 1000 times called emersi objective. In general. 2. Illumination is given from the bottom with the nature’s rays or lamp. Optical microscope consists of two.

Unlike TEM and SEM. the scanning tunneling electron microscope (STM). This instrument has enabled scientists to create three- dimensional computer images of objects as small as atoms. STM can be used with live specimens. magnified with a scanning tunneling electron microscope. involves bringing the charged tip of a probe extremely close to the specimen so that the electrons “tunnel” through the small gap between the specimen and the tip. The atomic force microscope (AFM) measures various forces between the tip of a probe and the cell surface (Biggs. 2008: 185). The cell’s genetic material. Another type of microscope. .

Equipments and Materials 1. Mathemathics and Science Faculty. Equipment serve by laboratory 1) Biological microscope 2) Tool box consist of : a) Glass object b) Glass over c) Petri dish d) Tweezers e) Pipette hand b.10 am Place : Biology Laboratory West 3rd floor. Time and Place Day/ date : Tuesday/ November 22nd 2016 Time : 07:30 am – 09. Equipments a. Prepare the misroscope . Material serve by laboratory 1) Distilled water 2) Suction filter paper or paper 3) Cotton b. CHAPTER III EXPERIMENT METHOD A. Work Procedures 1. Material serve by university student 1) Hibiscus flower leaf (Hibiscus rosasinensis) 2) Waru leaf (Hibiscus tiliaceus) 3) Leaves of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) 4) Onion (Allium cepa) C. Materials a. Equipment provided by student 1) New blade 2) New flannel fabric 3) Cotton cloth 4) Paper and pencil 5) Tooth pick 2. State University of Makassar B.

The distance of the objective with stage has small. Observe the distance of objective lens with the glass. If distance over. Open the toolbox. Lay the microscope on the desk right in front of us. On the table there are only a microscope work. If glare. e. Direct the mirror to the light source to the microscope. Set the position of the objective lens revolver so short preparation table facing until a click. clip the object glass with stage clip. If the obscured field of view means less light is came. move a little mirror until he explain evenly. lab materials. Never rub the lens with the cloth besides flannel cloth. observe the object that put in middle of table hole. and the handbook notes. c. The glass object with cotton cloth or filter paper. narrow aperture or hole in the plate. Condenser for microscopes without use a concave mirror. open the diaphragm and then use the larger holes in the plate. Put the object glass that consist preparate on the stage. So. it can not more than 10 mm. b. b. Set the position of the microscope that has a condenser in order to approach the counter preparations and use a flat mirror. . Arrange the entry of light into the tube. 2. Tube lowered until the tip distance objective with preparation table or tube down 5-10 mm maximum. Open the diaphragm or rotate the position of the hole on the plate being. d. See through the eyepiece with the left eye without squinting right (need to practice) will appear white circular field. Provide the other rid of the other places . The microscope ready to observe the preparations. If the light is uneven. issued a petri dish containing glass objects and glass cover. a. Set the distance of lens with object. 3. Clean the body’s of microscope with a flannel cloth. c. a. d. b. Turn down the macrometer with finger. turn the macrometer to descend the tube and see the object from behind of objective lens approach till 5 – 10 mm. c. tool box with its contents. a.

Try again start with form if the shadow show but still hazy. g. throw it. e. f. Repeat the step 3 until 5. d. Change the magnify a. If there is no shadow that show. Wet preparate must clean with filter paper or cotton cloth. 5. Ascend the tube with turn the macrometer fail to find the shadow. c. . attention the preparate can not put on the stage. Clean up all of the tool with cotton cloth and put into the tool box. So. And then turn the revolver till the weak objective lens back to the first position. it can be close the water drop. The other take the closed glass and then close the object. Ascend the tube and take out the object glass. Save the tool box for next activity. e. Put the object preparate in the middle of object glass. If want to observe another object. Turn the objective lens which the longer lens faced and vertical into the stage until we hear the sound click. In the end of the activity that use it the microscope. try again and turn up the macrometer and down until the shadow clear. If the observation point 4 succeed. If the observation finish. Never touch the position of the preparate and the tube. Observe from eyepiece lens while the hand turn the macrometer up the tube step by step. The material which are not use it. the preparate must be take out. put out the preparate. Clean the microscope body with flannel cloth and put down the tube. Save it in the petri cup and enter it into the box. Put the microscope into microscope box. Drop the water in the middle of object glass. Repeat based the step 4. f. 4. that is past. Make a simple preparate a. Take the clean of object glass. So. d. c. d. and clean it. Put the preparate on the stage and observe it. b. Observe and turn the micrometer till the large shadow found. e. Check the eyepiece lens and objective lens and then count the magnify. b. the shadow that show enlarge again. Observe the looking area until emerge the shadow from object. The closed glass touch to the object glass near the water drop with the angel 450 and then stick the closed glass.

Biological Microscope . CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. Observation Result 1.

Condensor 7 11. Mirror 13. Diaphragm 8 12. Micrometer 5. Macrometer 1 4. Stage 6 10.Picture: Note: 1. Lens Oculer 2. Revolver 2 6. Tube 3. Arm 3 7. Stage Clips 5 9. Lens Objective 4 8. Base 9 10 11 12 13 .

Micrometer 3 5. Macrometer 2 4. Revolver 9. Mirror 13. Stage Clips 8. Base 8 9 10 11 12 13 . Lens 5 Objective 6 10. Tube 3.Picture: Note: 1. Lens Oculer 1 2. Stage 4 7. Condensor 11. Diaphragm 7 12. Arm 6.

13. attached to the arm above the nosepiece 3. 14. magnifies image for the viewer. 6. 5. 7. Base. platform where the slide with specimen is placed. Diaphragm to regulated the radiance shadow that come to condenser or controlling light that enter to the condenser. Specimen stage. Eyepiece lens. 9. holds the slide in place on the stage. Objective lens. low-power and high-power lenses that magnify the specimen. smaller knob used for focusing the image with the high power objective . Coarse focus knob. 8. 15. Eyepice tube. Fine focus knob. 10. Revolver is the place which is objective lens was stick. 11. Condenser setting to setting the position of the condenser. . used to carry the microscope. large knob used for focusing the image under low-power. Inclination point to control the mirror up and down. 12. Stage holder clamp.The parts of microscope and their function: 1. Condenser is a lens that assembles the light from mirror into the stage. 4. provides light for viewing the specimen. Illumination mirror. 2. Arm. supports the microscope.

Cytoplasm 1 1 3. 2. Cell wall 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 . Object/ preparation a. Nucleus 2. Onion (Allium cepa) Picture Note 1.

Waru leaf (Hibiscus tiliaceus) Picture Note 1. Trichome 1 1 1 .b.

Leaf of Hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa sinensis) Picture Note 1.c. Stomate 1 2 1 2 1 2 . Trichome 2.

Leaf of pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Picture Note 1. Stomate 1 2 1 2 1 2 .d. Trichome 2.

Hibiscus flower leaf (Hibiscus rosasinensis) We sliced the leaf of hibiscus flower transversely until very thin and laid it on the glass object then added a drop or two of water to the center of the microscope slide.A. we looked at the trichoma clearly. After that observed it using a microscope with a magnification of 10x0. c. objective lenses. which uses light to image the sample. Discussion 1. There are many types of microscope. After that observed it using a microscope with a magnification of 40x15. eyepiece lenses. From the observation. from these results. After that observed it using a microscope with a magnification of 10x40. Onion (Allium cepa) We sliced the onion transversely until very thin and laid it on the glass object then added a drop or two of water to the center of the . 2. Optical parts consist of illumination mirrors. condenser. Waru leaf (Hibiscus tilaceus) We sliced the waru leaf transversely until very thin and laid it on the glass object then added a drop or two of water to the center of the microscope slide. we can know that a microscope is divided into two components namely optical parts and mechanical parts. focus knob. Next put the cover slip on the object. b. we looked at the trichoma and floem. specimen stage. we looked at the trichoma and stomate. and diaphragm while mechanical parts consist of stage and arm. Microscope Microscope is an instrument used to see objects that are too small for the naked eye. From the observation. These parts have different function each other. Leaves of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) We sliced the leaves of pumpkin transversely until very thin and laid it on the glass object then added a drop or two of water to the center of the microscope slide. From the observation. Next put the cover slip on the object. d.25. and revolver. Leaves Observation a. base. Next put the cover slip on the object. stage holder clamp. Based on practicum that has been done.

it can be concluded that the microscope is an instrument used to observe objects that are very small and we can not see it with the naked eyes but because of microscope it is easier to see and observe. and sitoplasm. From the observation. cell wall. Microscope is divided into two parts.25. these parts have different . CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. that are mechanical and optical parts. microscope slide. Next put the cover slip on the object. Conclusion Based on the results of experiments that have been done. we looked at the nucleus. After that observed it using a microscope with a magnification of 10x0.

et. For the assistant. 3.al. WG. WC. et. McDermott. Suggestion Based of the result of practicum and the conclusion. BIBLIOGRAPHY Biggs. 2008. N. 235 (1) Hale. 2009. BIOLOGY Eighth Edition. 2. Urry L. For the apprentice. 2007. G. et. the suggestion as follows: 1.B. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies Campbell. Uchida. Alton. should be full attention the apprentice because the apprentice did not carefully to do the experiment. J. should be prepare the apparatus and materials earlier because we start to do practice at 07. High-aperture cryogenic light microscopy.celestron.pdf. Journal of Microscopy.A.A. Microscopes. should be carefully to treat the microscope and another equipments because the equipments are easily broken so the student have to do carefully. M. we could see the differrent cell form each plants that we observed.L. San Fransisco: Pearson Education Gross. Hagins.30 am.com/c3/images/files/down loads/1211 246798_microscopesinfo. B. 2008. .A. From the result of observation object. Biology.al. Holliday. functions. For the laboratory. http://www. Alan.al. Vol. Reece.

Lecturer.fen. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences.Team. Penuntun Praktikum Biologi Umum. 2008. http://www.tr/~ physics/news/masters/ELS_LM.pdf. . Makassar: Mathemathics and Science Faculty State University of Makassar Wiley. 2016. John.bilkent.edu.