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**• At least two agents and a
**

competitive environment: Games,

Artificial Intelligence economies.

**Adversarial search • Games and AI:
**

– Generally considered to require

Chapter 6, AIMA

intelligence (to win)

– Have to evolve in real-time

– Well-defined and limited environment

This presentation owes a lot to V. Pavlovic @ Rutgers, who borrowed from J. D. Skrentny, who in turn borrowed from C. Dyer,...

Board games © Thierry Dichtenmuller

Games & AI

Deterministic Chance

**perfect info Checkers, Backgammon,
**

Chess, Go, Monopoly

Othello

**imperfect info Bridge, Poker,
**

Scrabble

**Games and search Example: Tic-tac-toe
**

Traditional search: single agent, searches for its • Initial state: 3×3 empty

well-being, unobstructed table.

Games: search against an opponent • Successor function:

Players take turns marking

± or | in the table cells.

Example: two player board game (chess, checkers, • Goal state: When all the Initial state

tic-tac-toe,…) table cells are filled or

Board configuration: unique arrangement of "pieces“ when either player has ± ± ± ± ±

three symbols in a row. ±| |

Representing board games as goal-directed search | ±± ±|

• Utility function: +1 for ± ± |± ±

problem (states = board configurations): three in a row, -1 if the |±± ±| |± ±

– Initial state: Current board configuration opponent has three in a |

row, 0 if the table is filled ± | ± ± ||

± =0 |±±

Goal state |

– Successor function: Legal moves ± ±

– Goal state: Winning/terminal board configuration and no-one has three Utility |±

symbols in a row. ± Goal state

– Utility function: Current board configuration

| Utility = +1 | ± ±

| Goal state

| Utility = -1

1

The minimax principle Example: Tic-tac-toe

Assume the opponent plays to win and ± |

**always makes the best possible move. Your (MAX) move | ± ±
**

(±) |

**The minimax value for a node = the utility
**

for you of being in that state, assuming

that both players (you and the opponent) Assignment: Expand this tree to the end of the game.

play optimally from there on to the end.

Terminology:

MAX = you, MIN = the opponent.

**Example: Tic-tac-toe Example: Tic-tac-toe
**

± | ± |

Your (MAX) move | ± ± Your (MAX) move | ± ±

| |

± ± | ± | ± | ± ± | ± | ± |

Opponent Opponent

| ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ±

(MIN) move (MIN) move

| ± | | ± | ± | | ±

± ± | ± ± | | ± | ± | | ± | ± | ± ± | ± ± | | ± | ± | | ± | ± |

Your Your

| ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ±

(MAX) (MAX)

move | | | | ± | ± | | | ± | | ± move | | | | ± | ± | | | ± | | ±

Minimax +1 0 0 0 0 +1

value

± ± | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | | ± | ± ± |

| ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ±

| | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | | ± | ± | | ± | | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | | ± | ± | | ±

Utility = +1 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = +1 Utility = +1 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = +1

**Example: Tic-tac-toe Example: Tic-tac-toe
**

± | ± |

Your (MAX) move | ± ± Your (MAX) move | ± ±

Minimax

| | value

0

± ± | ± | ± | ± ± | ± | ± |

Opponent Opponent

| ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ±

(MIN) move (MIN) move

| ± | | ± | ± | | ±

Minimax Minimax

value 0 0 0 value 0 0 0

± ± | ± ± | | ± | ± | | ± | ± | ± ± | ± ± | | ± | ± | | ± | ± |

Your Your

| ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ±

(MAX) (MAX)

move | | | | ± | ± | | | ± | | ± move | | | | ± | ± | | | ± | | ±

Minimax +1 0 0 0 0 +1 Minimax +1 0 0 0 0 +1

value value

± ± | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | | ± | ± ± |

| ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ± | ± ±

| | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | | ± | ± | | ± | | ± ± | | ± | ± ± | | ± | ± | | ±

Utility = +1 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = +1 Utility = +1 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = 0 Utility = +1

2

The minimax value The minimax algorithm

1. Start with utilities of terminal nodes

Minimax value for node n = 2. Propagate them back to root node by choosing the

minimax strategy

A

A

1 max

Utility(n) If n is a terminal node

B

B C

C D

D E

E

Max(Minimax-values of successors) If n is a MAX node -5 -6 0 1

min

Min(Minimax-values of successors) If n is a MIN node F G H I J K L M N O

-7

7 -5 3 9 -6 0 2 1 3 2

High utility favours you (MAX), therefore choose move with highest utility

**Low utility favours the opponent (MIN), therefore choose move with
**

lowest utility

Figure borrowed from V. Pavlovic

**The minimax algorithm The minimax algorithm
**

1. Start with utilities of terminal nodes 1. Start with utilities of terminal nodes

2. Propagate them back to root node by choosing the 2. Propagate them back to root node by choosing the

minimax strategy minimax strategy

A

A A

A

1 max 1 max

B

B C

C D

D E

E B

B C

C D

D E

E

-5 -6 0 1 -5 -6 0 1

min min

F G H I J K L M N O F G H I J K L M N O

-7

7 -5 3 9 -6 0 2 1 3 2 -7

7 -5 3 9 -6 0 2 1 3 2

Figure borrowed from V. Pavlovic Figure borrowed from V. Pavlovic

**Complexity of minimax algorithm Strategies to improve minimax
**

• A depth-first search 1. Remove redundant search paths

– Time complexity O(bd) - symmetries

– Space complexity O(bd)

2. Remove uninteresting search paths

• Time complexity impossible in real games (with - alpha-beta pruning

time constraints) except in very simple games 3. Cut the search short before goal

(e.g. tic-tac-toe) - Evaluation functions

4. Book moves

3

First three levels of the tic-tac-toe state space reduced by symmetry

1. Remove redundant paths

3 states

(instead of 9)

Tic-tac-toe has mirror symmetries

**and rotational symmetries
**

12 states

(instead of

8·9 = 72)

|± ± | |

| = | = | = |

| ± ± Image from G. F. Luger, ”Artificial Intelligence”, 2002

**2. Remove uninteresting paths Alpha-Beta Example
**

If the player has a better choice

m at n’s parent node, or at minimax(A,0,4)

any node further up, then

node n will never be reached. minimax(node, level, depth limit)

**Prune the entire path below node
**

m’s parent node (except for

the path that m belongs to, max A Call

A

α=?

and paths that are equal to Stack

this path). D

B C 0 E

Minimax is depth-first → keep

track of highest (α) and G H I L

lowest (β) values so far. F -5 -10 8 J K 2 M

**Called alpha-beta pruning. N P Q R S T U V
**

4 O 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

W X A

-3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example
**

minimax(B,1,4) minimax(F,2,4)

**max A Call max A Call
**

α=? Stack α=? Stack

min BB C D E min B C D E

β=? 0 β=? 0

F G H I J K L M max FF G H I J K L M

-5 -10 8 2 α=? -5 -10 8 2

N O P Q R S T U V N O P Q R S T U V F

4 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

B B

W X A W X A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

4

Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example

minimax(N,3,4) minimax(F,2,4) is returned to

alpha = 4, maximum seen so far

**max A Call A Call
**

α=? max α=?

Stack Stack

min B C D E min B C D E

β=? 0 β=? 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=? -5 -10 8 2 α=4

α= -5 -10 8 2

N

N O P Q R S T U V F N O P Q R S T U V F

4 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

B B

W X gold: terminal state A W X gold: terminal state A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example
**

minimax(O,3,4) minimax(W,4,4)

**A Call max A Call
**

max α=? α=?

Stack Stack

min B C D E min B C D E

β=? 0 β=? 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2 W

O O

min N O

O P Q R S T U V F min N O P Q R S T U V F

4 β=? 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=? 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

B B

W X gold: terminal state A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example
**

minimax(O,3,4) is returned to

beta = -3, minimum seen so far O's beta (-3) < F's alpha (4): Stop expanding O (alpha cut-off)

**max A Call A Call
**

α=? max α=?

Stack Stack

min B C D E min B C D E

β=? 0 β=? 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2

O O

min N O P Q R S T U V F min N O P Q R S T U V F

4 β=-3

β= 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

B B

W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

5

Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example

Why?

Smart opponent selects W or worse → O's upper bound is –3 minimax(F,2,4) is returned to

So MAX shouldn't select O:-3 since N:4 is better

alpha not changed (maximizing)

A Call A Call

max α=? max α=?

Stack Stack

min B C D E min B C D E

β=? 0 β=? 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2

O

min N O P Q R S T U V F min N O P Q R S T U V F

4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

B B

W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example
**

minimax(B,1,4) is returned to minimax(G,2,4)

beta = 4, minimum seen so far

A Call A Call

max α=? max α=?

Stack Stack

min B C D E min B C D E

β=4

β= 0 β=4

β= 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2

min N O P Q R S T U V min N O P Q R S T U V G

4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

B B

W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example
**

minimax(B,1,4) is returned to minimax(A,0,4) is returned to

beta = -5, minimum seen so far alpha = -5, maximum seen so far

A Call A Call

max α=? max α=-5

α=?

Stack Stack

min B C D E min B C D E

β=-5

β=4

β= 0 β=-5

β=4

β= 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2

min N O P Q R S T U V min N O P Q R S T U V

4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

B

W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

6

Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example

minimax(C,1,4) minimax(H,2,4)

A Call A Call

max α=-5

α=? max α=-5

α=?

Stack Stack

min B CC D E min B CC D E

β=-5

β=4

β= β=? 0 β=-5

β=4

β= β=? 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2

min N O P Q R S T U V min N O P Q R S T U V H

4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

C C

W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example
**

minimax(C,1,4) is returned to

beta = -10, minimum seen so far C's beta (-10) < A's alpha (-5): Stop expanding C (alpha cut-off)

A Call A Call

max α=-5

α=? max α=-5

α=?

Stack Stack

min B CC D E min B CC D E

β=-5

β=4

β= β=-10

β=? 0 β=-5

β=4

β= β=-10

β=? 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2

min N O P Q R S T U V min N O P Q R S T U V

4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

C C

W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example
**

minimax(D,1,4) minimax(D,1,4) is returned to

A Call A Call

max α=-5

α=? max α=-5

α=0

α=?

Stack Stack

min B CC D E min B CC D E

β=-5

β=4

β= β=-10

β=? 0 β=-5

β=4

β= β=-10

β=? 0

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2

min N O P Q R S T U V min N O P Q R S T U V

4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

D

W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

7

Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example

minimax(D,1,4) is returned to

**Which nodes will Which nodes will
**

A Call A Call

max α=-5

α=0

α=? be expanded? max α=-5

α=0

α=? be expanded?

Stack Stack

min B CC D E min B CC D E

E

β=-5

β=4

β= β=-10

β=? 0 β=-5

β=4

β= β=-10

β=? 0 β=-7

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J KK L M

M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 α=5 2 α=-7

min N O P Q R S T U V min N O P Q R S T U V

4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

**W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) All A
**

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta Example Alpha-Beta Example
**

minimax(D,1,4) is returned to

**What if we expand What if we expand
**

A Call A Call

max α=-5

α=0

α=? from right to left? max α=-5

α=0

α=? from right to left?

Stack Stack

min B CC D E min B CC D E

E

β=-5

β=4

β= β=-10

β=? 0 β=-5

β=4

β= β=-10

β=? 0 β=-7

max F G H I J K L M max F G H I J K L M

M

α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=4 -5 -10 8 2 α=-7

min N O P Q R S T U V min N O P Q R S T U V

4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9 4 β=-3 9 -6 0 3 5 -7 -9

**W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) A W X gold: terminal state (depth limit) Only 4 A
**

-3 -5 -3 -5

Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic Slide adapted from V. Pavlovic

**Alpha-Beta pruning rule Alpha-Beta pruning rule
**

Stop expanding Stop expanding

max node n if α(n) > β higher in the tree max node n if α(n) > β higher in the tree

min node n if β(n) < α higher in the tree min node n if β(n) < α higher in the tree

α= 4

β=3 β=3

ββ==84

α=

α=48 α= 3

α=

α=24

β=2 β=2 β=2

β=3

Which nodes will not be expanded when expanding from left to right?

8

Alpha-Beta pruning rule Alpha-Beta pruning rule

Stop expanding Stop expanding

max node n if α(n) > β higher in the tree max node n if α(n) > β higher in the tree

min node n if β(n) < α higher in the tree min node n if β(n) < α higher in the tree

α= 3

ββ==78 β=3

β=9

ββ==34

α= 8 α=32 α= 9

α=

α= 4

ββ==92 β=2 β=3 β=2

Which nodes will not be expanded when expanding from left to right? Which nodes will not be expanded when expanding from right to left?

**Alpha-Beta pruning rule 3. Cut the search short
**

Stop expanding • Use depth-limit and estimate utility for

max node n if α(n) > β higher in the tree non-terminal nodes (evaluation function)

min node n if β(n) < α higher in the tree – Static board evaluation (SBE)

– Must be easy to compute

Example, chess:

SBE = α " Material Balance"+ β " Center Control"+γ ...

Material balance = value of white pieces – value of black pieces, where

pawn = +1, knight & bishop = +3, rook = +5, queen = +9, king = ?

**The parameters (α,β,γ,...) can be learned (adjusted) from
**

Which nodes will not be expanded when expanding from right to left? experience.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_chess

**Leaf evaluation 4. Book moves
**

For most chess positions, computers cannot look ahead to all final possible

positions. Instead, they must look ahead a few plies and then evaluate the

final board position. The algorithm that evaluates final board positions is • Build a database (look-up table) of

termed the "evaluation function", and these algorithms are often vastly

different between different chess programs. endgames, openings, etc.

Nearly all evaluation functions evaluate positions in units and at the least

consider material value. Thus, they will count up the amount of material on

• Use this instead of minimax when

the board for each side (where a pawn is worth exactly 1 point, a knight is

worth 3 points, a bishop is worth 3 points, a rook is worth 5 points and a

possible.

queen is worth 9 points). The king is impossible to value since its loss causes

the loss of the game. For the purposes of programming chess computers,

however, it is often assigned a value of appr. 200 points.

**Evaluation functions take many other factors into account, however, such as
**

pawn structure, the fact that doubled bishops are usually worth more,

centralized pieces are worth more, and so on. The protection of kings is

usually considered, as well as the phase of the game (opening, middle or

endgame).

9

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_chess

**Using endgame databases Games with chance
**

…

**Nalimov Endgame Tablebases, which use state-of-the-art compression • Dice games, card games,...
**

techniques, require 7.05 GB of hard disk space for all five-piece endings. It is

estimated that to cover all the six-piece endings will require at least 1 terabyte.

Seven-piece tablebases are currently a long way off.

• Extend the minimax tree with chance

While Nalimov Endgame Tablebases handle en passant positions, they assume

layers.

that castling is not possible. This is a minor flaw that is probably of interest only A

to endgame specialists. α=4

α= max

Compute the expected

More importantly, they do not take into account the fifty move rule. Nalimov value over outcomes.

50/50 50/50

Endgame Tablebases only store the shortest possible mate (by ply) for each 50/50 50/50 chance

4 -2

position. However in certain rare positions, the stronger side cannot force win

before running into the fifty move rule. A chess program that searches the Select move with

.5 .5 .5 .5

database and obtains a value of mate in 85 will not be able to know in advance if the highest B C D E

β=2 β=6 β=0 β=-4 min

such a position is actually a draw according to the fifty move rule, or if it is a win, expected value.

because there will be a piece exchange or pawn move along the way. Various

solutions including the addition of a "distance to zero" (DTZ) counter have been 7 2 9 6 5 0 8 -4

proposed to handle this problem, but none have been implemented yet.

Animation adapted from V. Pavlovic

10

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