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**The Flyball Governor
**

Daniel Marlow

Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544

(Mar. 5, 1997)

1 Problem

A ﬂyball governor consists of a vertical shaft with one or more arms connected to its apex

with hinges. The entire system is set in motion by turning the shaft at angular velocity Ω.

For large Ω, the angle θ of the arms to the vertical will reach some speciﬁced value, engaging

some mechanical switch to limit further increase in the angular velocity.

For a given value of Ω, deduce the equilibrium angle θ0 and the frequency ω of small

oscillations about the equilbrium.

You may take the governor to have a single massless arm of length l with point mass m

at its extremity. The hinge constrains the motion of the arm to be in a vertical plane that

is ﬁxed to (rotates with) the shaft.

the desired operating region of the ﬂyball governor. The Lagrangian is then 1 2 1 L = T − V = ml2θ˙ + ml2 sin2 θΩ2 + mgl cos θ. 2 2 While we could take derivatives to ﬁnd the equation of motion. dθ2 . but for large enough Ω. The latter case is. Ω2 where the second point does not exist unless Ω > ω 0 . and the frequencies of small oscillation about equilibrium are then given by ω = d2 Veﬀ (θ0)/dθ 2 . the frequency of oscillation of a simple pendulum of length l. dθ Thus the possible equilibrium angles are ω 20 θ0 = 0 and cos−1 . I divide the Lagrangian 2 by ml and introduce ω 0 = g/l. Then the kinetic energy is due to motion in both vertical and horizontal planes: 1 2 1 T = ml2θ˙ + ml2 sin2 θΩ2 . To expedite the notation. this problem is suitable for solution by the eﬀective-potential method. however. (I ignore the case θ0 = π as ‘obviously’ unstable for all Ω. the oscillation analysis is expediently accomplished via Lagrange’s method. 2 The ﬁrst term in the eﬀective potential is concave downwards. 2 2 Solution While the equilibrium condition is readliy found vis F = ma in the rotating frame. Use angle θ as the one generalized coorindate. dVeﬀ = −Ω2 sin θ cos θ + ω 20 sin θ. The equilibrium point(s) θ0 are found by setting dVeﬀ /dθ = 0. the stable equilibrium point will be at θ = 0. but small for small Ω. the equilibrium point will be at some nonzero θ. 2 2 2 with 1 Veﬀ = − Ω2 sin2 θ − ω 20 cos θ. while the second is concave upwards and independent of Ω.) Taking the second derivative. Then 1 2 1 1 2 L = θ˙ + Ω2 sin2 θ + ω 20 cos θ ≡ θ˙ − Veﬀ . d2 Veﬀ = −Ω2 cos 2θ + ω 20 cos θ. 2 2 The potential energy due to gravity is just V = −mgl cos θ. For small Ω.

we ﬁnd ω 40 ω 20 ω = Ω 1 − 4. ω 20 Hence. For the latter case. this is the stable equilibrium point until Ω > ω 0 . 3 For the case θ0 = 0 we then have Ω2 ω = ω0 1 − . Ω Ω . cos θ0 = 2 . (θ0 = 0).

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