BURMA LAW REPORT-S

SUPREME COURT

1960

~containing ca.ses determined by the Supreme
Court of the Union of Burma.

Index prepared by-MR. K.. NGYI PEIK, B.A., B.L. (Advocate), Editor.
U MYINT SOE, M.A., .(Bar.-a~-Law), REPO.RTER.

Published under the authority of the President of ll"te Union of
Surm~ by the Superintendent, GovCl·nment Printing and ·Sta tionery,
Burma, Rangoon

[AIL_rights re~rvedJ
HON'BLE JUDGES OF THE suf:'kEME COURT OF THE
UNI0~...9F BURMA Dui:ING THE YEAR 1960 -

CHIEF JUSTICE
The Hon'ble Justice Agga Maha Thray Sithu U MYINT
THEIN, O.B.E., A.T.M., M.A., LL.B. (Cantab.), LL.D ..
(Ran.), Barrister-at-Law, Chief Justice of the Union.

PUISNE JUDGES
The Hon'ble Justice Thado Maha Thray Si_thu U CHAN.
HTOON, LL.B: (Lond.), Barrister-at Law.
The Hon'ble Justice Thado Maha Thray Sithu, Maha Thiri'
Thudhamma U Bo GYr, B.A., B.L., LL.D. (Ran.).
The Hon'ble Justice Maha Thray Sithu U AuNG THA GYAW..
B.A., B.L.
~~~

LAW OFFJ:GERS OF THE UNfON OF BURMA DURING
THE YEAR 1960
A.ttorney·General
Tbiri Pyanchi Sithu UBA SEIN, B.Sc., B.L.. High Court
Advocate, up to 4th April 1960.
U YAN AUNG, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate, from
5th April 1960.
Legal Remembrancer
U YAN AUNG, B.A., B.L., up to 4th April r960.
Thiri Pyanclli~Sithu U BA S£IN, B.Sc., B.L., from 4th
July r96o.
Assistant Attorney-Genera)
DR. MAUNG MAuNe. LL.D., Barrister-at-Law, up to 4th
April 1960.
u KYA###BOT_TEXT###quot;l THOUNG, Barrister-at-Law, from sth April
1960.

Officiating Assistant Attorney-General
vVunna Kyow Htin U CHrr, B.A .. B.L., High Court
Advocate (8th March 1960 to 4th April 1960).

GoverJtment Advocate
vVzmna Kyaw Htin U Cl-HT, ~.A., B.L., High Court
Advocate.
vVunna Kyaw Htin u HLA MAUNG, High Court
Advocate.
U BA KYAW, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocat~.
U ToE MAVNG. B.A., B.L.. High Court Advocate.
U BA KYINE, B.Sc., B.L., High Court_Advocate.
U BA PE, B.A .. B.L., High Court Advocate.
U B.A.- PE, B.Sc., B.L*High Court Advocate.
2

Government Advocate-concld.
U MIN HAN, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate.
U HLA THrN, B.A., B.L., High Court Adv.gcate.
U BA THIN, Barrister-at-Law.
U TrN MAUNG, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate.
U TuN LwrN, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate.
MR. C. GANGOOLY, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate.
Wunna Kyaw Htin U TUN NYo, B.A., B.L., High Court
Advocate.
U KHIN Mi\UNG, High Court Advocate.
MR. S. K. GHOSH, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate.
U MYo KHIN, M.A., Barrister-at-Law.
Assistant Government Advocate
U HNIT, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate.
U KHrN SEIN, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate.
U MYA SHEIN, B.A., B.L., High Court Advocate.
U TrN 0HN~ B.A. (Hons.), B.L., LLB. (Lond.), Barrister·
at-Law.
Legal.·:Qraftsman
..
Tliiri Pyanchi Sith.u 0 CHIT TuN, Banister-at-Law.
Wunna Kyaw Htin U ·(uN PE, B.A., B.L.
DAW AYE Kyr, B.A., B.L.
Assistant Legal Drafts~an
U HLA THAUNG, B.Sc., B.L.
u MAUNG MAUNG• LWIN, B.A., B.L.
CORRIGENDUM

In the Burma Law Reports, 1957 (S.C) at page 76, r2th
and 13th lines of the head note :
For the words " lay ·Ft complaint for offence under
s·. 195 (r) (b) or (c) of the Penal Code." Read" lay a com-
plaint in respect of an offence under s. 195 (r) (b) or (c) of
the Criminal Procedure Code."

A~
At page 79, 19th and 2oth lines of the judgment :
For the words " lay a complaint for offences under
section I!)5 (r) (b) or (c) of the Penal Code." Read "lay a
complaint in respect of offences specified in section 195 (1)
{b€fror {c) of the Criminal Procedure Code.''
LIST OF CASES REPORTED

SUPREME COURT.

PAGB

Daw Nyein v. U Thet and one
Evgoni T. Kovtunenko v. U Law Yone 51
Hamsaveni Company ···l
Hamsaveni Company ... ~ v. The Union of Bunna 65
G. Ramachandra ... J
Lim Cyan Hwat (a) Lim $\vay Gaung l
1
T~e .secrerary,
• Mmtstry of
Lun Kwin Kee (a) Htwa Kong (a) ~v. Home Affairs
Htwa Tong j
and one. 128
Maung Ba Sein v. The Union of Burma .,. 139
Mohamed Farooq (a) Maung Maung and one v. Sahib
Jan and one... 4
P. Karapaya v. The Union of Burma 230
Pun Za •Cin (a) P. Khup Za Cin v. The Financial. Com-
misioner (Commerce), Government of the Union
of Burma and two· others 142
State Agricultural ' Marketing Board v. Messrs. The
Burmese Agencies Ltd. . . . 206
. ( Maung· Sh'we N\ and
The Union of Burma ... -{ 'li · two others
l Thakin Tin Mya 74
.U San } v. U _Win Htain and three others 151
Daw Khin Nyun
U L_u Gi* •v. Maung Thaun~'Tin and three others 156
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LIST OF CASES REPORTED lli

PAGE

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· LIST OF CASE5 ClTED

SUPREME COURT.

PAGB

A. M. Eusoof v. S.V.S.T. Chettyar Firm, 940) Ran. 72,
approved 262
Abdul Hussein v. Mussamah Umbda Bibi, (1896-97) r,
C.W.N. 93, referred to ... 262
Aggali Pradhania v. Emperor, I.L.R. 61 Cal. 54 14-7
Ah Fat v. U Tha Win, (1950) B.L.R. (S.C.) 53 160
Allied N~wspaper Ltd. v. Hindsley, (1937) 2 Nll. · E.R ..
0 (' c: ('
663. o:>,:'l~eH : 0-)2' · -· 11
- -- - - - - - v . . Hit:~dsley. (1937) .4 All. ~.R.
66 ·a C" <'" c . . . :
7 <Xl.'l~21r=o.:>e ··· . ~! .. ·•· \
Basant Lal Saba v. P. C. Chakra.vartv, A.I.R. (l950) Cal. ..
249 at 251 ... · · , ., ·, .· . ·.". · . :,. . i62
·~urma Oil Co. v. The Court of industria!"Arbitration,
(1951) B.L.R. (S.C.) 48 ·... :· ··.. . .
C.. Ah Foung v. K. Mohamat Kaka, (1950) B.L.R_.' (t-(C.)
346 .
. 162
• • • . ••~ • . . ... .- :. . ·'. • •. '~ ;, • . ; !•
Compagma Mercanttlc · Argentma•
v: ' The Umted .States·
• • ) • I •••
·
S:hipping Board, 40 T.L.R. (1924) 601, re'ferred 'to 56
!
D. D. ~rover v.(' A. C: Koonda and
0 0 c .
one(. (1~55) B:L.i~.
. ·l · -
54 l :' ;

ro,a:p);;.,o.:>e; , . . . . ...: . ,. 97
Danmal Parshotamdas v. Baburan1 Chht>telal, LL.R. 58.
All. 495 at 498, referred to · · ' 78
Daw Ngwe Nu v. Kalokwin Village Agricultural Board,
(1949) B.LR. (S.C.) 32 ... 160
Dr. R. C. Das v. The Controller of Rents, .Rangoon,
(1951) B.L.R. (S.C.) 225 ... 161
Kri~hnaswamy Ayyar v. Mohanlal Bingani and
another, I.L.R. (1949) Mad. 657 159
Vl LIST OF CASES CITED

P.\GE

Gomer Sirda v. Queen-Empress, 25 Cal. 86'!4, referred to 236
,Gree<lle v. Secretary of State for Home Affairs, (1942) <
A.C. 284 136-
Gwan Kee v. Union of Burma, (1949) B.L.R. (S.C.) 151
at 153 161
Holland's Diplomatic I:nmunity ~n English Law (Cur-
rent Legal Proble;ns) (1951 ) p. 97, referred to ... 60·
Hup For v. Deputy Commissioner. lnsein, (1950) B.L.R.
(S.C.) 86 16(}
In re A Debtor (1936) r Ch. 237 at 242, referred to ... 79
- - Joseph Suche & Co., (1875) r Ch.D. 48, 5c,
referred to . .. 79-
Kedarnath Gupta v. Nagendra Narayan Sinha, A.I.R.
(1954) Pat. 97 161
King-Emperor v. Nga Pe, 2 L.B.R. J7, approved 235-236
King v. Thorpe and three others, (1947) R.L.R. 279 at
286, referred to 77
Kisoki Mohan Pal v. Provast Chandra Mudul and
others, A.I.R. {1924) Cal. 351, referred to 262
Kraiina v. The Tass Agency, {1949) (2) A.E.R. 274·
Blackstone Bk. T, Chap. VII " of the Royal Preroga-
tive" referred
... . to
~
53-
Lal Singh v. The Minister for Finance and Revenue and
~hree oth~rs, (1958) B.L.R. {S.C.) 195 144
Lim Lyan Hwat (a) Lim Sway Gaung v. The Secretary,
Ministry of Home Affairs and one, (1960) B.L.R.
(S.C.) July issue cq9 ~~~1o.·e 179
Liversidge v. Sir John Anderson, (1942) A.C. 206 136
Lubhsing v. Emperor, A.l.R. (1934) Sind 106, referred
to 236
..
Ma Asha and others v.. B. K. Haldar, 14 Ran. 439, re-
furr~ro 5
M. E. Bhaiyat & Sons v. The Chief Judge of the Rangoon
City Civil Court, (1952) B.L.R. (S.C.) 40 161
LIST OF CASES CITED

approved
.
Maung Po Kyaw v. Ma Lay and others, 7 Ran. r8 .
262
Maxw~ll on the Interpretation of Statutes, 9th Ed.,
p. 404,~rerred to 77 ·
Mighell v. The Sultan of j ohore, (1.894) I Q.B. 149,
referred to 55
Mohamed Haniff v. Flnancial Commissioner, Burma,
(1952) B.L.R. (S.C.) I I lAO ·
Mohamed Moosa v. Goolam Rasco!, (1923) 2 B.L.J. r6r
at p. r62 163 .
Narayaswami Pillai v. Emperor, A.I.R. (1932) Ma:l. 507 148.,
Narotamdas L. Shah v. Pathak Nathalal Sukhram and
another, A.I.R. (1935) Saurashtra 151, referred to 236.
Noor Mohamed v. Financial Commissioner, Burma,
(1951) B.L.R. (S.C.) 94 .. . 161 .
Oppenheim's International Law, pp. 791-86o, referred
to 61.
-------~---8th Edn. by Lauterpacht
at pp. 39-42; referred to 5T
Overseas of the Poor of Walsall v . L & N. W. Railway
Co .. L.R. (1879) 4 A.C. 30 159
Po Kin v. King-Emperor, 2 L.B.R. 320, approved 140"
Porte Alexandre, (1920) P.D. 30, referred to 56-
Queen-Empress v. Ramakka, (1885) I.L.R. 8 Mad. 5 147
Quilter v. Mapleson, {1882) 9 Q.D.B. 672, referred to 79
,.
R. v. A.B. (1941) I K.B. 454, referred to . . . 57 ·
- v. Guerchy, I Win, BI. 545, referred to ...• 57
- v. Taylor (1859) 1 F & F 511 148.
Rahmat Bibi v. Maung Po Sein and others, 14 Ran. 485,
referred to 6.
Ramachandra Nahar v. Emperor, A.I.R. (1944) Born. 14,
referred to . . . 236
Ramdas v. Gangasagar, A.l.R. (1924) Pat, 421, referred
ro 2~.
Vlll LIST OF CASES CITEI):

PAGB

Rameshwar Singh v. Homeswar Singh, A.I.R. (1921)
P.C. 31, refened to . .. u •• • .. . 262-263'
,.
Ram Singh v. The Crown, A.I.R. _(1950) E. Punj. 21),
referred to . .. ... .. . '' ::.. 77
Report of Diplomatic Immun~ty _(Lord Justice Somer-
vell), referred to 62
:Rex v. Furnished Houses Tribunal of Paddington and
St. Marylebone Ex-parte Kendal, (1947) All. E.R.
448 at 449 159
· - v. MacCrea, I.L.R. 15 All. 173 147
Russell v. Town and County Bank Ltd., (1887-88) (13
· Appeal cases) p. 418 a{ 9 e~¥=:ne 10
.Sarkar v. Madorane, A.LR. (1950) Rajasthan 34, ex-
plained 235
'Sahib Din v. King-Emperor, A.I.R. (1922) Lah. 49,
referre::l to 236
.Sri Ramachandra Mardaray Deo v. Bhalu Patnaik and
others·, A.LR. (1950) Orissa 125, referred to 262-2::3
.State v. Amba~am, A.I.R. (1953). Madhya Bharat (r)
explained 235
Statha:n v. Statham & Gaekwar of Baroda, (1912) P.D.
92, referred to 55
State through Ram Laut and others v. Bansu and
others, A.I.R. (1950) All. 669, referred to 234-235
State of Bombay v. Laxkaidas, A.I.R. _(1952) Born. 468
at 471 154
'T. Sriramulu and three others v. K. Veerasalingam,'
I.L.R. 38 Mad. ~85, explained 235
The Union of Burma v. U Sa\v L·,vin and others, B.L.R.
(I952} (H.C.) 394, approved 235
Tinsa iVfaw Naing's case, (1950) B.L.R. (S.C.) 17 132
U Ba Tu v. Returning Officer, Lashio, (1952) B.L.R. (S.C.)
I 160
-- Ht\ve v. U Tun Ohn and one, {1948) B.L.R. (S.C.) 541
at 551 159
LIST OF CASES CITED. IX

PAGE

. U Ko Ko GY.i v. Engineer-in-charge, Rangoon Corpora-
tion, (1f952) B.L.R. (S.C.) 266 t60
..
- Kyorl -M~i"ng v. Financial Commissioner, Burma,
(1952) B.L.R. (S.C.) 214 160
- Khin v. Maung Sa, 3 L.B.R. 62, approved 262
- Mya v. U Tun Ohn, :(1948) B.L.R. (S.C.) 733 160
- Pit v. Thegon Village Agricultural Board, (1948) B.L.R.
(S.C.) 759 160
Venkaturaya Gomudan v. Malappa and others, A.I.R.
(r947) Mad. 348, referred to 262
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2
lNPEX

SUPREME COURT

P.lOB
ACTs:
BURM.I. LAWS ACT.
CIVIL PROCEDURE Coo£.
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNION OF BURMA.
CoNsTrru;rioN oF BunMA.
CoNTRACT AcT.
CRIMINAL LAW AMENDMENT AcT, .1951.
- - -- - -'TEMPOR.I.RY PROVISIONS A CT, 1958.
Cnt1>'l:INA.L PROCEDURE Cool!.
FoREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION ACT.
GENERAL CLA.USf,S ACT.
LIABlLtTfES (WAR TIME ADJUSTMENT) ACT.
MuNICIPAL AcT .
• PF.NAL CODE.
PuaLtc ORDER (PRESI!RVATlON) ACT.
SEA CUSTOMS AcT.
TRANSFER OF PROPERTY ACT.
URBAN RE."'T CoNTROL ACT.
ATTEMPT-Under s. x67-B-Sea Customs Act-and" preparation,.
under the P o!nal Co::l!--criminal conspiracy a basic ingredient in
"preparation" ... J.ol-2
ATTEMPT-D::finition of Attempt under Sea Customs Act, s·r x67- B-
powers vested in the Customs Collector under that section seems
to be bo,;tndless, and does not seem to be i n consonance with the
provisionsofs. 15ooftheConstitution ... •.. 142
BURMA LAWS AcT, s . 13 (z)- Omission-Ef/ect of-Gt"fts of immoveable
property among Mohamedans in Rangoon-Law applicable- Letters
Patent-Article 17. The effectofthe omi:;sion of s. 13 (z) from
the Burma Laws Act wou ld seem to make it clear that the law
governing 1\llahomed:m gifts has now become uniform throughout
the Union. The l aw applicable to gifts of immoveable property
among l\llohamedans in Rangoon is the ordinary law of the land
viz. s. 123 of the Transfer of Property Act. The e.xpression
"the laws which wou ld have been applied by the Chief Court of
Law!r B:.trm'l" occurring in Article 17 of the Letters Patent
would m!!lln just the law for the time being in force at present if
the ChiefCourtw~re stillin existence today.
MOHAMED FARO.CQ(a) MAUNG MAUNGAND ONE tl. SAHIB }AN
~D~U 4
Xll GENERAt: INPEX

l'AGE
BURMA LAWS AcT, s. 13 (J)-REcoqNISED PRINCIPLES OF INTER-
NATIONAL LAW MAY BE ACCEPTED jN.M...Kli.;G DECISIONS AS BEING
IN ACCORDANCE WITH" }USTICE, EQUITY AND GOOD CONSCIENCE" 51

C ERTIORARI- Deals witT! jurisdiction-" Speaki11g orders"-Issue of-
Discretionary-When refused. Urban Rent ControlAct,s. 1 I (d)-
" Bona fide requirement" in-True test-Motive-Immaterial.
Certiorari deals with jurisdiction, which is diviped jnto two
categories," want ofjurisdiction" and" excess ofjurisdiction."
But actually both relate to the exercise of a power that a n inferior
tribunal d oes not possess. Rex v. Furnished Howes Tribunal of
Paddington and St. Marylebone Ex parte Kendal, (1947) All. E .R .
.44~ at 449, referred to. A third category has come to b e accepted
· :tfid this relates to errors apparent on the face of the record and is
classified as " Speaking orders." Overseas of the Poor of Walsall
v.L. & N.W. Raihqay Co., L.R. (1879) 4 A.C. 30; Burma
Oil Co. v. The Court of Industrial Arbitration, (1951) B.L.R.
(S.C.) 48 ; Dr. R. C.Dasv. The CorztrollerofRents,(I951)B.L.R.
(S.C.) z25; M. E. Blzaiyat & S07lS v. The Chief :Judge of the
Rangoon City Civil Court and two others, (1952) B.L.R. (S.C.)
40, referred to. But such errors are always treated as errors
of jurisdiction. Dr. Krislmaswamy Ayyar v. Mohanlal Dingani
and m:other, I.L.R. (1949) Mad. 657, referred to. Failure to
act according to law does not in every case give rise to a right to
seek directions. The issue ofdirectionsisdhcretionaryandsuch
directions may be refused when thereis an al ternative and effective
r emedy. UMya v. UTunO/m,(x948) B.L.R. (S.C.)733 ;Ah
Fat v. U Tha Win, (1950) B.L.R. (S.C.) 53, referred to. Direct-
ions would be issued where t he available alternative remedy
would be ineffective. U Ba Tu v. Returning Officer,-Lashio,
(1952) B.L.R. (S.C.) I, referred to. D i rections would be
refused i f the act comphined of i s purely administrative as
distinct from judicial or quasi-judicial action. Hup For v.
Deputy Commissioner, Insein, (1950) B.L.R. (S.C.) 86 ;
Mohamed Hanijj and another v. Fi1zancial Commissioner,
Burma and others, (1952) B.L.R. (S.C.) II ; U Kyo11e
1Yfyaing v. The Firzancial Commissioner, Burma, (1952)
B.L.R. (S.C.) 214 ; UKo Ko Gyiv. E11gineer-in-Charge, Rangoon
Corporation, (1952) B.L.R. (S.C.) 266, referred to. The control
exercised !s s upervisory rather than appellate. Daw Ngwe Nu v.
Kalokz(Jin Village Agricultural Board, (1949) B.L.R. (S.C.) 32,
referred to. There would be no interference if an inferior
tribunal had jurisdiction to dea l with a matter and had dealt it
even though this Court may not agree with the tribunal one
questions of either law or fact. Gwan Kee v. Union of Burma,
(1949) B.L.R. (S.C. ) 151 at 153 ; Noor 1.Yfo!zamed v. Financial
Commissioner, Burma, (1<951) B.L.R. (S.C.) 9 4 , referred to.
"Bonafide requirement" ins. I I (d) of the Urban Rent Control
Act is restricted to "requirement to build." The true test
therefore is wheth er the landlord reallY intends to build. The
question of motive is hardly of importru1cc. l"vlohamed Moosa v.
Goolam Rasool, (1923) B.L.}. 161 at 162; C. Ah Foung v .
K -..Mo!zamat K aka, (1950) B.L.R. (H.C.) 346, r eferred t o .
U Lu GALEV. MAUNG THAUNC TIN AND THREE OTHERS 156
CONFFSSION-CONFESSION REcORDED UNDER s. 2 OF THE CRIMINAL
LAW (TEMPORARY PROVISIONS) ACT, 1958-CANNOT BE TAKIIN
·INTO CONSIDERATION . ON A PPEAL OR REviSION AFTER THE AcT
HAS CEASED TO BE OPERATIVE 74
GENERAL INDEX

PAGill
CONSTITUTION OF BURMA, s. • 2II-ENSUnES THE ACCEPTANCE OF
RECOGNISED PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW AS ITS RULE OF
CoNDUCT IN ITS RELATION WITH FoREIGN STATFS-BUT A RuLE
OF CON~O'C WHICH THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD FOLLOW IS NOT
NECESSARILY THE PROCEDURE THAT A BURJ###BOT_TEXT###lt;IESE GOV£RNMENT
MUST OBSERVE IN THE ABSENCE OF A SPECIFIC ENACTMENT WHICH
WOULD MA.K£ OBSERVANCE LEGAL 5I
CoNSTITUTION OF BuRMA, s. xzx-Power of Union Government to
exercise Exetut i ve Powers in the name ofthe President I 28
CONTRACT-ex-TJopperCONTRACT-PASSING OF TITLE 206

CONTRACT AcT, s. 60-PAYMENT RECEIVED FROM DEBTOR-WlmN
CAN BE APPLIEDBYCREDITORTOWARDSANY DEBT DUE 206
CRIMINAL LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1951 ,s.u (x)-FIXTUREOFAMOUNT
OF GAIN OF THE ACCUSED-MUST CORRESPOND TO THE BENEFIT
GAINED AS ARESULT OF THE OFFENCE COMMITTED 6S

CRIMINAL LAW (TEMPORARY PROVISIONS) AcT, 1958-Ajter repeal-
S. z-Confessilinrecorded under-Could not be taken into consider a-
t ion in appeal or revision by High Court-Consideratio11 of admissi-
bility-Matter of procedure-Non-acquisition of substantive right
in-General Clauses Act, s. s-Not applicable to matters of proce-
dure-S. 5 (b)-" Anytlziug duly done'' in-How considered-
Meatling of. A confession recorded under s. 2 of the Crimind
Law (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1958 could not be taken
into consideration by the High Court in coming to a decision
on appeal orin revision after the Act had ceased to become opera-
tive. The question whethei" a confession recorded unde~: s. 2
of the Criminal Law (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1958 could be
taken into consideration in coming to a decision on appeal or in
revision after the Act had ceased to be opemtive is a matter of
procedure and in matters of procedure no substantiverights can be
acquired. The provisions of s. 5 of the Burma General Clauses
Act do not apply to mere matters of procedure. In considering
the effect of the saving of the expression ' ' anything duly done''
occurdng.in clause (b) of s. 5 ofthe Burma General Clauses Act
the words should not be considered divorced from the conte.xtin
which they occur and when these words. are read in the light of
the context, particularly in conjunction with the words''anything
suffered thereunder" they mean not procedural matters such as
the atlmissibility of confessions recorded in the present ca~e,
which are merely incidental to pending proceedings, but sub-
stantive acts which have been finally done such as convictions
recorded on the basis of the confessions wh,ch convictions were
confirmed o n appeal before the Act was repealed. King v .
Thorpe and tlzree others, (1947) R.L.R. 279 at z86 ; Maxwell on
the Interpretation of Statutes, 9th Ed. p. 404 ; Damna[ Parsho-
tamdas v. Baburam Clz!zotelal, I.L.R. 58 All. 495 at 498 i In
re A Debtor, (1936) l Ch. 237 at242 ,r.!ferred to.
MAUNG SHWE Nr AND Two
THE UNION oF Buru.iA v. TH....KIN TIN MYA 74

CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CoDE, s. 350 (I)-Course to be followed by
mcceeding Magistrate-Effect of "De novo" trial-Powers of
i\IIagistrate and right of accused under-Division of proceedings
into two separate stages of enquiry and trial not warranted by.
xiv GENERAL INDEX

PACE
When one Magistrate succeeds another and acts under s. 350 {1)
of the Criminal Procedure Code, he must either take up the case
atthe point at which his predecessor ceased to exercise jurisdic-
tion or he may resummon the witnesses and recollU'Ilftil'ce the
enquiry or trial, and that in the latter event, whether done on
his own initiative or at tbei nstance ofthe accused, all the previous
proceedings, whether a charge has been framed or not, are to be
treated as non-existent. King-Emperor v. Nga Pe, z L.B.R. I7 ;
Tile Union of Burma v. U Saw Lu:in and others, B.L.R. (I9SZ)
(H.C.) 394-, approved. State through Ram Laut and others v.
Bansuandothers,A. I.R.( I 950) All.669, referred to. T. Sriramulu
and three others v. K. Veerasaliugam, I.L.R. 38 Mad. 585 ;
Sarkar v. Madorane, A.I.R. ( 1950) Rajasthan 34 ; State v.
Ambaram, A.LR. (r953) Manhya Bharat I, explained. The
initiative for adopting the alternative course provided ins. 350 (z)
of the Criminal Procedure Oode rests with the tr iallV!agistrate.
It would however be open to the Advocate for the accused to
ask the Court to decide which course of action it proposed to take
in compliance with this provision oflaw and if the new Magistrate
decides to act on the evidence recorded by his predecessor and
commences the proceedings from the stage at which the latter
ceased to exercisejurisdiction, the accused could then exercise his
right unders. 35o(r) (a) of the Criminal Procedure Code and ask
the Court to resummon all or any of the prosecution witnesses.
Thelanguage of the Code used ins. 350 (I) and its provisos does
notappearto warrant the division or separation ofthe proceedings
in a warrantcaseintotwoseparatestages of enquiry and trial. An
enquiry obviously is a proceeding where the Magistrate is
competent either to make an enquiry with a view to committing
the accused person to be uied by Court of Session or to m2ke an
enquiry in a miscellaneous proceeding of the char3 ctcr sancticned
under the Code. The word "trial" embraces the whole
proceedings in a trial of a warrant case from its very inception.
In other words the trial in a warrant case commences when the
accused appears or is brought before a Magistrate with the
prosecution witnesses ranged against him. Narotamdas L.Shah v.
Pathak Natlzalal Sukhram and another, A.I.R. (1935) Saurashtra
ISI ; Lubhsingv. Emperor, A.LR. (I934) Sind xo6 ; SaJ1ib Din v.
King-Emperor, A.I.R. (1922) Lah. 4-9; Gomer Sirda v. Queen-
Empress, zs Cal. 864; Ramachandra Nahar v. Emperor, A.I.R.
{ 19-1-4)Bom. 14,referred to-
P. KARAPAYAV. THE UNION OF BURMA 230
CRIMINAL PROCEDUHE CovE-Differences between Prcvent\ve
Measures in Criminal Procedure Code and that in Public Order
(Preservation) Act-in thelatterthe person is not allowed to show
causeagainstactionproposed ... ... ... 128
De-Nooo TRIAL-EFFECT OF 230
DIPLOMATIC lMMUNITY-ACCEPT.~NCE OF THE PRINCIPLE IN REGARD
TO CRIMINAL PROSECliT!ONS WOULD HE IN CONFLICT WITH s. 2
"OF THE PENAL CODE WHICH.-~PPLIES TO EVERY PERSON 5I

EXECUTION OF DEcREE-Step in aid of-.4pplicatiottfor leave to exec11te
under Liabilities (War Time Adfustment) Act 'onstitutes-
Calculation of period of limitation. An application for leave to
execute a decree under the Liabilities (War Time Adjustment)
Act was an application necessary for execution under the l~w for
GENERAL INDEX XV

the time being in force a~d it must also be held to be a step in
aid of the execution of the decree. Therefore the date from
which the period of! imitation is calculated to run must be from
the date 0'1\. 'vl'hich the leave to execute under the Act was granted.
D.~W NYEIN v. U THET AND ONE l

"EXISTING LA.W"-AN INTERNATIONAL AGHEEMENT lS NOT INCLUDED
lN EXISTING LAW-s. 22I (1) OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE
UNION OF BURMA. 5I

FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATION AcT, s. 24-Con.fiscati011 u1lder-
Wizat is liable to-Property i11 respect of which contravetzliott may
not be deemed to have taken place-Criminal Law Ametzdmetzt
Act, s. 12 (I)-Fixation of amount under-Computation of amount
of benefit-What is twt relevant in-Employct·-Liability of-
For offuzces of employees-Duty ojprosecution. \Vhat is liable to
confiscation under s. 24ofthe Foreign Exchange Regulation Actis
goods in respect of which the contravention has taken place.
The mere factthatin the application form A-7, the Bill of Lading
was referred to, would not make the goods covered by the bill,
" property in respect of which the contravention has taken place".
In fixing the amount under s . 12 ( 1) of the Criminal Law
Amendment Act, I 95 I, the figure must correspond to the benefit
gained as a result of the offence committed. Vlhat the offenders
had to spend on account of deposits i,n kyats in this country for
the purpose of mking the remittance ·i n foreign currency has no
relevance. ·what has accrued to them is the benefit gained.
lliMSAVENl COMPJI.NY }
HAMSAVlli"'I COMPANY v. THE UNION OF BURMA
S. RJI.MACHANDR.~

FOREIGN EXCHANGE REGULATIONS-Offences under -difficult to
connect with the Preservation of Pub! ic Order 128
FOREIGNER-MEMBER OF FOREIGN MISSION WITH DIPLOMATIC
STATUS-CRIMINAL PROSECUTION AGAINST-EXECUTIVE AUTHORI-
TY UNFETTERED REGARDING WITHDMWAL OF PROSECUTION ON
GROUNDS OF PUBLIC POLICY 51
GENERAL CLAUSES ACT, s. S-DOES NOT APPLY TO MERE MATTERS OF
PROCEDURE-MEANING OF THE EXPRESSION "ANYTHING DuLY
Do~" IN s. 5 (b)-CRIMINAL LAW (Tlli<iPOMRY PROVISIONS)
ACT, 1958 ... ... ··· ... ... 74-
GENERA.L CLAUSES ACT, s.r3-Powers of Union Government to
exercise Executive Powers in the name of'the President
GIFTS-GIFTS BY MAHOMEDANS-LAw GOVE&'l!NG SUCH GIFTS
NOW UNIF0&>1 THF.OUGHOUT UNION 4

lNTJ'lRN.-\.TlONAL LAW AND INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS-Not part of
Municipal Laws-S. 214 of Constitution- Existing Law, s. 226-
Meaning to be placed on s. 21 x-Pcual Laws ,no immunity from.
K was prosecuted upon a complaint for defamation in regard
to a statement which appeared in a periodical published by a
pepart~ent of a Foreign State. He claimed diplomatic
1rnmun1ty as an employee of a department of a Sovereign State.
Held: Though in Britain and in the United States international
law is deemed to be part of the law of the land, the position is
xvi GENERAL. INDEX

PAG!l
different in Burma. Even anin'ternational agreement, as such,is
not part of Burmese Municipal Laws save as may be determined
by Parliament (s. 214 of the Constitution). Nor is it included
in "existing law" which is deemed to remain in force ifttr the
change in Burma's Constitutional Status and which is defined in
s. 221 (1). Recognised principles of international law may be
accepted, not as such, but in accordance with s. 13 (3) of the
Burma Laws Act under which, in the absence of specific
enactments ,decisions are to be made in accordance with" justice,
equity and good conscience." S. 21 I ensures the aceeptance
by the Union of Burma of recognised principles of international
law as its rule ofconductin its relation with foreign States. But a
rule of conduct the Union Government should follow is not
necessarily the procedure that a Burmese Court must observe,
in the absence of a specific enactment which would make such
observance legal. To accept the principle of dip'lomatic
immunity in regard to criminal prosecution would be in conflict
with s. 2 of the Penal Code which applies to e\·ery person.
Unlike the Code of Civil Procedure, the Penal Code makes
no reservations in regard to members of a foreign Mission. But
liability of such a person under criminallnw does not fetter
executive action in that a prosecution may be withdrawn on
grounds of public policy, so that it is unlikely that a member of
a foreign mission with diplomaticstatus would have to go through
a trial, there being other methods to deal with the situation.
Kraji11a v. Tass, (1949) (2) A.E.R. 274; BlackstoneBk. I Chap.
VII" of the Royal Prerogative ; Mighell v. The Sultan of:Johore,
(1894) IQ.B. 149; Statham v. Statham and Gackwar qf Baroda,
( 1912) P.D. 92 ; Compagnia !lifercantile Argentina v. The United
States Shipping B oard, 40 T.L.R. (1924) 6or ; Porte Alexandre,
(I 920) P.D. JO ; Holland's Diplomatic Immunity i11 English Law ;
Oppenhcims International Law; Report of Diplomatic Immu11ity
(Lord :Justice Somervell), referred to.
EvcoNI T. KoVTUNENKO v. U LAw YoNe 51
LEGISL..o.TORE--Supreme-can enact laws within the limits of the
Constitution 128
LETTERS PATENT-ARTICLE 17-MEANING OF 4
LTAUILTTIEs (WAR TIME ADJUSTMENT) AcT-APPLICATioN FOR
LEAVE TO EXECUTE UNDER-WHETHER STEP-1;:-;-A!D OF THE
EXECUTION OF THE DECREE ...
(

MAliOMEDAN-GtFT BY MAHOMEDAN-WHETHER GO

ER..-.;ED BY

MAHOMEDAN LA\V OR THE TRANSFER OF PROPERTY ACT 4
MANDAl

Related Interests

rus-Duties of Rangoon Corporation when acting under
s. 157 (1) Municipal Act-where power is given to the authority
to take a certain action, if certain named conditions arc prcstnt
and the authority e.-..:ercises the power in the absence of such
conditions-Mandamus will lie to restrain it from doing so lSI

IvlUNJCIPAL Ac:r, s. IS7 (I)-Duties of Rangoon Corporation v:hen
acting under-Power under-Not discrttionar)·-Circumscrib~d by
co11ditions-When lvfandamus will lie. Interference tcith private
rights-Strict compliance tcith latu nuusary in-Reason for.
Where the action proposed to be taken by the Rangoon Cor-
poration under sub-s. (1) of s. 157 of the Iviunicipal Act involves
interference with or deprivation of rights to property, it is
GENERAL INDEX · XVll

PACB

incumbent upon the Rangoon Corporation authorities to comply
to the fullest possible extent with the requirements of the law
~anctioning such act of interference or deprivation. In other
words, tl'l.c !'ower to remove the occupiers and their property from
the bllildings is not one resting entirely in the discretion of the
Corporation authorities. The exercise of such power is limited
or circumscribed by the conditions set out in the sub-section by
the use of the words "if it appears to be necessary in order to
prevent imminent danger". The authorities cnncerncd must
first of all be satisfied that there was imminent danger calling for
immediate preventive action. Where power is given to the
Authority to take a certain action if cettain named conditicns arc
present and the Authority exercises the power in the absence of
such conditions, landamus willlie to restrain it from doing so.
State of Bombay v. Laxkaidas, A.I.R. (1952) Born. 468,
referred to. Where intereference with privaterights as sanctionew
under the Municipal Act is contemplated, care should be
taken that the requirements of the law is complied with both in
I etter and spiritso that the bonafides of the Corporation authorities
should not be open to question.
uSAN
DAW KHIN NYUN v. U \VIN HTAIN AND THREE OTHERS 151

MUNICIPAL LAW-BURMESE MUNICIPAL LAW-AN INTERNATIONAL
ACREEMENT AS SUCH IS NOT PART OF THE BURMESE MUNICIPAL
LAW SAVE AS MAy BE DETERMINED BY PARLIAMENT-s. 214,
CoNSTITUTION OF THE UNION OF BuRMA 51

luRDER-when exception 4 to s. 300 will apply in a case of murder-
use of deadly weapon by a person armed with it against unarmed
man 139
0Ptu~r-Sm'lgg I ing of Opium-d ifficu 1t to connect with the preserva-
tion ofPublicOrder .. . ... ... .. . 128

PENAL CODE, s. 300-Exception 4-When and tohen not applicable.
For Exception 4 to s. 300 of the Penal Code to apply to a case of
murder it would have to be shown that the fatal attack was made
bytheappellanton the deceased withoutpremeditationin a suddfn
fight,in the heat of passion, upon a sudden quarrel and without his
having taken undue advantage or acted in a cruel or unusual
manner. The 4th Exception to s. 300 of the Penal Code cannot
poss.bly apply to a case where a person armed with a deadly
weapon uses the same against an unarmed man during a sudden
fight, in the heat of passion, upon a sudden quarrel. Po Kin v.
King-Emperor,zL.B.R.320,approved. ,
MAUNC Bll SE!N v. THE UtNON OF BURMA 139
PUBLIC ORDER (PRESERVATION) AcT-Ancestry- Original aim of-
Criminal Procedure Code-Chapter VIII-Used in normal times-
Difference between-Peace and order-Preservation of-lVhat
cannot be connected with-L~gislature-Power of-Public Order
Preservation Act, s. s-A-Exercise of power un.Ur-Need for
exercise of care-Preventive measures-When become fraud ou
statute. The Public Order (Preservation) Act has its ancestry
in the Defence of Burma Act, which is the Burmese counterpart
of the Defence of the Realm Act promulgated for the successful
prosecution of the war. In its origin it was meant to cope with
an abnormal situation which called for measures to be taken
XVlll GENERAL INDEX

PIIGE

against persons in order that they may be prevented frcrn com-
·mitting offences which would adversely affect peace and order.
In its original form the Act was modest in its scope. Later
amendments have added within its scope offences against' the
Arms Act, Essential Supplies and Services Act, Opium Act, etc.
In normal times use is made ofthe provisions in Chapter Vlll cf
the Criminal Procedure Code, under which people who are a
danger to society, such as habitual offenders, may be required
to furnish security. But the difference between these preventive
measures and the Public Order (Preservation) Act is that in the
I atter, the person is not allowed to show cause against action pro-
posed. There is seldom any proof, as one understands the term
judicially, but more often than not, action is taken upon suspicion
based upon material which would not be evidence in a Court of
Law. Another difference is, under the Public Order (Preserva-
tion) Act, the orders is by the executive and not by the judiciary.
And furthermore, detention under the Pub! i< Order(Preservat icn)
Act may be indefinite. One can understand the relation of
offences under the Arms Act to the preservation of peace and
order butitis difficult to connectthe smuggling of opium or
iron scrap or an offence under the Foreign Exchange Regulations
with such preservation, but legid;;ture is supreme, within
the limits of the Constitution, to enact laws. The power
that is exercised under s. S-A of the Public Order (Preser-
vation) Actis by the President or by some one to whom his
powers are specifically delegated. The President in pe£Fon
never deals with any case of this nature but it is the Union
Government which e:.,.ercises his executive powers under s. 13
of the General Clauses Act and s. 121 of the Constitution. In
respect ofa man suspected ofsmuggl ing opium, since it has hardly
anything to do with the preservation of peace and order, greater
care should be exercised in deciding upon the proper step that is
nec<:ssary, so as to prevent him from pursuing his activities.
Preventive measures arc not meant to be resorted to, by way of
penalty, and to invoke the Public Order (Preservation) Act as a
punishment is a fraud on the statute and an abuse of the powers
exercisable underi t.
LIM LYAN HWAT (alias) LIM SwAY GAUNG T
LIM KwrN KEE (alias)HTWII KoNG (alias) Hnv1> ToNG v. 1m
Sr:cru:.-rARY, MrNISTRYOF HoME AFFAIRS AND oNE 128

REIMBURSEMENT-Liability of priruipal to agent for-Contract Act,
s. 6o-Absence of specific direction-Liberty to apply pa:yme1zt
to a11y debt. Rice and rice-products bought ex-hopper and paid
for by the respondents acting as procurement agents for the
appellants were looted or destroyed b y insurgents who over-ran
the locality where the respondents operated. Under the
agreem.cnt entered into between the parties the appellants had
accepted all risks. The claim for balance of money due and
payable on account of the price of rice and rice-products looted
or destroyed by the insurgents was resisted on the ground that
the contract must be deemed to have become void unders. s6 of
the Cont ractAct, as one impossible of performance. Held :That
rice having been sold ex-hopper t i tie had pass~d to the appellants
and under the agreement the appell ants had accepted all risks
that furthermore the respondents havin~ paid the sellers in full
this sum in its entirety was recoverable trom the appellants and
that the fact that due to circumstances no despatch could be
made, would not absolve the appellants from theirliability to
GENERAL INDEX XIX

PAGE
reimburse their agent;. 'Vhere it is contended that certain
payments received from the appellants and appropriated by the
.respondents towards their commission should have been credited
toward~.h11 dee bills. Hdd ; That in the absence of any specific
direction, the respondents were enti tied unders. 6o of the Contract
Act to apply them towards any debt due and payable to them by
theBoard. •
STATE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING BOARD v. MESSRS. THE
BURMESE AGENCIES LTD. 20 6

SEA CuSToMs Acr, s. r67-n-Legality of-Constitution, s. rso-
Limited powers andfurzctions ofjudicial nature exercisable by persons
who are not judges-Attempt-No comprehensive definition-
! ntention-not punishable-Preparatio1z in certain cases punishable
because of element of criminal conspiracy. S. 167-B of the Sea
Customs Act defines "attempt" as "any act of concealment,
k~eping or conveying of goods under such circumstances as are
sufficient to satisfy the Customs Collector that the goods are
b~ing concealed, kept or conveyed with intent to import or export
goods contrary to the prohibition or restriction under s. 19."
Under s. rso of the Constitution a person may be authorised to
exercise limited powers and functions of a judicial nature.
The powers vested in the Customs Collector under s. 167-n of the
Sea Customs Act appear to be boundless and the provisions of the
o;ection arc not in consonance with the constitutional provision.
"Attempt" is nowhere comprehensively defined. The ordinary
meaning is "to try" or "to endeavour". It is more than a
state of mind and a definite stage in the commission of a crime:
If the attempt is successful it is a crime. Intention, evil though
it may be, is not punishable. Aggrali Pradhania v. Emperor,
I. L.R. 6r Cal. 54 ; Queen-E~~J:,'Jress v. Ramahha, (I88s) I.L.R. 8
Mad. s; Rex v. MacCrea, I.L.R. IS All. 173 ; R. v. Taylor,
(1859) r F. & F. 51 r ; Narayaswami Pillai v. Emperor, A.I.R.
(1932.) Mad. 507; Lal Singh v. The Nlinister for Fiuance and
Revwue and three others, (1958) B.L.R. (S.C.) 195, referred to.
Under the Penal Code "preparation'' to wage war, preparation
to commit depredation on the terri tor ies of a friendly power and
preparation to commit dacoity are punishable because the
element of criminal c:mspiraC}' is a basic ingredient . It cannot
be said that in sending gold from Rangoon to Kalewa, which
ir. 160 miles away from the Indian frontier, an "attempt" to
send it out of Burma had been made.
PUN ZA CIN (alias) P. KHuP ZA CIN v. Ttm FINANCIAL Coi-
·~ MISSIONER (COMMERCE), GOVERNMENT OF THE UNION OF
BURMA AND TWO OTHERS I42
SMuGGLING-Smuggling of Opium- difficult• to connect with the
Preservation ofPublic Order 128
SPEAKING ORDER-relates to errors apparent on the face oftherecord-
writ of certiorari 156
TRANSFER OF PROPERTY ACT, s. 1:2_3-VVHETHER APP!.ICABLE TO
GIFTS BY MAHOMMEDANS 4
TRIAL-MEANING OF-IN '

Related Interests

ARRANT CASE-EMBRACES THE WHOLE
PROCEEDINGS FROM ITS VERY INCEPTION . . • 230
URBAN RENT CoNTROL AcT, s. I I (r) {d)-" bonafide" requirement-
is restricted to "requirement to build". The true test
therefore is whether the landlord really intends to build. The
question of motive is hardly of importance 156
XX GENERAL INDEX

10C' ("Or.: ( OC"" 0("" (." C )
IS<~OCJ:.>e:f>:G'J= oo~:::o~:Go.,qG~pmlf,
c- (' C' ("
0~:m~:::l)ro :LJmeo,;;an
<:' •
rocp:GmJqcq:euG:J n

~of~, §3:§5G9: ( a;lG'j:GoT §g.,f:<:>Jcrl\,lp:)
C' ~ OC' •OC' r,:_ (" C
(l)illu:>:>Gl:l ~ ;cqc Dt."ZuG9: :JdmeoG!:l n
<:' <:' c <:'
9 .);;>GU:G9: :JdmeoGtll =>'@?~~~IV II
00 (" • c
o;> £illS?~~~ <:>,:PmeuG:J J\
'\ <:' <:'
::lJ~o~oJoo;.. ()';l:JJc:l!p:()';lroeoo:Ju
0 <:'
o;,:an: <ilJO:D:G']: rr.)CDCUG !311
o oc- ( c- cr.::.c-)
()';l11:98JI! eu0? tc<:qo:>i.jc:
:;r.lG§i:Jdd.;euG:Ju
GENERAL INDEX XXl

::>Oj

::>oG
X::lGNI '1V1!::1N3!) nxx
;crB:CC~rw~cbrodoc.cooa:c.a:~:lhn
) .:;, 0 •.,) \...}
II ccccdwro 'c.o(ts ·~rTrr
..) .)00
'SS'6I ';)UO puc llpUOO)I ":) ·y ·a. J;IAOJ£) ·a ·a ~ ItS' "U"T8:
'gt6I tf' Lo ~:fee:~ ::)~ (!Jcpcw ·:;r v) (leo) :to~:~ II 11~0
• .. 1 <r If l 16 ,
oc:::c,.co§:re
:;, .lo.:>
' :re~~(ll ea;co ,wc.rococrro~
• .) • -' o .)
c.ccece:oc.co~ so ro:o~coro
o .) .:J L ,
'::Jhlcco~~rec.(ll 1eo~ro wcco~~C:JI[f) oc.~:'lc.cc::>coen~:d<'>
.) .j
obco .);fla:: 0 :.J~ .) J.... ;:, • ~ ,) ::=::1 ..)
.>
obc.irrchl c.ccero4bcor:.l:i:e ~~ro:c.~ro rw~cba::docco0a;c.w${;~
'j o J :;, :,j co :l o • .J \ .) r
r!Gll,hl
~.,);:j
c.cc::.P~r.bgr.u ,J 0
c.cc~:d~::Jro .) ,
:>kJ...10::> .)codro~e.croe.c 0
c.~obgw .) 0
c.cce&-lccccccwlu<'l
.) 6.)0
rccccccwlu
.) 0.)0.)
o>hde:2r~:cca> c.cc~ncoo coecocc
~ ,j .,) .)
rba::c~o2:cc4 roo~fl~Oc.co 4bcoD:i:e :reo<c<l> 'w'Coobc.~rrchl c.cco(!o
.) 0.:> ).J~ .. .:> 0 0 . . ) ~
.)cccc<l-~.) .)cccc:c.~ ,lfh;J;J:l:cec 'S'J • 'r.crn)(:.2:c.u:2<l> rbecc.ccocc !:>~'~"' rccccC!lr:J
0 I .) :> 00 .) .}:.:!
ccdb:reoa>a. ~&3t::1 'wccccccw1:ufl 1CCccccw'w ·o>f.ceo2:flco:ttC!l
.J. .:> .>~O.) eJO ~ 6.)0.) .> .:>
1
rbroc~o2;@~ ccco:hlc.@Pwo COM> rC2cc ro:de cro: Otc:J(DCCflt:C
.) f,j 0 0 .J 0 .l .:;, ..}
c.cc~c.co~wcbo 0.)
ooflfl rc.~4oc.co
• 00 .)
c.ccoba:i}:>ca:o
.) ..)
wlkbro
0
e4occo
• .)
ococ.w~:l;o ,(,a:;c~o2:@J. c.cce::tea;cc ,owcc.c.:e:~:'l ::;o'?,a:; cbce:ree
\,) .) .)0 .,) \. .) .) '\
:ob::::torr
.> Jo
ucorecoC:l:i:err
:> ..) ~ •
ncaocror~c.coe:GI[f) I k5&3cco~te:6:')ro
~ ,) • 'S .:> ..:>oo
rc.ccowi}ocre~
.) .) .)
'wheco
0
:<:b53o riEl ~.)
:>Pw~ce .)
·:)>1G:'JOC :C!PC?:ca.we~occo
.) ...1 ..) .. .)
v 10 If • " 1 §1 1 i'.~r-> • § 1 l §
OCiJC.CO:'l:l:>:'l
\. ..:>
I l'Jfl:1C::"c:co :re :cee~<l> CLJCCO:'l:IS W I :1 CCCOCOflCS"C:C
o .> .,o:>- • .) .> • ..) J
c.cc:;,tu46c.ohl:i:e
0.)..)~ . . . .
4~ec:c.~ro @ccgw &3C?6wt;oc.reeJ r~oc.co ~:l>~cbro
.:> o.> .J.:> .> ::>o
c~occo ~ococ.wed~~
•.) \. .)
rbcsc:;,n2:C2~
.) \ ..)
~a:c.w~:t;:'l .,):)o'f.ro
\
cbre:re:'l :::>b::>Co
.) .)O
Ccc :oblo~:oo
.).::J.)o
wre~&cc:cooc
:> e
bee cr) ~C(' flCOGeo2 et:lero holrcc:ro
.>
-~ • .J .:>
;@a'?,
..:>
rce!cc
'\ .:>
~l'lruro 'w::::Cl)(]@coe~:; olrec.~l::ou u&ru;;:,ClkolPc olPec.all.occc:'lcc
.> o L o ..>~:.JJ J o ') o .>::lo .>
"
cccoe~:;: r
6ecororo w·eec!3::>CO>' J •o!i':
r becoecccc ' '"§ c.C?s r ~Q •
J .J \ ..:> .) .> OO.J .J
' .) CO<"~cogcc
.> ,)
rg..):)\:cCOic:bC.O
.) ..;..)
C:c ···· ;::>bl~cc:oefla 0 !ElC2co'~
.) :::J., ..:>!Jtec S'.)
e
.) ~IO:'JCC ..)wre:.chl~
..] _:j C.CC~:C?CC\P:J @roJhl •:JC.E;:;):'lb;:, r:oi:lbco:'l 'ccce!cc
.) :J .) -- ,) ::J 0 .)
1'6 ~ • r. • t -..-,
§ 1"0~:~o:ccc p :r.
" .CLJ1eoc.iill~
0 :,J ..)
§] " .) 0 .)v .) :occoe:c.
.:J ..)oc. :;,Boc.ce:'l:CC:'l
.) ..) .) .) l:cec:c.lfle:coco

I i'. 11 I i'. • r 1
::>10 :)oeo:>c.co:'l rs-o::>ue ::>>;:':re~:cc::>c.fl:'l
L )0 .> ~ .:>o .) "' ."1
Cbf
d [51 ( :beJcco;g:c
.,,¥<, """., <"""]
O~:l'leJl
OCLJOC.CDCD(\)) :J\;'OCC7:'l:f>CC:JC.fl:'l
.;. ...) 0 ..)
:0~ :OP.CCC::>CWCC
;) .J .) .) .)0 .;.
11 C2ccahl :>froc.cc1'lw[;oc.reo cbok:b:;,olPe
.) .J:J ,.) .) .) ~0 .)
otc Jcocob-Jrdod.u cb::>re :b:;,::>bro:cbco r:oScccc:::>Ocoro:c::xcl::o
.J \. .) .:> .j.)O .) 0 J .) ..) ::J..> 0 .:>
::>0::>00 :c.ec:Cco
.) .JO 0.
'b:::c.blcc ~ ~ 0 .) 0 .J .JO
::J 11G:f'>ccc~ 'ruoa>:Jro :hl:oeccl::o
(,'j ..>
cu~od~e
.) .)O
1bro
wfe:c.h:l~(2 l:l>:h:l:oe:c.co~cUkc r:o!:C2cc:oblw'co:ct:;:l:-1C2 <}b:r.o
,.) ~.:> .:;, ctJ .) ..J .;> ..) "~b 0 ~ .:> ,"1
, 1 ., " r rb "-~ 1 n
rocn
..J
OG~ro :c.a::cco cc:c.o:reB
,:). .10 o
o . •::>~-;: •:P.ccc.uccros
o.,..j;·.:· .) .) .l o ..> .>
J§ ,cu::>Goro:o!:o::>
.;, o ,) .Jo eJ
rbec llt~ c~oc:al~~okcs :c.ec:oB~o:::l\.e IW:~;::JAC.co~c~cc ·:>c~~k
;J J l,; 0 .) .) :>o e.:::J .:J .} .) ~ 0
......
ucccc"o'1:
" 1 "0
:"'CCO~CCroJhl :hl:r.t> a.:Jc.ft"l
.:J o .,) .) :J o .J .) o eJ jo ..) o
.,:J :@ro'w:dfl:Js~ro r,)~hla;~cc:>t-:r.!CCCo
;.J ..) .
c. ~.?Jr"c.G
~!!XX X3<JNI ~V)!3N:ii~
xxiv·. GENERAJ.:. INDEX
GJ?NERAL INDEX XXV

Jjj

00

00

3
XXVI ·GENERAL INDEX
ccr ~ I,;ro :h-l~okSc.co~~eec
LJ.> .) .> .>
'::>!-:bc~cc .)o~::c.ec~kcc
.)
~dko
.:JO
nfeecotoft ~
c.ufecr; c.a:~::>o:lrcoes ::>rogco c.a:ell.o2a:4b:lirc.uft rcca:J.b:]rc.u
.) .) • .) 0 .) ..) .) ..)
'w'~ahl
0 .>:.:I c.cc~:c.oo:k5hl.) ~.)::>eo (C) L1:1c
;; <"ch .) c~o2wcc .,) .)c.oo~wc.co~
.)
eG :::>c~~coro::>o c.~wrees ca:~'WC20::t;fl @a:lkauc.cc e :::>Q:re
.> ~ .> .> .> .> o .> o ..> .>~o
:;,e>cc 'w: :ffl: 2~o lf.:a.;cb~:ctc ::>Coa:cc :-hi CDI'l~cnJ. F:):f>a.;c re C2a::c.ffl
o J S"J J J J~.:> Oo.:> :> .> .>o .>
\Jcbec4c.5c.oo~wc.w~es
0 .) .)
1C2fto~bco~~oo
.J .) .)
l:o')(ll'l:::>Q:::>tt~oo
:_j ,:::J., .J
:->eo
.)
(C)
&~:~c flGr)loteec 'w:c.rftnb:ccoll' c.a:eco~coa: col'l4cnJ. 'Ct: 'a:l:o riGaR
.J .J Lt o o .) .> .> :J oo.> o \ o S' .>::.:1
c.ccea: c.a:eb::>c.ce~:P-co~occocb;,cc IGo..:cbe:c.'Cc ::.'Coa:cc:hl co<'>~
l .) .. .) ~ .) ~.) .) ..) .)~ .J 0 0
enol- ~~:>:Bwr.ce
.) :;,- .) .) 0
c.~cccea: l
hl:::>c.h1eb~
:J .) ::::::1 11 PeeO..:H">::? roefto~ro c.flc.Jca:l)l
.) L. ..L • ;.J
c.a:eeo;:;::Ja:Pwcocc:::>'C.oec rC2a:f:::oa.cc:hl cofl~cnJ. :l"la:rre rC2cc
3...... .) .) .) .) .>:.3 .) 0 0.) ..> .)Of.· .;)
cbhc.cc~:re:P.cc IGa.:cb:!>:c"cc 'w:c.rP.:@go ':lCh1ea.:'Cow'Cc nfee~roB
. o ~ ~.> o .J .:> ~ .> o ot...
:c.fflc:b:c.wll' ca:ell.o :f'lwc:rec.oo~a.:c.wecc ::>eo (t;) L~c flc'O
.) ' ' .> .) o .J .) n .> 9
:J .l
uC2cdeebwfroa:cb~ c.osocco 6?1'lbeaucQhl besflf::o::b ::> C.O roeesfll'l
.) 0.) .) .) .:J • .) .) :,j .) .) .) ..J,;. 0 0
1
.)c.uJ.::> ..) Jhlco
03 ..)os@cca:cbe .,) ..) Cc IO~CCC~CC
0 ..,1... l
P P. :crl'l~C/:o ICl>e<r{;Jccccccft
00 ~ 0 .> - .> 0
-:J , --:J ,. o n --:JO J '"
ro:<>..l~a:cccc .> o o J
a.:a:cc::>co .>
a;;:~coccceco:.FI'I :cJe.:a::onso·w:..,c.cc::.a:
o .> 1 ::foo ..> :;, 3
· rr n '~
ure~::::ll <":o cncocw~ cn10ero wc.ore
~11 n , n
~ ~::>c. :l
§l~6~ 11a::c.oococ.Jro~ · .l .JO .> ..) ..l ~ 0 0 ..)
:k~Rc~oa IG:::>tc6?co 'c.ocnrgees r~:dt~r:b:c.a.:ll' c.a:~::>croe :>eo~ co
:J ~ ~ .J .J 0 .> l.O :> .> ..) I_; .> .>
c~o2 11 PeelXO~<" 'w2cc:c.oo:H'CC2bF 0 ..) .,J .)
<'itccc(')
0 .)
'w:c.fe.&c.ccebwl;::::c.ce~
0 .) .j
:cb~o :>eoc.cc~cc ccceea:ro 'w:c.rt~:C28o4l:o ro:!a:abloo
.,) 3 • ..) 0 .) .) ..) .:>:!..) " .) ~
:::::Q
:c.cooco ..)
cc~6(')wfe'l!Jb'e
\. 0 .) :.:1.> !.:>:df~c:bro
::> 0
cc.o~a.:c.a.;::e.c
..) .)
'w:dl'l:C28o
0 .,)
~w cccz~w~ro~ro ro~ c.~:::>c.c.o~ Jc./,:cPP.ob:cwll' ccce:C':J:bzro
.> '" a.> .> ..;..; .> .> o.::i
c.oees 0
1 co~cc:c.Pe.r:b:c.c.oG> c.cce::>cro~'Co..,d·. 1[1) 1o:!cc:cco:*c3hl:::roes
.) .) ..l 1....) .) ~ .) ..) ~,)
oocc :>eo (C) 0l>lc flCo ceo2wc.c ~'hc.oec.oca.:eeccnco::o l:n@flb
0 .) .:J ,) .) .) .)
• 1 9 v 1or §'I:~c. §] • IT.J • .) 1• .)
ll'eoccc.uoo
:; .) 0
auc
.;J
o~ :>co IOeeG:I'lccceo:
..) ~ ! .)
~l:le 1::>rcoe:::c.o cc roe
.) '\..) 0 4..,;
c.cc~cchl:::>c.Q~be 'w:d<":CX!ao
3 :j .J ~ 0 .)
sw .)
ccbbl'lwre')(l·: ( ~~.:~>:c.re.[cbcc c.c.o~
\ 0 ..) . ~..) ::s 0 .)
cue. wecc r<":Gcoccc~cc c.ccec.ro::hl:oc.~ebecnro ::o'ec:~c.oc
.) 6 l . ) : J . ) ~J .) .) 0 .)
re41:o~ 6
..)0 .) .)
II ucurecohl:beu u@o:~~ofe ~ :::>c.~~:.a::c,~fl,.Qcc&:b~eslbro
;) .) :J. ..) .) ~.) ~
( C) L1:1c ~
<"co c~oca.;cc c.c.o~coc.a.;ero :::>cn~corooo ,:,c.~~c.cce
..) ..> ~ .) .) ~.) ...) .) ::::J
:,:)Cl>Q .J
::J ..)::>roaxc:.hlc.o~~ro~ .):,j.J 00.:> .
c.cc::~b::>cree:Pco4ccc.o:de~cbec::::b
.) .) .) 0 ..)
IGahl
~.) ~
oeo::>hlcnro::>o
.) .):J.) ..l
c.cce:O~c.w Fflcrw~ .)
ob .>::>10(') 'e:fla:Cce~losb .) .JO .> ..l
c.~cb~e
cccz:re:Pcc e ~
w:c.PP.I;c:bes o
c.c.o~wc.a.;~ro , ::>hlec@ccbfl :oO!;a:l'ltl
.l .> .:> :.:1 ..l o .l :::Joo oo
1 ,, ~ r f\ r
~
c.o: ::., c.ro::cceecn 0 a:c.cc~cccoa:
0.) ~ l 0
eccce 3:
cc CCP.CC c.a: ~c.rofl::<.w~ :>
c.o'eo~cbcc:H:h:l~i>:')J;J 'ofc:bcewll' 1!!-row
~ .>
oc.co:> o'co:c.fl'l:o:!~otokec L o o o :.:::::J ' o:::J.> .;, ..>~
"' :> ."1,9'? , ~ ' J ,.
ccce§)we~':>c.ree:wcooc.roes
j i> ,J • .)
::>c.oc.uc.esea:ro
.) .)
~fl t'C.Ues erect-f cucc
~-0 0 .:> 0 .)0 0 0
r.: ~
:cooc.uc.rro~ <>C.OCCCDo ::>!Saw cccca.;c.roo OJC.U ooo
• re -.. 11 n ·r ., c ::>ewt: 1I,cc
..) ~ .) .) 0 .) .) 0.) .) . .)
( C) Ll>lc :J
ftco.)
cso2a.;e.c ..) ,
c.c.o~a.;c.a:ilec
.)
::xEUle.rr.ro::-o
.> .:.:...1 .) J • .:>
::>ro,J..-;ro~cc
r 1 n -.-. · § ,,, " r.: v
oc.cc~cccc sc.cow a::a:G tflC.CC!>CC cocc cc:c.oo<,t;c rc"e rwcocc
J ,:,o ..> .:. t e .l - ....r .>.
&:lccfl:ce:F.ccl!.C'be
.:J a e J o o
'w:dl'l:C28mkco:es .) • .)0 .;
i!2cc:,cc:r.~Aea:c.a.;eec
.> • .> .:>
c.cte
c.~c.ui~G<ll
~
TIAXX XRCINI ·:1~3N3~
X3GNI '1###BOT_TEXT###quot;d3N3!)
GENERAL INDEX
cb
XXX ,
GENERAL ·INDEX
Gel
Ccf
CCC
lloc
c..*w-§ ~ccl!oc..ro~cc:o~~re_fc..§o s-c:c..ibJo~~c.s~:jo .o::>[6f~;_r&c
a;l[fi .I CCCCC'u~:ccckco~ ::Jch-leb e:oewfe!::dilo <1-CI.:~4ftl'l I~c..h-le
s~ o.>~.J:::::I\ ..>.>:J..).) .)~
c..ccz;rowct:;Jol'lb:'G
• .. ., .:>
'wttl'lco<w~ !G'F.'c: teesccce.~a:cbettrodt::l ~cc
:::::::1 "o .o o :J .:> ..> o 'S'o o L. o.> .J .,., ~ •
:h1~:cbcocoo.;,cb 'Cc.olPeesb ofro4o c.c:ool'lwfe!::c..Gb fbcoCI.:c.c; ll:l~c..cc
ELl · ;, o .> \ ~ =
.> ...,J.' 'S'.J \ ·
So .,
'- n 1~"fl:: :cccu:. -:J· g §''co •:=d:ole~e;,r.ewte:clil:e:~cocrcccc:oo::>cc
.J .> · 0
o.> ·Ptees.,clli
I \ .-, d .> ..> =.1
,--- 1 •\ .J ~ .>• :Jn .:lo, "' .:> • .>
~'Ccto:ob ::,~ccccoo::>~e l'l'axvce2cc:4o:2t2w~o~ ~4cS6 c..~:::>i:16:oe
..) 0 .) .J :::'1 .) 0 . 0 ..) ,) .) . .) .) ..) 0 '\. ~ ::J.
wPe~c..£\ol'H': cob:4o:)c..P.e 'axcbcoe~esn nc.orecor::l:~u u:::>!:l:oo
.:> ~ ....J·oo • . .)~..J· o • .> .,:,-:1.. .:>~
1 1
.)ahles '$"~""
V' . fG;:;:Jcc 1; wwfe::c.Re ccco:F>ccr.&CC'cu4t::l Jecc&ccttl'l 1dccchl
0 .:> .J !j .) 0 .J .> ..) ~ L .) .J ~
1
cbroec..) :c0:..)2o .)co~co~;roo:coe .) < :ool'l 1:ooa;c .) lb:>ees0roesu u.)c.oreoc ,
t::le
;:;
tlcr .}c.5;r.1
· o.::J.>~o:beccei:hl ..>
\ .> :J I .>SO:~CoeG :,-fl:P:f!
.:> e ~
(tee) ~:lWCD
·.J o
II fe~~j'~l'l \:,ccceo2:cbco
cl'lw,e
r r. ~ :::-cl:olero ,.-, c.:cecncc:ccccnleCC
" -:J 1 ~ 1n1eP-occ1w:::cc:roc.cro • ~ "
'• <.:>cc:cro
:J :; =.1 ~ .J :J • .> 0 .) .,) ,J :,-.
n: 1 , ':"') • <1
WCICD~ ~C. ~fl1CO:::C CCC~COcc(')~COCOCC
• §] "~ . §] ::> l'l 6' : ~ :10:0 ::lCCOO::lCO
.> · .> · :> , o o 1u o .:t .J .;, .Jo.)
.-, I~ • r p b _T_ ~- V 1 , , 1 ' 11
core ccro~
..) ) .} • :J
~~:Clfl::) :=m~ c..cce()l~) cc.;c.c:occ:e coco:e :'>CC COl'l
.) ~ ""...) .) .) 0 .J 0 .) 0
l@cc~:c.cc:ocfco::. co:occvcro cb:::rea;cc uC2ccabiC2(') :ca>:c~:o'Cc
.) .) ..)O .)Q .) .> .J -J..> .l ~~ .>
~cc w~hcwcesl:o
.> .Jo o o .:.
lo@ccoa::tol'l :> o
,C2ccoesto
.J .J o .> .:>
::>nmwro .J~bcoPecclPe :J .. .:>
'eck ,:hl&!ccGtil@l'lb!; :ccorocc:cccees ccc~too'e Jbccceo2:cbco
0 o .>:j,_., .J:J.J 0 · .> • ..)O
.l
w'Coes~be~eJo~mfecolre acroec:cccwclb:>o :irocc:cP.zl5~:::hcvccc
_, .Jo.> .> .J .J .:> .:>o '
cb:::>CeCl.JCCII
.>o•.:>
II re~(.co~::J~;Qe ::::>t;l:lre~l::l bhl;pa; IOa!i-t,cc:b C ro~e>
.:>o~ .>::I.> .J~.J:.l.Jo L.:\ .) .
1o~e o~tc 'oo;fla;::::ro t:cccb<t{)]hl:k~l:DCI.:C>cwces r§:hcob c ro~eJ
.>' :..~ o .:> o ..) ->-OJ • ., .) .J .>
,ofb o~~c tc.~~t>ro olreQ~:::frokcc~co~re bhi"Qs~ wb ~ rol::l~
,) ::; .} 0 ~" :::I .) ..) .) .J ~\ .) Q'J
I (j)~'h tJG~cll uwrec.ohl:kn nalccro~'JJm cc~re;P.ro ~Q:d(')wrc
.) :;, .) ~" .:> .J 0 .:> .:>o .lW .>
:l'lw:C2C>2cc()l :::>c.~~6JIJ('):::>I:I:ceclewro 'eccbb:c..l:lcr: ,cci;b~cbcc
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t...X'A'X X::IGNI '1V}I3N3~
xxxvi GENERAL INDEX
HAXXX X3GNI '1Y~3N3~
rrr
Cc
cc .... , > :ot:l[}~Jo:bec Wl: tu! ~cc:-~co~fe ~( ec bec~c cico €teec
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X30NI '1V'd3N3D THAXXX
GENERAL INDEX XXXIX

\ C'" C ('GO 0 (" t: C' \
'J G::r.J') G~O)Ct~ ~<;.CDG'jaJ G~::O£,'q ~U~JtU~'J:7~ G G:D£,\:]::T.J~:JJ':l:
s')-rof§: ul J .... ::m:>
foe
foe
X:LaNI '1Y~3N3~
GENERAL INDEX xli

4
bo
GENERAL INDEX xliii

J9J
xliv GF.NERAL INDEX

JO

oGfi
foe
bile
dsorl'lc~
~l:: ~-'I
X30NI '1V1I3N3!>
xlvi GENERAL INDEX
GENI;:RA.I,. INDEX xlvii
roc
co
:X30Nl '1V113N3D
X3GNI '1Y1!3N3~
r"' I " ' • ' ':":1 .,
10 ~cccf:e: ~; o>::ccccccccemc
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I
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BURMA LAW REPORTS.

SUPREME COURT.
fs.c
DAW NYEIN (APPLICANT) 196o _
v. Jaiz. 29.
u THET AND, ONE (RESPONDENTS).*

!Execution of decree-SteP in aid of-Application for lea~•e to execute und~r
Liabilitfes (War Time Adjustmmt) Act constitutes-Calculatio1z of period of ,
~~~ ~
An application for leave to execute a decree under the Liabilities (War Time
.Adjustment) Act was an application necessary for execution under the law for
·the time being in force and it must also be held to be a step in aid of the execution
·.of the decree. Therefore the date from which the period of limitation is
.calculated to run· must be from the date on which the leave to execute under
the Act was granted.

P. N. Ghosh for the applicant.

Ba On for the respondents.

U CHAN HTooN, J.-This application must be dismisse9-
.as being misconceived. The facts are quite simple. The
respondents obtained a final mortgage decree for K r6,soo
.against the applicant in the District Court of Myaungmya
·on 25th January 1954. The respondents' application
for execution filed on rst March 1954 was dismissed
for want of leave to execute the decree as
required by the Liabilities (War Time Adjustment)
Act on ,4th May 1954- The respondents then
filed an application for leave to execute the decree·
'Orr roth May 1954 under the said Act and the District
!Court of Myaungmya granted leave on 24th August I955·
The applicant on her part applied for relief under the
Burma Agriculturists' Debt Relief Act on r6th July 1956
to the Agricult.ural Debt Settlement Board, Wakema. The
Board's order granting relief was set aside by the President
• Civil Misc. Application No. I !2 of 1959.
t Present: U MYINT THEIN, Chief Jusice of the Union, U CHAN HTOON
and U Bo GYr, JJ.
2 BURMA LAW REPORTS.

S.C. of the Union of Burma on the r~spondents' appeal by an
1960
order dated 12th December I957· The respondents then
DAWNY.,IN
v. filed the present application for execution on 7th January
u THETAND
I 9 59 in the District Court of Myaungmya~
ONE.
The applicant objected to the execution on the ground·
that it was time-barred. Her objection was overruled and
she appealed to the High Court ; but her appeal was.
summarily dismissed. In her application to this Court
for special leave to appeal she contended that under
section 9 of the Limitation Act the period of limitation
which began to run from the date of the decree should
not be held to have been interrupted and therefore the
execution application was very much time-barred.
It must however be noted that under Article 182, item
5, in the First Schedule to the Limitation Act, the period of
limitation of three years will run from " the date of the
final order passed on an application made in accordance
with law to the proper Court for execution or to take
some step in aid of execution of the decree or order.' r
The application for leave to execute under the Liabilities
(War Time Adjustment) Act was an application necessary
for execution under the law for the time being in force
and it must also be held to be a step in aid of the execution
of the decree. Therefore the date from which the period
of limitation is calculated to run must be the date on
which the leave to execute under the Act was granted,
namely, 24th August 1955. From that date 'to the date
of the present application for execution (7th January 1959)
the period would be 3 years, 4 months and 14 days. From
this period, r year, 4 months and 26 days must be excluded
under the provisions of section 28 of the Burma Agricul-
turists ' Debt Relief Act which read as follows-
" In calculating the period of limitation for any suit filed
in, or proceedings before, a Civil Court for the recovery of
a debt which was the subject of any proceedings under thi5
Act, the time during which such proceedings continued a_<;;
1960] BT.JIRMA LAW REPORTS.
well as the time taken· for obtaining a certified copy of the S.C.
60
order of the Board shall be excluded." t9
DA\v NYEIN
The proceedings under this Act started with the applicant's u T;~T AND
petition on r6th July 1956 and terminated with the order oNn.
of the President on 12th December I957, taking altogether
r year, 4 months and 2~ days, and this period must be
excluded from the period of 3 years, 4 months and 14 days,
as shown above, leaving r year, I I months and r8 days:·
It must therefore be held that the present application for
execution was within time.
Special leave to appeal is therefore refused and the
application dismissed with costs. Advocate's fee is fixed
at K 85·00.
4 BURMA 'LAW REPORTS.

SUPR,EME COURT.
ts.c.
1!)60 MOHA..MED FAROOQ (a) MAUNG MK0NG AND ONE

jan. zs .
(APPELLANTS)
v.
SAHIB JAN AND ONE (RESPONDENTS).*

Burma Laws Act, s.13 (z)-Omission-Effect of-Gifts of immoveable property
amotzg Mohameda11s in Ra11goo11-Law applicable--Letters Patent-Article
I7·
The effect of the omission of s. 13 (2) from the Burma Laws Act would
seem to make it clear that the law governing !ohamedan gifts has now become
uniform throughout the Union.
The law applicable to gifts of immoveable property among iVlohamedans in
Rangoon is the or.dinary law of the land, viz. s. 123 of the Transfer of
J>roperty Act.
The expression " the law which would hnvc been applied by the Chief Court
-of Lower Burma" occurring in Article 17 of the Letters Patent would mean
just the law for the time being in force at present if the Chief Court were still in
existence today.

Kyaw Myint for the appellants.

E Mauna for the respondents.

U CHAN HTOON, J.-The parties in this appeal are Mos-
lems who are litigating in respect of a bui1ding and its site
known as No. 2o6-2ro, Mogul Street, together with the
business dealing in medical stores under the name of " Ma
Than Tin Medical Hall ". The respondents filed a suit in
the Original Side q~ the High Court against the appellants
for possession of the building and its site and also for posses-
·sion and accounts of the business claiming to be the heirs of
·one Rahmat Bibi alias,Ma Than Tin, a Sunni Muslim, who
·died intestate at Rangoon on the 19th January 1950 without
leaving any issue. The appellants who are husband and
• Civil Appeal No. 8 of 1957 from the judgment of the High Court in
-Civil xst Appeal No. 41 of 1957, dated the 19th June I957-
t Present: U MYTNT THEIN, Chief Jusice of the Union, U CHAN HToo·.;
~nd U Do GYr, JJ.
BURMA LAW Rli:PORTS. 5

S.C.
wife also filed a cross suit for declaration that they were the rg6o
owners of the property by virtue of an oral gift made to MOHAMED
them by the said deceased Rahmat Bibi at the time of their FAnooQ {a)
MAUNG
marriage on the 25th February 1949. MAUNG AND
ONil
Two issues were framed by the trial Court, viz., (r) v.
SAHIB JAN
Whether or not the oral gift was valid under the law for the l).ND ONE.
time being in force, and (2) whether the Medical Hall
business belonged to the deceased or to the appellants. The
second issue was decided in favour of the appellants. The
first raises an important question of law in view of the
amendment effected to the Burma Laws Act by the Repeal-
ing and Amendment Act of 1945 (Burma Act No.2 of 1945).
Under the provisions of the said Act of 1945, section 13 (2)
of the Burma Laws was omitted. The trial Court held that
on account of this amendment the law applicable to
Mohamedan gifts of immovable property in Rangoon is not
the Mohamedan Law but the ordinary law of the land as
laid down in section 123 of the Transfer of Property Act.
On appeal by the appellants, the Appellate side of the
High Court referred the following question to a Full Bench :
"What is the law applicable when the validity or otherwise
of a gift of immovable property between Mohamedans is in
issue in a case before the Courts at Rangoon? "

The Full Bench of the High Court held that the law appli-
cable in determining the validity or otherwise of S!Jch a gift
is the law as laid down in section 123 of the Transfer of
Property Act.
The question involved in the appeal before us is the same
as that was referred to the Full Bench of the High Court. It
is settled law that the provisions in ·s·ection 123 of the Trans-
fer of Property Act apply to gifts of immovable property
among Mohamedans in the places outside the ordinary ori-
ginal civil jurisdiction of the High Court. Vide Ma Asha
-and others v. B. K. Haldar (1); but in view of the provisions
(r) 14. Ran. 439·
6 BURMA LAW REPORTS.
S.C. of section 13 (2) of the Burma Laws Act the law applicable
196o
MoH.~MED
to Mohamedan gifts in Rangoon was held to be the
FAROOQ'(a) Mohamedan Law. Vide Rahmat Bibi v. Maung Po Sr;in and
MAUNG
MAUNG AND others (1).
ONE
v. Section 13 (2) of the Burma Laws Act reads as follows:
ShHlB }AN
AND ONI!o "Subject to the provisions of sub-section (r) and of any
other enactment for the time being in force, all questions ari-
sing in civil cases instituted in the Courts of Rangoon shall be
dealt with and determined according to the law for the time
being administered by the High Court of Judicature at Fort
William in Bengal in the exercise of its ordinary original civil
jurisdiction. "
The law administered in such matters by the High Court of
Judicature at Fort William in Bengal was the Mohamedan
Law. The effect of the omission of this provision from the
Burma Laws Act would seem to make it clear that the law
governing Mohamedan _gifts has now become uniform
throughout the Union. However the appellants contended
at all stages of their case and before this Court that by virtue
of the provisions of Article 17 of the Letters Patent consti-
tuting the Hig}1 Court of Judicature at Rangoon and in view
of section 13 of the Union Judiciary Act, the law to be
administered by the Courts of Rangoon still must remain
the Mohamedan Law. Art. 17 of the Letters Patent reads :
''And we do further ordain that' with respect to the'law to
be applied to each case coming before the High Court of Judi-
cature at Rangoon in the exercise of its ordinary uriginal civil
jurisdiction, such law shall be the law which would have been
applied by the Chief Court of Lower Burma to such case if
these Letters Patent had not issued. "

We agree with the learned Judges of the High Court Full
Bench when they hold that the expression " the law which
would have been· applied by the Chief Court of Lower
Burma " would mean just the law for the time being in force
at present if the Chief Court were still in existence today.
(x) 14 Ran. 485.
BURiMA. LAW RgPORTS. 7

Section 30 of the Union Judiciary Act is as follows S.C.

'' Subject to the
.
provisions of the Constitution and
196o
MoHAMED
to >the provisions of this Act or any other law for the time F.!:ROOQ,(a)
MAUNG
being in force, the jurisdiction of and the law to be adminis- MAUNG AND
ONE
tered in the High Court and J:he respective powers of the Judges v.
SAHIB JAN
thereof in relation to the administration of justice in the AND ONE.
Court, including any power to make rules of Court, and to
regulate the sittings of the Court and of members thereof
sitting alone or otherwise, shall be the same as immediately
before the commencement of the Constitution. "

The provisions of this section would not carry the appel-
lants' case any further.
We therefore uphold the decision of the High Court that
the law applicable to gifts of immovable property among
Mohamedans in Rangoon is the ordinary law of the land,
viz., section 123 of the Transfer of Property Act. Accord-
ingly the appeal is dismissed.
As regards costs we feel that each party should bear
·their own costs in this Cou.rt, in view of the fact that the
deceased owner Rahmat Bibi alias Ma Than Tin would have
made the gift by a registered deed had she not been advised
that no such registered deed was required under the existing
8 BURMA LAvV REPORTS. (1960

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G!Jd')(OOIGJ~c: ~ro~;::GC\:>:))211

"There is no legal obligation imposed upon either the
public prosecutor or the Court to advise the accused to
request the Court to refer to the statement of any witness
to the police under section r62, but it must ever be borne
in mind that it is the duty of the public prosecutor and
any other official who may be conducting a prosecution to
prosecute, not to persecute, the accused, and that responsi-
bility rests upon,him not to allow the Court or jury to place
reliance unwittingly upon the evidence of a witness who to
his knowledge made a contradictory statement to the police
in the course of the preliminary investigation, and in such
circumstances he ought to inform the Court that it might
be expedient that the accused should be made aware that
he would be entitled to be supplied with a copy of a witness'
statement to the police if he made a request to the Court in
that behalf."
BURMA LAW REPORTS. 25
BURMA LAW REPORTS.

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