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LOGO

Can Just Anyone

Understand Maxwell ’s

Maxwell’s

James Clerk

Equations, or –

Maxwell

(1831-1879)

Who ’s Afraid of

Who’s

Maxwell’s Equations?

Maxwell’s

Elya B. Joffe

President – IEEE EMC Society

**Who ’s Afraid of Maxwell
**

Who’s ’s

Maxwell’s

Equations?

“From a long view of the history of

mankind - seen from, say, ten

thousand years from now - there can

be little doubt that the most

significant event of the 19th century

will be judged as Maxwell's discovery

of the laws of electrodynamics”

(Richard P. Feynman)

**The special theory of relativity owes
**

its origins to Maxwell's equations of

the electromagnetic field

(Albert Einstein)

**“Maxwell can be justifiably placed with Einstein and Newton
**

in a triad of the greatest physicists known to history”

(Ivan Tolstoy, Biographer)

Presentation Outline

1.

1. In

Inthe

the Beginning…

Beginning…

2.

2. “May

“Maythe

the Force

Force be

bewith

withYou…”

You…”

3.

3. All

All this

this Business

Businessabout

about‘them’

‘them’ fields?

fields?

4.

4. Basic

BasicVector

Vector Calculus

Calculus

5.

5. Electrostatics

Electrostatics and

andMagnetostatics

Magnetostatics

6.

6. Kirchhoff’s

Kirchhoff’sLaws

Laws

7.

7. Electrodynamics

Electrodynamics

8.8.Application

Applicationof

ofMaxwell’s

Maxwell’sEquations

Equationsto

toReal

RealLife

LifeEMC

EMCProblems

Problems

In In the the beginning beginning…… • In the beginning. God created the Heaven and the Earth … • … and God Said: D B 0 B E t D H J t • And there was light! .

unless you want to do the messy math – EM is complex but not complicated • Objectives: – Intuitive understanding – Understand the basic fundamentals – Understand how to read the math – See “real life” applications . Introduction • Electromagnetics can be scary – Universities LOVE messy math • EM is not difficult.

but ª 1036 stronger – Two kinds of matter: “positive” and “negative” – Like kinds repel and unlike kinds attract… • There is such a force: Electrical force – For static charges (Coulomb’s Law) – With a little imbalance between electrons and protons in the body of a person – “the force” could lift the Earth • When charges are in motion.. another force occurs: Magnetic force • Lorenz's Law: F q E v B • Superposition of fields: E E1 E 2 .. E n . “May the Force be with You…” • Imagine. just imagine… – A force like gravitation.

the wire will move due to force exerted by the magnet – Current = movement of charges F q v B M – Magnetic fields interact with moving charges The force is with you… . “May the Force be with You…” • When current flows through a wire and a magnet is moved near the current-carrying wire.

“May the Force be with You…” • Current in the wires exerts force on the magnet – The magnetic force produced by the wire acts on the static magnet (same as the field produced by a magnet) – Why does it not move? • Make is light enough and it will • Try a needle of a compass (you may check this at home…) .

“May the Force be with You…” • Two wires carrying current exert forces on each other – Each produces a magnetic field – Each carries current on which the magnetic fields act F q E v B .

fields vary and are defined in space and time: E E x. a figment of imagination… – A quantity which depends on position in space • e.What’s All this Business about ‘them’ fields? • Fields: Abstract concepts. air pressure in space – E and H fields are really tools to determine the force on charged particles. • Any charges: E-fields • Moving charges: H-fields – Represent the force exerted on a charge assuming it does not disturb (perturb) the position or motion of nearby charges • In general. t . z ..g. temperature distribution. y .

velocity of a particle • Represented by lines which are tangent to the direction of the field vector at each point • The density of the lines is proportional to the magnitude of the field . a direction of flow and varies from point to point • e.t) • Represented as contours – Vector fields have. number a scalar and may be time-dependent • e. Scalar and Vector Fields • Fields can be scalar of vector fields – Scalar fields are characterized at each point by one number.g.g. in addition to value. flow of heat. T(x.y.z...

g.. or: – Flux = Average component normal to surface ª surface area • Circulation: The amount of rotational move. Scalar and Vector Fields • Flux: A quality of “inflow” or “outflow” from a volume – e.g. any imaginary closed curve will suffice – Circulation = Average component tangent to curve ª distance around curve • All electromagnetism laws are based on flux & circulation . flow of water from a lake into a river – Flux = the net amount of (something) going through a closed surface per unit time.. or “swirl” around some loop – e. flow of water in a whirlpool – No physical curve need to exist.

Basic Vector Calculus The Del () Operator • In the 3D Cartesian coordinate system with coordinates (x. divergence. j. z). y. k} is the standard basis in the coordinate system – A shorthand form for “lazy mathematicians” to simplify many long mathematical expressions – Useful in electromagnetics for the gradient. del () is defined in terms of partial derivative operators as: i j k x y z – {i. curl and directional derivative • Definition may be extended to an n-dimensional Euclidean space .

y. z i j k x y z – Always points in the direction of greatest increase of f – Has a magnitude equal to the maximum rate of increase at the point • If a hill is defined as a height function over a plane h(x. z f x.y). the 2d projection of the gradient at a given location will be a vector in the xy-plane pointing along the steepest direction with a magnitude equal to the value of this steepest slope . Basic Vector Calculus The Gradient of f (Grad f) • Grad f: f The vector derivative of a scalar field f: ˆ f f f Grad f x. y .

then there must be a source or sink at that position . y. Basic Vector Calculus The Divergence of f (Div f) • Div f: f The scalar quantity obtained from a derivative of a vector field f: f x f y f z Div f x. z x y z – Roughly a measure of the extent a vector field behaves like a source or a sink at a given point – More accurately a measure of the field's tendency to converge (“inflow”) on or repel (“outflow”) from a given volume – If the divergence is nonzero at some point. z f x. y.

by the right- hand rule about which axis the field rotates . Basic Vector Calculus The Curl of f (Curl f) • Curl f: f The vector function obtained from a derivative of a vector field f: • Specifically: f y f x f x f z f y f x ˆ f x. y . C • The magnitude of the curl tells us how much rotation there is • The direction tells us. z i x y j z x k x y – Roughly a measure of a net circulation (or rotation) density of a vector field at any point about a contour.

Vector Integration • Simply the sum of parts (when the parts are very small) – Line Integral: sum along small line segments – Surface Integral: sum across small surface patches • Volume Integral: sum through small volume cubes .

Line Integral • Finding the sum of projection of the function f along a curve. C f f f x f x x x x x C • In general: f (2) f 2 f 1 (f ds) (1) f f • Note that the actual path from f C (1) to (2) is irrelevant f .

C f along contour C f ds C • This value is not-necessarily zero . Line Integral around a Closed Contour • Closed line integrals find the sum of projection of the function f along the circumference of the curve.

Surface Integral • Finding the sum of flux of the vector function flowing outward through and normal to surface. S f f n f f n a a a a f • In general: f n f n a • Note that n is the vector normal to the surface and the direction of the surface vector a Total outflow of f through S f da ) • Note: Outflow=Flux S .

Volume Integral • Finding a total quantity within a volume. V . given its distribution within the volume f fv V v • Note in practice this is typically a scalar value f v .

V • The divergence theorem is thus a conservation law stating that the volume total of all sinks and sources. if its conservation must occur .f s f Source within Volume. is equal to the net flow across the volume's boundary – Implying that for flux to occur from a volume there must be sources enclosed within the surface enclosing that volume – The flux from the volume diminishes whatever was within that volume. the volume integral of the divergence. S Flux flowing out of the surface. Divergence (Gauss) theorem • Volume integral of the divergence of a vector equals total outward flux of vector through the surface that bounds the volume V f dV f d a Closed surface.

Stokes Stokes’’ theorem • Surface integral of the curl of a vector field over an open surface is equal to the closed line integral of the vector along the contour bounding the surface f S f d a f d s C f • Implying that certain sources create circulating flux in a plane perpendicular to the flow of the flux .

f. regardless of the path: (2) (1) f d s f d s (1) (2) • Therefore. z . • The f V x. the integral depends on position only • The concept of potential is born! field. Curl -Free Fields Curl-Free • If everywhere in space f 0 it follows from Stokes’ theorem that the circulation must also be zero S f d a f d s 0 C • Therefore. must be a gradient of this potential. V=scalar • Thus… V 0 . y.

Maxwell’s Field Equations .

Maxwell’s Equations Maxwell’s Equations in Differential and Integral Forms D Dds dv S V Gauss’s Theorem B 0 Bds 0 V f d v f d a S S B B E t C E dl S t ds Stokes’ Theorem D D H J t H dl J t ds C S S f d a f d s C .

1 • Flux of E through a closed surface = net charge inside the volume Net flux E E E D . D E an No net flux E Charge No net flux – If there are no charges inside the volume. Laws of Electromagnetism. producing zero net flux . no net charge can emerge out of it – Adjacent charges will create flux. which enters and leaves the volume.

or only static magnetic fields are present. the circulation is zero – Only magnetic fields flowing through the surface will produce circulation Magnetic field through surface B Magnetic field dl outside surface “Going to the south and B E circling to the north the wind S an goes round and round. Laws of Electromagnetism. 2 • Circulation of E around a closed curve = net change of B through the surface B E Faraday’s Law t – If there are no magnetic fields. and C the wind returns on its B circuit” B (Ecclesiastes 1:6) .

3 • Flux of B through a closed surface = 0 B 0 – There are no magnetic charges B B B 0 S N . Laws of Electromagnetism.

B Density. Laws of Electromagnetism. I.I Current (Ecclesiastes 1:7) an an J E' Net change of E E ' J Magnetic through Surface Net Current Magnetic Flux FluxB. 4 • Circulation of B around a closed curve = net change of E or flux of current through surface D Ampere’s Law H J . through Surface . B H t – Only net current or change of E-field through surface produces No Current J through Surface circulation of B No change of E C through Surface “All the rivers flow to the sea. dl E' E' H but the sea is not full” J S Current.

fields are invariant D Dds dv Electrostatics E 0 Gauss’s Law S V E dl 0 } Faraday’s Law C Bds 0 Magnetostatics B 0 H J Gauss’s Law S H dl J ds } Ampere’s Law C S • The equations appear to be decoupled • E-field and H-field seem independent of each other . Electrostatics and Magnetostatics • In electrostatics and magnetostatics.

thus E d s 0 . Electrostatics Electrical Scalar Potential Electrical Scalar Potential • If E 0 we can define E -V – The (scalar) electrostatic potential – The E-field can be computed everywhere from the potential • The physical significance: The potential energy which a unit charge would have if brought to a specified point (2) in space from some reference point (1): – Work: (2) (2) (2) W F d s q E d s q V d s (1) (1) (1) W V 2 V 1 q – independent of path taken.

J . s J d a I t . • Conservation of Charge: . ... Magnetostatics Conservation of Charge • Current must always flow in closed loops: H 0 D H J t S H ds 0 • Taking the Divergence… D D H J J t t D • But… H 0 so… J t D • In magnetostatics 0 J 0 t so current must flow in closed loops! D Q • And… V J dV dV V t V t dV t ..

Kirchhoff’s Laws • Kirchhoff’s Equations are approximations – No time-varying fields (D/t=0. it will probably be difficult as an Kirchhoff's-equivalent circuit. but perhaps more intuition will be gained “Things should be made as simple as possible. but not any simpler “ (Albert Einstein) . B/t=0) – Electrically small circuits Quasi-static approximations apply Conservation of Difficulty: If it is difficult in Maxwell’s Equations.

Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) • An approximation from Ampere’s Law • When no time-varying electric fields are present (electrostatics) D 0 H dl J ds I i t C S i Contour C 0 3 H dl Ii 0 C i 1 .

C . Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) • When no time-varying magnetic fields are present (magnetostatics) E dl 0 B C 0 E dl U Zi U in 0 t C i Contour .

Maxwell’s Equations .Electrodynamics Maxwell’s Equations in Differential and Integral Forms D Dds dv Gauss’s Law S V Gauss’s Theorem B 0 Bds 0 V Gauss’s Law f d v f d a S S B B E t C E dl S t d a Faraday’s Law Stokes’ Theorem D D H J t H dl J t d a Ampere’s Law C S S f d a f d s C .

Electrodynamics Something is Wrong Here… The Missing Link • In the time-varying case. (1) H J (2) t D (3) B 0 (4) • Or in integral form: dB c E dl S dt d a (1) S H dl I (2) D d a Q S (3) Bd a 0 S (4) • But some things seemed wrong: • What if the circuit contained a capacitor…? • How could electromagnetic radiation occur? .Maxwell’s Equations . Maxwell initially considered the following 4 postulates: B E .

**Maxwell’s Equations - Electrodynamics
**

Something is Wrong Here… The Problem

• Taking Divergence of (2)

( H) J

• But from the null identity …

( H) J=0

• This appears to be inconsistent with the principle of

conservation of charge and the Equation of Continuity:

J=-

t

• Therefore, this equation had to be modified…

**(from Gauss Law)
**

D D

• ( H) J or ( H) J J

t t t

• Hence J.C. Maxwell proposed to change (2) to: D

H J

t

**Maxwell’s Equations - Electrodynamics
**

Something is Wrong Here… Displacement Current..

D

• Maxwell called the term displacement current

t

density

– showing that a time-varying E field (D=E) can give rise to a H

field, even in the absence of current

1

J E

Speed of Light

**Convection current density Conduction current
**

due to the motion of free- density in conductor

charges (Ohm’s law)

– Displacement often accounts for Common Mode Currents

**Maxwell’s Equations - Electrodynamics
**

Something was Wrong… The Link Fixed

• In the time-varying case, Maxwell initially considered the following 4

postulates:

B D

E - (1) H J (2)

t t

D (3) B 0 (4)

• Or in integral form:

dB D

c E dl S dt d a (1)

C H dl J t d a (2)

A

D d a Q

S

(3)

Bd a 0

S

(4)

• Displacement concept added: D t

• The only “real” contribution of J. C. Maxwell

• Supports EM radiation:

• Time varying E-field/Displacement produces time varying H/B-Fields

• Time varying H/B-Fields produce time varying E-field/Displacement

• How does lightning current flow?

2 t t t t – The equations are coupled! Re-writing .Electrodynamics Radiation: Source-free Wave Equations • Assume a wave is traveling in a simple non-conducting source-free (=0) medium J 0. 0 • We therefore have: H E E - H t t E 0 H 0 E 2 E • Differentiating: E - H - .Maxwell’s Equations . 2 E E 2 0 t • but for a source free environment:- E E E 0 - E - E 2 2 2 .

Electrodynamics Radiation: Source-free Wave Equations • This results in a simple equation: 2 E E E E - E & E 2 0 2 2 t • EM Wave Velocity (speed of light): 1 • So.Maxwell’s Equations . we obtain: 2 2 1 E – Electric Field Wave Equation: E 2 2 0 Homogeneo t us vector 1 H 2 2 – Magnetic Field Wave Equation: H 2 0 wave 2 t equations • Radiation results from coupling of Maxwell’s Equations: – Ampere’s Law – Faraday’s Law See?! – It is not that complicated! .

produces an the magnetic field in a horizontal plane.Maxwell’s Equations .Electrodynamics Radiation: Source-free Wave Equations • Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields H E E - H t t • This diagram shows a plane linearly • A time-varying E-field polarized wave propagating from left to generates a H-field and right vice versa – An oscillating E-field • The electric field is in a vertical plane. in turn generating an oscillating E-field. etc… – forming an EM wave . oscillating H-field.

Evolution of Electrodynamics Relativity Relativity Electrodynamics Electrodynamics Circuit Circuit theory theory .

Application of Maxwell’s Equations to Real Life EMC Problems Good Ol’ Max’s Equations Return Path of Balanced Twisted Current Current Wire Wire Flow on Return Pairs Pairs PCBs .

Visualize Return Currents… • Currents always return… – To ground?? – To battery negative?? • Where are they? – They are all here… flowing back to their source!! .

I S I1 Equivalent Circuit LS RS I S I g IS LS I1 Asymptotic Current Ratio -3dB Actual RS RS C 5 LS LS Frequency .Where will the return current flow? I S (RS jLS ) I1 jM 0 LS M IS jLS I1 RS jLS RS I g I1.

RESISTANCE via ground (Ig) | Z | RS 0 @ RS j LS j Z RS j M I S I1 0 | Z | LS @ LS RS RS / LS j • At HIGHER FREQUENCIES. FREQUENCIES the current follows the path of LEAST RESISTANCE. FREQUENCIES the current follows the path of LEAST INDUCTANCE. Where will the return current flow? • At LOWER FREQUENCIES. INDUCTANCE via ground (Ig) | Z | RS 0 @ RS j LS j Z RS j M I S I1 0 | Z | LS @ LS RS RS / LS j .

Where will the return current flow? RF Signal Coaxial Cable Generator Current Spectrum Analyzer Signal Output Probe Coaxial Cable Coaxial T-Splitter Coaxial Copper Strap Terminator "U-Shaped" Semi-Rigid Coaxial Jig .

Where will the return current flow? Lower Frequencies Higher Frequencies .

Where will the return current flow? • Definition of Total Loop Inductance • For I.B=constants. min implies… A min D H J t A B da L B C E dl S t d a I I Thus : Lmin min Amin L I .

Balanced Wire Pairs • Single (infinitely long) wire (?) • A closely spaced (infinitely long) carrying current… wire pair (signal and return) B out B in r r B out I Signal Conductor I B in Magnetic Fields d add B in I Return Conductor B in B out B in 1 D I r I 1 1 B J t B 2 r B Pair B in B in 2 r r Remember 0 Id 0 Id Lower B Lower E Lower S 2 r r d 2 r 2 .

A • Twisted balanced wire pair (loop) Loop Smaller Loop area with – Some magnetic flux cancellation Area. Area. A' Twisting – Still large loop area Source Load I+ I- Area Reduction per Turn B Pair B in B in . Twisted Wire Pairs • Regular balanced wire pair (loop) – Some magnetic flux cancellation – Still large loop area Large Loop area without Wire Pair Twisting Source Load I+ Loop I.

wave propagating in T-E-M mode between trace to return plane • E-Field (Faraday’ (Faraday’s Law) • H-Field (Ampere’ (Ampere’s Law) – Return plane is VCC or GND • DC potential irrelevant – Boundary conditions prevail and dictate current distribution • E-Field (Gauss’ (Gauss’s Law) • H-Field (Ampere’ (Ampere’s Law) – Any gaps in return plane produce discontinuities Tangent Normal Trace – Return current remains H-Field Flux E-Field Flux on surface H td t Dnd t • E-field cannot exist in metal H td t KS t (Gauss’ (Gauss’s Law) End t S t • Some current flows in metal Return Plane (VCC/GND) H tm 0 Dnm 0 m (Ohms Law in Materials) Dielectric Substrate • Skin Effect in metal (Ampere’ (Ampere’s and Faraday’ Faraday’s Law) . Return Current Flow on PCBs • Current flows in Trace & returning through plane – In reality.

Return Current Flow on PCBs • In a differential pair of traces most return RF current flows in plane and NOT in return conductor – Same boundary conditions occur • Between each trace to return plane • Some inter- inter-trace coupling (weaker) – Same rules for trace routing should apply – Crossing gaps will produce emissions Tangent H-Field Flux Normal E-Field Flux (Faraday’s Law & Ampere’s Law) Ht t Ht t Dn t d Dn t d d d – Differential characteristic impedance D t Diff primarily dominated by Trace-Plane geometry • T-E-M propagation between Dielectric .Trace + Trace Each trace to Plane Substrate (Faraday’ (Faraday’s Law & Ampere’ Ampere’s Law) S t K S t K S t S t H 0 tm D 0 nm m D 0 nm H 0 tm Return Plane (VCC/GND) .

Summary • The term Maxwell's equations nowadays applies to a set D of four equations that were grouped together as a distinct set in 1884 by Oliver Heaviside. in conjunction with Willard Gibbs B 0 B • The importance of Maxwell's role in these equations lies E in the correction he made to Amp?re's circuital law in t his 1861 paper On Physical Lines of Force D – Adding the displacement current term to Amp?Amp?re's H J circuital law enabling him to derive the electromagnetic t wave equation in his later 1865 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field and demonstrate the fact that light is an electromagnetic wave – Later confirmed experimentally by Heinrich Hertz in 1887 • Some say that these equations were originally called the Hertz-Heaviside equations but that Einstein for whatever reason later referred to them as the Maxwell-Hertz equations .

Summary Maxwell’s (8 !!!) Original Equations D (A) The law of total currents J Total J • Conductive and displacement currents t (B) The equation of magnetic force H A • Vector potential definition (C) Amp?re's circuital law H JTotal (D) EMF from convection. and static electricity A • This is in effect the Lorentz force E vH (E) The electric elasticity equation 1 t E D 1 (F) Ohm's law E J (G) Gauss' law D (H) Equation of continuity J t . induction.

Feynman) .there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the 19th century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics. say.seen from. ten thousand years from now . Summary “From a long view of the history of mankind . “The American Civil War will pale into provincial insignificance in comparison with this important scientific event of the same decade” (Richard P.

they not only showed scientists a new way of approaching physics but also took them on the first step towards a unification of the fundamental forces of nature . Maxwell's equations The greatest equations ever • Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism and the Euler equation top a poll to find the greatest equations of all time. unifying electricity and magnetism and linking geometry. topology and physics • They are essential to understanding the surrounding world and as the first field equations. they daringly reorganize our perception of nature. • Although Maxwell's equations are relatively simple.

1869 . Epilog: Maxwell’s Poetry Maxwell’s James and Katherine Maxwell.

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