002 Safety First #20 | July 2015

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In the current era of wealth of data where Big Data, smart
data and other data related trends emerge, a key question
arises: what can data tell us, and under what conditions?

Over the past decades, safety has evolved from primarily
reactive approaches such as accident and incident inves-
YANNICK MALINGE tigation, to more proactive approaches to try to anticipate
SVP & Chief and thus prevent safety issues. In line with this evolution,
Product Safety Officer there is a change of scale in the nature and the amount
of data. If Big Data seems a promising complement to
two other pillars of efficient safety enhancement - namely
proper reporting and cascading of lessons learned - it
requires some careful consideration as to how the data
are collected and analysed.

From statistical patterns identified to relevant safety rec-
ommendations, the way is long and involves interpreta-
tion, sense-making… often requiring a qualitative analysis
calling for a good knowledge and understanding of oper-
ations and safety context.

With this in mind, we must take great care with some Big
Data approaches that use a variety of sources of data
collected for a variety of purposes and through a generic
and somehow magic algorithm come out with apparently
very credible “safety results”. Can we confuse “big” with
“good” when it comes to data? Is it reasonable to make
the assumption that big amounts of data could be self-

Evolving towards more proactive approaches, better
understanding of normal operations and detecting trends
are keys to further enhancements in safety. However,
whatever the amount of data, the experience of aviation
professionals is essential to make sure they are processed
and interpreted wisely.

002 Safety First #20 | July 2015

A statistical Analysis on Commercial Aviation
Accidents: check the 2015 edition!
The new edition of our yearly brochure on commercial aviation accidents sta-
tistics is now available. This statistical analysis examines the evolution of hull-
loss and fatal accidents during revenue flights from 1958 to 2014. A particular
focus is made on a breakdown of statistics by generations of aircraft and main
accident categories, namely Controlled Flight Into terrain (CFIT), Loss Of Con-
trol In-flight (LOC-I) and Runway Excursion (RE).

Visit our website (keyword “safety”) or find it on our tablet application.

We are pleased to announce that the have an open dialogue to promote
22 Flight Safety Conference will take flight safety across the fleet, we are
place in Bangkok, Thailand, from the unable to accept outside parties.
21 to the 24 of March 2016. The for-
mal invitations with information regard- As always, we welcome presentations
ing registration and logistics, as well as from our operators. You can partic-
the preliminary agenda will be sent to ipate as a speaker and share your
our customers in January 2016. ideas and experience for improving
For any information regarding invita- aviation safety.
tions, please contact Mrs. Nuria Soler, If you have something you believe
email will benefit other operators and/or Air-
bus and if you are interested in being
The Flight Safety Conference provides a speaker, please provide us with a
an excellent forum for the exchange brief abstract and a bio or resume at
of information between Airbus and
its customers. To ensure that we can

22nd Flight Safety
Bangkok, 21-24 March 2016

004 Safety First #20 | July 2015 .

. during climb P14 Lateral runway excursions upon landing OPERATIONS P28 Fuel monitoring on A320 Family aircraft Flight operations Maintenance GENERAL TOPIC Engineering P36 High-altitude manual flying Ground operations . Safety First #18 | July 2014 005 Safety first #20 PROCEDURES P06 Control your speed..

we have just taken off and are now entering the climb phase. while sustaining enough lift to accelerate and climb. during climb Control your speed… during climb Second of a series of articles on the theme of speed control during a flight. The main objective is to retract the slats / flaps at an adequate speed... which started in issue #18 of this magazine. LORRAINE PHILIPPE DE BAUDUS CASTAIGNS Flight Operations Experimental Test Pilot Standards and Safety management .006 Safety First #20 | July 2015 PROCEDURES Control your speed.

. S and are computed automatically by the and operational considerations under. They Amongst other parameters. monitoring of these speeds during climb performance lope (FE)) and effectively displayed climb. any phase. Safety First #20 | July 2015 007 After take-off. slats and flaps retraction. To aircraft climb performance limits. and how they can be implemented in daily operations. Therefore. What speeds exactly should be monitored? What do these speeds mean and what happens if they are exceeded? For every flight. manage various aircraft configuration changes. This article aims at shedding some light on the way the different maneuvering and limit speeds that are of use during climb are defined and determined. and a change from take-off power to climb power. gradient and manage several config. maintain a satisfactory climb defined as maneuvering speeds. vering speeds Flaps (F). The objective for the crew is to accelerate to the en-route climb speed and at the same time. and they require a close monitoring. Flight lying all recommendations Airbus has issued to flight crews regarding the frame the aircraft Guidance (FG) and Flight Enve. usually consisting of gears. the aircraft continues in the climb phase and flies away from the busy airspace. help pilots fly their aircraft safely through ative). some characteristic speeds were aircraft. S and Green Dot speeds frame the uration changes at the same time. on the PFD airspeed scale. the climb phase poses some the different steps of this phase of challenges to the crew: accelerate the flight. MANAGING YOUR CLIMB: UNDERSTANDING SPEEDS A climb is generally flown at an airspeed that is often initially limited by Air Traffic Control (ATC) instructions. Maneuvering speeds In nominal conditions (all engines oper. characteristic speeds Our objective is to highlight the design F. Slats (S) and vering speeds and limit speeds to Green Dot (GD) are a function of the safely guide the pilots configuration Zero Fuel Weight (ZFW) inserted by the change decisions through the climb crew at FMS initialization. limits. To safely manage the climb phase within these restrictions. some characteristic speeds are useful tools. erroneous entry will impair these speeds. F. the maneu- are extremely useful as maneu. Green Dot speeds aircraft Auto Flight Systems (Flight Management System (FMS).

F speed = k x VS1g CONF 1+F . .25 Green Dot (GD): best lift-to-drag ratio GD speed Definition GD speed is the engine-out operat. In this respect. It the ‘0’ (CLEAN) position and landing is also the final take-off speed and it gears are not compressed (fig. the minimum speed at CONF 3 or 2 to CONF 1+F. In the clean configuration and the rec- other words.1) displayed when in configuration 1 or F on the PFD speed scale 1+F. (fig. How are F and S determined during the take-off phase? F speed varies according to the air. gin above the stall speed in the clean S on the PFD speed scale lated in the Flight Envelope as a func. which is the reference stall speed demonstrated by flight tests and agreed by the Air- S speed worthiness Authorities. with k equal to about 1. gin above the stall speed in the con- ulated in the Flight Envelope as a figuration 1+F..26 VMCL + 5 kts ≤ F ≤ VFE CONF FULL – 2 kts S speed varies according to the air. S speed allows a mar- (fig. function of VS1g CONF 1+ F .1). In this respect.18 to 1. It is no longer (fig. PFD speed scale and displayed only (fig. represents the operational speed of ing speed in clean configuration. S = k x VS1g CLEAN CONF . It is represented by a green dot on the In all cases (all engines operative). F speed It is represented by a green “F” on the PFD speed scale and displayed only It is represented by a green “S” on the when the slats / flaps control lever is PFD speed scale and displayed only on position 3 or 2 (CONF 3 or 2) dur. gradient with one engine inoperative in clean configuration. the initial climb is on position 1 (CONF 1 and 1+F) and go-around (fig. i. during climb F and S: Flaps and Slats minimum retraction speeds Definitions F speed is the minimum speed at S speed is the minimum slats retrac- which flaps should be retracted from tion speed.3) the GD speed gives an estimate of when the slats / flaps control lever is in GD on the PFD speed scale the speed for best lift-to-drag ratio. It is tab.. tion of VS1g CLEAN CONF.2). when the slats / flaps control lever ing the take-off phase. which a clean configuration should be selected. It is tabu.e. with k equal to about 1. configuration.2) craft weight and altitude. it corresponds to the ommended speed in holding in clean speed that allows the highest climb configuration. F speed allows a mar- craft weight and altitude.21 to 1.PROCEDURES Control your speed.3).

4) aircraft configuration (slats / flaps con. aircraft weight. We will now focus on the limit speed VFE. based on either the slats / at which the next configuration is flaps control lever position or the actual selected. ture and aircraft weight. Safety First #20 | July 2015 009 How is GD determined? GD speed is computed by the Auto. the following inequality is (fig. in clean con- flight systems and is based on the figuration with one engine out. air tempera. Limit speed We have seen that deviations from the maneuvering speeds F. puted to minimize drag and thus. depending on configurations. VMAX is equal sponds to the lower end of the red and to VLE (maximum speed with landing black strip (fig. the speed provides the best lift-to-drag fuel consumption (for example during ratio for a given altitude. extended: it is related to the structural limitation of the slats / flaps. VFE (CLB / OP CLB / SPEED green on exceedance may occur (for example FMA). It has a specific value for the aircraft configuration. V display How is VFE determined? VFE is the maximum speed for high lift trol surfaces position). GD is com- been set up so that the resulting air. i. The GD formula has In some phases of flight. VFE: Maximum speed with Flaps Extended With the A/THR engaged and active When the A/THR is not active. Definition VFE is the maximum speed with flaps gears extended) or VFE according to extended. it corre- envelope is called VMAX. during a go-around). the HOLD phase).e. met: VFE CONF 3 ≥ F + 10 kts.4). with slats / flaps the aircraft type. between the VFE CONF 3 and the speed figuration. speed defining the aircraft’s flight On the PFD speed scale. the maximum MMO) only in the clean configuration. V on the PFD speed scale . the aircraft remains below VFE. S and GD during climb can have an impact on the aircraft’s aerodynamic performance. to VMO (or speed corresponding to Generally speaking. A VFE is In order to keep a sufficient margin computed for each slats / flaps con. VMAX is equal each flap setting.

It is therefore ing and limit speeds leads to adverse worth understanding the different VFE consequences that we will review. during climb MANAGING YOUR CLIMB: OPERATIONAL RECOMMENDATIONS Flying a safe and steady climb requires pilots’ attention to carefully manage the different configuration changes. and the resulting over- ing the slats / flaps retraction . This maneuver is obvi- Deviating below GD involves an ously counteractive to the objectives increase in the drag on the aircraft of the climb phase.PROCEDURES Control your speed. if the aircraft speed goes sig.e. Retracting the flaps speed (resp. possi- than F (resp. mum available thrust already in use formance. perform a turn while climbing. What are the operational implications of not respecting the maneuvering or limit speeds? F and S: Flaps and Slats minimum retraction speeds F speed (resp. reach a speed below the lowest selecta. sibly low enough to break through the F speed (resp. and pos.with speed aural warning behaviour during its potential structural damage conse.i. (assuming that thrust levers have just . slats) a speed significantly higher than F retraction speed. only way for the crew to recover a sat- mum when (Thrust – Drag) is at a isfactory climb gradient is to decrease maximum . not respecting the maneuver. S) would reduce the margin bly compromise the aircraft ability to against the high Angle-Of-Attack (AOA) clear any obstacles (this is more likely protection. If flaps need to be maintained for a turn ble speed VLS CONF 1 (or 0). Therefore in the clean configuration. the climb. aircraft family. slats) at a speed significantly lower climb performance and thus. before acceleration altitude for instance. This could lead the aircraft to if one engine is inoperative). GD: Green Dot At a given weight and engine rating. when the lift-to-drag the rate of climb (even enter a descent ratio is maximum. S) can be used safely to high AOA protection threshold. slats) at ommended minimum flaps (resp. S) is defined as the rec. quences . S) would reduce the (resp. then the the potential climb gradient is maxi. and would eventually undermine the GD IN A NUTSHELL aircraft’s ability to continue a climb.. Indeed. Retracting the flaps (resp. the crew should not fly below GD in Avoid flying below nificantly below GD. cruise speed. display logics implemented in each Avoiding an overspeed situation dur. order to avoid degrading climb per- GD during climb.. with the maxi. while accelerating to the en-route climb speed and eventually. Indeed. if necessary) in order to accelerate to or above important. been set to CLIMB / MCT).

for all aircraft ing an aural overspeed warning (with families. behaviour implemented in each air- nation. VFE IN A NUTSHELL Do not fly with slats / flaps extended above VFE. closely at the VFE display logics for tion during slats / flaps retraction. after flight above VFE. Maintenance Manual (AMM). yet inconsequential. well above VFE directly poses a risk of Exceeding VFE may subsequently structural damage through the slats trigger inspections of the slats/ / flaps track mechanisms. Inci. How to avoid an overspeed during slats / flaps retraction? Avoiding an overspeed during slats changes. . doing so allows the crew to against the applicable limit speed VFE respect the VFE indication displayed becomes too tight. the PF in case the margin that is left dentally. avoid trigger. plays a key role in facilitating his/her A320 and A330/A340 Families. Safety First #20 | July 2015 011 VFE: Maximum speed with flaps extended In case of take-off with A/THR The flight crew will have to reduce not active. slats or the extension mechanism or Specific trouble shooting procedures even the aircraft structure upstream. flying with slats / flaps the speed or to retract the slats / extended. the PM needs to lowing SOP. initial climb phase. pilots’ attention and coordi. an over. These proce- speed aural warning is triggered in dures are available in the Aircraft the cockpit in order to alert the crew. In particular. Proce. understanding of the limit / flaps retraction relies on a variety speed and of the different VFE display of complementary aspects. potential structural damage). During the climb can be managed safely by fol. on the PFD and thus. each family. logics and overspeed aural warning dures. This is valid at all time. and observing the visual be vigilant to speed trends and alert F and S indications on the PFD. This may flaps mechanism and/or the aircraft result in distortion of the flaps and structure. anticipation of configuration craft family. exist to inspect and repair an aircraft In case VFE is exceeded. we want to emphasize the possibility of a tem- While the PF is expected to manage porary. The common approach Slats and flaps retraction during task by anticipating them. or extending slats / flaps flaps accordingly. the PM speed aural warning on A300/A310. The use of A/THR also enables the Differences arise when we look more crew to avoid an overspeed condi. over- these configuration changes.

there are neither opera. step to VFE CONF 1+F before the flaps • The overspeed aural warning trig. As a is no longer displayed on the PFD PRACTICE result. countered. the slats / flaps surfaces real activate although the actual surfaces time position. The case of temporary overspeed aural warning during slats / flaps retraction after a heavy-weight take-off In the particular case of a heavy. F speed is based on the slats / flaps con. Therefore the slats need position. which is precisely the Flaps VFE CONF 1+F because the aircraft weight Auto-retraction speed. do not than the Flaps Auto-retraction speed. Once the slats is higher and the lift needed to climb / flaps control lever is in the retracted is higher too. during climb The case of untimely temporary overspeed aural warning during slats / flaps retraction A300/A310. in acceleration towards S to the actual aircraft configuration. If the airplane acceler- ates rapidly. during slats / flaps tran. a VFE aural aural warning. this logic is as per design warning. speed is below the displayed VFE. the crew will order flaps retrac- tion at a speed that might be higher speed scale. the VFE aural warning could i. in this most probably at or slightly above configuration. an A320 at a Take-Off weight take-off. speed. As a con- gering threshold varies according sequence. A350 and A380 Families On A350 and A380 Families. A320 and A330/A340 Families  n A300/A310. kts. ble temporary VFE overspeed aural warning may momentarily trigger. When automatic flap black strip displayed on the PFD. S speed of 205 porary overspeed aural warn. The VFE dis. the VFE red and black strip BEST to remain extended for longer. For example. as is temporary overspeed warning is the overspeed aural warning trigger. which will trigger the VFE S speed in order to prevent possi.. the dynamic acceleration of from CONF 2 (or 3) to CONF 1+F.e. the risk of a tem. A320 and A330/ O This is due to the following logic: A340 Families. In retraction occurs. • When the flap lever is moved sition. Indeed. fully retract. S speed is quite close to 210 kts. should the acceleration momentarily. Weight (TOW) of 76T. thus the risk of an untimely the actual aircraft configuration. of the airplane be rapid. eliminated.. This logic is as per design and struc. then the airspeed may After a heavy-weight take-off. Again. could be very close to VFE before flaps trol lever position and it moves by retraction. . ing threshold. VFE CONF (2 or 3) moves in one moved. This means that the ent logic was developed. does not move before the flaps tional consequences nor safety issues. two signals are perfectly synchro- play on the PFD is directly based on nized. the pilot will order flaps retraction ing is increased. Once the flap retraction is one step as soon as this lever is initiated. a differ. and structural limits are not en- tural limits are not encountered. catch up the actual instantaneous VFE delay slats / flaps 0 selection above In that case. the airplane may lead to a temporary S speed could be greater than OVERSPEED WARNING even if the VFE CONF 1+F before the surfaces current speed is out of the red and retract. the barbers pole this situation. actually reach CONF 1+F.PROCEDURES Control your speed. Therefore. • When the flap lever is moved from • The VFE value displayed on the PFD CONF 2 (or 3) to CONF 1+F.

Safety First #20 | July 2015 013 During climb. pilots must be fully cognisant of the airspeed as well as the speed trends at all time in flight. . available on AirbusWorld. DID YOU KNOW To know more about speeds. A presentation was also made at the 11th Perf and Flight Ops Conference in Dubai in 2011. In practice. the main risk is to experience an aural overspeed warning (with potential structural damage) as a result of a late slats / flaps retraction. once the aircraft is airborne. in manual flight. Understanding the implications of climb speeds is paramount to enable pilots to sense instantly the available margin they have left to avoid exceeding the limit slats / flaps retrac- tion speed. read our brochure “Getting to grips with aircraft performance”.

With the remarkable improvements in other areas.014 Safety First #20 | July 2015 PROCEDURES Lateral runway excursions upon landing Lateral runway excursions upon landing Lateral runway excursions upon landing have long been rather low on the safety issues list. MATTHIEU MAYOLLE SAMUEL PELLET XAVIER LESCEU Stability & control Product Safety Test Pilot engineer enhancement analysis engineer . they are getting higher up and deserve careful attention. The analysis of real cases allows for drawing interesting lessons on these events and reinforcing prevention.

a lateral landing path. If significant effort was put on the prevention of longitudinal runway excursions. to prevent them. sponding to this definition combines situations that are so different in terms Generally speaking. it turns out that lateral runway excursion events are becoming a growing concern. It presents the outcome of a thorough analysis of a number of real cases and reviews the best operational practices to prevent lateral runway excursions upon landing. thus what can be done lateral runway excursion events corre. ficial as we seek more data and infor- mation on this complex issue. this definition according to what contributed to their is of little help. the most safety crit- of their underlying phenomena that it ical (as a result of likelihood and sever- is extremely challenging to derive effi. However. analysis of such “minor” during taxi (e. when it The events where aircraft get off run- comes to enhancing safety and more way markings need to be categorized specifically prevention. . This implies that events at take-off and However. ity of consequences) veer off events cient mitigation measures.g. Addressing them efficiently requires a good understanding of how they originate and what contributes to their occurrence. Safety First #20 | July 2015 015 Safety statistics show that runway excursions have become one of the most common types of accident worldwide. LATERAL RUNWAY EXCURSIONS UPON LANDING: A GROWING SAFETY CONCERN? What are we talking about? In the frame of this article. This definition is as valid as any other for describing facts. divert sufficiently to leave the runway ting off runway markings. This article will focus on the most safety critical veer off cases in terms of likelihood and severity consequences. namely: lateral runway excursions upon landing. This article will focus the runway centerline and the desired more particularly on them. Indeed. are the lateral runway excursions upon landing where the aircraft goes off run- Of course there will be many cases way markings at touch-down. the analysis of occurrence. but many of these never runway excursion is: any aircraft get. classified as incidents or accidents. during U-turns on the events in the future may well be bene- runway) are not considered here. or during where aircraft trajectories divert from the roll-out phase. whether it surface and therefore never become gets off the runway concrete or not.

Yet. to the progress made on the runway As a matter of fact.10 0. other accident categories gene.1) dents lead to both fatalities and hull have significantly decreased whereas Evolution of the three main loss. Runway Excursion remains relatively accident categories from 1995 rate mainly only material damage. but also their sons or any combination of reasons? consequences are statistically more Difficult to say.30 0. namely: Loss Of Control the main source of hull losses. fatalities. deceleration.05 0 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 Over the last decade. and are the third source of dent types at the top of the list of fatal accidents.PROCEDURES Lateral runway excursions upon landing Statistics say a word For decades. runway state… Therefore it is worth to try and reinforce prevention. 0.15 0. If virtually all CFIT and LOC-I acci. not only did they use to be reported than before? For other rea- the most frequent ones. In-flight (LOC-I). the trend The main issue addressed was then is clear: the number of lateral runway related to the management of aircraft’s excursions is increasing.20 0. 20 years shows that CFIT and LOC-I (fig. Controlled Flight Into A closer look at the evolution of the Terrain (CFIT) and Runway Excursion figures and tendencies over the past (RE).1). and to start with. 15% of RE accidents cause kept highlighting the three same acci. reported to Airbus by airlines. RE have become contributors. under- In recent years. stand what lies behind real events. energy given the aircraft performance.25 0. but through the events severe than that of lateral excursions. sions have emerged as a growing safety . among the runway overrun front? Because they are more excursions. Is it because of or thanks put on runway overrun to prevent them. a huge effort was concern. As an stable (fig. lateral runway excur. accident statistics have example.

When searching for common contrib- Within the defined scope of lateral uting factors. be drawn from this work as we shall fied and therefore. a variety of potential see later. making the sample much underlying phenomena. most of the time in therefore. bigger and the results more robust. . BUT NOT ONLY… Thanks to airlines support. YES. - weather environmental conditions ered as relevant and usable. Safety First #20 | July 2015 017 WHEN REALITY HELPS SHAPE THE SCOPE TO CONSIDER: AFTER TOUCH-DOWN. They were studied with a main question July 2014 period. the events studied were These two aspects were found in a only those reported to Airbus and number of events. A rated by a study of the lateral runway closer look at these two fields allowed excursion events reported to Airbus for refining the understanding of the from 2007. 31 in-ser. - flying technique Of course. 25 out: events from the initial 31 were consid. A first analysis with in mind: is there a global or common a prevention objective in mind led to signature for these events that could distinguish between several lateral allow us to learn some generic preven- runway excursions categories due to tion lessons? Interesting insights could there being a variety of issues identi. they were corrobo. vice lateral runway excursion events were reported to Airbus over a 2012. variations as to their detailed nature. two main families came runway excursion upon landing. corrective actions. they represented a limited combination with one another. but with sample. However.

In 19 out (fig. wet or contaminated of the 25. Dry runway (3) Wet or Contaminated runway (22) Visibility deterioration (12) A330-A340- A350 Family / A380 A320 Family Lack of control of the lateral trajectory before Touch Down Contaminated (SNOW or FLOODED) Turbulences or Crosswind (12) .Runway state.Visibility deterioration in the situation (fig.Turbulences or cross-wind aforementioned environmental factors according to contributing weather conditions factors .2).2) .PROCEDURES Lateral runway excursions upon landing Weather environmental conditions Three main environmental factors came 22 events out of 25 analyzed involved a out of the analysis: wet or contaminated runway. there were at least two of the Categorization of RE events .

occurrence: - Control of the lateral trajectory before The next question. . to lateral as contributing factors to the events runway excursions. best practices. before touch-down. as illustrated in environmental conditions. and more precisely. there was a combination of worth going back to some operational them. Safety First #20 | July 2015 019 Awareness Problem before Touch Down (1) Lack of control of the lateral trajectory before Touch Down (12) A330-A340- A350 Family / A380 A320 Family Visibility deterioration Long flare (Δt ≥ 8s) No or insufficient Poor control High approach decrab before on ground (13) speed (1) Touch Down (7) Flying technique (fig.3) Categorization of RE events according to contributing Regarding the flying technique in the A major outcome of the analysis is flying technique factors environmental conditions mentioned the significant contribution of the air- earlier. it seems (fig.3). how to enhance pre- - Ground control vention of lateral runway excursions? If there is nothing we can do to change In some situations. touch-down THE question is: With these insights - Flare and decrab before touch-down from real events. three areas were identified phase.

1/ Before flare Be stabilized Be aware of the landing conditions Be stabilized until the flare. go-around. Experience shows that some pilots pilots may move their seat a bit. Beyond the lateral control of is that: before touch-down. is a “whole” mental conditions). inary condition to a safe landing. from a safety viewpoint.  e Go-Around minded. with the In the case of crosswind. what. make sure the pilot seat is in a less. upon landing. sometimes a long one. Neverthe- possible.g. ation of the flare. state of mind & pre- that combines a variety of dimensions: paredness and handling skills. there was taminated runway rely on specific a localizer deviation away from the techniques. are increasingly reluctant to initiate a selected. handling issues turn What is the appropriate landing tech- out to be a significant contributor to nique and why? Let’s prepare for land- lateral runway excursion events upon ing and review the technique. the full deflection of go-around as the aircraft gets closer around is always all flight control and braking may be to the ground. ficient is known. In a number of events. well aligned with the runway. than performing an unsafe landing. is and remains the aircraft be on the correct lateral within the limits of the aircraft and vertical flight path at the correct - the runway state allows for a safe configuration and speed up to the initi- landing and the runway braking coef. 2/ From flare to touch-down Use proper flare and decrab (if needed) flying techniques Landing in the correct zone.PROCEDURES Lateral runway excursions upon landing PREVENTING LATERAL RUNWAY EXCURSIONS UPON LANDING: BEST OPERATIONAL PRACTICES As stated earlier. There. even if the aircraft is not needed to control the situation. fore. information and awareness (e. initiating a position (both horizontally and vertically) go-around close to the ground or even to allow for those full deflections should after a bounced landing is always better they be necessary. should aim at. If landing with crosswind or on a con. the first thing to make sure centerline. Landing technique: general principles The appropriate landing technique. it is essential that . Yet. environmental conditions such as wet with a special focus on the conditions or contaminated runway or cross wind that were highlighted by the lateral run- or turbulence. a go. as long as B Be correctly seated needed As long as reversers are not During cruise.the crosswind. especially under some difficult some explanations behind the scene. way excursion events analysis. Easier said than done? . if any. including landing. This is a key prelim. If not. environ- ever the weather conditions. this requires right alignment and at the right energy specific techniques that will be detailed level is a good summary of what a pilot in the next section in this article.

There is still work to do.4) Aircraft attitude during a crabbed approach Crab angle Runway axis . - Be stabilized Be stabilized In crosswind situations. makes the day more difficult. More details about resulted from poor ground control in these phenomena and how to main- the rollout phase. it is nece. Indeed. Landing with crosswind As general principles. the major approach to correct for the crosswind difference in technique lies in how to component on the final trajectory to keep the aircraft on the correct lateral the runway. In order to do so. it is worth getting a bit - Use proper flare and decrab flying further into details and background techniques explanations when crosswind is in. However. number of physical phenomena come into play requiring specific actions A number of lateral runway excursions to be managed. Safety First #20 | July 2015 021 3/ After touch-down “Fly” until you vacate the runway Do not relax immediately after touch. - “Fly” until you vacate the runway volved in the landing conditions such as those underlined hereafter: Let’s examine how these three princi- - Be aware of the landing conditions ples translate into practice in case of - Be correctly seated crosswind … and why. a down. A CRABBED APPROACH (fig. Adopting a crab angle flight path.4). This is obviously tain ground control with crosswind is more often the case when a crosswind provided in next section in this article. the landing - Be go-around minded as long as technique mentioned earlier remains needed valid. allows the pilot to keep the aircraft tra- ssary to fly a wings level and crabbed jectory along the runway axis (fig.

especially along the lateral axis. change at this very moment compared When becoming visual When first seeing the runway. under the radome. some ral flight path. it that of making large inputs on the side. When disconnecting the AP A tendency sometimes observed is to what it was under AP. thus ensuring the Location of the localizer or not. aircraft trajectory. happens mainly in these 3 cases: Let’s revisit the first two cases. in visual conditions with the runway axis. By doing so. It is normal to keep a craft with the runway axis. Again.5) manually or not. at the path mean precisely? What part of center of the nose of the aircraft below the aircraft needs to be aligned with the cockpit (fig.-  When initially becoming visual tions. deal with the third case in more depth. see what - When disconnecting the Auto Pilot happens behind the scene and then (AP) for a manual landing. pilot’s eye is aligned with the runway antenna Considering the location of the local.PROCEDURES Lateral runway excursions upon landing But what does correct lateral flight izer antenna. “correct lateral the runway axis? The answer is the flight path” means localizer centered same whether the approach is flown or nose of the aircraft trajectory aligned (fig. becoming visual pilots have a tendency to start an makes no difference as to the correct immediate decrab and align the air. Experience shows that in some situa. The localizer antenna is located under the radome in the center of the aircraft Some common tendencies to be avoided. some pilots have tendencies to below a low cloud ceiling destabilize the aircraft approach trajec.5). It flare. This should the aircraft attitude has no reason to avoid large inputs on the sidestick. axis. Therefore. and moves away from the correct late- . is key to analyze the stable trajectory stick when disconnecting the AP. before any stick input. crabbed approach and see the runway the aircraft drifts due to the crosswind from a certain angle. The reference is the cockpit. Yet.- When performing the decrab in the tory.

The moment induced will (fig. Indeed. touch-down. Counteracting crosswind . the aircraft will move a However. keeping a crabbed detail to better understand what results approach is the only way to keep the from this action on the rudder.Yawing moment located slightly in front of the Center of gravity . when doing so. it is worth going into further the wind as illustrated in (fig. Safety First #20 | July 2015 023 Use proper flare and decrab flying techniques Flare If the flare technique is not modified - In case of an extended flare. it is even more important than usual to keep as much runway In summary.Sideslip appears . on aircraft during decrab Ground speed Air speed Ground speed Air speed Sideslip WIND WIND WIND Airborne. the by the presence of crosswind. before the decrab Rudder input effects : Moment and force effects: . whereas.A high or extended flare significantly becomes more and more difficult as increases the landing distance. especially: wind. the rudder. when pushing on the rudder. The aircraft is to be aircraft will yaw around a vertical axis decrabbed at the time of the flare. Decrab As mentioned earlier. the with the runway axis.6).Rotation around a point .6) make the aircraft move slightly towards Forces and moments effects However. due to possible adverse the crosswind may move the aircraft reversers effects explained later in away from the centerline. this article. speed decays in the flare.Side force on the fin . Eventually. flare at normal height and length as possible to decelerate after do not look for a kiss landing. using that is located a bit forward from the CG. Why is it so? craft needs to be decrabbed to align In fact. the air. before touch-down. the yaw axis. bit towards the wind. some decrease in the aircraft energy will aspects need to be particularly kept in make it even more sensitive to cross- mind in such situations. aircraft on the correct lateral flight path.

less than 5°. A common tendency to be avoided Should such drift occur too close Why 5° maximum for the bank to the ground. from the aircraft trajectory and experiencing from the runway centerline. if the aircraft axis. and a small trade-off between maintaining the lateral flight path starts drifting away crab angle. ESPECIALLY ON CONTAMINATED RUNWAYS In such situations. it is an appropriate speed vector. the safe practice is angle? It is the appropriate balance Some pilots appear to be reluctant to go-around. wing tip or engine nacelle. as long as reversers are not keep the aircraft trajectory aligned one. And as mentioned between the bank angle needed to to keep a bank angle. Therefore. an action on the rudder . prior to touch-down. an easy realignment of the aircraft.PROCEDURES Lateral runway excursions upon landing FLARE AND DECRAB IN THE SPECIAL CASE OF HIGH CROSSWIND. They then selected. a go-around is always with the runway centerline and the try and compensate the crosswind possible! risk of hitting the runway with the impact using the rudder only. even a small earlier. using approach through to touchdown an acceptable load at the landing the rudder alone may not allow for is the only way to keep the cockpit gear on touch-down. However. less than 5°. aligned with the runway axis. allowing a slight Why 5° maximum for the crab angle? does not change immediately the CG bank angle to maintain the runway Here again.

Safety First #20 | July 2015 025 Sideslip Sideslip Sideslip WIND WIND WIND On ground. more than to skid. However. the rudder efficiency the pivoting moment depends a lot on drops. In short. Nevertheless. the action on the runway friction. rudder to counteract the weathercock effect needs to be amplified (fig. Indeed. as the aircraft speed tory. will make the aircraft turn to It cancels the weathercock the wind effect mainly due to the fin WIND WIND WIND « Fly » until you vacate the runway (fig. ercock effect. a pivot. the rud- the crosswind when the aircraft is der effect could become insufficient. This opposite at the center of gravity.7). . a rudder a large yawing moment pedal input is necessary. runway centerline. The intensity of decreases. to stay on the Without rudder pedal input. the sideslip coming from As speed further decreases. It needs to be counteracted by ground speed vector.7) Counteracting the weathercock effect After decrab When the main landing gear touches towards the wind direction by weath- the ground with residual crab. away from the center- the aircraft longitudinal axis with the line. wheels the rudder. wind on the aircraft fin aligned with the cal axis located at the level of the main runway axis induces a rotation of the landing gear by the combined effect aircraft around a vertical axis located of the lateral friction of the tires on the at the CG that yaws the aircraft nose surface and by the inertia force applied back towards the wind. the effect of the ing moment is created around a verti. This moment moment thus tends to move the air- tends to turn the aircraft so as to align craft upwind. decrabbed creates an opposite therefore the pilot must be prepared to moment tending to yaw the aircraft apply differential braking. tend to be more willing to go in the same direction as the aircraft trajec. Therefore.

One perpendicular to the runway. at AP disconnection after ential braking. they tive enough. Therefore.Consider reducing reverse thrust. ing the aircraft to weathercock effect. Considering remains with no adverse effect on the effect of thrust reversers the difficulty in performing a balanced lateral control of the aircraft).8) Roll-out Forces exerted on the aircraft when reversers are used During the roll-out. Indeed. As for the pedals.WIND .Have your FEET UP on the pedals Once directional control is recov- . tion that tend to align the aircraft fuse- pensates the effects of crosswind with lage on the runway axis. unless immediately countered by the pilot.Be ready for immediate and possibly ered and the aircraft is on the runway large inputs on rudder pedals centerline again (fig. force can be resolved in 2 compo- since the pedals are at neutral posi. And if the aircraft remains X force remain in the neutral position.9): . the aircraft may wind and aircraft related aspects. However.8): tion. the use of Auto Brake is is the cornering force exerted on the highly recommended. nents (fig. away from the centerline. is not effec- the rudder. force force the wind. adding to that induced by crosswind. the moment created by the tires fric- nected. X. .Be ready to use differential braking in . the aircraft automatically com.e. ally stopping the aircraft. possibly large inputs. if a directional may even be that differential braking is problem occurs: needed in addition to inputs on rudder . Countering the weathercock This second force may make it more effect requires immediate inputs on difficult to control the aircraft on the rudder pedals. it is important to understand some On slippery runways.WIND downwards the wind when reversers Auto Pilot disconnection effect are used. touch-down it is key to: . the aircraft fin will naturally go . . the reverser thrust resultant AP disconnection after touch-down. pedals in case of high crosswind. As long as the Auto Pilot (AP) is con.Reverse thrust can be re-applied (only (fig. in Stopping Resultant thus aircraft nose movement towards the same direction as the wind.Manual braking can be re-applied addition if needed and keep in mind . Destabilizing reversers’ effect way.9) that the rudder effectiveness reduces the component parallel to the runway Recovering from the destabilization when speed decreases. start leaving the runway axis and going X.PROCEDURES Lateral runway excursions upon landing (fig. wheels through the tires.If braking manually. Yet. in slippery condition. expos. in order to keep the aircraft on the run.One parallel to the runway and actu- back to a centered position. consider reduc- ing braking temporarily or use differ- Therefore. It ground. at crabbed. i. the primary means braking on the pedals when they are to maintain the aircraft on the runway not aligned.

Safety First #20 | July 2015 027 .

coming across a situation where engines shut down by lack of fuel is a situation no one wants to experience. very few events have involved undetected fuel quantity issues. Yet.OPERATIONS Fuel monitoring on A320 Family aircraft Fuel monitoring on A320 Family aircraft Since the first A320 entry into service. GÉRALDINE VALLÉE REGIS PERNET ALBERT URDIROZ Product Safety Flight Operations Director Flight Safety Enhancement manager engineer .

later. Following fuel tanks prior to the event flight. the cover to partially open. After the event to close it soon after as fuel quantity flight. ations were experienced and eventu- ring pre-departure or post-flight fuel ally the ECAM alert FUEL L (R) WING checks. they both engines 1 and 2 fuel pump filters opened the fuel cross feed valve. Event 2 In another event. How to determine the fuel quantity available in the tanks? What are the various sources of information and how redundant are they? Why is it key to perform regular fuel checks? RARE BUT STRIKING EVENTS In more than 25 years of Airbus A320 The reasons for these fuel quan- Family aircraft operation. initial fuel checks with reference to the out findings by maintenance despite fuel logs of the preceding flight. transient fuel quantity fluctu- record the FOB discrepancy du. in case of failure. successfully deal with such events. gement of the issue remains key to tity issues. It was esti- The crew managed to land the aircraft mated that approximately 4 to 5 tons uneventfully with engine 2 still running. Safety First #20 | July 2015 029 If fuel systems have proven their reliability. and no fuel in the left tank. the crew observed 3 occur. The remaining fuel quantity upon land- rences of the ECAM warning L TK ing turned out to be 840 kg in the right PUMP 1 + 2 LO PR. the Fuel Quantity For the event flight. reported unserviceable. they noticed a more rapid Investigation into this event highlighted fuel level decrease in the left fuel tank that maintenance was done on the compared to the right one. there have tity issues vary from one event to been not more than a handful of another. nance. culated values remained consistent. The cal- carrying out precautionary mainte. Minutes cover was found not properly fitted. In line with this fuel tank. TK LO LVL triggered. only had been replaced. Event 1 During cruise of an A320 Family air. thus allowing gered. It was pro- . 3800kg and fuel uplift was of the fault. different crews failed to identify or properly In flight. of fuel had leaked. engine 1 HP fuel pump filter was abnormally decreasing. The flight crew performed the logbook were investigated but with. engine 1 shut down by itself and with 4 threaded inserts out of 6 being the ECAM warning ENG 1 FAIL trig. Given the intermittent nature was approx. Early detection and mana- events involving undetected fuel quan. and the applicable FCOM procedure. On two occasions. and passengers disembarked safely. Let’s go back to some fundamental questions around fuel monitoring on A320 Family aircraft. craft. the aircraft departed Indication (FQI) system had been with an indicated FOB of approximately showing discrepancies for a period 5000kg (fuel at arrival from previous leg of time. entries in the aircraft 1200kg). warning. the ultimate safety barrier to avoid finding oneself in a fuel critical situation is fuel monitoring by the crew.

the A320 Family aircraft. and they eventually had arrived side. while the aircraft discrepancy calculated by the crew at was approaching its destination.which was flight crew calculated a ~500 kg dis. The alert was thus considered spurious. The uled. The Officer noticed that it was not what he crew considered it spurious. Yet. that preceding fuel log entries did not vals. a new ble factors such as a direct ATC rou- LO LVL alert triggered on the other ting. The crew continued the flight and 20 to 25 minutes earlier than sched- eventually landed uneventfully.the refueler only crepancy at arrival. nothing unusual kg. the left wing tank was Event 3 On the third flight of the day on an During the second flight of the day. After the flight. The flight continued with The analysis of the event indicated repeated fuel checks at short inter. added little fuel since there was still tioned in relation to fuel in the log book. a LO arrival was almost 3000 kg.OPERATIONS Fuel monitoring on A320 Family aircraft cessed as per SOP by the crew who confirmed empty with the FQI over checked the SD page as being no. minal. reading by 1 ton. they sometimes ferry remaining fuel quantity upon landing fuel according to the company policy. During the first flight of the day. Shortly after this first alert. In addition. the Before the third flight . a fuel over read. departure. as likely had expected but considered that they resulting from fuel movement in the had benefited from a number of favora- tank. the event flight . however during the approach. Nothing was men. allow the crew to identify a significant engine 1 flamed out. The First LVL alert triggered on one side. turned out to be approximately 900 As a consequence. Landing was discrepancy of about 800 kg prior to performed on engine 2 safely. was mentioned in the log book. the flight crew .

Computer (FQIC) failure. Fuel Flow Meters: a source based on engines consumption Each engine is equipped with Fuel Flow mation is integrated by the FADEC and Meters that measure the quantity of fuel provides pilots with information on the consumed by the engine. specific devices in each wing tank tion of the fuel volume in the tank.1) FUEL System page on Lower tance due to the amount the probe is using the fuel density measured by ECAM Display Unit immersed. months preceding the event. This allows the determina. Low level sensors: an additional independent source based on dedicated sensors in the wing tank In addition to the sensors and three independent dedicated low probes feeding the FQI system. levels established on Airbus A320 blished? Do the various pieces of Family aircraft? FQI or Fuel Quantity Indication: a source based on measures performed inside fuel tanks The FQI system calculates the fuel Yet the information that is needed quantity based on values taken from by pilots is the quantity of fuel on probes in the tanks.1). The probes meas. read was due to an intermittent FQI estimated fuel quantity that ulti. What information can be used flight crew. knowing Are they independent? Let’s explore how much fuel is available on board the various types of onboard fuel during the flight is clearly essential to information that are available to the safety. board expressed as a weight. as translation of fuel volume into fuel a consequence of changing capaci. do not rely on SD page only. Where does this infor- to determine the amount of fuel on mation originate and how are fuel board? How is this information esta. These sensors are each wing tank is equipped with located in such a way that they . Therefore. The ure the level of the fuel in the tank. for fuel indication. weight is performed by the FQIC (fig. the issue/over. fuel used. The mainte- mately led to the unanticipated LO nance record of this FQIC highlighted LVL alerts on both sides. level sensors. Safety First #20 | July 2015 031 departed with a significantly over. (fig. According numerous returns to the shop in the to the investigation. HOW MUCH FUEL IS AVAILABLE ONBOARD? Considering the consequences of information relate to one another? running out of fuel in flight. INFORMATION The low level sensing does not appear on the System Description page. This infor.

. are all important.The information provided to pilots in The low level sensors are fully inde. INFORMATION The low level The presence of water in the fuel tanks can lead to erroneous (over reading) fuel indi- sensors are fully cations. Flight deck effects of a buildup of water in the fuel tanks independent from include fuel gauging fluctuations and over reads. normal fuel indication during a fuel check is fuel tank draining (fig. The parameters used by the fuel system (density and capacitance) are highly affected by the presence of water. (fig. This can also help to pre- vent microbiological contamination. which is often another cause of fuel gauging fluctuations.OPERATIONS Fuel monitoring on A320 Family aircraft become dry when the remaining . the Fuel Quantity Consequently.2). . the crosscheck between what is Although fuel checks with the manual expected to be uplifted and what is calculations they involve can some- uplifted.3). a low level alert triggers kg (threshold crossed).2) approximately 1 200 kg). But use of several sources of data. but only the signal that tank remain dry for more than 30 the fuel level has reached below 750 seconds. DID YOU KNOW The A320 Family aircraft low level indication is based on remaining fuel quantity in the tank being sufficient to meet the requirement of 30 minutes at 1500 ft (corresponding to (fig. but the other key mon to all cases is fuel monitoring sources such as the Fuel Used. in the cockpit (fig. among the maintenance tasks that are to be performed if pilots detect an ab- Indication. times be perceived as a tedious task. Cer. and are different in that they: or wet) rather than from a calculation. from a physical measure (sensors dry tion. the safety barrier com- of fuel indication. If two sensors in the same the wing tanks. the form of the low level alert results pendent from the Fuel Quantity Indica. the fuel uplifted at the latest refuel.Do not provide pilots with a continu- fuel in the tank is approximately ous indication of the fuel quantity in 750 kg. by the crew. information from the refue.3) Maintenance Planning Document – ATA 28 Fuel – Task FUEL CHECKS 281100-01-2 – Drain water content in tanks An unnecessary burden or essential safety net? Ensuring an accurate awareness of ler and fuel consumption figures the quantity of fuel on board requires during flight. the total Low level alert display on ECAM remaining fuel is: 750kg + 750kg = 1 500 kg. to ensure the information remains tainly the FQI is the primary source accurate. Should the low level alert trigger on both fuel tanks.

ticipated drag (e. the FQI system Δ is an acceptable tolerance (see Fuel Uplifted is the amount of fuel indi. Before start The first fuel check to be performed is available for the flight. This check con- before start to consolidate the infor. the remaining FOB and Fuel Used values must also be consistent with the values given by the computed flight plan at each waypoint. During the flight During the flight. A300B to the latest A350. ensur. intervention. and remain available onboard sible any fuel quantity issue. This may ues? insert). the following calculation or any other reason. spoiler or landing To ensure that there is no undetected gear. an essential part of airmanship when can be determined ing timely and accurate maintenance piloting the A320 Family aircraft. They were designed and the flight. Safety First #20 | July 2015 033 they form in reality an integral part of ate measures to secure the safety of the measures taken to ensure safe operations. tic and potentially lead to fuel exhaus- sumption. They are applicable to all Airbus Families aircraft from the first The fuel meant for detecting as early as pos. confirm anticipations. or detect any even three in case forming a number of checks regu. should be performed at each way Indeed. and allowing appropri. . discrepancy. fuel checks mainly the FMS fuel predictions too optimis- aim at detecting any abnormal con. such situation would make point or every 30 minutes: Fuel On Board (FOB) + Fuel Used = Initial Fuel On Board (FOB) ± Δ Where Fuel Used is derived from the fuel flow meters In addition. be it due to a leak or unan. tion in flight.g. of low level. slats or flaps not fully retracted) fuel leak. sists in making sure that: mation about the total amount of fuel Initial Fuel On Board (FOB) + Fuel Uplifted = Fuel On Board (FOB) ± Δ Where FOB is the fuel quantity derived from based on the uplifted fuel density. based on two independent What is to be checked and when? sources of The maximum efficiency of fuel larly and at different times to either information… checks relies on the flight crew per. Why do we need to consider a cer- cated by the refueler as having been tain tolerance on fuel onboard val- added during refueling. require converting volume into weight.

missing a fuel check may make it very difficult to detect. fuel characteristics. wing deformation. if there are 5 tons left in the aircraft.OPERATIONS Fuel monitoring on A320 Family aircraft Post flight All fuel At the end of the flight. manufacturing tolerances. when the air- craft has reached its parking stand. for an A320 aircraft. WHY DO WE NEED TO CONSIDER A CERTAIN TOLERANCE ON FUEL ON BOARD VALUES? Due to the nature of the fuel system. whatever the origin of a fuel quantity issue. skipping a fuel check may be a missed opportunity to detect a failure that may not be detectable later on. The important in to check the consistency between post flight fuel check consists of the information provided by the var. ious sources and thus detect any abnormal discrepancy that would checks are equally a final fuel check is to be performed call for maintenance actions. the instrumental tolerance on the ground is calculated as follows: ± (1% of current FOB + 1% max possible FOB for this aircraft) As an illustration. the maximum nor- mal tolerance value is: ± (5000kg (current FOB) * 1% + 20000kg (max FOB)* 1% ) = ± 250kg Note: The FQI system is designed in such a way that the lower the fuel quantity in the tank. any fuel discrepancy calculated by the crew and exceeding this value may then be considered abnormal. The overall FQI system accuracy is designed to take into consideration several factors such as: attitude effects. The FQI system is calibrated on ground during manufacturing and its accuracy (as per the formula above) will remain the same throughout the operational life of the aircraft. . detecting it as early as possible allows for managing it and making sure appropriate decisions can be made in time to best manage the rest of the flight as safely and efficiently as possible. at the time of the following check. When a fuel check is performed. environmental effects. making sure that: the detection and safe management Fuel On Board (FOB) + Fuel Used of any fuel quantity = Initial Fuel On Board (FOB) ± Δ issue. the more accurate the fuel indication. For an A320 Family aircraft. systems tolerances. it is essential that the system tolerance be taken into consideration when performing fuel quantity calculations. More gener- ally. In such cases. component toleranc- es. These individual tolerances lead to an overall tolerance on the global system resulting from the worst case (maximum tolerance) on each individual element. NOTE WHAT IF A FUEL CHECK IS MISSED? Depending on the underlying reason for a fuel quantity issue. The fuel quantity indicated by the FQI system before the first flight of the day was correct. the failure of the Fuel Quanti- ty Indication Computer did not lead to a systematic wrong indication but rather to quantity fluctuations. In the second event described. The maximum tolerance is defined for the aircraft to guarantee an acceptable level of integrity of the measure and the associated fuel quantity information.

by the crew. Should any discrepancy appear. In order to do so. because of fuel starvation. lead to a generic maintenance task in ments in several areas: the TSM (Trouble Shooting Manual). there was no generic entry into the TSM in case of abnormal fuel quantity. This relies on good cooperation between flight crews. This new function is measures coming from respectively the meant to prevent situations where a FQI system and the low level alert was loss of fuel would remain undetected not clear to all crews. that will describe the trigger- ancy “abnormal” or “unusual” when ing conditions of the low level alert in the performing the before start fuel check. effectively tackling the underlying issue. DID YOU KNOW A “GOLDEN RULE” IN THE TROUBLE SHOOTING MANUAL (TSM) Until recently. contact Airbus”. with the airlines involved. is the only way to prevent further fuel quantity indication and possible resulting safety issues. it turned out which eases and improves the detec- that the independence of the two fuel tion of a fuel leak. Should the LO LVL alert trigger . • Definition of empirical criteria on A320 • A new FCOM evolution will be availa- Family aircraft to consider a fuel discrep. • Further refinement of the description • Service Bulletin A320-28-1214 for of the Fuel Quantity Indicating and level A318/A319/A320 and Service Bulletin sensing systems in the FCOM doc. is a situation all pilots would like to avoid. performing thorough fuel checks before start. or if you think that the information given is not complete. be it intermittent or permanent. throughout the flight and after arrival at the parking stand is essential. and to ensure the continuing accu- racy of the FQI. An engine failing in flight. it is to be trusted! It is the independent voice from the tanks themselves warning you … . Safety First #20 | July 2015 035 TO FURTHER ENHANCE SAFETY… Following the investigation of real events kg or lbs and will vary depending on the involving fuel monitoring issues. It is therefore worth reminding everyone of a key sentence in the introduction of the TSM that encourages airlines to manage cases where there may be a doubt as to the aircraft airworthiness: “If you cannot find a fault symptom and/or a fault isolation procedure necessary to en- sure the continued airworthiness of the aircraft. maintenance and the manufacturer. A320-28-1202 for A321 aircraft intro- umentation. Airbus fuel on board and fuel uplifted. and to show that the alert is These thresholds will be expressed in independent of the displayed fuel. During the interactions duce a new fuel leak detection function. They will identified and implemented enhance. procedure. ble soon.

HE WILL BE MISSED… . a humble man. Sadly. a great man. experience and wisdom to improve safety. Aviation was his passion. He was a genius pilot. safety his quest. as he did with the following article. under- stood that or paid attention to that.036 Safety First #20 | July 2015 “Had I not known this. He was always ready to share his knowledge. I wouldn’t be here with you today” was a sentence Jacques often repeated when he referred to some of the thousands of flights he performed either as a fighter pilot or as an experi- mental test pilot. Jacques is no longer with us today.

Yet. regulations do require it in certain circumstances. As it turns out. and therefore necessarily at high Mach number. JACQUES ROSAY Experimental Test Pilot Former Airbus Chief Test Pilot . is a completely different discipline to what it may be like at low altitudes. Safety First #20 | July 2015 037 GENERAL TOPIC High-altitude manual flying High-altitude manual flying Flying an aircraft manually at high altitudes. such as when the Auto Pilot is unavailable. opportunities to experience manual flying at high altitudes are rare in a pilot’s career.

the whole of this article applies to all types of commercial aircraft whether equipped with electrical flight controls or not.1). to share practical experiences lived by Airbus test pilots in these domains and to make suggestions for training. The aim of this article is to recall some qualitative aerodynamic. Lastly. AERODYNAMIC ESSENTIALS The effects of Mach number The air flow around the wings accel. In other words. in turn. and which now covers a very large part of the world’s airspace. Therefore. As it turns out. apart from passages specifically dedicated to the normal and alternate electrical flight control laws. the local Mach number negative pressure and it is this nega. pilots are requested to do maneuvers for which practicing in flight is prohibited. commercial aircraft fly at high altitudes. use of the Auto Pilot (AP) within this airspace is mandatory. in certain cases. In other words. meaning that the regulations actually prevent the pilots from acquiring practical manual flying experience of their aircraft within the part of the envelope where they most often fly. Air flow around an airfoil is required to create the lift required for face through the cabin windows.1) density falls. When the altitude increases and the air shock waves can be seen at certain (fig. flight mechanics and handling qualities notions specific to the high Mach numbers and to high altitudes. the behaviour of an aircraft at high altitude is significantly different from that of an aircraft at low and medium altitudes. Most of the time. This. the maximum lift angle of attack as the . above FL 290. Pushing this paradox further. air flow accelerates on the upper sur- erates on the upper surface creating a face. We have seen leads mainly to a reduction in the that by passing over the wings. certain locations reaches transonic values. around the wings is much higher than tive pressure which mainly keeps the the aircraft flight Mach number and in aircraft up (fig. they fly within the RVSM (Reduced Vertical Separation Minima) space that extends from FL 290 to 410 included. wings leads to a degradation of their nied by an increase in the Mach num. especially if the AP is unavailable. In high-altitude stabilised flight. a given lift configuration. these same regulations require that the pilots manually fly the aircraft to rapidly leave this airspace in coordination with air traffic control. ber required for flight. However. This reduc- tion in the density and this increase in This sonic phenomenon around the the aerodynamic speed is accompa. more aerodynamic speed locations by looking at the upper sur. aerodynamic properties. note that.

at a high-altitude normal cruise the local Mach numbers along the Mach number value. at high altitude. at low altitude. Consequently. starting from a given To get an idea of this. he/she has to fly manually at high altitude. When flying at FL350 compared with its characteristics at at M 0. This means that if a Pilot the aerodynamic speed is 490 kt. which is often the case not to exceed the target altitude. the distribution of attack is increased to produce the of the lift does not vary uniformly with load factor required to make a turn or the angle of attack. i.2) Early stalled areas at high mach -> pitch up Early stalled areas along the wings Centre of gravity Clearly the aircraft has flight charac. wings. the aerodynamic highest speeds usually seen at low she is familiar with speed. when the angle span are not identical. to fly manually at low altitude. on most aircraft with sweepback the angle of attack increases (fig. the air molecules. when flying in slope. the the radius of curvature of an alti- purely kinematic characteristics of tude capture is multiplied by four the vehicle are radically different. high altitude. or to self-tightening of the turn when Also. For example. This difference is not without conse. As Thus. . and therefore. non is added to the previous one. in manual flying. the aerodynamic If a Pilot has teristics quite different at high altitude speed is 260 kt. the speed in relation to altitude.85. which sig. In addition. tion to the earth coordinate system quences on flying. therefore in rela.e. will not find the tics he/she is familiar with at low alti. aerodynamic speed is then 500 kt. If the temperature is ISA + 12°.2). the angle-of-attack limit is linearities in the longitudinal balance more easily approached than when of the aircraft most classically leading the same maneuver is done at low to spontaneous pitch-up tendencies altitude and at a low Mach number. the he/she will not find the characteris. for (excluding the wind). is much higher a maneuver at identical load factor. anticipation for this maneuver the initial approach zone at 3000 ft must be multiplied by four in order and 250 kt. That is practically twice as fast as the characteristics he/ tude. This creates non- a pull-out. Safety First #20 | July 2015 039 Mach number increases. another well-known phenome- nificantly reduces the stall margin. (fig. at standard temperature.

aircraft MMO value and the lift ceiling craft and this for several reasons. it is even curve lift versus Mach. The Mach number had to insufficient to sustain the weight of the be reduced to regain the load factor aircraft. “Buffet onset” MD is the highest Mach number at . onset” is encountered. On the Alpha Jet in particular. Alpha Jet may perhaps remember having reached subsonic Mach num- We can imagine that at a certain point bers beyond which the wings were in the increase of the Mach. the chord. “compressibility stall”.3 g and 1) The certification regulations require therefore. require that the flight tests check This means that a load factor of 1. irrespective of the weight. General tendency in the evolution of the maximum angle-of-attack (α) the span. compressibility stall is ensured. authority required for straight level als. up to MMO. 2) The certification regulations also feting margin of 0. Remember that this There was only one single practicable versus the Mach number phenomenon does not exist on an flight point: the aerodynamic ceiling aircraft where the wings are designed was reached. Pilots number increases.3) wing profile. the maximum lift who have flown on the T33 or the angle-of-attack is reduced (fig. incapable of providing a load fac- of-attack can theoretically be so lim. measures peak-to-peak accelera- mics in certain cases. pe. This change possible to climb to an altitude where depends on many aerodynamic chara. the reached by a certified commercial air. Let (which depends on the weight) are by us see why. etc. such as the due to low Mach number stall nor to (fig. is defined such that when an accelero- ty stall and the aerodynamic ceiling meter located under the pilot’s seat can theoretically exist in aerodyna. α Stall Mach Aerodynamic ceiling and buffeting margin In practice.3 g. a margin well above the that throughout the flight envelo. Level flight could not be ited that the maximum lift the wings maintained: compressibility stall was are capable of producing becomes reached. the angle. the aircraft must have a buf.3). definition such that there is always a buffeting margin of at least 0. accelerate due to compressibility stall. even if the compressibili.1 g. this theoretical point is called the flight. Therefore. GENERAL TOPIC High-altitude manual flying Compressibility stall We have seen that when the Mach for flight at supersonic speeds. with a little patience and a very small It depends on the evolution of the amount of fuel on-board. In certain aerodynamic manu. they cannot be tions higher than 0.3 that the aircraft can fly above MMO g must be attainable before “buffet up to MD. the sweep. it was neither possible to decelerate cteristics of the aircraft. tor of 1 g.

colleagues.“in manual control controls by the pilot consist in setting mode”. demonstration. eral a complete approach followed Indeed. can be found only at Mach of the maneuver with engines at full the buffeting margin of 0. This pull. an attitude of around -15° at the start from being reached. probably throttle. be considered as “flying manually”. proudly say that they would do such flying in this manner can in no way or such a part of the flight .3 g is no numbers well above MD. the structure done with moderate buffeting. with correct cap- by the terms “flying manually”. respond very well at MD load factor. within the scope of this arti- or older. I have often heard during These functions are provided for this test. which concerns manual flying. the aircraft ceiling. MD must pitch attitude and then. These . When MD is reached. It is determined by cali- brated maneuvers (FAA dive. typically MD = MMO + 0. the encountering another limit: the of this is to check that there are structural integrity of the aircraft is absolute speed limit VD (typically no divergent structure oscillations no longer ensured! Based on the VD = VMO + 35 kt). In practice. The purpose and maneuvered. I would then observe how the Flight Director (FD) bars to zero. at a out requires an important increase very serious structural problems will Mach as close to MMO as possible. in the load factor and demonstrates be encountered before finding a Then they accelerate by a dive with that compressibility stall is still far possible compressibility stall which. Per. test pilots do a positive experience accumulated at Airbus approached as the altitude drops. pull-out. engines idling. and to the flight characteristics up to “Compressibility stall” does not exist MD imply that the “compressibility on current commercial aircraft. they performed and saw that all they which corresponds to the orders did was actually disconnect the AP generated by the guidance function. Airbus test pilots start from the normal flight envelope. if it exists. mechanically by the pilot but are in And this until start of the flare. and good control of the speed. Then. the orders given to the flight by a landing . or airline flights. However. acceptance purpose. which is (flutter). This no way elaborated by him/ gen.06. and servilely follow the Flight Direc. cle. to return to and seeing how many aircraft still For this. Safety First #20 | July 2015 041 which the aircraft must be able to fly without structural anomalies (this is the flutter margin) and without substantial degradation in the handling qualities allowing the aircraft to be always easily controlled. These stick inputs are actions done tor. sonally. stall” and “aerodynamic ceiling” phe- FLYING MANUALLY Definition It would be interesting to survey obviously allows an accurate trajec- pilots as to what they understand tory to be followed. JAA dive) defined by the certification regulations. the regulatory criteria nomena cannot be physically encoun- related to the buffeting margin at MMO tered due to the design of the aircraft. DETERMINING MD IN FLIGHT TESTS During the flight test. young However. but be reached fairly quickly by is excited by programmed impulses the aircraft can still be controlled an accentuated dive before into the flight controls. tures. in direct law. Mach is maintained by adjusting the approach of MD at n = 1 is in reality To conclude. leaving the Auto Thrust engaged. airline pilots or test pilots. Beyond MD. this longer observed beyond MMO and above Mach 1.

or for tude. This means that must be known. established by the Authorities on tions have become unavailable. all the maneuvers required to was engaged. where the normal law is also lost. pos. manual flying without exercise provides strictly nothing the FD. The behaviour of the normal law and horizontally. this lowing failures. The type certifications of all the The terms “flying manually” in this commercial aircraft in the world are article imply that the guidance func. As the alternate law is not identically on the longitudinal axis as protected against excessive angles long as we remain within the opera. especially cases used. at any alti- those which the AP would give if it tude. For degraded laws. This is sufficient to look at the specificities of the high-al. let us the trajectory. diately by releasing control.function practically excursion. tive. this requirement. on the ECAM. familiar with the situation in the sim- As said earlier. the fundamental hypothesis that any sibly with the flight control laws in a qualified pilot is capable of meeting degraded mode. awareness of an approach tional flight envelope and we do not to limiting angle-of-attack is ensured perform dynamic maneuvers leading by the Stall Warning (SW) or. tions which may be encountered fol- trol functions. as the cognitive resources that These safety conditions would not be he/she uses to follow the FD bars met if a pilot is not at ease when per- are no longer available for the most forming. under all flight control condi- elaborate flight monitoring and con. The SW the alternate law no longer ensures directly alerts the crew of stall proxim- the protections and this is recalled ity but it also indirectly alerts it by indi- by the “protection lost” message cating. The pull-out and turn that it is approaching angles of attack . In this configuration. of attack. possibly. the characteristics specific to the trajectories followed for given load high altitude are more affected and factor applications. or load factor stick order. pilots must be The pilot Specificities of flight control laws must anticipate to We have seen that the rules appli. This is manually at high altitude are limited valid whatever the flight control law the trajectories to degraded C* laws. without the ATHR and without towards the manual flying training for speed vector. give the same load factor flight control laws . by the deterrent buffeting. ulator. compared to low alti. extent the changes in the trajectories the changes in tions where the aircraft must be flown both vertically and horizontally. from the cruise ceiling the cases where the pilot would truly of the aircraft to instrument landing have to fly the aircraft manually. tain cases. both vertically where the AP is lost and.GENERAL TOPIC High-altitude manual flying flight control orders are the same as able to correctly perform. imum values (which depend on the to which the pilot must react imme- Mach number). the high aerodynamic speeds aircraft with conventional flight con- used at high altitude radically change trols. make it worth the effort to become titude flight control laws. Thus. in cer- the angle-of-attack to approach max. Beyond these limits. for a given longitudinal . As the aim of this article is to get a better differs from its behaviour at low alti- tude by the effect of the speed on knowledge of these situations. In other words. the added value manually control the aircraft and land provided by the pilot is rather nega. it under satisfactory safety conditions. under CAT1 weather conditions. during dynamic maneuvers. including the normal law. Normal and alternate laws The normal law and the alternate law maneuvers. the pilot must anticipate to a greater a greater extent cable for RVSM mean that the situa.

beyond the SW and a little . the alternate law may vers a little too dynamic can fairly lead to lateral control being in direct easily lead to the SW. I can confidently say that formed. Safety First #20 | July 2015 043 where the pitch-up phenomenon may altitude (around 4000 ft) below the start to develop. for each type of all sorts on simulators before doing of aircraft. if applicable. mended to maintain some margin in but still easy to control. Display (PFD) remind us of this by the horizontal planes. when generally leading to roll responses a flying in degraded laws. enough authority to efficiently do the when flying in The ECAM and the Primary Flight basic maneuvers in the vertical and degraded laws. i. which are the very high angles called the “data package. MAX altitude. For this reason and to mally the case in normal law. the less need to use the trim than at low controls give direct orders to the con. two important limits exist and must be ing real flights. this phenomenon REC MAX altitude. According to the type of aircraft and ting to the SW. pitch-up tendency. as its name implies. hundreds of stalls are per- them in flight. below the REC and therefore the Mach number. but without trying “USE MAN PITCH TRIM” message. The law to make it as “placid” as possi. even difference can be fairly significant. Pilots should therefore the flight altitude. a (around 4000 ft) trim law versus speed variations. depending on the aircraft. to do specifically dynamic maneu- it is recommended However. altitude. based on specific tests conducted dur. Airbus test pilots try to adjust the kinematics of the direct more comfortable. This make flying more comfortable. not be surprised that there is much TRAINING FOR HIGH-ALTITUDE MANUAL FLYING Representativeness of simulators at high altitude The flight mechanics models used on the models supplied by the simula- the training simulators are established tors are very close to reality. To make flying trol surfaces. it is recom. is mendations also apply concerning very “flat”. However. a deflection of the ailerons they are done close to the maximum according to the stick input and not cruise altitude (REC MAX) calculated according to a roll rate law. They generate what is known. the taking into account. Direct law In direct law. At high altitude. Here also. very close to reality. little more sharp than in normal law. the aircraft becomes an “old aircraft” where no During flight tests. The same recom.e. assistance is given to the pilot. forces on the stick and to balance the and CG ranges. itself can lead to stall if the pilot does not immediately counter it by reac. especially if law. to maintain some very basic yaw or roll dynamic sta- bilisation functions may be included the deterrent buffeting and/or the SW warn against excess angles of attack margin in altitude in the direct law. In direct law. In practice. vers. maneu. outside of the RVSM space. As I have done several thousands of hours of tests 1) During flight tests. The aim is to have longitudinal effects of the engines. These tests of attack and the representativeness of are long and many to obtain a model the cabin movements. as with alternate law. as is nor- by the FMS. even outside of longitudinal trim must be used to zero ble at high altitude in all the weight the RVSM space. type of failure.

for too false whilst the movements of the both low and high altitudes. For this reason. Mach to alternate law limit (if appli- tant to adopt an especially calm. Resume straight suggested here will allow pilots to line flight. reach this objective. are expected by the pilot. return to alter- show pilots that at high altitudes and nate law. the normal operating domain of com- This operates fairly well when the si. cable). the trim. option for pilots to experience and cant dynamic movements are done. MLW + 2 hours of fuel consumption. return to direct law. train for manual flying at any altitude. maintaining the Mach. AP engaged. simulators are perfectly mulated movements remain low. for practice. p. not more than 3 seconds after flight controls knowing that the sensa- both low and high the appearance of the SW during a tions experienced are. REC MAX altitude. simulators values enter a domain where the re. still at constant Mach. be asserted based on a comparison commercial This means that all maneuvers on the between the basic rotation speed and simulator that go beyond these known acceleration parameters on the three flying. Loss ble). flying in a simulator is the best would command. flight. weight = and ATHR. In ments are never used to fine tune the placed in them.GENERAL TOPIC High-altitude manual flying beyond the maximum lift coefficient can clearly have counterproductive Over the (Cl) to clearly identify the loss of lift. ny. Use MLW + 2 hours of fuel consumption. q. r.e. In training effects as the pilots then per- normal operating practice. the feelings become very false and Some ideas for high-altitude manual flying training Simulation training exercises must of AP. laws. At the same time. To gain this competence. Make a turn with a bank angle . the exercises on the simulator must not go further than parameters measured in the cockpit of a mobile simulator during somewhat reality and utmost the excursions leading to the reactions dynamic maneuvers. cockpit move- lations. Therefore. flex. Here are the response of the aircraft. Reduce REC MAX altitude and cruise Mach Mach to direct law limit (if applica- according to airline Cost Index. nx. during the flight tests. resume several personal ideas of exercises to descent. Clearly these two limits can be consi- 2) The movements of mobile simu. weight = proposed. Do a turn with a bank angle ible flying attitude without aggressive.15 g) in level flight ness. Reduce high Mach numbers. Descent with engines at reinforce the necessary confidence in idle to first level outside of the RVSM themselves. Keep level flight. AP engaged. let us say that the feelings are not confidence can be placed in them. dered as such only when certification lator cockpits are intended to trick flight tests maneuvers are performed the sensory channels of the pilots to very close to – if not beyond – the li- make them believe that what they mits of the aircraft flight envelope. Loss of AP. This obvi- ously concerns only the unprotected and can therefore seriously alter test pilots assessment of these. Whenever signifi. FD and ATHR. aircraft axis (i. but not more. This can domain of let us say four or five. Keep level flight. Sim. would experience in reality. Observe they may have to do in flight. the maximum Cl is exceeded ceive sensations contrary to what they by several angle-of-attack degrees. of 30° (that is 1. confidence can be to the SW which. FD 1) Normal law. essentially false. the exercises at constant Mach. according to regu. Over perceive corresponds to a real flight. representative of reality and utmost ply. altitude manual dynamic maneuver in cruise. nz of are perfectly presentativeness of the model becomes the flight mechanics) with the same representative of erroneous. space. others can of course be 2) Normal law. Within the same frame of mind. For this aircraft are those that the Auto Pilot reason. Tem- it is important that they do maneuvers porarily stabilise at REC MAX – 4000 which go a little beyond those that ft. mercial flying. it is very impor.

1 g) in level flight at manual flying training. to fly with an airline which gives its even as is the case in many airlines. flexible flying except on take-off for a short period these conditions. Indeed. respectable policy leads the pilots to which deprives them of all knowledge adopt an especially almost never manually fly the aircraft. matic landing is impossible. the pilots are authorised to manually At high selves in the easiest situation at all times. whether the aircraft. maintaining up to failure cases where the piloting the Mach. Descent with engines at idle to that these same pilots have all the first level outside RVSM space. this perfectly flight control laws for obvious reasons. or under degraded is very important to as possible. again as a constant Mach. This simulators and this in perfect compli- means that the pilots of such an air. During commercial flights. I at the same time require flight. therefore the intensive use of training aggressiveness. and for certain landings between the The only solution to cover this need is attitude without minima and the ground when auto. ance with the limits of their represent- line acquire or maintain almost no ativeness. still at manual flying skills that we have dis- constant Mach. Resume straight line passenger. of the reactions of their aircraft under calm. Safety First #20 | July 2015 045 of 25° (that is 1. resume descent. Observe the response of aids are no longer available. . pilots the instruction to place them. it disposal to facilitate their tasks as far to the RVSM rules. they could altitudes and high use all the piloting aids placed at their never fly manually at high altitude due Mach numbers. Temporarily stabilise cussed and which they require to face at REC MAX – 4000 ft. at high or low altitude. Pilots should be instructed to fly aircraft under certain conditions. I would be very happy dictory only in appearance. In practice. These two requirements are contra- As a passenger. But.

Part 2 in Temporary Teamwork for Objects Damage (FOD) Prevention • Preventing Fan Cowl Door Loss safe Skies • Corrosion: • Do not forget that you are not •L ow Speed Rejected Take-Off A Potential Safety Issue alone in Maintenance upon Engine Failure • Late Changes before Departure . Managing Energy Issue 16 Issue 15 Issue 14 July 2013 January 2013 July 2012 • Performance Based • The Golden Rules for Pilots • Thrust Reverser Selection means Navigation: RNP and RNP AR moving from PNF to PM Full-Stop Approaches • Airbus Crosswind Development • Transient Loss of Communication • Atlantic Airways: Introduction and Certification due to Jammed Push-To-Talk of RNP AR 0.. at take-off • Airbus Brake Testing • Landing on contaminated • Safe operations with composite • Hard Landing. a Case Study runways aircraft for Crews and Maintenance • Understanding weight • Learning from the evidence Personnel & balance • A320 Family cargo Containers/ • Aircraft Protection during Washing •W  ind shear: an invisible enemy pallets movement and Painting to pilots? • Parts Departing from Aircraft (PDA) • Flight Data Analysis (FDA)..1 Operations • The SMOKE/FUMES/AVNCS A320 and A330/A340 Families •F light Crews and De-Icing SMOKE Procedure • A380: Development of the Flight Personnel – Working together • Post-Maintenance Foreign Controls . a Predictive Tool for Safety Management System (SMS) • Flying a Go-Around.046 Safety First #20 | July 2015 ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN PREVIOUS ‘SAFETY FIRST’ ISSUES Issue 19 Issue 18 Issue 17 January 2015 July 2014 January 2014 • Tidy cockpit for safe flight • Control your speed.

Safety First #19 | January 2015 047 Issue 13 Issue 12 Issue 11 January 2012 July 2011 January 2011 • A320 Family / A330 Prevention • Airbus New Operational • What is Stall? and Handling of Dual Bleed Loss Landing Distances How a Pilot Should React in Front • The Fuel Penalty Factor • The Go Around Procedure of a Stall Situation • The Airbus TCAS Alert Prevention • The Circling Approach • Minimum Control Speed Tests (TCAP) • VMU Tests on A380 on A380 • A380: Development of the Flight • Automatic Landings • Radio Altimeter Erroneous Values Controls .Part 1 in Daily Operation • Automatic NAV Engagement at • Facing the Reality of everyday Go Around Maintenance Operations Issue 10 Issue 9 Issue 8 August 2010 February 2010 July 2009 • A380: Flutter Tests • A320 Family: Evolution of Ground • The Runway Overrun Prevention • Operational Landing Spoiler Logic System Distances: A New Standard • Incorrect Pitch Trim Setting at • The Take-Off Securing Function for In-flight Landing Distance Take-Off • Computer Mixability: Assessment • Technical Flight Familiarization An Important Function • Go Around Handling • Oxygen Safety • Fuel Spills During Refueling • A320: Landing Gear Downlock Operations • Situation Awareness and Decision Making .

• A320: Prevention of Tailstrikes Procedures Revision 2 • Low Fuel Situation Awareness • The Future Air Navigation • Fuel Pumps Left in OFF Position • Rudder Pedal Jam System FANS B • A320: Avoiding Dual Bleed Loss • Why do Certain AMM Tasks Require Equipment Resets? • Slide/raft Improvement Issue 2 • Cabin Attendant Falling through the Avionics Bay Access Panel September 2005 in Cockpit • Tailpipe or Engine Fire Issue 4 Issue 3 • Managing Severe Turbulence • Airbus Pilot Transition (ATP) June 2007 December 2006 • Runway Excursions at Take-Off • Operations Engineering Bulletin • Dual Side Stick Inputs Issue 1 Reminder Function • Trimmable Horizontal Stabilizer • Avoiding High Speed Rejected Damage January 2005 Take-Offs Due to EGT Limit • Pitot Probes Obstruction Exceedance on Ground • Do you Know your ATC/TCAS • A340: Thrust Reverser Unlocked • Go Arounds in Addis-Ababa due Panel? • Residual Cabin Pressure to VOR Reception Problems • Managing Hailstorms • Cabin Operations Briefing Notes • The Importance of the Pre-flight • Introducing the Maintenance • Hypoxia: An Invisible Enemy Flight Control Check Briefing Notes • A320: In-flight Thrust Reverser • A320: Dual hydraulic Loss Deployment • Terrain Awareness and Warning • Airbus Flight Safety Manager Systems Operations Based on Handbook GPS Data • Flight Operations Briefing Notes .048 Safety First #20 | July 2015 ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN PREVIOUS ‘SAFETY FIRST’ ISSUES Issue 7 Issue 6 Issue 5 February 2009 July 2008 December 2007 • Airbus AP/FD TCAS Mode: • A320: Runway Overrun • New CFIT Event During Non A New Step Towards Safety • FCTL Check after EFCS Reset on Precision Approach Improvement Ground • A320: Tail Strike at Take-Off? • Braking System Cross • A320: Possible Consequence of • Unreliable Speed Connections VMO/MMO Exceedance • Compliance to Operational • Upset Recovery Training Aid.